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Sample records for 3n bound states

  1. Solutions of the bound-state Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations in three dimensions by using NN and 3N potential models

    SciTech Connect

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Tomio, Lauro; Bayegan, S.

    2011-05-15

    A recently developed three-dimensional approach (without partial-wave decomposition) is considered to investigate solutions of Faddeev-Yakubovsky integral equations in momentum space for three- and four-body bound states, with the inclusion of three-body forces. In the calculations of the binding energies, spin-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential models [soft-core potential S3, Malfliet-Tjon (MT) I-III, Yamaguchi-type potentials (YS), and P{sub 5.5}-model of Gibson-Lehman (P{sub 55}GL)] are considered along with the scalar two-meson exchange three-body potential. The presently reported results agree well with the ones obtained by other techniques, demonstrating the advantage of an approach in which the formalism is much more simplified and easy to manage for direct computation.

  2. Potentials and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, W.F. ); Shadwick, B.A. )

    1995-03-01

    We discuss several quantum mechanical potential problems, focusing on those which highlight commonly held misconceptions about the existence of bound states. We present a proof, based on the variational principle, that certain one dimensional potentials always support at least one bound state, regardless of the potential's strength. We examine arguments concerning the existence of bound states based on the uncertainty principle and demonstrate, by explicit calculations, that such arguments must be viewed with skepticism.

  3. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  4. Bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.

  5. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  6. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  7. Majorana bound states in magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are highly mobile nanoscale topological spin textures. We show, both analytically and numerically, that a magnetic skyrmion of an even azimuthal winding number placed in proximity to an s -wave superconductor hosts a zero-energy Majorana bound state in its core, when the exchange coupling between the itinerant electrons and the skyrmion is strong. This Majorana bound state is stabilized by the presence of a spin-orbit interaction. We propose the use of a superconducting trijunction to realize non-Abelian statistics of such Majorana bound states.

  8. Bound states in the Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.

    1994-02-01

    We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple ||hh>+||hhh> Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.

  9. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  10. Bound States in Boson Impurity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.

  11. Bound States in ``Majorana Box''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Sven; Higginbotham, Andrew; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Jespersen, Thomas; Nygård, Jesper; Marcus, Charles

    2015-03-01

    We perform bias spectroscopy and observe Coulomb peak motion in InAs quantum dots with an epitaxial superconducting aluminum shell. Varying the length of the aluminum shell and applying a magnetic field, we are able to tune between regimes with 2e and 1e-periodic Coulomb oscillations. The doubling in periodicity reflects a transition from two-electron tunneling to single quasiparticle charging, attributable to a competition between the charging energy and the superconducting energy gap. At high fields below the superconducting-to-normal transition, we observe low-lying features in bias and 1e-periodic Coulomb peaks, both consistent with the presence of a zero-energy discrete state. We discuss these results in the context of proposed experimental signatures of Majorana fermions. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation, and the European Commission.

  12. Floquet bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime.

  13. Floquet bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Longhi, Stefano; Valle, Giuseppe Della

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime. PMID:23860625

  14. NN*(1440) quasi-bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lu; Zou Bingsong; Shen Pengnian; Zhang Yingjie

    2011-10-21

    Inspired by a recent observation of a narrow resonance-like structure around 2360 MeV in the pn {yields} d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} cross section, we investigate the possibility of forming NN*(1440) quasi-bound state by meson exchange potential. With parameters of the t-channel {pi}, {sigma}, {rho} and {omega} exchanges determined by relevant NN scattering and N*(1440) decay processes, it is found that a NN*(1440) quasi-bound state with the same quantum numbers as the deuteron can be formed with binding energy about 20 MeV.

  15. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Mateos Guilarte, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  16. J/{Psi}-nuclear bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Tsushima, K.; Thomas, A. W.; Lu, D. H.; Krein, G.

    2011-06-15

    J/{Psi}-nuclear bound state energies are calculated for a range of nuclei by solving the Proca (Klein-Gordon) equation. Critical input for the calculations, namely the medium-modified D and D* meson masses, as well as the nucleon density distributions in nuclei, are obtained from the quark-meson coupling model. The attractive potential originates from the D and D* meson loops in the J/{Psi} self-energy in the nuclear medium. It appears that J/{Psi}-nuclear bound states should produce a clear experimental signature provided that the J/{Psi} meson is produced in recoilless kinematics.

  17. Bounds for state-dependent quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-11-01

    Due to the no-cloning theorem, the unknown quantum state can only be cloned approximately or exactly with some probability. There are two types of cloners: universal and state-dependent cloner. The optimal universal cloner has been found and can be viewed as a special state-dependent quantum cloner that has no information about the states. In this paper, we investigate the state-dependent cloning when the state set contains more than two states. We get some bounds of the global fidelity for these processes. This method is not dependent on the number of the states contained in the state set. It is also independent of the numbers of copying.

  18. Higher Education in the States, v3, n4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This document contains a summary table of the statutes, amendments, and constitutional provisions in the 50 states forming the legal bases for the establishment of educational corporations and private postsecondary institutions. The major portion of the legal bases concern 2- and 4-year degree-granting institutions and nonprofit corporations. The…

  19. Andreev-Majorana bound states in superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, M. A. Volovik, G. E.

    2014-12-15

    We consider Andreev-Majorana (AM) bound states with zero energy on surfaces, interfaces, and vortices in different phases of the p-wave superfluids. We discuss the chiral superfluid {sup 3}He-A and time reversal invariant phases: superfluid {sup 3}He-B, planar and polar phases. The AM zero modes are determined by topology in the bulk and disappear at the quantum phase transition from the topological to nontopological state of the superfluid. The topology demonstrates the interplay of dimensions. In particular, the zero-dimensional Weyl points in chiral superfluids (the Berry phase monopoles in momentum space) give rise to the one-dimensional Fermi arc of AM bound states on the surface and to the one-dimensional flat band of AM modes in the vortex core. The one-dimensional nodal line in the polar phase produces a two-dimensional flat band of AM modes on the surface. The interplay of dimensions also connects the AM states in superfluids with different dimensions. For example, the topological properties of the spectrum of bound states in three-dimensional {sup 3}He-B are connected to the properties of the spectrum in the two-dimensional planar phase (thin film)

  20. {bar K}-NUCLEAR Deeply Bound States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Avraham

    Following the prediction by Akaishi and Yamazaki of relatively narrow {bar K}-nuclear states, deeply bound by over 100 MeV where the main decay channel {bar K} N -> π Σ is closed, several experimental signals in stopped K- reactions on light nuclei have been interpreted recently as due to such states. In this talk I review (i) the evidence from K--atom data for a deep bar K-nucleus potential, as attractive as V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(150 - 200) MeV at nuclear matter density, that could support such states; and (ii) the theoretical arguments for a shallow potential, V{bar K}(ρ 0) ˜ -(40 - 60) MeV. I then review a recent work by Mareš, Friedman and Gal in which {bar K}-nuclear bound states are generated dynamically across the periodic table, using a RMF Lagrangian that couples the {bar K} to the scalar and vector meson fields mediating the nuclear interactions. The reduced phase space available for {bar K} absorption from these bound states is taken into account by adding a density- and energy-dependent imaginary term, underlying the corresponding {bar K}-nuclear level widths, with a strength constrained by K--atom fits. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for light nuclei, with central nuclear densities enhanced by almost a factor of two. The binding energies and widths calculated in this dynamical model differ appreciably from those calculated for a static nucleus. These calculations provide a lower limit of Γ {bar K} ˜ 50 ± 10 MeV on the width of nuclear bound states for {bar K} binding energy in the range B{bar K} = 100 - 200 MeV.

  1. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964

  2. Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.

  3. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  4. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y. Leggett, A. J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  5. Second bound state of PsH.

    PubMed

    Mitroy, J; Bromley, M W J

    2007-02-01

    The existence of a second bound state of PsH that is electronically stable and also stable against positron annihilation by the normal 2gamma and 3gamma processes is demonstrated by explicit calculation. The state can be found in the ;{2,4}S;{o} symmetries with the two electrons in a spin-triplet state. The binding energy against dissociation into the H(2p)+Ps(2p) channel was 7.03 x 10;(-4) hartree. The dominant decay mode of the states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation. The NaPs system of the same symmetry is also electronically stable with a binding energy of 1.514 x 10;(-3) hartree with respect to the Na(3p)+Ps(2p) channel.

  6. Bounds on internal state variables in viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1993-01-01

    A typical viscoplastic model will introduce up to three types of internal state variables in order to properly describe transient material behavior; they are as follows: the back stress, the yield stress, and the drag strength. Different models employ different combinations of these internal variables--their selection and description of evolution being largely dependent on application and material selection. Under steady-state conditions, the internal variables cease to evolve and therefore become related to the external variables (stress and temperature) through simple functional relationships. A physically motivated hypothesis is presented that links the kinetic equation of viscoplasticity with that of creep under steady-state conditions. From this hypothesis one determines how the internal variables relate to one another at steady state, but most importantly, one obtains bounds on the magnitudes of stress and back stress, and on the yield stress and drag strength.

  7. Unusually strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T. Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01405 Sao Paulo, SP School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042 Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12231 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP )

    1992-11-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle nonlocal potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unusually strong attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of {pi} as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states.

  8. Configuration space Faddeev formalism: Λ + n + n bound state search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, Vladimir; Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2015-04-01

    The HypHI Collaboration has recently reported the evidence for bound state of Λ + n + n system (Phys. Rev. C 88, 041001(R) (2013)). However, the theoretical analysis did not find Λ3n bound state (see, for instance, Phys. Lett. B 736, 93 (2014)). In the present work we will describe our attempt to construct a phenomenological three-body ΛNN force with the spin-isospin dependence that is attractive in the channel T=1, S=1/2. This dependence was tested to reproduce the value of ground state energy for Λ3H hypernuclei. The formalism of the configuration-space Faddeev equations is applied for Λ + n + n and Λ + n + p systems. As Λ + n interaction the s-wave potential simulating model NSC97f is used. This potential reproduces well the hyperon binding energy for Λ3H nuclei (J. Phys. G: 31, 389 (2005)). The details of the model and obtained results will be presented. This work is supported by the NSF (HRD-1345219) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  9. Nonlocal spectroscopy of Andreev bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindele, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Maurand, R.; Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) connected to a superconducting Nb lead (S). A weakly coupled normal metal contact acts as a tunnel probe that measures the energy dispersion of the ABSs. Moreover, we study the response of the ABS to nonlocal transport processes, namely, Cooper pair splitting and elastic co-tunnelling, which are enabled by a second QD fabricated on the same nanotube on the opposite side of S. We find an appreciable nonlocal conductance with a rich structure, including a sign reversal at the ground-state transition from the ABS singlet to a degenerate magnetic doublet. We describe our device by a simple rate equation model that captures the key features of our observations and demonstrates that the sign of the nonlocal conductance is a measure for the charge distribution of the ABS, given by the respective Bogoliubov-de Gennes amplitudes u and v.

  10. Unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.

    1988-01-01

    The iteration-subtraction method for the unified treatment of bound-state and scattering problems is compared and contrasted with a similar method for the two-body bound-state problem via nonsingular scattering equations developed recently. We also compare another recent method for solving bound-state problems with the iteration-subtraction method.

  11. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-11-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1/2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6){sub P} and SU(9){sub G}. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  12. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-11-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1)/(2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6)P and SU(9)G. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  13. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-03-25

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  14. The factorization method and ground state energy bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.

    1985-04-01

    We discuss the relationship between the factorization method and the Barnsley bound to the ground state energy. The latter method is extended in such a way that both lower and upper analytic bounds can be obtained.

  15. Nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of spherical fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Voora, Vamsee K; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2014-08-13

    We present a one-electron model Hamiltonian for characterizing nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of fullerene molecules. These states are the finite system analogs of image potential states of metallic surfaces. The model potential accounts for both atomic and charge-flow polarization and is used to characterize the nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of the C60, (C60)2, C240, and C60@C240 fullerene systems. Although C60 is found to have a single (s-type) nonvalence correlation-bound anion state, the larger fullerenes are demonstrated to have multiple nonvalence correlation-bound anion states. PMID:24978808

  16. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  17. Excitation of weakly bound molecules to trilobitelike Rydberg states.

    PubMed

    Bellos, M A; Carollo, R; Banerjee, J; Eyler, E E; Gould, P L; Stwalley, W C

    2013-08-01

    We observe "trilobitelike" states of ultracold (85)Rb(2) molecules, in which a ground-state atom is bound by the electronic wave function of its Rydberg-atom partner. We populate these states through the ultraviolet excitation of weakly bound molecules, and access a regime of trilobitelike states at low principal quantum numbers and with vibrational turning points around 35 Bohr radii. This demonstrates that, unlike previous studies that used free-to-bound transitions, trilobitelike states can also be excited through bound-to-bound transitions. This approach provides high excitation probabilities without requiring high-density samples, and affords the ability to control the excitation radius by selection of the initial-state vibrational level.

  18. Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, R. R.

    2014-01-15

    We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.

  19. Universal impurity-induced bound state in topological superfluids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Jiang, Lei; Pu, Han; Chen, Yan; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2013-01-11

    We predict a universal midgap bound state in topological superfluids, induced by either nonmagnetic or magnetic impurities in the strong scattering limit. This universal state is similar to the lowest-energy Caroli-de Gennes-Martricon bound state in a vortex core, but is bound to localized impurities. We argue that the observation of such a universal bound state can be a clear signature for identifying topological superfluids. We theoretically examine our argument for a spin-orbit coupled ultracold atomic Fermi gas trapped in a two-dimensional harmonic potential by performing extensive self-consistent calculations within the mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. A realistic scenario for observing a universal bound state in ultracold 40K atoms is proposed.

  20. Measures of entanglement in multipartite bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Munro, William J.

    2004-08-01

    Bound entangled states are states that are entangled but from which no entanglement can be distilled if all parties are allowed only local operations and classical communication. However, in creating these states one needs nonzero entanglement resources to start with. Here, the entanglement of two distinct multipartite bound entangled states is determined analytically in terms of a geometric measure of entanglement and a related quantity. The results are compared with those for the negativity and the relative entropy of entanglement.

  1. Quasi-bound states in strained graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamon, Dario; Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold; Pareira, Vitor; Campbell, David

    In this work, we explore the possibility of manipulating electronic states in graphene nanostructures by mechanical means. Specifically, we use molecular dynamics and tight-binding models to access the electronic and transport properties of strained graphene nanobubbles and graphene kirigami. We establish that low energy electrons can be confined in the arms of the kirigami and within the nanobubbles; under different load conditions the coupling between confined states and continuous states is modified creating different conductance line-shapes.

  2. Electron teleportation via Majorana bound states in a mesoscopic superconductor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang

    2010-02-01

    Zero-energy Majorana bound states in superconductors have been proposed to be potential building blocks of a topological quantum computer, because quantum information can be encoded nonlocally in the fermion occupation of a pair of spatially separated Majorana bound states. However, despite intensive efforts, nonlocal signatures of Majorana bound states have not been found in charge transport. In this work, we predict a striking nonlocal phase-coherent electron transfer process by virtue of tunneling in and out of a pair of Majorana bound states. This teleportation phenomenon only exists in a mesoscopic superconductor because of an all-important but previously overlooked charging energy. We propose an experimental setup to detect this phenomenon in a superconductor-quantum-spin-Hall-insulator-magnetic-insulator hybrid system.

  3. Bound and continuum vibrational states of the bifluoride anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirko, V.; Šindelka, M.; Shirsat, R. N.; Leszczynski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The energies of the bound vibrational states and energy density spectra of the continuum vibrational states of FHF - are calculated, 'exactly' and 'adiabatically', using a new ab initio (CCSD(T)) potential energy surface. Statistical properties of the bound states are probed in terms of the density of states and nearest neighbor level spacing distributions (NNSD). Importantly, the approximate 'adiabatic' densities coincide nearly quantitatively with their 'exact' counterparts. A quantitative fitting of the NNSDs is achieved with a new empirical modification of the Wigner distribution.

  4. Sturmian function approach and {bar N}N bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Tegen, R.; Gutsche, T.; Faessler, A.

    1997-09-01

    A suitable numerical approach based on Sturmian functions is employed to solve the {bar N}N bound state problem for local and nonlocal potentials. The approach accounts for both the strong short-range nuclear potential and the long-range Coulomb force and provides directly the wave function of protonium and {bar N}N deep bound states with complex eigenvalues E=E{sub R}{minus}i({Gamma}/2). The spectrum of {bar N}N bound states has two parts, the atomic states bound by several keV, and the deep bound states which are bound by several hundred MeV. The observed very small hyperfine splitting of the 1s level and the 1s and 2p decay widths are reasonably well reproduced by both the Paris and Bonn potentials (supplemented with a microscopically derived quark annihilation potential), although there are differences in magnitude and level ordering. We present further arguments for the identification of the {sup 13}PF{sub 2} deep bound state with the exotic tensor meson f{sub 2}(1520). Both investigated models can accommodate the f{sub 2}(1520) but differ greatly in the total number of levels and in their ordering. The model based on the Paris potential predicts the {sup 13}P{sub 0} level slightly below 1.1 GeV while the model based on the Bonn potential puts this state below 0.8 GeV. It remains to be seen if this state can be identified with a scalar partner of the f{sub 2}(1520). {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Floquet bound states around defects and adatoms in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovey, D. A.; Usaj, Gonzalo; Foa Torres, L. E. F.; Balseiro, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on laser-induced gaps in graphene which have been shown to have a topological origin, thereby hosting robust states at the sample edges. While the focus has remained mainly on these topological chiral edge states, the Floquet bound states around defects lack a detailed study. In this paper we present such a study covering large defects of different shape and also vacancy-like defects and adatoms at the dynamical gap at ℏ Ω /2 (ℏ Ω being the photon energy). Our results, based on analytical calculations as well as numerics for full tight-binding models, show that the bound states are chiral and appear in a number which grows with the defect size. Furthermore, while the bound states exist regardless of the type of the defect's edge termination (zigzag, armchair, mixed), the spectrum is strongly dependent on it. In the case of top adatoms, the bound state quasienergies depend on the adatoms energy. The appearance of such bound states might open the door to the presence of topological effects on the bulk transport properties of dirty graphene.

  6. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Brydon, P. M. R.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  7. Bound States of a Ferromagnetic Wire in a Superconductor.

    PubMed

    Sau, Jay D; Brydon, P M R

    2015-09-18

    We consider the problem of bound states in strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic impurities in a superconductor, motivated by recent experiments that claim to observe Majorana modes at the ends of ferromagnetic wires on a superconducting substrate [S. Nadj-Perge et al., Science 346, 602 (2014)]. Generalizing the successful theory of bound states of spherically symmetric impurities, we consider a wirelike potential using both analytical and numerical approaches. We find that away from the ends of the wire the bound states form bands with pronounced van Hove singularities, giving rise to subgap peaks in the local density of states. For sufficiently strong magnetization of the wire, we show that this process generically produces a sharp peak at zero energy in the local density of states near the ends of the wire. This zero-energy peak has qualitative similarities to the claimed signature of a Majorana mode observed in the aforementioned experiment.

  8. Quantum Bound States in a C-C60 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, R. M.; Sofianos, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the quantum mechanical system of a carbon "test atom" in the proximity of a C60 molecule, both inside and outside the fullerene "cage". Two sets of bound states are found to exist, a deeply bound set inside the cage and another weakly bound set outside it. Tunnelling between these regions is highly unlikely to happen because of the extreme height and width of the potential barrier. However, we predict that a layer of atoms could be adsorbed onto C60 by forming a quantum mechanical bound state, with the adsorbed atoms being concentrated above the "panels" of the buckyball, consistent with "bucky onions" observed experimentally. Until now analysis of such fullerene systems has been via classical mechanics, but a quantum approach reveals new insights.

  9. Dark state experiments with ultracold, deeply-bound triplet molecules.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Strauss, Christoph; Winkler, Klaus; Takekoshi, Tetsu; Grimm, Rudolf; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker

    2009-01-01

    We examine dark quantum superposition states of weakly bound Rb2 Feshbach molecules and tightly bound triplet Rb2 molecules in the rovibrational ground state, created by subjecting a pure sample of Feshbach molecules in an optical lattice to a bichromatic Raman laser field. We analyze, both experimentally and theoretically, the creation and dynamics of these dark states. Coherent wavepacket oscillations of deeply bound molecules in lattice sites, as previously observed by Lang et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, 101, 133005), are suppressed due to laser-induced phase locking of molecular levels. This can be understood as the appearance of a novel multilevel dark state. In addition, the experimental methods developed help to determine important properties of our coupled atom/ laser system. PMID:20151548

  10. Topological bound states of a quantum walk with cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugel, Samuel; Celi, Alessio; Massignan, Pietro; Asbóth, János K.; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lobo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We suggest a method for engineering a quantum walk, with cold atoms as walkers, which presents topologically nontrivial properties. We derive the phase diagram, and show that we are able to produce a boundary between topologically distinct phases using the finite beam width of the applied lasers. A topologically protected bound state can then be observed, which is pinned to the interface and is robust to perturbations. We show that it is possible to identify this bound state by averaging over spin sensitive measures of the atom's position, based on the spin distribution that these states display. Interestingly, there exists a parameter regime in which our system maps on to the Creutz ladder.

  11. Stabilities and defect-mediated lithium-ion conduction in a ground state cubic Li3 N structure

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Hoang, Khang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2016-01-07

    A stable ground state structure with cubic symmetry of Li3N (c-Li3N) is found by ab initio initially symmetric random-generated crystal structure search method. Gibbs free energy, calculated within quasi-harmonic approximation, shows that c-Li3N is the ground state structure for a wide range of temperature. The c-Li3N structure has a negative thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures lower than room temperature, due mainly to two transverse acoustic phonon modes. This c-Li3N phase is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.90 eV within hybrid density functional calculation. We also investigate the migration and energetics of native point defects in c-Li3N, includingmore » lithium and nitrogen vacancies, interstitials, and anti-site defects. Lithium interstitials are found to have a very low migration barrier (~0.12 eV) and the lowest formation energy among all possible defects. Thus, the ionic conduction in c-Li3N is expected to occur via an interstitial mechanism, in contrast to that in the well-known α-Li3N phase which occurs via a vacancy mechanism.« less

  12. Effects of bound states on dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its nontrivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rate for direct dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement. The effects are strongest for large dark gauge coupling and when the dark photon mass is smaller than the typical momentum of dark matter in the Galaxy. As an example, we show that for thermal dark matter the Fermi gamma ray constraint is substantially increased once bound state effects are taken into account. We also find that bound state effects are not important for dark matter annihilation during the freeze-out and recombination epochs.

  13. Bounds on probability of transformations between multipartite pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Wei; Helwig, Wolfram; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2010-01-15

    For a tripartite pure state of three qubits, it is well known that there are two inequivalent classes of genuine tripartite entanglement, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class and the W class. Any two states within the same class can be transformed into each other with stochastic local operations and classical communication with a nonzero probability. The optimal conversion probability, however, is only known for special cases. Here, lower and upper bounds are derived for the optimal probability of transformation from a GHZ state to other states of the GHZ class. A key idea in the derivation of the upper bounds is to consider the action of the local operations and classical communications (LOCC) protocol on a different input state, namely 1/sq root(2)[|000>-|111>], and to demand that the probability of an outcome remains bounded by 1. We also find an upper bound for more general cases by using the constraints of the so-called interference term and 3-tangle. Moreover, some of the results are generalized to the case in which each party holds a higher dimensional system. In particular, the GHZ state generalized to three qutrits; that is, |GHZ{sub 3}>=1/sq root(3)[|000>+|111>+|222>] shared among three parties can be transformed to any tripartite three-qubit pure state with probability 1 via LOCC. Some of our results can also be generalized to the case of a multipartite state shared by more than three parties.

  14. Search for bound-state electron+positron pair decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, F.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Lane, G. J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Reed, M. W.; Sanjari, M. S.; Stöhlker, Th.; Torilov, S. Yu.; Tu, X. L.; Walke, P. M.

    2016-09-01

    The heavy ion storage rings coupled to in-flight radioactive-ion beam facilities, namely the ability to produce and store for extended periods of time radioactive nuclides in high atomic charge states, for the searchof yet unobserved decay mode - bound-state electron-positron pair decay.

  15. Relativistic three-boson bound-state model

    SciTech Connect

    Dulany, P.C.; Wallace, S.J.; Delfino, A.

    1995-04-01

    A three dimensional three-boson bound-state equation is derived from the four dimensional Bethe-Salpeter equation via an instant form of the quasipotential formalism. This provides a Schrodinger-like relativistic equation with a single, global Green`s function and relativistic dynamics. This equation is solved in momentum space for the lowest bound state without using partial wave decomposition. The lowest bound state is also calculated using the Schrodinger wavefunction. It is found that, using the Malfliet-Tjon V two particle interaction, perturbative calculations predict that the relativistic corrections decrease the binding energy by between 0.863 MeV to 1.461 MeV, while the actual corrections decrease the binding energy by between 0.014 MeV to 0.200 MeV.

  16. Bound states in gauge theories as the Poincare group representations

    SciTech Connect

    Cherny, A. Yu.; Dorokhov, A. E.; Han, Nguyen Suan; Pervushin, V. N. Shilin, V. I.

    2013-03-15

    The bound-state generating functional is constructed in gauge theories. This construction is based on the Dirac Hamiltonian approach to gauge theories, the Poincare group classification of fields and their nonlocal bound states, and the Markov-Yukawa constraint of irreducibility. The generating functional contains additional anomalous creations of pseudoscalar bound states: para-positronium in QED and mesons inQCDin the two-gamma processes of the type of {gamma} + {gamma} {yields} {pi}{sub 0} +para-positronium. The functional allows us to establish physically clear and transparent relations between the perturbativeQCD to its nonperturbative low-energy model by means of normal ordering and the quark and gluon condensates. In the limit of small current quark masses, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is derived from the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The constituent quark masses can be calculated from a self-consistent nonlinear equation.

  17. A brief review on Majorana bound states in topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rui; Wang, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    Topological superconductivity has drawn much attention recently, and most interests are focused on the Majorana bound states existing at the edges of one-dimensional topological superconductors. These Majorana bound states are ideal platform for studying non-Abelian statistics. Meanwhile, they are proposed to be useful in quantum computation. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts and models in this area. We begin from the Kitaev model, which is the most concise model for one-dimensional topological superconductivity. Then, we discuss how to realize this model with spin-orbit coupling in realistic materials. Finally, we show some simple methods to detect the Majorana bound states and study their novel properties with the help of adjacent quantum dots.

  18. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with NO3/N2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs) have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian assays and are classified as probable human carcinogens. Semi-volatile PAHs partition between the gas and particulate phases, depending on their liquid-phase vapor pressures and ambient temperatures. These PAHs have been extensively measured in ambient particulate matter and can ultimately undergo long-range transport from source regions (e.g., China to the western USA) (1). During transport these particle-bound PAHs may undergo reaction with NO3/N2O5 to form nitro-PAH derivatives. Previous studies of heterogeneous nitration of PAHs have used particles composed of graphite, diesel soot, and wood smoke (2-4). This study investigates the heterogeneous formation of nitro-PAHs from ambient particle-bound PAHs from Beijing, China and sites located within the Los Angeles air basin. These ambient particle samples, along with filters coated with isotopically labeled PAHs, were exposed to a mix of NO2/NO3/N2O5 in a 7000 L Teflon chamber, with analysis focused on the heterogeneous formation of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-PAHs. The heterogeneous formation of certain nitro-PAHs (including1-nitropyrene and 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene) was observed for some, but not all, ambient samples. Formation of nitro-PAHs typically formed through gas-phase reactions (2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene) was not observed. The effect of particle age and local photochemical conditions during sampling on the degree of nitration in environmental chamber reactions, as well as ambient implications, will be presented. 1. Primbs, T.; Simonich, S.; Schmedding, D.; Wilson, G.; Jaffe, D.; Takami, A.; Kato, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Kajii, Y. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3551-3558. 2. Esteve, W.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38, 6063-6072. 3. Nguyen, M.; Bedjanian, Y.; Guilloteau, A. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2009, 62

  19. Force-producing ADP state of myosin bound to actin

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah F.; Ropars, Virginie; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Oster, Marco; Hofhaus, Goetz; Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Pylypenko, Olena; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne M.; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors produce force when they interact with their cellular tracks. For myosin motors, the primary force-generating state has MgADP tightly bound, whereas myosin is strongly bound to actin. We have generated an 8-Å cryoEM reconstruction of this state for myosin V and used molecular dynamics flexed fitting for model building. We compare this state to the subsequent state on actin (Rigor). The ADP-bound structure reveals that the actin-binding cleft is closed, even though MgADP is tightly bound. This state is accomplished by a previously unseen conformation of the β-sheet underlying the nucleotide pocket. The transition from the force-generating ADP state to Rigor requires a 9.5° rotation of the myosin lever arm, coupled to a β-sheet rearrangement. Thus, the structure reveals the detailed rearrangements underlying myosin force generation as well as the basis of strain-dependent ADP release that is essential for processive myosins, such as myosin V. PMID:26976594

  20. Waltzing Volvox/: Orbiting Bound States of Flagellated Multicellular Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, K.; Leptos, K.; Pedley, T. J.; Goldstein, R. E.; Ishikawa, T.

    2008-11-01

    The spherical colonial alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size makes it a model organism for the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby colonies swim close to a solid surface, they are attracted together and can form a stable bound state in which they continuously waltz around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction between colonies combined with the rotational motion of bottom-heavy Volvox are shown to explain the stability and dynamics of the bound state. This phenomenon is suggested to underlie observed clustering of colonies at surfaces.

  1. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2009-04-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces.

  2. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces. PMID:19518757

  3. Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Ranjan

    2015-10-06

    It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in Λ CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angular recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Furthermore, observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.

  4. Variational study of bound states in the Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Fabio

    2000-12-01

    The possible existence of Higgs-boson-Higgs-boson bound states in the Higgs sector of the standard model is explored using the \\|hh>+\\|hhh> variational ansatz of Di Leo and Darewych. The resulting integral equations can be decoupled exactly, yielding a one-dimensional integral equation, solved numerically. We thereby avoid the extra approximations employed by Di Leo and Darewych, and we find a qualitatively different mass renormalization. Within the conventional scenario, where a not-too-large cutoff is invoked to avoid ``triviality,'' we find, as usual, an upper bound on the Higgs boson mass. Bound-state solutions are only found in the very strong coupling regime, but at the same time a relatively small physical mass is required as a consequence of renormalization.

  5. Thermodynamic Lower Bounds of Deviation from Instantaneous Canonical State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Takaaki

    2016-04-01

    We address the issue of the characterization of the nonequilibrium states for the time-dependent processes of a system interacting with a large reservoir, which is initially prepared in an equilibrium state. During the time evolution, we apply an external force to the system so that the actual density matrix is quantitatively different from the canonical state specified by the time-dependent system Hamiltonian. To express how the external forcing causes the deviation from equilibrium, we give a class of thermodynamic expressions for the lower bounds of the distance between the actual nonequilibrium state and the corresponding canonical state. The lower bounds are thermodynamically expressed only in terms of the strength of the forcing and its consequent entropy production rate.

  6. ɛ-bounded state estimation for time-delay systems with bounded disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, P. T.; Pathirana, P. N.; Trinh, H.

    2014-09-01

    A new problem on ε-bounded functional state estimation for time-delay systems with unknown bounded disturbances is studied in this paper. In the presence of unknown bounded disturbances, the common assumption regarding the observer's matching condition is no longer required. In this regard, instead of achieving asymptotic convergence for the observer error, the error is now required to converge exponentially within a ball with a small radius ε > 0. This means that the estimate converges exponentially within an ε-bound of the true value. A general observer that utilises multiple-delayed output and input information is proposed. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed observer are first given. We then employ an extended Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which combines the delay-decomposition technique with a triple-integral term to study the ε-convergence problem of the observer error system. Moreover, the obtained results are shown to be more effective than the existing results for the cases with no disturbances and/or no time delay. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  7. Two-dimensional polyaniline (C3N) from carbonized organic single crystals in solid state.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Dongwook; Li, Feng; Lah, Myoung Soo; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Oh, Joon Hak; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-07-01

    The formation of 2D polyaniline (PANI) has attracted considerable interest due to its expected electronic and optoelectronic properties. Although PANI was discovered over 150 y ago, obtaining an atomically well-defined 2D PANI framework has been a longstanding challenge. Here, we describe the synthesis of 2D PANI via the direct pyrolysis of hexaaminobenzene trihydrochloride single crystals in solid state. The 2D PANI consists of three phenyl rings sharing six nitrogen atoms, and its structural unit has the empirical formula of C3N. The topological and electronic structures of the 2D PANI were revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with a first-principle density functional theory calculation. The electronic properties of pristine 2D PANI films (undoped) showed ambipolar behaviors with a Dirac point of -37 V and an average conductivity of 0.72 S/cm. After doping with hydrochloric acid, the conductivity jumped to 1.41 × 10(3) S/cm, which is the highest value for doped PANI reported to date. Although the structure of 2D PANI is analogous to graphene, it contains uniformly distributed nitrogen atoms for multifunctionality; hence, we anticipate that 2D PANI has strong potential, from wet chemistry to device applications, beyond linear PANI and other 2D materials. PMID:27313207

  8. Two-dimensional polyaniline (C3N) from carbonized organic single crystals in solid state.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Javeed; Lee, Eun Kwang; Jung, Minbok; Shin, Dongbin; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Dongwook; Li, Feng; Lah, Myoung Soo; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Oh, Joon Hak; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2016-07-01

    The formation of 2D polyaniline (PANI) has attracted considerable interest due to its expected electronic and optoelectronic properties. Although PANI was discovered over 150 y ago, obtaining an atomically well-defined 2D PANI framework has been a longstanding challenge. Here, we describe the synthesis of 2D PANI via the direct pyrolysis of hexaaminobenzene trihydrochloride single crystals in solid state. The 2D PANI consists of three phenyl rings sharing six nitrogen atoms, and its structural unit has the empirical formula of C3N. The topological and electronic structures of the 2D PANI were revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with a first-principle density functional theory calculation. The electronic properties of pristine 2D PANI films (undoped) showed ambipolar behaviors with a Dirac point of -37 V and an average conductivity of 0.72 S/cm. After doping with hydrochloric acid, the conductivity jumped to 1.41 × 10(3) S/cm, which is the highest value for doped PANI reported to date. Although the structure of 2D PANI is analogous to graphene, it contains uniformly distributed nitrogen atoms for multifunctionality; hence, we anticipate that 2D PANI has strong potential, from wet chemistry to device applications, beyond linear PANI and other 2D materials.

  9. Majorana bound states in a disordered quantum dot chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Nori, Franco

    2016-04-01

    We study Majorana bound states in a disordered chain of semiconductor quantum dots proximity-coupled to an s-wave superconductor. By calculating its topological quantum number, based on the scattering-matrix method and a tight-binding model, we can identify the topological property of such an inhomogeneous one-dimensional system. We study the robustness of Majorana bound states against disorder in both the spin-independent terms (including the chemical potential and the regular spin-conserving hopping) and the spin-dependent term, i.e., the spin-flip hopping due to the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We find that the Majorana bound states are not completely immune to the spin-independent disorder, especially when the latter is strong. Meanwhile, the Majorana bound states are relatively robust against spin-dependent disorder, as long as the spin-flip hopping is of uniform sign (i.e., the varying spin-flip hopping term does not change its sign along the chain). Nevertheless, when the disorder induces sign-flip in spin-flip hopping, the topological-nontopological phase transition takes place in the low-chemical-potential region.

  10. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de; Paracha, M. A.

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  11. Majorana bound states in a disordered quantum dot chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Nori, Franco

    2016-04-01

    We study Majorana bound states in a disordered chain of semiconductor quantum dots proximity-coupled to an s-wave superconductor. By calculating its topological quantum number, based on the scattering-matrix method and a tight-binding model, we can identify the topological property of such an inhomogeneous one-dimensional system. We study the robustness of Majorana bound states against disorder in both the spin-independent terms (including the chemical potential and the regular spin-conserving hopping) and the spin-dependent term, i.e., the spin-flip hopping due to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that the Majorana bound states are not completely immune to the spin-independent disorder, especially when the latter is strong. Meanwhile, the Majorana bound states are relatively robust against spin-dependent disorder, as long as the spin-flip hopping is of uniform sign (i.e., the varying spin-flip hopping term does not change its sign along the chain). Nevertheless, when the disorder induces sign-flip in spin-flip hopping, the topological-nontopological phase transition takes place in the low-chemical-potential region.

  12. Effective Hamiltonian for bound states in Yukawa theory

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Axel

    2013-07-15

    A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to lowest nontrivial order to determine an effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states in relativistic Yukawa theory. The consistency of the corresponding effective Schrödinger equation is thoroughly investigated in various aspects, among others the nonrelativistic and one-body limits, and the small-distance or large-momentum regime of the bound state solutions is discussed in detail. -- Highlights: •A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to Yukawa theory. •The effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states is derived to lowest order. •The nonrelativistic and one-body limits are consistent. •The large-momentum behavior of the bound-state solutions is analyzed. •A critical value for the coupling constant is determined.

  13. A Framework for Bounding Nonlocality of State Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Andrew M.; Leung, Debbie; Mančinska, Laura; Ozols, Maris

    2013-11-01

    We consider the class of protocols that can be implemented by local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) between two parties. In particular, we focus on the task of discriminating a known set of quantum states by LOCC. Building on the work in the paper Quantum nonlocality without entanglement (Bennett et al., Phys Rev A 59:1070-1091, 1999), we provide a framework for bounding the amount of nonlocality in a given set of bipartite quantum states in terms of a lower bound on the probability of error in any LOCC discrimination protocol. We apply our framework to an orthonormal product basis known as the domino states and obtain an alternative and simplified proof that quantifies its nonlocality. We generalize this result for similar bases in larger dimensions, as well as the “rotated” domino states, resolving a long-standing open question (Bennett et al., Phys Rev A 59:1070-1091, 1999).

  14. Rotational and rotationless states of weakly bound molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2009-05-15

    By making use of the quantization rule of Raab and Friedrich [Phys. Rev. A 78, 022707 (2008)], we derive simple and accurate formulae for the number of rotational states supported by a weakly bound vibrational level of a diatomic molecule and the rotational constants of any such levels up to the threshold, and provide a criterion for determining whether a given weakly bound vibrational level is rotationless. The results depend solely on the long-range part of the molecular potential and are applicable to halo molecules.

  15. Detecting Majorana nonlocality using strongly coupled Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbert, S.; Akhmerov, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    Majorana bound states (MBS) differ from the regular zero energy Andreev bound states in their nonlocal properties, since two MBS form a single fermion. We design strategies for detection of this nonlocality by using the phenomenon of Coulomb-mediated Majorana coupling in a setting which still retains falsifiability and does not require locally separated MBS. Focusing on the implementation of MBS based on the quantum spin Hall effect, we also design a way to probe Majoranas without the need to open a magnetic gap in the helical edge states. In the setup that we analyze, long range MBS coupling manifests in the h /e magnetic flux periodicity of tunneling conductance and supercurrent. While h /e is also the periodicity of Aharonov-Bohm effect and persistent current, we show how to ensure its Majorana origin by verifying that switching off the charging energy restores h /2 e periodicity conventional for superconducting systems.

  16. Quantitative bound entanglement in two-qutrit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentís, Gael; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Among the many facets of quantum correlations, bound entanglement has remained one the most enigmatic phenomena, despite the fact that it was discovered in the early days of quantum information. Even its detection has proven to be difficult, let alone its precise quantitative characterization. In this work, we present the exact quantification of entanglement for a two-parameter family of highly symmetric two-qutrit mixed states, which contains a sizable part of bound entangled states. We achieve this by explicitly calculating the convex-roof extensions of the linear entropy as well as the concurrence for every state within the family. Our results provide a benchmark for future quantitative studies of bipartite entanglement in higher-dimensional systems.

  17. Bound States in the Continuum in double layer structures

    PubMed Central

    Li, LiangSheng; Yin, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the reflectivity spectrums of single- and double-layer photonic crystal slabs and the dielectric multilayer stack. It is shown that light can be perfectly confined in a single-layer photonic crystal slab at a given incident angle by changing the thickness, permittivity or hole radius of the structure. With a tunable double-layer photonic crystal slab, we demonstrate that the occurrence of tunable bound states in the continuum is dependent on the spacing between two slabs. Moreover, by analytically investigating the Drude lossless multilayer stack model, the spacing dependence of bound states in the continuum is characterized as the phase matching condition that illuminates these states can occur at any nonzero incident angles by adjusting the spacing. PMID:27245435

  18. Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S.; Nazarov, Y. V.

    2014-12-15

    A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.

  19. Quantum state discrimination bounds for finite sample size

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Mosonyi, Milan; Verstraete, Frank

    2012-12-15

    In the problem of quantum state discrimination, one has to determine by measurements the state of a quantum system, based on the a priori side information that the true state is one of the two given and completely known states, {rho} or {sigma}. In general, it is not possible to decide the identity of the true state with certainty, and the optimal measurement strategy depends on whether the two possible errors (mistaking {rho} for {sigma}, or the other way around) are treated as of equal importance or not. Results on the quantum Chernoff and Hoeffding bounds and the quantum Stein's lemma show that, if several copies of the system are available then the optimal error probabilities decay exponentially in the number of copies, and the decay rate is given by a certain statistical distance between {rho} and {sigma} (the Chernoff distance, the Hoeffding distances, and the relative entropy, respectively). While these results provide a complete solution to the asymptotic problem, they are not completely satisfying from a practical point of view. Indeed, in realistic scenarios one has access only to finitely many copies of a system, and therefore it is desirable to have bounds on the error probabilities for finite sample size. In this paper we provide finite-size bounds on the so-called Stein errors, the Chernoff errors, the Hoeffding errors, and the mixed error probabilities related to the Chernoff and the Hoeffding errors.

  20. The role of interaction vertices in bound state calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cetin Savkli; Franz Gross; John Tjon

    2001-02-01

    In recent studies of the one and two-body problem for scalar interactions it was shown that crossed ladder and ''crossed rainbow'' (for the one-body case) exchanges play a crucial role in nonperturbative dynamics. In this letter we use exact analytical and numerical results to show that the contribution of vertex dressings to the two-body bound state mass for scalar QED are canceled by the wavefunction normalization. This proves, for the first time, that the mass of a two-body bound state given by the full theory can be obtained by summing only ladder and crossed ladder diagrams using a bare vertex and a constant dressed mass. We also discuss the implications of the remarkable cancellation between rainbow and crossed rainbow diagrams that is a feature of one-body calculations.

  1. Bound states in coupled guides. II. Three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, C. M.; Ratcliffe, K.

    2004-04-01

    We compute bound-state energies in two three-dimensional coupled waveguides, each obtained from the two-dimensional configuration considered in paper I [J. Math. Phys. 45, 1359-1379 (2004)] by rotating the geometry about a different axis. The first geometry consists of two concentric circular cylindrical waveguides coupled by a finite length gap along the axis of the inner cylinder, and the second is a pair of planar layers coupled laterally by a circular hole. We have also extended the theory for this latter case to include the possibility of multiple circular windows. Both problems are formulated using a mode-matching technique, and in the cylindrical guide case the same residue calculus theory as used in paper I is employed to find the bound-state energies. For the coupled planar layers we proceed differently, computing the zeros of a matrix derived from the matching analysis directly.

  2. Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, A. P.; Albrecht, S. M.; Kiršanskas, G.; Chang, W.; Kuemmeth, F.; Krogstrup, P.; Jespersen, T. S.; Nygård, J.; Flensberg, K.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high-frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic superconductors but remain relatively unexplored in semiconductor-superconductor structures, which are now being intensely pursued in the context of topological superconductivity. To this end, we use a system comprising a gate-confined semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify bound states in the semiconductor by means of bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms.

  3. R-matrix calculations for few-quark bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchi, M. A.; Hadizadeh, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    The R-matrix method is implemented to study the heavy charm and bottom diquark, triquark, tetraquark, and pentaquarks in configuration space, as the bound states of quark-antiquark, diquark-quark, diquark-antidiquark, and diquark-antitriquark systems, respectively. The mass spectrum and the size of these systems are calculated for different partial wave channels. The calculated masses are compared with recent theoretical results obtained by other methods in momentum and configuration spaces and also by available experimental data.

  4. Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations

    PubMed Central

    Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640

  5. Endohedral fullerene as acceptor: A DFT study on charge transfer states of Sc3N@C80-porphyrin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatameh; Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra; Baruah, Tunna

    2013-03-01

    C60 fullerene and its derivatives are the most popular acceptors which are used in molecular/polymeric complexes used in organic photovoltaics. Endohedral fullerenes are shown to produce long lived charge separated states. The Sc3N@C80, the third most abundant fullerene after C60 and C70, has a larger cage with a radius of 4.1 Ang. We have carried out a DFT study on the electronic structure of ground and charge transfer states of a model Sc3N@C80-Zn tetraphenyl porphyrin cofacial complex. The C80 cage used in our calculations has icosahedral symmetry. We find that the lowest charge transfer state with a hole on the porphyrin and an electron on the Sc3N@C80 is at 2.1 eV above the ground state. The calculations show that different orientations of the Sc3N unit to the porphyrin plane do not significantly alter the electronic structure. The electronic structure of the complex and its components along with the exciton binding energies will be presented. Supported by NSF through grant no. DMR 1205302.

  6. Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Firstenberg, O.; Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Büchler, H. P.

    2014-11-01

    We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. The method allows us to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments.

  7. Positron-molecule bound states and positive ion production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventhal, M.; Passner, A.; Surko, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction was studied of low energy positrons with large molecules such as alkanes. These data provide evidencce for the existence of long lived resonances and bound states of positrons with neutral molecules. The formation process and the nature of these resonances are discussed. The positive ions produced when a positron annihilates with an electron in one of these resonances were observed and this positive ion formation process is discussed. A review is presented of the current state of the understanding of these positron-molecule resonances and the resulting positive ion formation. A number of outstanding issues in this area is also discussed.

  8. Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    SciTech Connect

    Pichowsky, M.; Kennedy, M.; Strickland, M.

    1995-01-18

    The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.

  9. Computational approach for calculating bound states in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Q. Z.; Norris, S.; Brennan, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a nonperturbative approach to calculate bound-state energies and wave functions for quantum field theoretical models. It is based on the direct diagonalization of the corresponding quantum field theoretical Hamiltonian in an effectively discretized and truncated Hilbert space. We illustrate this approach for a Yukawa-like interaction between fermions and bosons in one spatial dimension and show where it agrees with the traditional method based on the potential picture and where it deviates due to recoil and radiative corrections. This method permits us also to obtain some insight into the spatial characteristics of the distribution of the fermions in the ground state, such as the bremsstrahlung-induced widening.

  10. Directional detection of dark matter in universal bound states

    DOE PAGES

    Laha, Ranjan

    2015-10-06

    It has been suggested that several small-scale structure anomalies in Λ CDM cosmology can be solved by strong self-interaction between dark matter particles. It was shown in Ref. [1] that the presence of a near threshold S-wave resonance can make the scattering cross section at nonrelativistic speeds come close to saturating the unitarity bound. This can result in the formation of a stable bound state of two asymmetric dark matter particles (which we call darkonium). Ref. [2] studied the nuclear recoil energy spectrum in dark matter direct detection experiments due to this incident bound state. Here we study the angularmore » recoil spectrum, and show that it is uniquely determined up to normalization by the S-wave scattering length. Furthermore, observing this angular recoil spectrum in a dark matter directional detection experiment will uniquely determine many of the low-energy properties of dark matter independent of the underlying dark matter microphysics.« less

  11. Quasiclassical asymptotics and coherent states for bounded discrete spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gorska, K.; Penson, K. A.; Horzela, A.; Blasiak, P.; Duchamp, G. H. E.; Solomon, A. I.

    2010-12-15

    We consider discrete spectra of bound states for nonrelativistic motion in attractive potentials V{sub {sigma}}(x)=-|V{sub 0}| |x|{sup -}{sigma}, 0<{sigma}{<=}2. For these potentials the quasiclassical approximation for n{yields}{infinity} predicts quantized energy levels e{sub {sigma}}(n) of a bounded spectrum varying as e{sub {sigma}}(n){approx}-n{sup -}2{sigma}/(2-{sigma}). We construct collective quantum states using the set of wavefunctions of the discrete spectrum assuming this asymptotic behavior. We give examples of states that are normalizable and satisfy the resolution of unity, using explicit positive functions. These are coherent states in the sense of Klauder and their completeness is achieved via exact solutions of Hausdorff moment problems, obtained by combining Laplace and Mellin transform methods. For {sigma} in the range 0 < {sigma}{<=} 2/3 we present exact implementations of such states for the parametrization {sigma}= 2(k-l)/(3k-l) with k and l positive integers satisfying k>l.

  12. Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, Drew; Poirier, Bill

    2014-07-21

    This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar{sub 3}), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar{sub 3} rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar{sub 3} are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar{sub 3} is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar{sub 3} may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations.

  13. Pair condensation and bound states in fermionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, Armen; Clark, John W.

    2006-03-15

    We study the finite temperature-density phase diagram of an attractive fermionic system that supports two-body (dimer) and three-body (trimer) bound states in free space. Using interactions characteristic for nuclear systems, we obtain the critical temperature T{sub c2} for the superfluid phase transition and the limiting temperature T{sub c3} for the extinction of trimers. The phase diagram features a Cooper-pair condensate in the high-density, low-temperature domain which, with decreasing density, crosses over to a Bose condensate of strongly bound dimers. The high-temperature, low-density domain is populated by trimers whose binding energy decreases toward the density-temperature domain occupied by the superfluid and vanishes at a critical temperature T{sub c3}>T{sub c2}.

  14. Radiative lifetimes of the bound excited states of Pt-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartkunchand, K. C.; Kamińska, M.; Anderson, E. K.; Kristiansson, M. K.; Eklund, G.; Hole, O. M.; Nascimento, R. F.; Blom, M.; Björkhage, M.; Källberg, A.; Löfgren, P.; Reinhed, P.; Rosén, S.; Simonsson, A.; Thomas, R. D.; Mannervik, S.; Davis, V. T.; Neill, P. A.; Thompson, J. S.; Hanstorp, D.; Zettergren, H.; Cederquist, H.; Schmidt, H. T.

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic radiative lifetimes of the 5 d106 s1/2 2S and 5 d96 s2 3/2 2D bound excited states in the platinum anion Pt-have been studied at cryogenic temperatures at the Double ElectroStatic Ion Ring Experiment (DESIREE) facility at Stockholm University. The intrinsic lifetime of the higher-lying 5 d106 s 1/2 2S state was measured to be 2.54 ±0.10 s , while only a lifetime in the range of 50-200 ms could be estimated for the 5 d96 s2 3/2 2D fine-structure level. The storage lifetime of the Pt- ion beam was measured to be a little over 15 min at a ring temperature of 13 K . The present study reports the lifetime of an atomic negative ion in an excited bound state with an electron configuration different from that of the ground state.

  15. Radiative lifetimes of the bound excited states of Pt-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartkunchand, K. C.; Kamińska, M.; Anderson, E. K.; Kristiansson, M. K.; Eklund, G.; Hole, O. M.; Nascimento, R. F.; Blom, M.; Björkhage, M.; Källberg, A.; Löfgren, P.; Reinhed, P.; Rosén, S.; Simonsson, A.; Thomas, R. D.; Mannervik, S.; Davis, V. T.; Neill, P. A.; Thompson, J. S.; Hanstorp, D.; Zettergren, H.; Cederquist, H.; Schmidt, H. T.

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic radiative lifetimes of the 5 d106 s 1/2 2S and 5 d96 s2 3/2 2D bound excited states in the platinum anion Pt-have been studied at cryogenic temperatures at the Double ElectroStatic Ion Ring Experiment (DESIREE) facility at Stockholm University. The intrinsic lifetime of the higher-lying 5 d106 s 1/2 2S state was measured to be 2.54 ±0.10 s , while only a lifetime in the range of 50-200 ms could be estimated for the 5 d96 s2 3/2 2D fine-structure level. The storage lifetime of the Pt- ion beam was measured to be a little over 15 min at a ring temperature of 13 K . The present study reports the lifetime of an atomic negative ion in an excited bound state with an electron configuration different from that of the ground state.

  16. Fundamental Bounds in Measurements for Estimating Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Ra, Young-Sik; Hong, Kang-Hee; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Quantum measurement unavoidably disturbs the state of a quantum system if any information about the system is extracted. Recently, the concept of reversing quantum measurement has been introduced and has attracted much attention. Numerous efforts have thus been devoted to understanding the fundamental relation of the amount of information obtained by measurement to either state disturbance or reversibility. Here, we experimentally prove the trade-off relations in quantum measurement with respect to both state disturbance and reversibility. By demonstrating the quantitative bound of the trade-off relations, we realize an optimal measurement for estimating quantum systems with minimum disturbance and maximum reversibility. Our results offer fundamental insights on quantum measurement and practical guidelines for implementing various quantum information protocols.

  17. Wireless Majorana Bound States: From Magnetic Tunability to Braiding.

    PubMed

    Fatin, Geoffrey L; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Žutić, Igor

    2016-08-12

    We propose a versatile platform to investigate the existence of Majorana bound states (MBSs) and their non-Abelian statistics through braiding. This implementation combines a two-dimensional electron gas formed in a semiconductor quantum well grown on the surface of an s-wave superconductor with a nearby array of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The underlying magnetic textures produced by MTJs provide highly controllable topological phase transitions to confine and transport MBSs in two dimensions, overcoming the requirement for a network of wires. Obtained scaling relations confirm that various semiconductor quantum well materials are suitable for this proposal. PMID:27563991

  18. Mechanical bound state in the continuum for optomechanical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Shen, Zhen; Xiong, Xiao; Dong, Chun-Hua; Zou, Chang-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    Clamping loss limits the quality factor of mechanical mode in the optomechanical resonators supported with the supporting stem. Using the mechanical bound state in the continuum (BIC), we have found that the mechanical clamping loss can be avoided. The mechanical quality factor of a microsphere could be achieved up to 108 for a specific radius of the stem, which forms a mechanical BIC with the combination of the symmetry protected mechanism and the single resonance mechanism. Such a mechanism is proved to be universal for different geometries and materials, thus can also be generalized to design high quality mechanical resonators.

  19. Signatures of bound-state-assisted nonsequential double ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Van Vlack, Cole; Destefani, Carlos; Fennel, Thomas; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha

    2009-07-15

    The time-dependent multiconfiguration Hartree method is optimized for intense laser dynamics and applied to nonsequential double ionization in a two-electron diatomic model molecule with two dimensions per electron. The efficiency of our method brings these calculations from the realm of large scale computation facilities to single processor machines. The resulting two-electron spectrum exhibits pronounced signatures from which the ionic bound states involved in nonsequential double ionization are retrieved with the help of a semiclassical model. A mechanism for the ionization dynamics is suggested.

  20. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.  R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.  D.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H. -W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M.  J.

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  1. Wireless Majorana Bound States: From Magnetic Tunability to Braiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatin, Geoffrey L.; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Žutić, Igor

    2016-08-01

    We propose a versatile platform to investigate the existence of Majorana bound states (MBSs) and their non-Abelian statistics through braiding. This implementation combines a two-dimensional electron gas formed in a semiconductor quantum well grown on the surface of an s -wave superconductor with a nearby array of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The underlying magnetic textures produced by MTJs provide highly controllable topological phase transitions to confine and transport MBSs in two dimensions, overcoming the requirement for a network of wires. Obtained scaling relations confirm that various semiconductor quantum well materials are suitable for this proposal.

  2. Wireless Majorana Bound States: From Magnetic Tunability to Braiding.

    PubMed

    Fatin, Geoffrey L; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Žutić, Igor

    2016-08-12

    We propose a versatile platform to investigate the existence of Majorana bound states (MBSs) and their non-Abelian statistics through braiding. This implementation combines a two-dimensional electron gas formed in a semiconductor quantum well grown on the surface of an s-wave superconductor with a nearby array of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The underlying magnetic textures produced by MTJs provide highly controllable topological phase transitions to confine and transport MBSs in two dimensions, overcoming the requirement for a network of wires. Obtained scaling relations confirm that various semiconductor quantum well materials are suitable for this proposal.

  3. Effect of transverse current on Andreev bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yun, D. H.; Kim, S. W.; Nakamura, T.; Iye, Y.; Katsumoto, S.

    2013-12-04

    In a superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) structure, the effect of transverse current across the normal part on the transport through Andreev bound states (ABSs) has been examined. Here a ballistic InAs two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is used as the N-layer to form ABSs. At the same time the 2DES has strong spin-orbit interaction, hence there should emerge the spin-Hall effect associated with the transverse current. We have observed strong reduction of characteristic oscillation in the conductance versus bias voltage, which may be attributed to spin polarization due to the spin-Hall effect.

  4. N2(+) bound quartet and sextet state potential energy curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Stallcop, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The N2(+) potential energies have been determined from a complete active space self-consistent field calculation with active 2s and 2p electrons. A (6s 4p 3d 1f) Gaussian basis set was used together with additional higher angular momentum and diffuse functions. The calculated potential energy curves for the states 4Sigma(mu)(+), 4Pi(g), and 6Sigma(g)(+), for which there are no spectroscopic observations, are presented. The corresponding spectroscopic constants have been determined from a polynomial curve fit to the computed energies near the well minima and are shown. The 6Sigma(g)(+) state is found to be significantly bound, with a minimum at 1.72 A.

  5. Human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus in the United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Epperson, Scott; Jhung, Michael; Richards, Shawn; Quinlisk, Patricia; Ball, Lauren; Moll, Mària; Boulton, Rachelle; Haddy, Loretta; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Brammer, Lynnette; Trock, Susan; Burns, Erin; Gomez, Thomas; Wong, Karen K; Katz, Jackie; Lindstrom, Stephen; Klimov, Alexander; Bresee, Joseph S; Jernigan, Daniel B; Cox, Nancy; Finelli, Lyn

    2013-07-01

    BACKGROUND. During August 2011-April 2012, 13 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus were identified in the United States; 8 occurred in the prior 2 years. This virus differs from previous variant influenza viruses in that it contains the matrix (M) gene from the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic influenza virus. METHODS. A case was defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed H3N2v virus infection. Cases and contacts were interviewed to determine exposure to swine and other animals and to assess potential person-to-person transmission. RESULTS. Median age of cases was 4 years, and 12 of 13 (92%) were children. Pig exposure was identified in 7 (54%) cases. Six of 7 cases with swine exposure (86%) touched pigs, and 1 (14%) was close to pigs without known direct contact. Six cases had no swine exposure, including 2 clusters of suspected person-to-person transmission. All cases had fever; 12 (92%) had respiratory symptoms, and 3 (23%) were hospitalized for influenza. All 13 cases recovered. CONCLUSIONS. H3N2v virus infections were identified at a high rate from August 2011 to April 2012, and cases without swine exposure were identified in influenza-like illness outbreaks, indicating that limited person-to-person transmission likely occurred. Variant influenza viruses rarely result in sustained person-to-person transmission; however, the potential for this H3N2v virus to transmit efficiently is of concern. With minimal preexisting immunity in children and the limited cross-protective effect from seasonal influenza vaccine, the majority of children are susceptible to infection with this novel influenza virus.

  6. Bounding the states of systems with unknown-but-bounded disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wei K.; Parlos, Alexander G.; Verghese, George C.

    1990-01-01

    Control systems with hard constraints on certain variables are characterized, in an analytical review of recent investigations based on an unknown-but-bounded description of magnitude uncertainties. Hard-constraint problems typically arise in the design of controllers for potentially hazardous systems such as nuclear power plants. Consideration is given to norm bounds based on matrix measures, extensions of Schweppe's (1968) ellipsoid bounds, and set-theoretic regulator design. The performance of these approaches is evaluated by means of numerical simulations involving a third-order nonlinear steam-boiler model; the results are presented in graphs, and it is found that ellipsoid bounds are tightest in the general case, but that box bounds are even tighter for linear systems with Metzler system matrices.

  7. Dipole-deformed bound states and heterotic Kodaira surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Keshav; Guffin, Josh; Gwyn, Rhiannon; Katz, Sheldon

    2007-04-01

    We study a particular N=1 confining gauge theory with fundamental flavors realised as seven branes in the background of wrapped five branes on a rigid two-cycle of a non-trivial global geometry. In parts of the moduli space, the five branes form bound states with the seven branes. We show that in this regime the local supergravity solution is surprisingly tractable, even though the background topology is non-trivial. New effects such as dipole deformations may be studied in detail, including the full backreactions. Performing the dipole deformations in other ways leads to different warped local geometries. In the dual heterotic picture, which is locally given by a C fibration over a Kodaira surface, we study details of the geometry and the construction of bundles. We also point out the existence of certain exotic bundles in our framework.

  8. Magnetoelectric spectroscopy of Andreev bound states in Josephson quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzell, Nils; Florens, Serge; Meng, Tobias; Meden, Volker; Andergassen, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of Andreev levels in a single-orbital interacting quantum dot in contact with superconducting leads, focusing on the effect of electrostatic gating and applied magnetic field, as relevant for recent experimental spectroscopic studies. In order to account reliably for spin-polarization effects in the presence of correlations, we extend here two simple and complementary approaches that are tailored to capture effective Andreev levels: the static functional renormalization group (fRG) and the self-consistent Andreev bound states (SCABS) theory. We provide benchmarks against the exact large-gap solution as well as renormalization group (NRG) calculations and find good quantitative agreement in the range of validity. The large flexibility of the implemented approaches then allows us to analyze a sizable parameter space, allowing us to get a deeper physical understanding into the Zeeman field, electrostatic gate, and flux dependence of Andreev levels in interacting nanostructures.

  9. Bound States of Dipolr Molecules Studied with the Berggren Expnsiion Method

    SciTech Connect

    Fossez, K.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Bound states of dipole-bound anions are studied by using a nonadiabatic pseudopotential method and the Berggren expansion involving bound states, decaying resonant states, and nonresonant scattering continuum. The method is benchmarked by using the traditional technique of direct integration of coupled-channel equations. A good agreement between the two methods has been found for well-bound states. For weakly bound subthreshold states with binding energies comparable to rotational energies of the anion, the direct integration approach breaks down and the Berggren expansion method becomes the tool of choice.

  10. Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.

    PubMed

    An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-15

    A model of the dark sector where O(few  GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.

  11. Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.

    PubMed

    An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-15

    A model of the dark sector where O(few  GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter. PMID:27127956

  12. Quantum gas of deeply bound ground state molecules.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Johann G; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Mark, Manfred J; Hart, Russell; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Ritsch, Helmut; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2008-08-22

    Molecular cooling techniques face the hurdle of dissipating translational as well as internal energy in the presence of a rich electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy spectrum. In our experiment, we create a translationally ultracold, dense quantum gas of molecules bound by more than 1000 wave numbers in the electronic ground state. Specifically, we stimulate with 80% efficiency, a two-photon transfer of molecules associated on a Feshbach resonance from a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. In the process, the initial loose, long-range electrostatic bond of the Feshbach molecule is coherently transformed into a tight chemical bond. We demonstrate coherence of the transfer in a Ramsey-type experiment and show that the molecular sample is not heated during the transfer. Our results show that the preparation of a quantum gas of molecules in specific rovibrational states is possible and that the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecules in their rovibronic ground state is within reach. PMID:18719277

  13. Search for unbound 15Be states in the 3 n +12Be channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchera, A. N.; Spyrou, A.; Smith, J. K.; Baumann, T.; Christian, G.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Jones, M. D.; Kohley, Z.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: 15Be is expected to have low-lying 3 /2+ and 5 /2+ states. A first search did not find the 3 /2+ [A. Spyrou et al., Phys. Rev. C 84, 044309 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevC.84.044309]; however, a resonance in 15Be was populated in a second attempt and determined to be unbound with respect to 14Be by 1.8(1) MeV with a tentative spin-parity assignment of 5 /2+ [J. Snyder et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 031303(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.031303]. Purpose: Search for the predicted 15Be 3 /2+ state in the three-neutron decay channel. Method: A two-proton removal reaction from a 55 MeV/u 17C beam was used to populate neutron-unbound states in 15Be. The two-, three-, and four-body decay energies of the 12Be + neutron(s) detected in coincidence were reconstructed using invariant mass spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extract the resonance and decay properties from the observed spectra. Results: The low-energy regions of the decay energy spectra can be described with the first excited unbound state of 14Be (Ex=1.54 MeV, Er=0.28 MeV). Including a state in 15Be that decays through the first excited 14Be state slightly improves the fit at higher energies though the cross section is small. Conclusions: A 15Be component is not needed to describe the data. If the 3 /2+ state in 15Be is populated, the decay by three-neutron emission through 14Be is weak, ≤11 % up to 4 MeV. In the best fit, 15Be is unbound with respect to 12Be by 1.4 MeV (unbound with respect to 14Be by 2.66 MeV) with a strength of 7 % .

  14. X (1576) as diquark-antidiquark bound state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gui-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2006-11-01

    We propose that the broad 1-- resonance structure recently discovered by BES in J / ψ →K+K-π0 is the P-wave excitation of a diquark-antidiquark bound state. This interpretation implies that there exists a negative parity, vector nonet. A rough estimate of the mass spectrum of the nonet is presented, and the prediction for the mass of X (1576) is consistent with the experimental data. The OZI allowed strong decays are studied, it can decay into two pseudoscalars or one pseudoscalar plus one vector meson. A crucial prediction is that X (1576) should dominantly decay into K+K-, KLKS, ϕπ0. The observation of I3 = 1 or I3 = - 1 states which predominantly decays into strange mesons could provide another important test to our proposal. To search the charged I3 = 1 isospin partner of X (1576), careful search in J / ψ →K+KLπ-, J / ψ →K+KSπ- and J / ψ → ϕπ+π- is suggested.

  15. Three-nucleon problem: trinucleon bound states and trinucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The assumptions underlying the formulation and solution of the Schroedinger equation for three nucleons in configuration space are reviewed, in conjunction with those qualitative aspects of the two-nucleon problem which are important. The geometrical features of the problem and the crucial role of the angular momentum barrier are developed. The boundary conditions for scattering are discussed qualitatively, and the Faddeev-Noyes equation is motivated. The method of splines and orthogonal collocation are shown to provide convenient techniques for generating numerical solutions. Properties of the many numerical solutions for the bound states and zero-energy scattering states are discussed. The evidence for three-body forces is reviewed, and the results of the recent calculations including such forces are discussed. The importance of electromagnetic interactions in the three-nucleon systems is motivated. Relativistic corrections and meson-exchange currents are discussed in the context of ''rules of scale'', and the pion-exchange currents of nonrelativistic order are derived. The experimental results for trinucleon electromagnetic interactions are reviewed, including recent tritium data. Conclusions are presented. 56 refs., 23 figs.

  16. Andreev bound state at a strongly correlated oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Tacla, Alexandre; Daley, Andrew; Lu, Shicheng; Veazey, Josh; Huang, Mengchen; Irvin, Patrick; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Pekker, David; Levy, Jeremy

    Strongly correlated electrons at oxide interfaces give rise to a set of novel physics phenomena including superconductivity and magnetism. At the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface, signatures of strong electron pairing persist even for conditions where superconductivity is suppressed. Meanwhile, an Andreev bound state (ABS) is a single quasiparticle excitation that mediates pair transport in confined superconductor-normal systems. Here we report a transition from pair resonant transport to ABS in sketched single electron transistors at the LAO/STO interface. This transition is consistent with a change of electron-electron interaction from attractive to repulsive, occurring at or near the Lifshitz transition. Such new electronically tunable electron-electron interaction may be useful for quantum simulation and engineering of novel quantum states in oxide materials. We gratefully acknowledge support from AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL, CBE), AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0057 (JL, CBE, AD), NSF DMR-1104191 (JL), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL).

  17. Lower bound on concurrence for arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the concurrence of arbitrary-dimensional tripartite quantum states. An explicit operational lower bound of concurrence is obtained in terms of the concurrence of substates. A given example shows that our lower bound may improve the well-known existing lower bounds of concurrence. The significance of our result is to get a lower bound when we study the concurrence of arbitrary m⊗ n⊗ l-dimensional tripartite quantum states.

  18. Variational upper bounds for low-lying states of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. M.; Qiao, H. X.; Yan, Z.-C.; Drake, G. W. F.

    2011-03-15

    We present improved calculations of variational energy eigenvalues for the 1s{sup 2}2s {sup 2}S, 1s{sup 2}3s {sup 2}S, and 1s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P states of lithium using basis sets with up to 30 224 terms in Hylleraas coordinates. The nonrelativistic energies for infinite nuclear mass are -7.478 060 323 910 143 7(45) a.u. for 1s{sup 2}2s {sup 2}S, -7.354 098 421 444 316 4(32) a.u. for 1s{sup 2}3s {sup 2}S, and -7.410 156 532 651 6(5) a.u. for 1s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P, which represent the most accurate variational upper bounds to date. An important advantage of the basis sets with multiple distance scales is their exceptional numerical stability.

  19. Baryons as relativistic three-quark bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot; Sanchis-Alepuz, Hèlios; Williams, Richard; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.

    2016-11-01

    We review the spectrum and electromagnetic properties of baryons described as relativistic three-quark bound states within QCD. The composite nature of baryons results in a rich excitation spectrum, whilst leading to highly non-trivial structural properties explored by the coupling to external (electromagnetic and other) currents. Both present many unsolved problems despite decades of experimental and theoretical research. We discuss the progress in these fields from a theoretical perspective, focusing on nonperturbative QCD as encoded in the functional approach via Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We give a systematic overview as to how results are obtained in this framework and explain technical connections to lattice QCD. We also discuss the mutual relations to the quark model, which still serves as a reference to distinguish 'expected' from 'unexpected' physics. We confront recent results on the spectrum of non-strange and strange baryons, their form factors and the issues of two-photon processes and Compton scattering determined in the Dyson-Schwinger framework with those of lattice QCD and the available experimental data. The general aim is to identify the underlying physical mechanisms behind the plethora of observable phenomena in terms of the underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom.

  20. Molecular Bound States of Supercritical Charged Impurities on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velizhanin, Kirill; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Solenov, Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    Functionalization of graphene by chemical groups/atoms allows one to tune its electronic, chemical and mechanical properties. For example, metallic adatoms (e.g., Li, Ca, Y) can be important in applications ranging from hydrogen storage to superconductivity. Such adatoms bind ionically to graphene and the resulting positive ions move along graphene relatively freely, so understanding the energetics of their interaction with graphene and between each other becomes critical for assessing stability of resulting materials in practical applications. It has recently been demonstrated that ions with charge greater than Z ~ 1 induce a very peculiar non-linear electronic polarization of graphene, which is reminiscent to the Dirac vacuum reconstruction around superheavy nuclei. In our work we demonstrate that such non-linear polarization qualitatively changes not only graphene electronic structure but also the energetics of the effective graphene-mediated interaction between such ions. In my talk, I will discuss the properties of such effective interaction and its dependence on various parameters of the system. In particular, I will report on our finding that molecular bound states of supercritically charged ions can be formed on graphene at certain conditions. This work was performed under the NNSA of the U.S. DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  1. Path integral Monte Carlo on a lattice. II. Bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, Mark; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-07-01

    The equilibrium properties of a single quantum particle (qp) interacting with a classical gas for a wide range of temperatures that explore the system's behavior in the classical as well as in the quantum regime is investigated. Both the qp and the atoms are restricted to sites on a one-dimensional lattice. A path integral formalism developed within the context of the canonical ensemble is utilized, where the qp is represented by a closed, variable-step random walk on the lattice. Monte Carlo methods are employed to determine the system's properties. To test the usefulness of the path integral formalism, the Metropolis algorithm is employed to determine the equilibrium properties of the qp in the context of a square well potential, forcing the qp to occupy bound states. We consider a one-dimensional square well potential where all atoms on the lattice are occupied with one atom with an on-site potential except for a contiguous set of sites of various lengths centered at the middle of the lattice. Comparison of the potential energy, the energy fluctuations, and the correlation function are made between the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and the numerical calculations.

  2. Absorption of Bound States in Hot, Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sheperd, R; Audebert, P; Chenais-Popovics, C; Geindre, J P; Fajardo, M; Iglesias, C; Moon, S; Rogers, F; Gauthier, J C; Springer, P

    2001-03-06

    Preliminary experiments using a long pulse laser generated X-ray source to back-light a short pulse laser heated thin foil have been performed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) at Ecole Polytechnique in France. In this experiment, a 2 J, 300 ps, 532 nm laser was used to create the X-ray back-lighter. The primary diagnostic was a von Hamos spectrograph coupled to a 500 fs X-ray streak camera (TREX-VHS) developed at LLNL. This diagnostic combines high collection efficiency ({approx} 10{sup -4} steradians) with fast temporal response ({approx} 500 fs), allowing resolution of extremely transient spectral variations. The TREX-VHS was used to determine the time history, intensity, and spectral content of the back-lighter. The second diagnostic, Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI), provides information about the position of the critical density of the target and thus the expansion hydrodynamics, laying the ground work for the plasma characterization. The plasmas were determined to be moderately to strongly coupled, resulting in absorption measurements that provide insight into bound states under such conditions.

  3. Path integral Monte Carlo on a lattice. II. Bound states.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Mark; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-07-01

    The equilibrium properties of a single quantum particle (qp) interacting with a classical gas for a wide range of temperatures that explore the system's behavior in the classical as well as in the quantum regime is investigated. Both the qp and the atoms are restricted to sites on a one-dimensional lattice. A path integral formalism developed within the context of the canonical ensemble is utilized, where the qp is represented by a closed, variable-step random walk on the lattice. Monte Carlo methods are employed to determine the system's properties. To test the usefulness of the path integral formalism, the Metropolis algorithm is employed to determine the equilibrium properties of the qp in the context of a square well potential, forcing the qp to occupy bound states. We consider a one-dimensional square well potential where all atoms on the lattice are occupied with one atom with an on-site potential except for a contiguous set of sites of various lengths centered at the middle of the lattice. Comparison of the potential energy, the energy fluctuations, and the correlation function are made between the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and the numerical calculations. PMID:27575090

  4. Hadron properties from QCD bound-state equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2009-09-01

    This thesis presents an investigation of meson and baryon properties in the framework of covariant bound-state equations based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. Pion and rho-meson, diquark, nucleon and delta-baryon masses are obtained as self-consistent solutions of the respective equations for qbar{q}, qq, qqq and q(qq) systems. The common parenthesis is given by a rainbow-ladder truncation in the quark-(anti-)quark channel. It includes an effective quark-gluon coupling as the only phenomenological input and inherent link in the calculation of meson and baryon observables. Results for hadron masses and the pion's and nucleon's static electromagnetic properties as a function of a self-consistently calculated pion mass are presented and compared to lattice results and their chiral extrapolations. The evolution of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors with larger photon momentum is investigated. The impact of further contributions beyond rainbow-ladder, e.g. pionic corrections, and possible future applications are discussed.

  5. Increased diversity of H3N2 influenza virus in pigs in the United States and implications for pigs and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2011-2012 at least 320 human cases of H3N2 (H3N2v) viruses closely related to swine influenza A viruses (IAV) were detected in the United States. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 200 whole genome sequences of North American swine IAV to identify reassortment events and compare these novel ge...

  6. Coexistence of bound and virtual-bound states in shallow-core to valence x-ray spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Gupta, Subhra; Bradley, J. A.; Haverkort, M. W.; Seidler, G. T.; Tanaka, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.

    2011-08-01

    With the example of the non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS) at the O45 edges (5d→5f) of the actinides, we develop the theory for shallow-core to valence excitations, where the multiplet spread is larger than the core-hole attraction, such as if the core and valence orbitals have the same principal quantum number. This involves very strong final state configuration interaction (CI), which manifests itself as huge reductions in the Slater-Condon integrals, needed to explain the spectral shapes within a simple renormalized atomic multiplet theory. But more importantly, this results in a cross-over from bound (excitonic) to virtual-bound excited states with increasing energy, within the same core-valance multiplet structure, and in large differences between the dipole and high-order multipole transitions, as observed in NIXS. While the bound states (often higher multipole allowed) can still be modeled using local cluster-like models, the virtual-bound resonances (often dipole-allowed) cannot be interpreted within such local approaches. This is in stark contrast to the more familiar core-valence transitions between different principal quantum number shells, where all the final excited states almost invariably form bound core-hole excitons and can be modeled using local approaches. The possibility of observing giant multipole resonances for systems with high angular momentum ground states is also predicted. The theory is important to obtain ground state information from core-level x-ray spectroscopies of strongly correlated transition metal, rare-earth, and actinide systems.

  7. Predicted bound states and microwave spectrum of N2-He van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; McCourt, Frederick R. W.

    2009-06-01

    Numerical calculations show that four modern potential energy surfaces for N2-He all support 18 bound intermolecular states for the homonuclear isotopologues N14,142-H4e and N15,152-H4e, and 12 (or 13, for one surface) truly bound states for N14,152-He. This contradicts a recent statement [Patel et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 909 (2003)] that one of these surfaces supports no bound states, and it yields predictions for 27 allowed pure rotational transitions among the truly bound states of the homonuclear isotopologues of this complex.

  8. Study of resonance states of 11Be with isospectral bound state microscopic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S. K.; Gupta, D.; Das, D.; Saha, Swapan K.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical procedure of supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SQM) is adopted for the first time to study quasi-bound states of a weakly bound nuclear system using microscopic potential. The density dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective interaction was found earlier to give a satisfactory description of radioactivity, nuclear matter and scattering. In the present work, we have microscopically generated a two-body potential in a single folding model using the DDM3Y effective interaction. From this potential, SQM generated a family of isospectral potentials for 11Be (10Be + n). We investigated the 5/2+, 3/2- and 3/2+ resonance states of 11Be. The experimental data and the present calculations of excitation energies of the above resonance states are found to be in good agreement.

  9. Heterogeneous reactions of particulate matter-bound PAHs and NPAHs with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 under simulated long-range atmospheric transport conditions: reactivity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Schrlau, Jill; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger; Yu, Tian-Wei; Dashwood, Roderick H; Tao, Shu; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2014-09-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of ambient particulate matter (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 were studied in a laboratory photochemical chamber. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from Beijing, China, and Riverside, California, and exposed under simulated atmospheric long-range transport conditions for O3 and OH and NO3 radicals. Changes in the masses of 23 PAHs and 20 NPAHs, as well as the direct and indirect-acting mutagenicity of the PM (determined using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with TA98 strain), were measured prior to and after exposure to NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3. In general, O3 exposure resulted in the highest relative degradation of PM-bound PAHs with more than four rings (benzo[a]pyrene was degraded equally well by O3 and NO3/N2O5). However, NPAHs were most effectively formed during the Beijing PM exposure to NO3/N2O5. In ambient air, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NF) is formed from the gas-phase NO3 radical- and OH radical-initiated reactions of fluoranthene, and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP) is formed from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reaction of pyrene. There was no formation of 2-NF or 2-NP in any of the heterogeneous exposures, suggesting that gas-phase formation of NPAHs did not play an important role during chamber exposures. Exposure of Beijing PM to NO3/N2O5 resulted in an increase in direct-acting mutagenic activity which was associated with the formation of mutagenic NPAHs. No NPAH formation was observed in any of the exposures of the Riverside PM. This was likely due to the accumulation of atmospheric degradation products from gas-phase reactions of volatile species onto the surface of PM collected in Riverside prior to exposure in the chamber, thus decreasing the availability of PAHs for reaction.

  10. Heterogeneous Reactions of Particulate Matter-Bound PAHs and NPAHs with NO3/N2O5, OH Radicals, and O3 under Simulated Long-Range Atmospheric Transport Conditions: Reactivity and Mutagenicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of ambient particulate matter (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 were studied in a laboratory photochemical chamber. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from Beijing, China, and Riverside, California, and exposed under simulated atmospheric long-range transport conditions for O3 and OH and NO3 radicals. Changes in the masses of 23 PAHs and 20 NPAHs, as well as the direct and indirect-acting mutagenicity of the PM (determined using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with TA98 strain), were measured prior to and after exposure to NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3. In general, O3 exposure resulted in the highest relative degradation of PM-bound PAHs with more than four rings (benzo[a]pyrene was degraded equally well by O3 and NO3/N2O5). However, NPAHs were most effectively formed during the Beijing PM exposure to NO3/N2O5. In ambient air, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NF) is formed from the gas-phase NO3 radical- and OH radical-initiated reactions of fluoranthene, and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP) is formed from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reaction of pyrene. There was no formation of 2-NF or 2-NP in any of the heterogeneous exposures, suggesting that gas-phase formation of NPAHs did not play an important role during chamber exposures. Exposure of Beijing PM to NO3/N2O5 resulted in an increase in direct-acting mutagenic activity which was associated with the formation of mutagenic NPAHs. No NPAH formation was observed in any of the exposures of the Riverside PM. This was likely due to the accumulation of atmospheric degradation products from gas-phase reactions of volatile species onto the surface of PM collected in Riverside prior to exposure in the chamber, thus decreasing the availability of PAHs for reaction. PMID:25119270

  11. Mean-square-error bounds for reduced-order linear state estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Y.; Kalit, G.

    1987-01-01

    The mean-square error of reduced-order linear state estimators for continuous-time linear systems is investigated. Lower and upper bounds on the minimal mean-square error are presented. The bounds are readily computable at each time-point and at steady state from the solutions to the Ricatti and the Liapunov equations. The usefulness of the error bounds for the analysis and design of reduced-order estimators is illustrated by a practical numerical example.

  12. Bound entangled states with a private key and their classical counterpart.

    PubMed

    Ozols, Maris; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2014-03-21

    Entanglement is a fundamental resource for quantum information processing. In its pure form, it allows quantum teleportation and sharing classical secrets. Realistic quantum states are noisy and their usefulness is only partially understood. Bound-entangled states are central to this question--they have no distillable entanglement, yet sometimes still have a private classical key. We present a construction of bound-entangled states with a private key based on classical probability distributions. From this emerge states possessing a new classical analogue of bound entanglement, distinct from the long-sought bound information. We also find states of smaller dimensions and higher key rates than previously known. Our construction has implications for classical cryptography: we show that existing protocols are insufficient for extracting private key from our distributions due to their "bound-entangled" nature. We propose a simple extension of existing protocols that can extract a key from them. PMID:24702340

  13. Intermolecular electron transfer states of 1-methyl-3-(N-(1,8-naphthalimidyl)ethyl)imidazolium iodide obtained by constrained density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takao; Sumita, Masato; Izawa, Hironori; Morihashi, Kenji

    2016-07-21

    Electron transfer (ET) states of 1-methyl-3-(N-(1,8-naphthalimidyl)ethyl)imidazolium iodide are responsible for its photophysics. Investigation of an ET state based on constrained density functional theory (CDFT) revealed that nonradiative decay from the ET excited state is mediated by the interaction of the iodine atom with the 1,8-naphthalimide or the imidazolium group. PMID:27222312

  14. Interacting quantum walkers: two-body bosonic and fermionic bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Luck, J. M.; Mallick, K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bound states of two interacting particles, either bosons or fermions, performing a continuous-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional lattice. We consider the situation where the distance between both particles has a hard bound, and the richer situation where the particles are bound by a smooth confining potential. The main emphasis is on the velocity characterizing the ballistic spreading of these bound states, and on the structure of the asymptotic distribution profile of their center-of-mass coordinate. The latter profile generically exhibits many internal fronts.

  15. Versatile mode-locked fiber laser with switchable operation states of bound solitons.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xin; Qiu, Jifang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ye, Zi; Shi, Jindan; Wu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Bound states of two solitons are among the typical forms of bound states and can be observed in various operation states of mode-locked fiber lasers. We experimentally investigated bound solitons (BSs) in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, whose operation states can be switched among multiple pulses, passively harmonic mode-locking, and "giant pulses" by simply adjusting the in-line polarization controller with the pump power fixed. Up to four pulses, fourth-order harmonic mode-locking (HML), and a "giant pulse" with four BSs were obtained with increasing pump power. Experimental results showed a correlative relationship among those operation states (N pulses/Nth-order HML/"giant pulses" of N bound solitons) at different pump power levels. The birefringence induced by the erbium-doped fiber inside the laser cavity played a vital role in the transitions of those operation states. PMID:27411182

  16. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as an agent to free the bound entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S. N.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the efficacy of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction to convert the bound entangled states into free entangled states. We consider the tripartite hybrid system as a pair of non interacting two qutrits initially prepared in bound entangled states and one auxiliary qubit. Here, we consider two types of bound entangled states investigated by Horodecki. The auxiliary qubit interacts with any one of the qutrit of the pair through DM interaction. We show that by tuning the probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, one can free the bound entangled states, which can be further distilled. We use the reduction criterion to find the range of the parameters of probability amplitude of auxiliary qubit and DM interaction strength, for which the states are distillable. The realignment criterion and negativity have been used for detection and quantification of entanglement.

  17. Versatile mode-locked fiber laser with switchable operation states of bound solitons.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xin; Qiu, Jifang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ye, Zi; Shi, Jindan; Wu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Bound states of two solitons are among the typical forms of bound states and can be observed in various operation states of mode-locked fiber lasers. We experimentally investigated bound solitons (BSs) in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, whose operation states can be switched among multiple pulses, passively harmonic mode-locking, and "giant pulses" by simply adjusting the in-line polarization controller with the pump power fixed. Up to four pulses, fourth-order harmonic mode-locking (HML), and a "giant pulse" with four BSs were obtained with increasing pump power. Experimental results showed a correlative relationship among those operation states (N pulses/Nth-order HML/"giant pulses" of N bound solitons) at different pump power levels. The birefringence induced by the erbium-doped fiber inside the laser cavity played a vital role in the transitions of those operation states.

  18. Photon-assisted tunneling through a topological superconductor with Majorana bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Han-Zhao; Zhang, Ying-Tao; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-12-15

    Employing the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we investigate time-dependent transport through a topological superconductor with Majorana bound states in the presence of a high frequency microwave field. It is found that Majorana bound states driven by photon-assisted tunneling can absorb(emit) photons and the resulting photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks can split the Majorana bound state that then appears at non-zero bias. This splitting breaks from the current opinion that Majorana bound states appear only at zero bias and thus provides a new experimental method for detecting Majorana bound states in the Non-zero-energy mode. We not only demonstrate that the photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks are due to Non-zero-energy Majorana bound states, but also that the height of the photon-assisted tunneling side band peaks is related to the intensity of the microwave field. It is further shown that the time-varying conductance induced by the Majorana bound states shows negative values for a certain period of time, which corresponds to a manifestation of the phase coherent time-varying behavior in mesoscopic systems.

  19. Passivation of surface states by ALD-grown TiO2 overlayers on Ta3N5 anodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of TiO2 overlayers by atomic layer deposition to passivate the surface states on Ta3N5 thin film anodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The removal of surface states reduces the overpotential and decreases the density of surface recombination centers, resulting in enhanced activity through effective utilization of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:27292872

  20. Passivation of surface states by ALD-grown TiO2 overlayers on Ta3N5 anodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of TiO2 overlayers by atomic layer deposition to passivate the surface states on Ta3N5 thin film anodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The removal of surface states reduces the overpotential and decreases the density of surface recombination centers, resulting in enhanced activity through effective utilization of photogenerated charge carriers.

  1. Search for bound states of the eta-meson in light nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, R. E.; Bart, S.; Pile, P.; Sutter, R.; Tsoupas, N.; Funsten, H. O.; Finn, J. M.; Lyndon, C.; Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A search for nuclear-bound states of the eta meson was carried out. Targets of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum were placed in a pion(+) beam at 800 MeV/c. A predicted eta bound state in O-15* (E sub x approx. = 540 MeV) with a width of approx. 9 MeV was not observed. A bound state of a size 1/3 of the predicted cross section would have been seen in this experiment at a confidence level of 3sigma (P is greater than 0.9987).

  2. Two-photon bound states: The diphoton bullet in dispersive self-focusing media

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, I.H.; Chiao, R.Y. ); Garrison, J.C. )

    1993-04-01

    We consider two-photon bound states which may be excited in a planar waveguide filled with a self-focusing Kerr material. These bound states are the quantum analogs of the classical light bullets which form under the combined effects of self-focusing, diffraction, self-phase-modulation, and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. A variational approach is used to establish a threshold condition on the strength of the nonlinearity for the existence of the bound state, and a gedanken experiment is proposed to outline the principles for creation and detection of this quasiparticle.

  3. Ensemble-based characterization of unbound and bound states on protein energy landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ruvinsky, Anatoly M; Kirys, Tatsiana; Tuzikov, Alexander V; Vakser, Ilya A

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical description of numerous cell processes is fundamentally based on the energy landscapes of protein molecules involved. Although the whole energy landscape is difficult to reconstruct, increased attention to particular targets has provided enough structures for mapping functionally important subspaces associated with the unbound and bound protein structures. The subspace mapping produces a discrete representation of the landscape, further called energy spectrum. We compiled and characterized ensembles of bound and unbound conformations of six small proteins and explored their spectra in implicit solvent. First, the analysis of the unbound-to-bound changes points to conformational selection as the binding mechanism for four proteins. Second, results show that bound and unbound spectra often significantly overlap. Moreover, the larger the overlap the smaller the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the bound and unbound conformational ensembles. Third, the center of the unbound spectrum has a higher energy than the center of the corresponding bound spectrum of the dimeric and multimeric states for most of the proteins. This suggests that the unbound states often have larger entropy than the bound states. Fourth, the exhaustively long minimization, making small intrarotamer adjustments (all-atom RMSD ≤ 0.7 Å), dramatically reduces the distance between the centers of the bound and unbound spectra as well as the spectra extent. It condenses unbound and bound energy levels into a thin layer at the bottom of the energy landscape with the energy spacing that varies between 0.8–4.6 and 3.5–10.5 kcal/mol for the unbound and bound states correspondingly. Finally, the analysis of protein energy fluctuations showed that protein vibrations itself can excite the interstate transitions, including the unbound-to-bound ones. PMID:23526684

  4. Andreev and Majorana bound states in single and double quantum dot structures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joelson F; Vernek, E

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the emergence of Majorana and Andreev bound states in a system composed of two quantum dots, one of which is coupled to a conventional superconductor, SC1, and the other connects to a topological superconductor, SC2. By controlling the interdot coupling we can drive the system from two single (uncoupled) quantum dots to double (coupled) dot system configurations. We employ a recursive Green's function technique that provides us with numerically exact results for the local density of states of the system. We first show that in the uncoupled dot configuration (single dot behavior) the Majorana and the Andreev bound states appear in an individual dot in two completely distinct regimes. Therefore, they cannot coexist in the single quantum dot system. We then study the coexistence of these states in the coupled double dot configuration. In this situation we show that in the trivial phase of SC2, the Andreev states are bound to an individual quantum dot in the atomic regime (weak interdot coupling) or extended over the entire molecule in the molecular regime (strong interdot coupling). More interesting features are actually seen in the topological phase of SC2. In this case, in the atomic limit, the Andreev states appear bound to one of the quantum dots while a Majorana zero mode appears in the other one. In the molecular regime, on the other hand, the Andreev bound states take over the entire molecule while the Majorana state remains always bound to one of the quantum dots.

  5. Extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses: Finding new bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, R.; Arvind

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we discuss extremal extensions of entanglement witnesses based on Choi's map. The constructions are based on a generalization of the Choi map, from which we construct entanglement witnesses. These extremal extensions are powerful in terms of their capacity to detect entanglement of positive under partial transpose (PPT) entangled states and lead to unearthing of entanglement of new PPT states. We also use the Cholesky-like decomposition to construct entangled states which are revealed by these extremal entanglement witnesses.

  6. Topological superconducting phase and Majorana bound states in Shiba chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pientka, Falko; Peng, Yang; Glazman, Leonid; von Oppen, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Chains of magnetic adatoms on a conventional superconducting substrate constitute a promising venue for realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana end states. Here, we give a brief overview over recent attempts to describe these systems theoretically, emphasizing how the topological phase emerges from the physics of individual magnetic impurities and their associated Shiba states.

  7. Quark-antiquark bound-state spectroscopy and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    The discussion covers quarks as we know them, the classification of ordinary mesons in terms of constituent quarks, hidden charm states and charmed mesons, bottom quarks, positronium as a model for quarti q, quantum chromodynamics and its foundation in experiment, the charmonium model, the mass of states, fine structure and hyperfine structure, classification, widths of states, rate and multipolarity of gamma transitions, questions about bottom, leptonic widths and the determination of Q/sub b/, the mass splitting of the n/sup 3/S/sub 1/ states, the center of gravity of the masses of the n/sup 3/P; states, n/sup 3/ P; fine structure and classification, branching ratios for upsilon' ..-->.. tau chi/sub 6j/ and the tau cascade reactions, hyperfine splitting, and top. (GHT)

  8. Upper bounds on the error probabilities and asymptotic error exponents in quantum multiple state discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Mosonyi, Milán

    2014-10-01

    We consider the multiple hypothesis testing problem for symmetric quantum state discrimination between r given states σ₁, …, σ{sub r}. By splitting up the overall test into multiple binary tests in various ways we obtain a number of upper bounds on the optimal error probability in terms of the binary error probabilities. These upper bounds allow us to deduce various bounds on the asymptotic error rate, for which it has been hypothesized that it is given by the multi-hypothesis quantum Chernoff bound (or Chernoff divergence) C(σ₁, …, σ{sub r}), as recently introduced by Nussbaum and Szkoła in analogy with Salikhov's classical multi-hypothesis Chernoff bound. This quantity is defined as the minimum of the pairwise binary Chernoff divergences min{sub jstates the bound is actually achieved. It was known to be achieved, in particular, when the state pair that is closest together in Chernoff divergence is more than 6 times closer than the next closest pair. Our results improve on this in two ways. First, we show that the optimal asymptotic rate must lie between C/2 and C. Second, we show that the Chernoff bound is already achieved when the closest state pair is more than 2 times closer than the next closest pair. We also show that the Chernoff bound is achieved when at least r - 2 of the states are pure, improving on a previous result by Nussbaum and Szkoła. Finally, we indicate a number of potential pathways along which a proof (or disproof) may eventually be found that the multi-hypothesis quantum Chernoff bound is always achieved.

  9. Bound-state fiber laser mode-locked by a graphene-nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. R.; Chen, G. W.; Kong, Y. C.; Li, W. L.

    2015-02-01

    We have experimentally observed the multiple bound states in a linear-cavity fiber laser mode-locked by a mixture of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes. The proposed laser can deliver the fundamental frequency soliton as well as the two and three bound-state solitons at suitable conditions. The numerical simulations confirm the experimental observations. Both the theoretical predictions and experimental results reveal that the spectral filtering effect plays a key role on the lasers.

  10. Raman scattering from a superconductivity-induced bound state in MgB2.

    PubMed

    Zeyher, R

    2003-03-14

    It is shown that the sharp peak in the E(2g) Raman spectrum of superconducting MgB2 is due to a bound state caused by the electron-phonon coupling. Our theory explains why this peak appears only in the spectra with E(2g) symmetry and only in the sigma but not the pi bands. The properties of the bound state and the Raman spectrum are investigated, also in the presence of impurity scattering.

  11. Analysis of steady bound soliton-state attributes in hybrid mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobko, Dmitry A.; Gumenyuk, Regina; Zolotovskii, Igor O.; Okhotnikov, Oleg G.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an analytical description of the bound states in soliton lasers combining active and passive mode locking. The perturbation theory has been applied to analyze the formation of bound states and to study the influence of cavity parameters on the characteristics of soliton groups generated through active phase modulation in the lasers. This analytical description is in agreement with the numerical simulation data. The theoretical approach demonstrated in this work could possibly be extended to other laser architectures.

  12. Transfer Function Bounds for Partial-unit-memory Convolutional Codes Based on Reduced State Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a coding system consisting of a convolutional encoder and a Viterbi decoder is analytically found by the well-known transfer function bounding technique. For the partial-unit-memory byte-oriented convolutional encoder with m sub 0 binary memory cells and (k sub 0 m sub 0) inputs, a state diagram of 2(K) (sub 0) was for the transfer function bound. A reduced state diagram of (2 (m sub 0) +1) is used for easy evaluation of transfer function bounds for partial-unit-memory codes.

  13. Population of bound and unbound states of 12Be in proton removal from 13B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortune, H. T.

    2016-04-01

    For proton removal from 13B to bound and unbound states of 12Be, I investigate the consequences of core excitation in both nuclei, using wave functions determined previously. Conclusions are that the ground state contains most of the 0+ strength, but the 2+ strength is concentrated in the second 2+ state, which is currently unknown, but predicted near 5 MeV.

  14. Bethe-Salpeter bound-state structure in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, C.; Gigante, V.; Frederico, T.; Salmè, G.; Viviani, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-08-01

    The quantitative investigation of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, within the ladder-approximation framework, is extended to include the excited states. This study has been carried out for an interacting system composed by two massive bosons exchanging a massive scalar, by adopting (i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, and (ii) the formally exact projection onto the null plane. Our analysis, on one hand, confirms the reliability of the method already applied to the ground state and, on the other one, extends the investigation from the valence distribution in momentum space to the corresponding quantity in the impact-parameter space, pointing out some relevant features, like (i) the equivalence between Minkowski and Euclidean transverse-momentum amplitudes, and (ii) the leading exponential fall-off of the valence wave function in the impact-parameter space.

  15. Andreev bound states for cake shape superconducting normal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cserti, J.; Béri, B.; Kormányos, A.; Pollner, P.; Kaufmann, Z.

    2004-09-01

    The energy spectrum of cake shape normal-superconducting systems is calculated by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. We take into account the mismatch in the effective masses and Fermi energies of the normal and superconducting regions as well as the potential barrier at the interface. In the case of a perfect interface and without mismatch, the energy levels are treated by semi-classics. Analytical expressions for the density of states and its integral, the step function, are derived and compared with that obtained from exact numerics. We find a very good agreement between the two calculations. It is shown that the spectrum possesses an energy gap and the density of states is singular at the edge of the gap. The effect of the mismatch and the potential barrier on the gap is also investigated.

  16. Bound state eigenfunctions need to vanish faster than | x{| }^{-3/2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    In quantum mechanics, students are taught to practice that the eigenfunction of a physical bound state must be continuous and vanishing asymptotically so that it is normalizable in x\\in (-∞ ,∞ ). Here we caution that such states may also give rise to infinite uncertainty in the position ({{Δ }}x=∞ ), whereas {{Δ }}p remains finite. Such states may be called loosely bound and spatially extended states, and may be avoided by an additional condition that the eigenfunction vanishes asymptotically faster than | x{| }-3/2.

  17. Unitary photoassociation: One-step production of ground-state bound molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.

    2008-02-15

    Bound-state molecules can be photoassociated directly from ultracold free-atom pairs by excitation to a purely repulsive electronic state. The process is explained on the basis of quantum unitarity: the initially free-scattering state is transformed by an impulsive light pulse to a deformed superposition which contains bound-state components. For pulse durations which are short compared to the ultracold dynamics, the maximal rate of photoassociation was found to be determined by the initial stationary distribution of scattering states of the atom pairs. The process was simulated for an ultracold gas of {sup 87}Rb with a temperature of T=44 {mu}K and a density of {approx_equal}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Transform-limited pulses maximize the photoassociation, yielding {approx}1 bound molecule per pulse. Coherent control calculated by a local control scheme can increase the photoassociation yield by two orders of magnitude.

  18. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics of rhenium(I) photosensitizers [Re(Cl)(CO)3(N,N)] and [Re(imidazole)(CO)3(N,N)]+: diimine effects.

    PubMed

    El Nahhas, Amal; Consani, Cristina; Blanco-Rodríguez, Ana María; Lancaster, Kyle M; Braem, Olivier; Cannizzo, Andrea; Towrie, Michael; Clark, Ian P; Zális, Stanislav; Chergui, Majed; Vlcek, Antonín

    2011-04-01

    Femto- to picosecond excited-state dynamics of the complexes [Re(L)(CO)(3)(N,N)](n) (N,N = bpy, phen, 4,7-dimethyl-phen (dmp); L = Cl, n = 0; L = imidazole, n = 1+) were investigated using fluorescence up-conversion, transient absorption in the 650-285 nm range (using broad-band UV probe pulses around 300 nm) and picosecond time-resolved IR (TRIR) spectroscopy in the region of CO stretching vibrations. Optically populated singlet charge-transfer (CT) state(s) undergo femtosecond intersystem crossing to at least two hot triplet states with a rate that is faster in Cl (∼100 fs)(-1) than in imidazole (∼150 fs)(-1) complexes but essentially independent of the N,N ligand. TRIR spectra indicate the presence of two long-lived triplet states that are populated simultaneously and equilibrate in a few picoseconds. The minor state accounts for less than 20% of the relaxed excited population. UV-vis transient spectra were assigned using open-shell time-dependent density functional theory calculations on the lowest triplet CT state. Visible excited-state absorption originates mostly from mixed L;N,N(•-) → Re(II) ligand-to-metal CT transitions. Excited bpy complexes show the characteristic sharp near-UV band (Cl, 373 nm; imH, 365 nm) due to two predominantly ππ*(bpy(•-)) transitions. For phen and dmp, the UV excited-state absorption occurs at ∼305 nm, originating from a series of mixed ππ* and Re → CO;N,N(•-) MLCT transitions. UV-vis transient absorption features exhibit small intensity- and band-shape changes occurring with several lifetimes in the 1-5 ps range, while TRIR bands show small intensity changes (≤5 ps) and shifts (∼1 and 6-10 ps) to higher wavenumbers. These spectral changes are attributable to convoluted electronic and vibrational relaxation steps and equilibration between the two lowest triplets. Still slower changes (≥15 ps), manifested mostly by the excited-state UV band, probably involve local-solvent restructuring. Implications of

  19. Scattering and bound states of fermions in a mixed vector–scalar smooth step potential

    SciTech Connect

    Castilho, W.M. Castro, A.S. de

    2014-07-15

    The scattering of a fermion in the background of a smooth step potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling. Charge-conjugation and chiral-conjugation transformations are discussed and it is shown that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions appears as poles of the transmission amplitude. It is also shown that those bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space–time. - Highlights: • Scattering and bound states of fermions in a kink-like potential. • No pair production despite the high localization. • No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.

  20. Observing Majorana bound states of Josephson vortices in topological superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Grosfeld, Eytan; Stern, Ady

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an intensive search for Majorana fermion states in condensed matter systems. Predicted to be localized on cores of vortices in certain nonconventional superconductors, their presence is known to render the exchange statistics of bulk vortices non-Abelian. Here we study the equations governing the dynamics of phase solitons (fluxons) in a Josephson junction in a topological superconductor. We show that the fluxon will bind a localized zero energy Majorana mode and will consequently behave as a non-Abelian anyon. The low mass of the fluxon, as well as its experimentally observed quantum mechanical wave-like nature, will make it a suitable candidate for vortex interferometry experiments demonstrating non-Abelian statistics. We suggest two experiments that may reveal the presence of the zero mode carried by the fluxon. Specific experimental realizations will be discussed as well. PMID:21730165

  1. Impurity-induced bound states in superconductors with topological order.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Qin; Ma, Tianxing; Jiang, Xunya

    2012-11-14

    The study of classical spins in topological insulators (Liu and Ma 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 115216) is generalized to topological superconductors. Based on the characteristic features of the so-called F-function, the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian for superconductors is classified to positive, negative, and zero 'gap' categories for topologically trivial and nontrivial phases of a topological superconductor as well as a BCS superconductor, respectively. It is found that the F-function determines directly the presence or absence of localized excited states, induced by bulk classical spins and nonmagnetic impurities, in the superconducting gap and their persistence with respect to impurity strength. Our results provide an alternative way to identify topologically insulating and superconducting phases in experiments without resorting to the surface properties.

  2. Invariant criteria for bound states, degree of ionization, and plasma phase transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girardeau, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Basis invariant characterizations of bound states and bound fraction of a partially ionized hydrogen plasma are given in terms of properties of the spectrum of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the equilibrium quantum statistical one-proton-one-electron reduced density matrix. It is suggested that these can be used to place theories of a proposed plasma-ionization phase transition on a firm foundation. This general approach may be relevant to cosmological questions such as the quark deconfinement-confinement transition.

  3. Phases of non-extremal multi-centered bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Vercnocke, Bert

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the phase space of multi-centered near-extremal configurations previously studied in arXiv:1108.5821 [1] and arXiv:1110.5641 [2] in the probe limit. We confirm that in general the energetically favored ground state of the multi-center potential, which can be a single or multi-center configuration, has the most entropy and is thus thermodynamically stable. However, we find the surprising result that for a subset of configurations, even though a single center black hole seems to be energetically favored, it is entropically not allowed (the resulting black hole would violate cosmic censorship). This disproves classical intuition that everything would just fall into the black hole if energetically favored. Along the way we highlight a shortcoming in the literature regarding the computation of the angular momentum coming from electromagnetic interaction in the probe limit and rectify it. We also demonstrate that static supertubes can exist inside ergoregions where ordinary point particles would be frame dragged.

  4. Fingerprint of topological Andreev bound states in phase-dependent heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sothmann, Björn; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that phase-dependent heat currents through superconductor-topological insulator Josephson junctions provide a useful tool to probe the existence of topological Andreev bound states, even for multichannel surface states. We predict that in the tunneling regime topological Andreev bound states lead to a minimum of the thermal conductance for a phase difference ϕ =π , in clear contrast to a maximum of the thermal conductance at ϕ =π that occurs for trivial Andreev bound states in superconductor-normal-metal tunnel junctions. This opens up the possibility that phase-dependent heat transport can distinguish between topologically trivial and nontrivial 4 π modes. Furthermore, we propose a superconducting quantum interference device geometry where phase-dependent heat currents can be measured using available experimental technology.

  5. Tunable Plasmonic Reflection by Bound 1D Electron States in a 2D Dirac Metal.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B-Y; Ni, G X; Pan, C; Fei, Z; Cheng, B; Lau, C N; Bockrath, M; Basov, D N; Fogler, M M

    2016-08-19

    We show that the surface plasmons of a two-dimensional Dirac metal such as graphene can be reflected by linelike perturbations hosting one-dimensional electron states. The reflection originates from a strong enhancement of the local optical conductivity caused by optical transitions involving these bound states. We propose that the bound states can be systematically created, controlled, and liquidated by an ultranarrow electrostatic gate. Using infrared nanoimaging, we obtain experimental evidence for the locally enhanced conductivity of graphene induced by a carbon nanotube gate, which supports this theoretical concept. PMID:27588873

  6. Tunable Plasmonic Reflection by Bound 1D Electron States in a 2D Dirac Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Ni, G. X.; Pan, C.; Fei, Z.; Cheng, B.; Lau, C. N.; Bockrath, M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the surface plasmons of a two-dimensional Dirac metal such as graphene can be reflected by linelike perturbations hosting one-dimensional electron states. The reflection originates from a strong enhancement of the local optical conductivity caused by optical transitions involving these bound states. We propose that the bound states can be systematically created, controlled, and liquidated by an ultranarrow electrostatic gate. Using infrared nanoimaging, we obtain experimental evidence for the locally enhanced conductivity of graphene induced by a carbon nanotube gate, which supports this theoretical concept.

  7. Andreev and Majorana bound states in single and double quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Joelson F.; Vernek, E.

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the emergence of Majorana and Andreev bound states in a system composed of two quantum dots, one of which is coupled to a conventional superconductor, SC1, and the other connects to a topological superconductor, SC2. By controlling the interdot coupling we can drive the system from two single (uncoupled) quantum dots to double (coupled) dot system configurations. We employ a recursive Green’s function technique that provides us with numerically exact results for the local density of states of the system. We first show that in the uncoupled dot configuration (single dot behavior) the Majorana and the Andreev bound states appear in an individual dot in two completely distinct regimes. Therefore, they cannot coexist in the single quantum dot system. We then study the coexistence of these states in the coupled double dot configuration. In this situation we show that in the trivial phase of SC2, the Andreev states are bound to an individual quantum dot in the atomic regime (weak interdot coupling) or extended over the entire molecule in the molecular regime (strong interdot coupling). More interesting features are actually seen in the topological phase of SC2. In this case, in the atomic limit, the Andreev states appear bound to one of the quantum dots while a Majorana zero mode appears in the other one. In the molecular regime, on the other hand, the Andreev bound states take over the entire molecule while the Majorana state remains always bound to one of the quantum dots.

  8. Andreev and Majorana bound states in single and double quantum dot structures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joelson F; Vernek, E

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the emergence of Majorana and Andreev bound states in a system composed of two quantum dots, one of which is coupled to a conventional superconductor, SC1, and the other connects to a topological superconductor, SC2. By controlling the interdot coupling we can drive the system from two single (uncoupled) quantum dots to double (coupled) dot system configurations. We employ a recursive Green's function technique that provides us with numerically exact results for the local density of states of the system. We first show that in the uncoupled dot configuration (single dot behavior) the Majorana and the Andreev bound states appear in an individual dot in two completely distinct regimes. Therefore, they cannot coexist in the single quantum dot system. We then study the coexistence of these states in the coupled double dot configuration. In this situation we show that in the trivial phase of SC2, the Andreev states are bound to an individual quantum dot in the atomic regime (weak interdot coupling) or extended over the entire molecule in the molecular regime (strong interdot coupling). More interesting features are actually seen in the topological phase of SC2. In this case, in the atomic limit, the Andreev states appear bound to one of the quantum dots while a Majorana zero mode appears in the other one. In the molecular regime, on the other hand, the Andreev bound states take over the entire molecule while the Majorana state remains always bound to one of the quantum dots. PMID:27602524

  9. Positive bound state solutions for some Schrödinger-Poisson systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerami, Giovanna; Molle, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with a class of Schrödinger-Poisson systems, where the coupling term and the other coefficients do not have any symmetry property. Moreover, the setting we consider does not allow the existence of ground state solutions. Under suitable assumptions on the decay rate of the coefficients, we prove existence of a bound state, finite energy solution.

  10. Search for eta '(958)-nucleus Bound States by (p,d) Reaction at GSI and FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.

    The mass of the {\\eta}' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the {\\eta}' production threshold. The overview of the experimental situation is given and the current status is discussed.

  11. Surface Andreev bound states of superfluid 3He and Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Okuda; R, Nomura

    2012-08-01

    Superfluid 3He is an intensively investigated and well characterized p-wave superfluid. In the bulk Balian-Werthamer state, which is commonly called the 3He B phase, the superfluid gap is opened isotropically but near a flat boundary such as a wall of a container it can harbor interesting quasi-particle states inside the gap. These states are called surface Andreev bound states, and have not been experimentally explored in detail. Transverse acoustic impedance measurement has revealed their existence and provided spectroscopic details of the dispersion of the bound states. Recent theoretical arguments claim that the surface Andreev bound states of the superfluid 3He B phase can be recognized as the edge states of the topological superfluid and be regarded as a Majorana fermion, a fancy particle which has not been confirmed in elementary particle physics. In this review, we present up-to-date knowledge on the surface Andreev bound states of the 3He B phase revealed by acoustic spectroscopy and the possible realization of a Majorana fermion, along with related studies on this topic.

  12. Fabrication of 3-nm-thick Si3N4 membranes for solid-state nanopores using the poly-Si sacrificial layer process

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Itaru; Ishida, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Koji; Takeda, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of solid-state nanopores, thinning the membrane is a very important issue. The most commonly used membrane material for solid-state nanopores is silicon nitride (Si3N4). However, until now, stable wafer-scale fabrication of Si3N4 membranes with a thickness of less than 5 nm has not been reported, although a further reduction in thickness is desired to improve spatial resolution. In the present study, to fabricate thinner Si3N4 membranes with a thickness of less than 5 nm in a wafer, a new fabrication process that employs a polycrystalline-Si (poly-Si) sacrificial layer was developed. This process enables the stable fabrication of Si3N4 membranes with thicknesses of 3 nm. Nanopores were fabricated in the membrane using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) beam. Based on the relationship between the ionic current through the nanopores and their diameter, the effective thickness of the nanopores was estimated to range from 0.6 to 2.2 nm. Moreover, DNA translocation through the nanopores was observed. PMID:26424588

  13. Antiviral susceptibility of variant influenza A(H3N2)v viruses isolated in the United States from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, K; Mishin, V P; Guo, Z; Garten, R J; Balish, A; Fry, A M; Villanueva, J; Stevens, J; Gubareva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011, outbreaks caused by influenza A(H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses have become a public health concern in the United States. The A(H3N2)v viruses share the A(H1N1)pdm09 M gene containing the marker of M2 blocker resistance, S31N, but do not contain any known molecular markers associated with resistance to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Using a fluorescent NA inhibition (NI) assay, the susceptibilities of recovered A(H3N2)v viruses (n=168) to FDA-approved (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and other (peramivir, laninamivir, and A-315675) NAIs were assessed. All A(H3N2)v viruses tested, with the exception of a single virus strain, A/Ohio/88/2012, isolated from an untreated patient, were susceptible to the NAIs tested. The A/Ohio/88/2012 virus contained two rare substitutions, S245N and S247P, in the NA and demonstrated reduced inhibition by oseltamivir (31-fold) and zanamivir (66-fold) in the NI assay. Using recombinant NA (recNA) proteins, S247P was shown to be responsible for the observed altered NAI susceptibility, in addition to an approximately 60% reduction in NA enzymatic activity. The S247P substitution has not been previously reported as a molecular marker of reduced susceptibility to the NAIs. Using cell culture assays, the investigational antiviral drugs nitazoxanide, favipiravir, and fludase were shown to inhibit the replication of A(H3N2)v viruses, including the virus with the S247P substitution in the NA. This report demonstrates the importance of continuous monitoring of susceptibility of zoonotic influenza viruses to available and investigational antiviral drugs.

  14. Explicit formula for the Holevo bound for two-parameter qubit-state estimation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to derive an explicit expression for the fundamental precision bound, the Holevo bound, for estimating any two-parameter family of qubit mixed-states in terms of quantum versions of Fisher information. The obtained formula depends solely on the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD), the right logarithmic derivative (RLD) Fisher information, and a given weight matrix. This result immediately provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the following two important classes of quantum statistical models; the Holevo bound coincides with the SLD Cramér-Rao bound and it does with the RLD Cramér-Rao bound. One of the important results of this paper is that a general model other than these two special cases exhibits an unexpected property: the structure of the Holevo bound changes smoothly when the weight matrix varies. In particular, it always coincides with the RLD Cramér-Rao bound for a certain choice of the weight matrix. Several examples illustrate these findings.

  15. Bound States of the Spin-Orbit Coupled Ultra-Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jursenas, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Spielman, Ian

    2013-05-01

    Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental research, we consider the Hamiltonian for the one-dimensional atomic center of mass motion with the spin-orbit and Raman coupling included. The Hamiltonian is perturbed by a short-range potential describing the impurity scattering. We concentrate on the bound state problem, though the continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian is of interest as well. We model the potential in terms of the Dirac delta function. By taking into account a correct treatment of the Dirac deltas, we construct the associated self-adjoint operators and show that the number of bound states of the Hamiltonian under consideration is highly dependent on the treatment of the eigenfunctions at a zero point. Additionally, we establish all possible bound states and present their behavior in various regimes of both the spin-orbit and the Raman coupling.

  16. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 10(8) are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications. PMID:26673548

  17. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 108 are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications.

  18. Widths of K¯-nuclear deeply bound states in a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic mean field (RMF) model is applied to a system of nucleons and a Kbar meson, interacting via scalar and vector boson fields. The model incorporates the standard RMF phenomenology for bound nucleons and, for the Kbar meson, it relates to low-energy Kbar N and K- atom phenomenology. Deeply bound Kbar nuclear states are generated dynamically across the periodic table and are exhibited for 12C and 16O over a wide range of binding energies. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus is found for these light nuclei. Absorption modes are also included dynamically, considering explicitly both the resulting compressed nuclear density and the reduced phase space for Kbar absorption from deeply bound states. The behavior of the calculated width as function of the Kbar binding energy is studied in order to explore limits on the possible existence of narrow Kbar nuclear states.

  19. Degeneracy of Majorana bound states and fractional Josephson effect in a dirty SNS junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaya, S.; Asano, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically study the stability of more than one Majorana fermion appearing in a p-wave superconductor/dirty normal metal/p-wave superconductor junction in two-dimensions by using the chiral symmetry of a Hamiltonian. At the phase difference across the junction φ being π, we will show that all of the Majorana bound states in the normal metal belong to the same chirality. Due to this pure chiral feature, the Majorana bound states retain their high degree of degeneracy at zero energy even in the presence of a random potential. As a consequence, the resonant transmission of a Cooper pair via the degenerate Majorana bound states carries the Josephson current at \\varphi =π -{{0}+} , which explains the fractional current-phase relationship discussed in a number of previous papers.

  20. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 108 are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications. PMID:26673548

  1. Bound States of Spinless Particles in a Short-Range Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, Hassan; de Castro, Antonio Soares

    2015-04-01

    With a general mixing of vector and scalar couplings in a two-dimensional world, a short-range potential is used to explore certain features of the bound states of a spinless particle. Bound-state solutions are found in terms of the Gauss hypergeometric series when the potential parameters obey a certain constraint relation limiting the dosage of a vector coupling. The appearance of the Schiff-Snyder-Weinberg effect for a strong vector coupling and a short-range potential as well as its suppression by the addition of a scalar coupling is discussed.

  2. Stationary bound states of massless scalar fields around black holes and black hole analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benone, Carolina L.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen

    2015-06-01

    We discuss stationary bound states, a.k.a. clouds, for a massless test scalar field around Kerr black holes (BHs) and spinning acoustic BH analogues. In view of the absence of a mass term, the trapping is achieved via enclosing the BH — scalar field system in a cavity and imposing Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. We discuss the variation of these bounds states with the discrete parameters that label them, as well as their spatial distribution, complementing results in our previous work [C. L. Benone, L. C. B. Crispino, C. Herdeiro and E. Radu, Phys. Rev. D91 (2015) 104038].

  3. Bound state in the continuum in the one-dimensional photonic crystal slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrieva, Z. F.; Bogdanov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we developed a design of one-dimensional Si/SiO2 photonic crystal slab supporting so called optical bound states in the continuum - infinitely high-Q optical states with energies lying above the light line of the surrounding space. Such high-Q states are very perspective for many potential applications ranging from on-chip photonics and optical communications to biological sensing and photovoltaics.

  4. Bound and Scattering State of Position Dependent Mass Klein-Gordon Equation with Hulthen Plus Deformed-Type Hyperbolic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikot, A. N.; Obong, H. P.; Abbey, T. M.; Zare, S.; Ghafourian, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-05-01

    In this article we use supersymmetry quantum mechanics and factorization methods to study the bound and scattering state of Klein-Gordon equation with deformed Hulthen plus deformed hyperbolical potential for arbitrary state in D-dimensions. The analytic relativistic bound state eigenvalues and the scattering phase factor are found in closed form. We report on the numerical results for the bound state energy in D-dimensions.

  5. Bound and Scattering State of Position Dependent Mass Klein-Gordon Equation with Hulthen Plus Deformed-Type Hyperbolic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikot, A. N.; Obong, H. P.; Abbey, T. M.; Zare, S.; Ghafourian, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this article we use supersymmetry quantum mechanics and factorization methods to study the bound and scattering state of Klein-Gordon equation with deformed Hulthen plus deformed hyperbolical potential for arbitrary state in D-dimensions. The analytic relativistic bound state eigenvalues and the scattering phase factor are found in closed form. We report on the numerical results for the bound state energy in D-dimensions.

  6. Phylogeography of Swine Influenza H3N2 in the United States: Translational Public Health for Zoonotic Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Mei, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    The field of phylogeography has received a lot of attention for its application to molecular evolution and geographic migration of species. More recent work has included infectious diseases especially zoonotic RNA viruses like influenza and rabies. Phylogeography of viruses has the potential to advance surveillance at agencies such as public health departments, agriculture departments, and wildlife agencies. However, little is known about how these agencies could use phylogeography for applied surveillance and the integration of animal and human sequence data. Here, we highlight its potential to support ‘translational public health’ that could bring sequence data to the forefront of surveillance. We focus on swine influenza H3N2 because of the recent link to a variant form in humans. We discuss the implications to applied surveillance and the need for an integrated biomedical informatics approach for adoption at agencies of animal and public health. PMID:23137647

  7. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi E-mail: kpetraki@nikhef.nl

    2014-12-01

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter.

  8. Bound states of two bosons in an optical lattice near an association resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Jerome C.; Odong, Otim; Javanainen, Juha; Mackie, Matt

    2011-03-15

    We model two bosons in an optical lattice near a Feshbach or photoassociation resonance, focusing on the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension. Whereas the usual atoms-only theory with a tunable scattering length yields one bound state for a molecular dimer for either an attractive or repulsive atom-atom interaction, for a sufficiently small direct background interaction between the atoms a two-channel atom-molecule theory may give two bound states that represent attractively and repulsively bound dimers occurring simultaneously. Such unusual molecular physics may be observable for an atom-molecule coupling strength comparable to the width of the dissociation continuum of the lattice dimer, which is the case, for instance, with narrow Feshbach resonances in Na, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs or low-intensity photoassociation in {sup 174}Yb.

  9. Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Guardian, A.; Domínguez-Castro, G. A.; Paredes, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultra- cold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover superfluidity in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama.

  10. Scattering and Bound States of Klein-Gordon Particle with Hylleraas Potential Within Effective Mass Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Ikot, A. N.; Chukwuocha, E. O.; Obong, H. P.; Zare, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Scattering and bound states solution for the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle with Hylleraas potential is presented within the frame work of position dependent effective mass formalism. We calculate in detail the reflection and transmission coefficients using the properties of hypergeometric functions and the equation of continuity of the wave functions.

  11. Scattering and Bound States of Klein-Gordon Particle with Hylleraas Potential Within Effective Mass Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Ikot, A. N.; Chukwuocha, E. O.; Obong, H. P.; Zare, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-09-01

    Scattering and bound states solution for the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle with Hylleraas potential is presented within the frame work of position dependent effective mass formalism. We calculate in detail the reflection and transmission coefficients using the properties of hypergeometric functions and the equation of continuity of the wave functions.

  12. Bound and Scattering State Solutions of Schrodinger Equation for Asymmetric Woods Saxon Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candemir, N.

    2012-06-01

    The one-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation is solved for asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential. The reflection and transmission coefficients and bound state solutions are obtained in terms of hypergeometric functions. Some useful figures are plotted to show the accuracy of the obtained results.

  13. Pressure-induced loss of electronic interlayer state and metallization in the ionic solid Li[subscript 3]N: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lazicki, A.; Yoo, C.W.; Evans, W.J.; Hu, M.Y.; Chow, P.; Pickett, W.E.

    2008-12-08

    Results of x-ray diffraction and nitrogen K-edge x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) investigations of the crystal and electronic structure of ionic compound Li{sub 3}N across two high-pressure phase transitions [A. Lazicki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 165503 (2005)] are interpreted using density-functional theory. A low-energy peak in the XRS spectrum which is observed in both low-pressure hexagonal phases of Li3N and absent in the high-pressure cubic phase is found to originate from an interlayer band similar to the important free-electron-like state present in the graphite and graphite intercalated systems, but not observed previously in ionic insulators. XRS detection of the interlayer state is made possible because of its strong hybridization with the nitrogen p bands. A pressure-induced increase in the band gap of the high-pressure cubic phase of Li{sub 3}N is explained by the differing pressure dependencies of different quantum-number bands and is shown to be a feature of several low-Z closed-shell ionic materials.

  14. Skyrmion-induced bound states on the surface of 3D Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrikopoulos, Dimitrios; Soree, Bart

    In this work, we study the interaction between the surface state of a 3D Topological Insulator and a skyrmion magnetic texture. The skyrmion texture couples to the spin of the surface state electron with strength ΔS. Vortex and hedgehog skyrmion and anti-skyrmion structures are considered and their interaction is compared. Due to the vortex structure, the interaction of the in-plane components can be neglected and a step function is used to describe the skyrmion magnetization profile. In the hedgehog case, it is shown that the in-plane components cannot be disregarded and thus a realistic description for the skyrmion is required. Working in the micromagnetic framework, we derive a macrospin description for the skyrmion using the variational principle and then numerically solve for the bound states. It is shown that the existense and properties of these states as a function of skyrmion size, strongly depend on the skyrmion type. Both vortex and hedgehog skyrmions or anti-skyrmions can induce bound states with energies | E | < ΔS . For the hedgehog skyrmion case however, bound state appearance depends on the chirality. Finally, the probability densities in these states are computed and it is demonstrated that the electrons are localized throughout the skyrmion region. Also affiliated with imec, Belgium.

  15. Quasiparticle parity lifetime of bound states in a hybrid superconductor-semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Albrecht, Sven; Kirsanskas, Gediminas; Chang, Willy; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Jespersen, Thomas; Nygård, Jesper; Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles

    2015-03-01

    We measure quasiparticle transport in an InAs nanowire that is half-covered with epitaxial superconducting aluminum, then locally gated to form a quantum dot. We observe negative differential conductance at finite source-drain bias, and temperature dependent even-odd alternations in the Coulomb blockade peak spacings at zero bias. These observations can be understood in terms of a mid-gap semiconductor discrete state and a continuum of BCS quasiparticle states. Comparing with simple models, we bound the discrete state's parity lifetime and the quasiparticle temperature. These results indicate that parity fluctuations are slow, and imply Majorana qubit poisoning times on the order of a millisecond. Additional results indicate that the bound states move to zero energy in a magnetic field, qualitatively consistent with expectations for Majorana fermions in a finite system. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation, and the European Commission.

  16. The bound state solution for the Morse potential with a localized mass profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraboutalebi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate an analytical solution for the Schrödinger equation with a position-dependent mass distribution, with the Morse potential via Laplace transformations. We considered a mass function localized around the equilibrium position. The mass distribution depends on the energy spectrum of the state and the intrinsic parameters of the Morse potential. An exact bound state solution is obtained in the presence of this mass distribution.

  17. Bounds on probability of state transfer with respect to readout time and edge weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Whitney; Kirkland, Steve; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of a spin chain modeled by an undirected weighted connected graph exhibiting perfect state transfer to small perturbations in readout time and edge weight in order to obtain physically relevant bounds on the probability of state transfer. At the heart of our analysis is the concept of the numerical range of a matrix; our analysis of edge weight errors additionally makes use of the spectral and Frobenius norms.

  18. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  19. Lower bounds to energies for cusped-gaussian wavefunctions. [hydrogen atom ground state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, J. O.; Walsh, B. C.; Steiner, E.

    1974-01-01

    Calculations for the ground states of H, He, and Be, conducted by Steiner and Sykes (1972), show that the inclusion of a very small number of cusp functions can lead to a substantial enhancement of the quality of the Gaussian basis used in molecular wavefunction computations. The properties of the cusped-Gaussian basis are investigated by a calculation of lower bounds concerning the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.

  20. L-Enantiomers of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors Bound to Human Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Murkin, A.; Ramagopal, U.; Clinch, K.; Mee, S.; Evans, G.; Tyler, P.; Furneaux, R.; Almo, S.; Schramm, v.

    2008-01-01

    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) was crystallized with transition-state analogue inhibitors Immucillin-H and DADMe-Immucillin-H synthesized with ribosyl mimics of l-stereochemistry. The inhibitors demonstrate that major driving forces for tight binding of these analogues are the leaving group interaction and the cationic mimicry of the transition state, even though large geometric changes occur with d-Immucillins and l-Immucillins bound to human PNP.

  1. Tight bound on coherent-state-based entanglement generation over lossy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2010-02-15

    The first stage of the hybrid quantum repeaters is entanglement generation based on transmission of pulses in coherent states over a lossy channel. Protocols to make entanglement with only one type of error are favorable for rendering subsequent entanglement distillation efficient. Here we provide the tight upper bound on performances of these protocols that is determined only by the channel loss. In addition, we show that this bound is achievable by utilizing a proposed protocol [K. Azuma, N. Sota, R. Namiki, S. K. Oezdemir, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. A 80, 060303(R) (2009)] composed of a simple combination of linear optical elements and photon-number-resolving detectors.

  2. Open XXZ spin chain: nonequilibrium steady state and a strict bound on ballistic transport.

    PubMed

    Prosen, Tomaž

    2011-05-27

    An explicit matrix product ansatz is presented, in the first two orders in the (weak) coupling parameter, for the nonequilibrium steady state of the homogeneous, nearest neighbor Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain driven by Lindblad operators which act only at the edges of the chain. The first order of the density operator becomes, in the thermodynamic limit, an exact pseudolocal conservation law and yields-via the Mazur inequality-a rigorous lower bound on the high-temperature spin Drude weight. Such a Mazur bound is a nonvanishing fractal function of the anisotropy parameter Δ for |Δ|<1. PMID:21699339

  3. Revised magnitude-bound relation for the Wabash Valley seismic zone of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic hazard assessment in the central United States, and in particular the Wabash Valley seismic zone of Indiana-Illinois, frequently relies on empirical estimates of paleoearthquake magnitudes (M). In large part these estimates have been made using the magnitude-bound method. Existing region-specific magnitude-bound relations rely heavily on only a few historical earthquakes in the central United States and eastern Canada that induced reported liquefaction features. Recent seismological studies have suggested smaller magnitudes than previously presumed for some of these earthquakes, however, and other studies have reinterpreted site-to-source distances to liquefaction features associated with some of these earthquakes. In this paper, we re-examine historical earthquakes (M > ???5) that occurred in the central and eastern United States and eastern Canada; some of these earthquakes triggered liquefaction and others did not. Based on our findings, we reinterpret the region-specific magnitude-bound relation for the Wabash Valley. Using this revised magnitude-bound relation, we present magnitude estimates for four prehistoric earthquakes that occurred in the Wabash Valley seismic zone during Holocene time.

  4. Molecular Andreev bound states and Majorana modes in a double dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernek, Edson; Silva, Joelson F.

    Nanostructured systems such as quantum dots (QD) connected to superconductors has attracted a lot of attention in the recent years. One of the well known phenomena in such a system is the formation of a pair of bound called Andreev bound states (ABS). Recently, it have been shown that when a QD is coupled to a topological superconductor wire, a Majorana bound state (MBS) leaks from the end of the wire into the dot. The character of these bound states is much reacher in structures like molecules and is far from being completely understood. In this work we study a system composed by a two inter-connected QDs in which one of then is coupled to a normal superconductor and to a normal lead while the other is coupled to a topological superconductor and to a distinct normal metallic lead. We show that in the atomic limit (for small interdot coupling), one of the dot has a pair of ABS whereas the other has a single a MBS. More interestingly, in the molecular regime (large inter-dot coupling) we observe a localized Majorana mode coexisting with a delocalized molecular ABS. We would like to thank financial support from the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES and FAPEMIG.

  5. Evaluation of two different entanglement measures on a bound entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Branciard, Cyril; Zhu Huangjun; Chen Lin; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-07-15

    We consider the mixed three-qubit bound entangled state defined as the normalized projector on the subspace that is complementary to an unextendible product basis [C. H. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)]. Using the fact that no product state lies in the support of that state, we compute its entanglement by providing a basis of its subspace formed by ''minimally entangled'' states. The approach is in principle applicable to any entanglement measure; here we provide explicit values for both the geometric measure of entanglement and a generalized concurrence.

  6. Bound exciton and free exciton states in GaSe thin slab

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chengrong; Chen, Xi; Li, Dian; Su, Huimin; He, Hongtao; Dai, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and absorption experiments have been performed in GaSe slab with incident light polarized perpendicular to c-axis of sample at 10 K. An obvious energy difference of about 34 meV between exciton absorption peak and PL peak (the highest energy peak) is observed. By studying the temperature dependence of PL and absorption spectra, we attribute it to energy difference between free exciton and bound exciton states, where main exciton absorption peak comes from free exciton absorption, and PL peak is attributed to recombination of bound exciton at 10 K. This strong bound exciton effect is stable up to 50 K. Moreover, the temperature dependence of integrated PL intensity and PL lifetime reveals that a non-radiative process, with activation energy extracted as 0.5 meV, dominates PL emission. PMID:27654064

  7. Observation of the Stark effect in υ+ = 0 Rydberg states of NO: a comparison between predissociating and bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. J. A.; Minns, R. S.; Patel, R.; Fielding, H. H.

    2008-09-01

    The Stark spectra of Rydberg states of NO below the υ+ = 0 ionization limit, with principal quantum numbers n = 25-30, have been investigated in the presence of dc electric fields in the range 0-150 V cm-1. The Stark states were accessed by two-colour, double-resonance excitation via the υ' = 0, N' = 0 rovibrational state of the A2Σ+ state. The N(2D) atoms produced by predissociation were measured by (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, and compared with pulsed-field ionization spectra of the bound Rydberg state population (Patel et al 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1369).

  8. Effect of bound-state dressing in laser-assisted radiative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Robert A.; Seipt, Daniel; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical study on the recombination of a free electron into the ground state of a hydrogenlike ion in the presence of an external laser field. Emphasis is placed on the effects caused by the laser dressing of the residual ionic bound state. To investigate how this dressing affects the total and angle-differential cross section of laser-assisted radiative recombination (LARR) we apply first-order perturbation theory and the separable Coulomb-Volkov continuum ansatz. Using this approach, detailed calculations are performed for low-Z hydrogenlike ions and laser intensities in the range from IL=1012 to 1013W/cm2 . It is seen that the total cross section as a function of the laser intensity is remarkably affected by the bound-state dressing. Moreover, the laser dressing becomes manifest as asymmetries in the angular distribution and the (energy) spectrum of the emitted recombination photons.

  9. Bound States of (Anti-)Scalar-Quarks in SU(3)c Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, H.; Takahashi, T. T.; Suganuma, H.

    2007-06-13

    Light scalar-quarks {phi} (colored scalar particles or idealized diquarks) and their color-singlet hadronic states are studied with quenched SU(3)c lattice QCD in terms of mass generation. We investigate 'scalar-quark mesons' {phi}{dagger}{phi} and 'scalar-quark baryons' {phi}{phi}{phi} as the bound states of scalar-quarks {phi}. We also investigate the bound states of scalar-quarks {phi} and quarks {psi}, i.e., {phi}{dagger}{psi}, {psi}{psi}{phi} and {phi}{phi}{psi}, which we name 'chimera hadrons'. All the new-type hadrons including {phi} are found to have a large mass due to large quantum corrections by gluons, even for zero bare scalar-quark mass m{phi} = 0 at a-1 {approx} 1GeV. We conjecture that all colored particles generally acquire a large effective mass due to dressed gluon effects.

  10. Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, A. R.; Cassidy, D. B.; Deller, A.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2016-05-01

    Predicted 20 years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for charge transfer in Ps collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.

  11. Scattering and bound states of spinless particles in a mixed vector-scalar smooth step potential

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.G.; Castro, A.S. de

    2009-11-15

    Scattering and bound states for a spinless particle in the background of a kink-like smooth step potential, added with a scalar uniform background, are considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures. The problem is mapped into the Schroedinger-like equation with an effective Rosen-Morse potential. It is shown that the scalar uniform background present subtle and trick effects for the scattering states and reveals itself a high-handed element for formation of bound states. In that process, it is shown that the problem of solving a differential equation for the eigenenergies is transmuted into the simpler and more efficient problem of solving an irrational algebraic equation.

  12. Majorana bound states from exceptional points in non-topological superconductors.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Pablo; Cayao, Jorge; Prada, Elsa; Aguado, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental efforts towards the detection of Majorana bound states have focused on creating the conditions for topological superconductivity. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, which achieves fully localised zero-energy Majorana bound states when a topologically trivial superconductor is strongly coupled to a helical normal region. Such a junction can be experimentally realised by e.g. proximitizing a finite section of a nanowire with spin-orbit coupling, and combining electrostatic depletion and a Zeeman field to drive the non-proximitized (normal) portion into a helical phase. Majorana zero modes emerge in such an open system without fine-tuning as a result of charge-conjugation symmetry, and can be ultimately linked to the existence of 'exceptional points' (EPs) in parameter space, where two quasibound Andreev levels bifurcate into two quasibound Majorana zero modes. After the EP, one of the latter becomes non-decaying as the junction approaches perfect Andreev reflection, thus resulting in a Majorana dark state (MDS) localised at the NS junction. We show that MDSs exhibit the full range of properties associated to conventional closed-system Majorana bound states (zero-energy, self-conjugation, 4π-Josephson effect and non-Abelian braiding statistics), while not requiring topological superconductivity. PMID:26865011

  13. Impurity-Induced Bound States in Superconductors with Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghyun; Zhang, Junhua; Rossi, E; Lutchyn, Roman M

    2015-06-12

    We study the effect of strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on bound states induced by impurities in superconductors. The presence of SOC breaks the SU(2)-spin symmetry and causes the superconducting order parameter to have generically both singlet (s-wave) and triplet (p-wave) components. We find that in the presence of SOC the spectrum of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states is qualitatively different in s-wave and p-wave superconductors, a fact that can be used to identify the superconducting pairing symmetry of the host system. We also predict that, in the presence of SOC, the spectrum of the impurity-induced bound states depends on the orientation of the magnetic moment S of the impurity and, in particular, that by changing the orientation of S, the fermion-parity of the lowest energy bound state can be tuned. We then study the case of a dimer of magnetic impurities and show that, in this case, the YSR spectrum for a p-wave superconductor is qualitatively very different from the one for an s-wave superconductor even in the limit of vanishing SOC. PMID:26196821

  14. Majorana bound states from exceptional points in non-topological superconductors

    PubMed Central

    San-Jose, Pablo; Cayao, Jorge; Prada, Elsa; Aguado, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental efforts towards the detection of Majorana bound states have focused on creating the conditions for topological superconductivity. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, which achieves fully localised zero-energy Majorana bound states when a topologically trivial superconductor is strongly coupled to a helical normal region. Such a junction can be experimentally realised by e.g. proximitizing a finite section of a nanowire with spin-orbit coupling, and combining electrostatic depletion and a Zeeman field to drive the non-proximitized (normal) portion into a helical phase. Majorana zero modes emerge in such an open system without fine-tuning as a result of charge-conjugation symmetry, and can be ultimately linked to the existence of ‘exceptional points’ (EPs) in parameter space, where two quasibound Andreev levels bifurcate into two quasibound Majorana zero modes. After the EP, one of the latter becomes non-decaying as the junction approaches perfect Andreev reflection, thus resulting in a Majorana dark state (MDS) localised at the NS junction. We show that MDSs exhibit the full range of properties associated to conventional closed-system Majorana bound states (zero-energy, self-conjugation, 4π-Josephson effect and non-Abelian braiding statistics), while not requiring topological superconductivity. PMID:26865011

  15. Majorana bound states from exceptional points in non-topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Jose, Pablo; Cayao, Jorge; Prada, Elsa; Aguado, Ramón

    2016-02-01

    Recent experimental efforts towards the detection of Majorana bound states have focused on creating the conditions for topological superconductivity. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, which achieves fully localised zero-energy Majorana bound states when a topologically trivial superconductor is strongly coupled to a helical normal region. Such a junction can be experimentally realised by e.g. proximitizing a finite section of a nanowire with spin-orbit coupling, and combining electrostatic depletion and a Zeeman field to drive the non-proximitized (normal) portion into a helical phase. Majorana zero modes emerge in such an open system without fine-tuning as a result of charge-conjugation symmetry, and can be ultimately linked to the existence of ‘exceptional points’ (EPs) in parameter space, where two quasibound Andreev levels bifurcate into two quasibound Majorana zero modes. After the EP, one of the latter becomes non-decaying as the junction approaches perfect Andreev reflection, thus resulting in a Majorana dark state (MDS) localised at the NS junction. We show that MDSs exhibit the full range of properties associated to conventional closed-system Majorana bound states (zero-energy, self-conjugation, 4π-Josephson effect and non-Abelian braiding statistics), while not requiring topological superconductivity.

  16. Fano resonances in photonic crystal slabs near optical bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Sauvan, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Photonic crystal slabs are able to support optical bound states in the continuum. The latter are eigenmodes of the structure that are truly guided (no radiation leakage) despite the fact that they lie above the light cone within the continuum of radiation modes. Such peculiar states can be viewed as modes with an infinite quality factor Q . Therefore, the question of the behavior of Fano resonances, as optogeometrical parameters are tuned close to optical bound states in the continuum, is of importance for applications of photonic crystal slabs with ultrahigh Q factors. We study theoretically the reflection and transmission of a photonic crystal slab close to an optical bound state in the continuum with a phenomenological approach involving the poles and zeros of the scattering matrix. In particular, we derive a general relation valid for asymmetric structures that gives the position of a pole in the complex plane as a function of the positions of the zeros. We provide closed-form expressions for the reflection and transmission. The proposed phenomenological approach is validated through rigorous numerical calculations.

  17. Bound states for multiple Dirac-δ wells in space-fractional quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Tare, Jeffrey D. Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2014-01-15

    Using the momentum-space approach, we obtain bound states for multiple Dirac-δ wells in the framework of space-fractional quantum mechanics. Introducing first an attractive Dirac-comb potential, i.e., Dirac comb with strength −g (g > 0), in the space-fractional Schrödinger equation we show that the problem of obtaining eigenenergies of a system with N Dirac-δ wells can be reduced to a problem of obtaining the eigenvalues of an N × N matrix. As an illustration we use the present matrix formulation to derive expressions satisfied by the bound-state energies of N = 1, 2, 3 delta wells. We also obtain the corresponding wave functions and express them in terms of Fox's H-function.

  18. Realization of negative mass regime and bound state of solitons in inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyam; Khan, Ayan; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-05-01

    We study the dispersion mechanism (Lieb-mode excitation) of both single and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, subject to an external trap in a mean-field approach, where the second quantized Lieb-mode is realized as grey soliton. Through the coupling between the centre of mass motion (Kohn mode) and the soliton's momenta arising from the kinematic chirp, induced by time modulated trap, we realize the exotic negative mass regime of the solitonic excitation. We show that the expulsive parabolic trap significantly modifies the energy-momentum dispersion in the low momenta regime, where these modes can be clearly identified, opening up the possibility to observe the Lieb-mode excitation. In case of two-component, we demonstrate the controlled formation of a bound state, in presence of an expulsive harmonic trap, through the shape compatibility of grey and bright solitons. Possible application of such a bound state to information storage and retrieval is pointed out.

  19. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides.

  20. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  1. 3He and 3H bound state for the Reid soft-core potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Sawada, T.

    1981-02-01

    The perturbational approach that has been used for the calculation of the triton bound state is applied to 3He. The Coulomb potential is fully taken into account within the limitation of the Reid soft-core-3 potential. We obtain 5.775 MeV as the binding energy of 3He. The Coulomb energy difference with 3H is 0.625 MeV. The Coulomb effects to the charge form factor and the two-body correlation function are calculated. Qualitative discussions are given for the complex behavior of the Faddeev components expressed in terms of the spectator momentum and the relative distance of the interacting pair. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 3He and 3H bound state. Exact solution of the Faddeev equation by a perturbative approach. Binding energy of 3He: 5.775 MeV. Coulomb energy difference with triton: 0.625 MeV. Coulomb effects to charge form factor and correlation function.

  2. The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard

    2015-05-01

    We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations.

  3. Bound-state field-theory approach to proton-structure effects in muonic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Griffith, J.; Sapirstein, J.

    2013-05-01

    A bound-state field-theory approach to muonic hydrogen is set up using a variant of the Furry representation in which the lowest-order Hamiltonian describes a muon in the presence of a point Coulomb field, but the origin of the binding field is taken to be three charged quarks in the proton, which are modeled as Dirac particles that move freely within a spherical well. Bound-state field-theory techniques are used to evaluate one- and two-photon effects. Particular attention is paid to two-photon-exchange diagrams, which include the effect of proton polarizability. In addition, the modification of the electromagnetic self energy of the proton by the electric field of the muon is examined. Finally, the model is used to carry out a calculation of the static electric polarizability of the proton.

  4. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  5. Strength, elasticity, and equation of state of the nanocrystalline cubic silicon nitride {gamma}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to 68 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Boris; Shieh, Sean R.; Duffy, Thomas S.; Sekine, Toshimori

    2005-07-01

    Lattice strains in nanocrystalline cubic silicon nitride were measured using an energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction technique under nonhydrostatic stress conditions up to a confining pressure of 68 GPa. The high-pressure elastic properties of {gamma}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were also investigated theoretically using density-functional theory. The differential stress t between 30 and 68 GPa increases from 7 to 23 GPa and can be described beyond 40 GPa as t=7(4)+0.24(7)P where P is the pressure in GPa. The differential stress supported by {gamma}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} increases with pressure from 3.5% of the shear modulus at 21 GPa to 7.6% at 68 GPa. {gamma}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is one of the strongest materials yet studied under extreme compression conditions. The elastic anisotropy of {gamma}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is large and only weakly pressure dependent. The elastic anisotropy increases from A=1.4 to A=1.9 as the parameter {alpha} that characterizes stress-strain continuity across grain boundaries is decreased from 1 to 0.5. The high elastic anisotropy compares well with our first-principles calculations that lead to A=1.92-1.93 at ambient pressure and A=1.94-1.95 at 70 GPa. Using molybdenum as an internal pressure standard, the equation of state depends strongly on {psi}, the direction between the diamond cell axis and the normal of the scattering plane. The bulk modulus increases from 224(3) GPa to 460(13) GPa as {psi} varies from 0 deg. to 90 deg. This large variation highlights the need to account properly for deviatoric stresses in nonhydrostatic x-ray diffraction experiments carried out at angles other than the particular angle of {psi}=54.7 deg., where deviatoric stress effects on the lattice vanish. At this angle we find a bulk modulus of 339(7) GPa (K{sub 0}{sup '}=4, fixed). This result is in general agreement with our local density approximation calculations, K{sub 0}=321 GPa, K{sub 0}{sup '}=4.0, and previous shockwave and x-ray diffraction studies. However, our

  6. Differential dynamics of RAS isoforms in GDP- and GTP-bound states.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2015-06-01

    RAS subfamily proteins regulates cell growth promoting signaling processes by cycling between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) states. Different RAS isoforms, though structurally similar, exhibit functional specificity and are associated with different types of cancers and developmental disorders. Understanding the dynamical differences between the isoforms is crucial for the design of inhibitors that can selectively target a particular malfunctioning isoform. In this study, we provide a comprehensive comparison of the dynamics of all the three RAS isoforms (HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS) using extensive molecular dynamics simulations in both the GDP- (total of 3.06 μs) and GTP-bound (total of 2.4 μs) states. We observed significant differences in the dynamics of the isoforms, which rather interestingly, varied depending on the type of the nucleotide bound and the simulation temperature. Both SwitchI (Residues 25-40) and SwitchII (Residues 59-75) differ significantly in their flexibility in the three isoforms. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis showed that there are differences in the conformational space sampled by the GTP-bound RAS isoforms. We also identified a previously unreported pocket, which opens transiently during MD simulations, and can be targeted to regulate nucleotide exchange reaction or possibly interfere with membrane localization. Further, we present the first simulation study showing GDP destabilization in the wild-type RAS protein. The destabilization of GDP/GTP occurred only in 1/50 simulations, emphasizing the need of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to accelerate such an extremely unfavorable process. This observation along with the other results presented in this article further support our previously hypothesized mechanism of GEF-assisted nucleotide exchange.

  7. Coulomb bound states and resonances due to groups of Ca dimers adsorbed on suspended graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Kirczenow, George

    2014-10-01

    The electronic bound states and resonances in the vicinity of the Dirac point energy due to the adsorption of calcium dimers on a suspended graphene monolayer are explored theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) and an improved extended Hückel model that includes electrostatic potentials. The Mulliken atomic charges and the electrostatic potentials are obtained from DFT calculations and reveal charge transfer from the Ca dimers to the graphene which is responsible for the emergence of resonant states in the electronic spectrum. The number of resonant states increases as the number of adsorbed dimers is increased. We find a bound "atomic-collapse" state in the graphene local density of states, as has been observed experimentally [Wang et al., Science 340, 734 (2013), 10.1126/science.1234320]. We find the formation of the atomic-collapse state and its population with electrons to require fewer adsorbed Ca dimers than in the experiment, possibly due to the different spacing between dimers and the dielectric screening by a boron nitride substrate in the experiment. We also predict the onset of filling of a second atomic-collapse state with electrons when six Ca dimers are adsorbed on the suspended graphene monolayer. Experiments testing these predictions would be of interest.

  8. The lower bound to the concurrence for four-qubit W state under noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria

    2015-02-01

    We study the dynamics of four-qubit W state under various noisy environments by solving analytically the master equation in the Lindblad form in which the Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoherence of states. Also, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement using the lower bound to the concurrence. It is found that while the entanglement decreases monotonically for Pauli-Z noise, it decays suddenly for other three noises. Moreover, by studying the time evolution of entanglement of various maximally entangled four-qubit states, we indicate that the four-qubit W state is more robust under same-axis Pauli channels. Furthermore, three-qubit W state preserves more entanglement with respect to the four-qubit W state, except for the Pauli-Z noise.

  9. Comparative study of the bound states of static screened Coulomb and cut-off Coulomb potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David; Varshni, Y. P.

    1984-05-01

    Accurate eigenvalues (eight to six significant figures) and critical screening parameters are calculated for a two-particle system interacting through (a) a static screened Coulomb potential (SSCP), and (b) a cut-off Coulomb potential (COCP). A comparison of the results shows that as far as bound states are concerned it is not possible to simulate a SSCP by a COCP by a suitable scaling of the screening length.

  10. Electroproduction of strangeness on (Lambda)H-3,4 bound states on helium

    SciTech Connect

    F. Dohrmann; D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; C. S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; S. Beedoe; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D. S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; G. Collins; C. Cothran; J. Crowder; W. J. Cummings; S. Danagoulian; F. Duncan; J. Dunne; D. Dutta; T. Eden; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; L. Ewell; H. Fenker; H. T. Fortune; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; J. O. Hansen; W. Hinton; H. E. Jackson; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; Y. Liang; J. H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; R. Madey; P. Markowitz; C. J. Martoff; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohring; S. K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; T. G. O'Neill; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; J. W. Price; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. Roos; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; G. Savage; R. Sawafta; R. E. Segel; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; S. Tajima; L. Tang; B. Terburg; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; C. Yan; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; B. Zeidman; B. Zihlmann

    2005-05-01

    The A(e,eK+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q{sup 2} approx. 0.35 GeV{sup 2} at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for Lambda-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  11. Electroproduction of strangeness on {sub {lambda}}{sup 3,4}H bound states on Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, F.; Abbott, D.; Carlini, R.; Dunne, J.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Garrow, K.; Lung, A.; Mack, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Martoff, C.J.; Armstrong, C.S.; Arrington, J.; Bailey, K.; Cummings, W.J.

    2005-05-06

    The A(e,e'K+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q2 {approx_equal} 0.35 GeV2 at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for {lambda}-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  12. Conformation-Selective Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy via Dipole-Bound States of Cold Anions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Tao; Ning, Chuan-Gang; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-06-18

    Molecular conformation is important in chemistry and biochemistry. Conformers connected by low energy barriers can only be observed at low temperatures and are difficult to be separated. Here we report a new method to obtain conformation-selective spectroscopic information about dipolar molecular radicals via dipole-bound excited states of the corresponding anions cooled in a cryogenic ion trap. We observed two conformers of cold 3-hydroxyphenoxide anions [m-HO(C6H4)O(-)] in high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and measured different electron affinities, 18,850(8) and 18,917(5) cm(-1), for the syn and anti 3-hydroxyphenoxy radicals, respectively. We also observed dipole-bound excited states for m-HO(C6H4)O(-) with different binding energies for the two conformers due to the different dipole moments of the corresponding 3-hydroxyphenoxy radicals. Excitations to selected vibrational levels of the dipole-bound states result in conformation-selective photoelectron spectra. This method should be applicable to conformation-selective spectroscopic studies of any anions with dipolar neutral cores.

  13. Direct approach to bound-state solutions of the Yukawa potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. J.; Morales, J.; García-Martínez, J.; García-Ravelo, J.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a straightforward approach to finding bound-state solutions of the Yukawa potential is presented. The proposal essentially converts the Schrödinger equation into a hypergeometric differential equation by means of a coordinate transformation together with a function transformation with the aim of finding the bound-state solutions of the multiparameter exponential-type potentials. The usefulness of the proposal is shown with the study of the bound-state solutions of the Yukawa potential in the frame of the Green and Aldrich approximation to the centrifugal term. Besides that the proposal is by far simpler than procedures developed with the same purpose, our algorithm accepts other kind of approximations to the 1/r2 term as well as the treatment of other specific exponential potentials, which can be obtained using a proper selection of the involved parameters. That is, instead of studying a given exponential-type potential with a specialised method, the energy spectra and wavefunctions are directly obtained as a particular case from the proposal.

  14. Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ning; Li, Yuxian; Lv, Shuhui

    2014-02-28

    We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e{sup 2}/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated.

  15. Finite state projection based bounds to compare chemical master equation models using single-cell data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Zachary; Neuert, Gregor; Munsky, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Emerging techniques now allow for precise quantification of distributions of biological molecules in single cells. These rapidly advancing experimental methods have created a need for more rigorous and efficient modeling tools. Here, we derive new bounds on the likelihood that observations of single-cell, single-molecule responses come from a discrete stochastic model, posed in the form of the chemical master equation. These strict upper and lower bounds are based on a finite state projection approach, and they converge monotonically to the exact likelihood value. These bounds allow one to discriminate rigorously between models and with a minimum level of computational effort. In practice, these bounds can be incorporated into stochastic model identification and parameter inference routines, which improve the accuracy and efficiency of endeavors to analyze and predict single-cell behavior. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated data for three example models as well as for experimental measurements of a time-varying stochastic transcriptional response in yeast.

  16. Finite state projection based bounds to compare chemical master equation models using single-cell data.

    PubMed

    Fox, Zachary; Neuert, Gregor; Munsky, Brian

    2016-08-21

    Emerging techniques now allow for precise quantification of distributions of biological molecules in single cells. These rapidly advancing experimental methods have created a need for more rigorous and efficient modeling tools. Here, we derive new bounds on the likelihood that observations of single-cell, single-molecule responses come from a discrete stochastic model, posed in the form of the chemical master equation. These strict upper and lower bounds are based on a finite state projection approach, and they converge monotonically to the exact likelihood value. These bounds allow one to discriminate rigorously between models and with a minimum level of computational effort. In practice, these bounds can be incorporated into stochastic model identification and parameter inference routines, which improve the accuracy and efficiency of endeavors to analyze and predict single-cell behavior. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated data for three example models as well as for experimental measurements of a time-varying stochastic transcriptional response in yeast.

  17. Finite state projection based bounds to compare chemical master equation models using single-cell data.

    PubMed

    Fox, Zachary; Neuert, Gregor; Munsky, Brian

    2016-08-21

    Emerging techniques now allow for precise quantification of distributions of biological molecules in single cells. These rapidly advancing experimental methods have created a need for more rigorous and efficient modeling tools. Here, we derive new bounds on the likelihood that observations of single-cell, single-molecule responses come from a discrete stochastic model, posed in the form of the chemical master equation. These strict upper and lower bounds are based on a finite state projection approach, and they converge monotonically to the exact likelihood value. These bounds allow one to discriminate rigorously between models and with a minimum level of computational effort. In practice, these bounds can be incorporated into stochastic model identification and parameter inference routines, which improve the accuracy and efficiency of endeavors to analyze and predict single-cell behavior. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using simulated data for three example models as well as for experimental measurements of a time-varying stochastic transcriptional response in yeast. PMID:27544081

  18. Association constants of dibenzo[3n + 2]crown-n ethers using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Hülya; Erk, Cakıl

    2005-02-15

    The steady-state fluorescence spectra of cation complexes of fluorophore macrocyclic ethers have been studied for the estimation of 1:1 association constants, and perchlorate salts of Li(+), Na(+), K(+) Rb(+) and Pb(2+) complexing with dibenzo[23]crown-9, dibenzo[26]crown-10, and sym-dibenzo[26]crown-10, were investigated. The fluorescence emission maximum of the free and the various ligand/cation mixtures of complexed crown ethers were measured at room temperature in AN. The concentrations of chromophore crown ether were obtained from nonlinear calibration plots. The 1:1 stoichiometry of association constants (K(ass)) were calculated using the equation, 1/K(ass) [L(o)] = (1 -nP)(n)(1 -m)(m)/P with linear best fit of plots depending on 1/[L(o)] where P = P(C)/[1 + (m - 1)P(C)] and P(C) is the mole fraction of n/m ratio of the complexed ligand. The association constants of cations, K(ass), displayed the cation selectivities depending on the cation radii and the macrocyclic ether size, and Pb(+) was found to give the strongest association with such crown ethers.

  19. Excited Hadrons and the Analytical Structure of Bound-State Interaction Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bennich, Bruno; Krein, Gastão; Rojas, Eduardo; Serna, Fernando E.

    2016-10-01

    We highlight Hermiticity issues in bound-state equations whose kernels are subject to a highly asymmetric mass and momentum distribution and whose eigenvalue spectrum becomes complex for radially excited states. We trace back the presence of imaginary parts in the eigenvalues and wave functions to truncation artifacts and suggest how they can be eliminated in the case of charmed mesons. The solutions of the gap equation in the complex plane, which play a crucial role in the analytic structure of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel, are discussed for several interaction models and qualitatively and quantitatively compared to analytic continuations by means of complex-conjugate pole models fitted to real solutions.

  20. Universal Bound States of Two Particles in Mixed Dimensions or Near a Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shina

    2012-07-01

    Some novel two-body effects analogous to the well-known three-body Efimov effect are predicted. In the systems considered, particle A is constrained on a truncated or bent one-dimensional line or two-dimensional plane, or on one side of a flat mirror in three dimensions (3D). The constraining potential is fine-tuned such that particle A’s ground state wave function is a constant in the region in which it is constrained. Particle B moves in 3D and interacts with particle A, resonantly. An infinite sequence of giant two-body bound states are found in each case.

  1. Bound states induced giant oscillations of the conductance in the quantum Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Kadigrobov, A M; Fistul, M V

    2016-06-29

    We theoretically studied the quasiparticle transport in a 2D electron gas biased in the quantum Hall regime and in the presence of a lateral potential barrier. The lateral junction hosts the specific magnetic field dependent quasiparticle states highly localized in the transverse direction. The quantum tunnelling across the barrier provides a complex bands structure of a one-dimensional energy spectrum of these bound states, [Formula: see text], where p y is the electron momentum in the longitudinal direction y. Such a spectrum manifests itself by a large number of peaks and drops in the dependence of the magnetic edge states transmission coefficient D(E ) on the electron energy E. E.g. the high value of D occurs as soon as the electron energy E reaches gaps in the spectrum. These peaks and drops of D(E) result in giant oscillations of the transverse conductance G x with the magnetic field and/or the transport voltage. Our theoretical analysis, based on the coherent macroscopic quantum superposition of the bound states and the magnetic edge states propagating along the system boundaries, is in a good accord with the experimental observations found in Kang et al (2000 Lett. Nat. 403 59).

  2. Repulsively bound exciton-biexciton states in high-spin fermions in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Argueelles, A.; Santos, L.

    2011-03-15

    We show that the interplay between spin-changing collisions and quadratic Zeeman coupling provides a mechanism for the formation of repulsively bound composites in high-spin fermions, which we illustrate by considering spin flips in an initially polarized hard-core one-dimensional Mott insulator of spin-3/2 fermions. We show that after the flips the dynamics is characterized by the creation of two types of exciton-biexciton composites. We analyze the conditions for the existence of these bound states and discuss their intriguing properties. In particular we show that the effective mass and stability of the composites depends nontrivially on spin-changing collisions, on the quadratic Zeeman effect, and on the initial exciton localization. Finally, we show that the composites may remain stable against inelastic collisions, opening the possibility of interesting quantum composite phases.

  3. Bound and scattering states in harmonic waveguides in the vicinity of free space Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoren; Giannakeas, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The two-body bound and scattering properties in an one-dimensional harmonic waveguide close to free space magnetic Feshbach resonances are investigated based on the local frame transformation approach within a single partial wave approximation. An energy and magnetic field dependent free space phase shift is adopted in the current theoretical framework. For both s- and p-wave interaction, the least bound state in the waveguide dissociates into the continuum at the resonant magnetic field where the effective one-dimensional scattering length {a}{{1D}} diverges. Consequently, the association of atoms into molecules in the waveguide occurs when the magnetic field is swept adiabatically across the pole of {a}{{1D}}. In the vicinity of broad s-wave resonances, the resonant magnetic field is nearly independent on the transverse confining frequency {ω }\\perp of the waveguide. Close to p-wave and narrow s-wave resonances, the resonant magnetic field changes as {ω }\\perp varies.

  4. On bound state computations in three- and four-electron atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A. M. Wardlaw, D. M.

    2010-07-15

    A variational approach is developed for bound state calculations in three- and four-electron atomic systems. This approach can be applied to determine, in principle, an arbitrary bound state in three- and four-electron ions and atoms. Our variational wave functions are constructed from four- and five-body Gaussoids that respectively depend on six (r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 14}, r{sub 23}, r{sub 24}, r{sub 34}) and ten (r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 14}, r{sub 15}, r{sub 23}, r{sub 24}, r{sub 25}, r{sub 34}, r{sub 35} and r{sub 45}) relative coordinates. The approach allows operating with the more than one electron spin functions. In particular, the trial wave functions for the {sup 1}S states in four-electron atomic systems include the two independent spin functions {chi}{sub 1} = {alpha}{beta}{alpha}{beta} + {beta}{alpha}{beta}{alpha} - {beta}{alpha}{alpha}{beta} - {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} and {chi}{sub 2} = 2{alpha}{alpha}{beta}{beta} + 2{beta}{beta}{alpha}{alpha} - {beta}{alpha}{alpha}{beta} - {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} - {beta}{alpha}{beta}{alpha} - {alpha}{beta}{alpha}{beta}. We also discuss the construction of variational wave functions for the excited 2{sup 3}S states in four- electron atomic systems.

  5. In-gap bound states induced by interstitial Fe impurities in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Degang

    2015-12-01

    Based on a two-orbit four-band tight binding model, we investigate the low-lying electronic states around the interstitial excess Fe ions in the iron-based superconductors by using T-matrix approach. It is shown that the local density of states at the interstitial Fe impurity (IFI) possesses a strong resonance inside the gap, which seems to be insensitive to the doping and the pairing symmetry in the Fe-Fe plane, while a single or two resonances appear at the nearest neighboring (NN) Fe sites. The location and height of the resonance peaks only depend on the hopping t and the pairing parameter ΔI between the IFI and the NN Fe sites. These in-gap resonances are originated in the Andreev's bound states due to the quasiparticle tunneling through the IFI, leading to the change of the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter. When both t and ΔI are small, this robust zero-energy bound state near the IFI is consistent with recent scanning tunneling microscopy observations.

  6. Melting behavior and different bound states in three-stranded DNA models.

    PubMed

    Maji, Jaya; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of DNA is often studied with coarse-grained models in which native sequential base pairing is mimicked by the existence of attractive interactions only between monomers at the same position along strands (Poland and Scheraga models). Within this framework, the existence of a three-stranded DNA bound state in conditions where a duplex DNA would be in the denaturated state was recently predicted from a study of three directed polymer models on simplified hierarchical lattices (d>2) and in 1+1 dimensions. Such a phenomenon which is similar to the Efimov effect in nuclear physics was named Efimov-DNA. In this paper we study the melting of the three-stranded DNA on a Sierpinski gasket of dimensions d<2 by assigning extra weight factors to fork openings and closings, to induce a two-strand DNA melting. In such a context we can find again the existence of the Efimov-DNA-like state but quite surprisingly we discover also the presence of a different phase, to be called a mixed state, where the strands are pair-wise bound but without three chain contacts. Whereas the Efimov DNA turns out to be a crossover near melting, the mixed phase is a thermodynamic phase. PMID:24580186

  7. Melting behavior and different bound states in three-stranded DNA models.

    PubMed

    Maji, Jaya; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of DNA is often studied with coarse-grained models in which native sequential base pairing is mimicked by the existence of attractive interactions only between monomers at the same position along strands (Poland and Scheraga models). Within this framework, the existence of a three-stranded DNA bound state in conditions where a duplex DNA would be in the denaturated state was recently predicted from a study of three directed polymer models on simplified hierarchical lattices (d>2) and in 1+1 dimensions. Such a phenomenon which is similar to the Efimov effect in nuclear physics was named Efimov-DNA. In this paper we study the melting of the three-stranded DNA on a Sierpinski gasket of dimensions d<2 by assigning extra weight factors to fork openings and closings, to induce a two-strand DNA melting. In such a context we can find again the existence of the Efimov-DNA-like state but quite surprisingly we discover also the presence of a different phase, to be called a mixed state, where the strands are pair-wise bound but without three chain contacts. Whereas the Efimov DNA turns out to be a crossover near melting, the mixed phase is a thermodynamic phase.

  8. Stability of Majorana vortex bound states on the surface of superconducting topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyi; Cano, Jennifer; Neupert, Titus

    Fu and Kane showed that superconductivity induced on the surface of a 3D topological insulator results in isolated Majorana bound states that appear in the cores of vortices. Many efforts to realize this idea are based on proximity-induced superconducting order in a heterostructure. Recently, superconductivity has been observed in PbTaSe2, which has the band topology of a topological insulator with Dirac cone surface states. Hence, it nourishes the vision of realizing the Fu and Kane proposal in a stoichiometric material without the need for doping or fabricating heterostructures. Motivated by this possibility, we give a comprehensive analysis of stability and localization properties of the vortex Majorana modes in such a topological superconducting material. In particular, we address the experimentally relevant questions regarding (i) the energy separation between the vortex bound and excited states, (ii) the dependence of the hybridization between Majorana modes from opposite surfaces on the thickness of a thin-film sample, (iii) the influence of the bulk superconducting pockets on the Majorana states.

  9. Relativistic Two and Three-Particle Bound States in Scalar Quantum Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, Leo

    This thesis is concerned with the application of the variational method, within the Hamiltonian formalism of quantum field theory (QFT), to describe relativistic two and three particle states in scalar field theories. Two models are considered: scalar particles interacting through the exchange of scalar quanta, and the Higgs sector of the Minimal Standard Model. We derive relativistic particle-antiparticle wave equations for scalar particles, phi and |phi, interacting via a massive or massless scalar field, chi (the Wick-Cutkosky model), using simple Fock space ansatze. The variational method, within the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT, is used to derive equations with and without coupling of this quasi-bound phi|phi system to the chichi decay channel. The equations are then approximately decoupled to yield a relativistic momentum-space (Schrodinger-like) wave equation from which we determine bound-state energies numerically, perturbatively or variationally for various strengths of the coupling. Bound-state energies in the massless case are compared to the known ladder Bethe-Salpeter and light-cone solutions of this model. In the case of coupling to the decay channel, which is easily accomplished in the present formalism by expanding our Fock-space ansatz, the quasi-bound phi|phi states are seen to arise as resonances in the chichi scattering cross section. Numerical results are presented for the massive and massless chi case for various coupling strengths. The same variational method can be easily extended to derive relativistic three-particle wave equations for scalar particles phi,phi and |phi, interacting via a massive or massless scalar field, chi. In this case, the equations are obtained using a simple |phiphi|phi > +| phiphi|{phi}chi > ansatz. Approximate variational solutions (using product-type hydrogenic wave functions) of these equations are presented for various strengths of the coupling. The magnitude of the relativistic effects in the three

  10. Formation of Triplet Positron-helium Bound State by Stripping of Positronium Atoms in Collision with Ground State Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of triplet positron-helium bound state by stripping of positronium atoms in collision with ground state helium JOSEPH DI RlENZI, College of Notre Dame of Maryland, RICHARD J. DRACHMAN, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center - The system consisting of a positron and a helium atom in the triplet state e(+)He(S-3)(sup e) was conjectured long ago to be stable [1]. Its stability has recently been established rigorously [2], and the values of the energies of dissociation into the ground states of Ps and He(+) have also been reported [3] and [4]. We have evaluated the cross-section for this system formed by radiative attachment of a positron in triplet He state and found it to be small [5]. The mechanism of production suggested here should result in a larger cross-section (of atomic size) which we are determining using the Born approximation with simplified initial and final wave functions.

  11. Nuclear Bound States of Molecular Hydrogen Physisorbed on Graphene: An Effective Two-Dimensional Model.

    PubMed

    de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O

    2015-11-01

    The interaction potential of molecular hydrogen physisorbed on a graphene sheet is evaluated using the ab initio-based periodic dlDF+Das scheme and its accuracy is assessed by comparing the nuclear bound-state energies supported by the H2(D2/HD)/graphite potentials with the experimental energies. The periodic dlDF+Das treatment uses DFT-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory on surface cluster models to extract the dispersion contribution to the interaction whereas periodic dispersionless density functional (dlDF) calculations are performed to determine the dispersion-free counterpart. It is shown that the H2/graphene interaction is effectively two-dimensional (2D), with the distance from the molecule center-of-mass to the surface plane and the angle between the diatomic axis and the surface normal as the relevant degrees of freedom. The global potential minimum is found at the orthogonal orientation of the molecule with respect to the surface plane, with an equilibrium distance of 3.17 Å and a binding energy of -51.9 meV. The comparison of the binding energies shows an important improvement of our approach over the vdW-corrected DFT schemes when we are dealing with the very weak H2/surface interaction. Next, the 2D nuclear bound-state energies are calculated numerically. As a cross-validation of the interaction potential, the bound states are also determined for molecular hydrogen on the graphite surface (represented as an assembly of graphene sheets). With the largest absolute deviation being 1.7 meV, the theoretical and experimental energy levels compare very favorably.

  12. Three-body bound states in dipole-dipole interacting Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between three identical Rydberg atoms can give rise to bound trimer states. The microscopic origin of these states is fundamentally different from Efimov physics. Two stable trimer configurations exist where the atoms form the vertices of an equilateral triangle in a plane perpendicular to a static electric field. The triangle edge length typically exceeds R≈2 μm, and each configuration is twofold degenerate due to Kramers degeneracy. The depth of the potential wells and the triangle edge length can be controlled by external parameters. We establish the Borromean nature of the trimer states, analyze the quantum dynamics in the potential wells, and describe methods for their production and detection.

  13. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement. PMID:27641540

  14. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement.

  15. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement. PMID:27641540

  16. Cavity-Free Photon Blockade Induced by Many-Body Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel; Baranger, Harold

    2012-02-01

    We show theoretically that a variety of strong quantum nonlinear phenomena occur in a completely open one-dimensional waveguide coupled to an N-type four-level system. This system could be realized, for example, in experiments using superconducting circuits. We focus on photon blockade, photon-induced tunneling, bunching or anti-bunching, and the creation of single-photon states, all in the absence of a cavity. Many-body bound states appear due to the strong photon-photon correlation mediated by the four-level system. These bound states cause photon blockade, generating a sub-Poissonian single-photon source [1]. Such a source is crucial for quantum cryptography and distributed quantum networking; our work thus supports the notion that open quantum systems can play a critical role in the manipulation of individual, mobile quanta, a key goal of quantum communication. [1] H. Zheng, D. J. Gauthier, and H. U. Baranger, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (2011), arXiv:1107.0309.

  17. Observation of Excitonic N-Body Bound States: Polyexcitons in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omachi, J.; Suzuki, T.; Kato, K.; Naka, N.; Yoshioka, K.; Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

    2013-07-01

    We have found a series of resonances associated with the bound state (polyexcitons, PENs) of N excitons up to N=6 in the emission spectra of diamond under two-photon excitation at around 10 K. Time-resolved spectra show a stepwise formation of PENs with smaller to larger N, as well as a successive decay from larger to smaller N. At higher excitation levels, the transformation of PENs into a condensed phase of electron-hole droplets occurs. The binding energies of the PENs, normalized to the exciton Rydberg energy, agree well with those of silicon, suggesting the universality of the phenomena.

  18. Analytical perspective for bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Liang, Yong; Li, Zhengbin; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-18

    We investigate the formation of photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs from an analytical perspective. Unlike the stationary at-Γ BICs which originate from the geometric symmetry, the tunable off-Γ BICs are due to the weighted destructive via the continuum interference in the vicinity of accidental symmetry when the majority of the radiation is precanceled. The symmetric compatible nature of the off-Γ BICs leads to a trapping of light that can be tuned through continuously varying the wave vector. With the analytical approach, we explain a reported experiment and predict the existence of a new BIC at an unrevealed symmetry.

  19. Quantum localization and bound-state formation in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Franzosi, Roberto; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-12-15

    We discuss the possibility of exponential quantum localization in systems of ultracold bosonic atoms with repulsive interactions in open optical lattices without disorder. We show that exponential localization occurs in the maximally excited state of the lowest energy band. We establish the conditions under which the presence of the upper energy bands can be neglected, determine the successive stages and the quantum phase boundaries at which localization occurs, and discuss schemes to detect it experimentally by visibility measurements. The discussed mechanism is a particular type of quantum localization that is intuitively understood in terms of the interplay between nonlinearity and a bounded energy spectrum.

  20. Bound states in the continuum in zigzag quantum wire enforced by a finger gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadreev, A. F.; Pilipchuk, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    We consider electron transport in a zigzag quantum wire by the effect of finger gate potential. Using a non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian, we calculate resonance positions and widths to show that the resonance widths are easily governed by the gate potential. In particular, the resonance width can be enforced to be equal to zero, which leads to an electron localization with the Fermi energy embedded in the propagation band of the wire, i.e., the bound state in the continuum (BSC). We show that, for positive values of the potential, a zigzag wire becomes a Fabry-Perot resonator to give rise to BSC too.

  1. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.

  2. The beauty of impurities: Two revivals of Friedel's virtual bound-state concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Jacques Friedel pioneered the theoretical study of impurities and magnetic impurities in metals. He discovered Friedel oscillations, introduced the concept of virtual bound-state, and demonstrated that the charge on the impurity is related to the scattering phase-shift at the Fermi level (Friedel sum-rule). After a brief review of some of these concepts, I describe how they proved useful in two new contexts. The first one concerns the Coulomb blockade in quantum dots, and its suppression by the Kondo effect. The second one is the dynamical mean-field theory of strong electronic correlations. xml:lang="fr"

  3. J/Ψ Mass Shift and J/Ψ-Nuclear Bound State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, Kazuo; Lu, D. H.; Krein, Gastao; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-05-01

    We calculate mass shift of the J/Ψ meson in nuclear matter arising from the modification of DD, DD* and D*D* meson loop contributions to the J/Ψ self-energy. The estimate includes the in-medium D and D* meson masses consistently. The J/Ψ mass shift (scalar potential) calculated is negative (attractive), and is complementary to the attractive potential obtained from the QCD color van der Waals forces. Some results for the J/Ψ-nuclear bound state energies are also presented.

  4. J/{Psi} Mass Shift and J/{Psi}-Nuclear Bound State

    SciTech Connect

    Tsushima, Kazuo; Thomas, Anthony W.; Lu, D. H.; Krein, Gastao

    2011-05-24

    We calculate mass shift of the J/{Psi} meson in nuclear matter arising from the modification of DD, DD* and D*D* meson loop contributions to the J/{Psi} self-energy. The estimate includes the in-medium D and D* meson masses consistently. The J/{Psi} mass shift (scalar potential) calculated is negative (attractive), and is complementary to the attractive potential obtained from the QCD color van der Waals forces. Some results for the J/{Psi}-nuclear bound state energies are also presented.

  5. Higgs Boson Decay and Quasi-Bound States in the Higgs Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.

    We calculate two-Higgs bound states (Higgsonium) as resonances in Z0-Z0 scattering using a |Z0Z0>+|h>+|hh>+|hhh>+|hhhhh> Fock-space ansatz in a Hamiltonian formalism of the Higgs model. The variational method is used to obtain coupled integral equations connecting the various channels. Reduced forms of these equations are solved analytically in the case of the Z0Z0-h channels, and numerically for the Z0Z0-hh channels for particular choices of the coupling parameters.

  6. Bound states and quantization of screening in the Wannier-Mott excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2011-02-15

    The problem of validity of the simple relation {lambda}=(n+2l)(n+2l+1) between the screening length {lambda} and the number of bound states in the Stern-Howard potential is discussed and the results are compared with those obtained for some potential with the same limiting behavior as the former one. The main conclusion of the present study is that the above relation does not hold for the Stern-Howard potential but most likely it is very close to an unknown relation to be discovered for the potential.

  7. K- absorption on two nucleons and ppK- bound state search in the Σ0p final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Doce, O.; Fabbietti, L.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Marton, J.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D.; Tucakovic, I.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Czerwinski, E.; Krzemien, W.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.; Patera, V.; Pérez del Rio, E.; Silarski, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the measurement of K- absorption processes in the Σ0p final state and the first exclusive measurement of the two nucleon absorption (2NA) with the KLOE detector. The 2NA process without further interactions is found to be 9% of the sum of all other contributing processes, including absorption on three and more nucleons or 2NA followed by final state interactions with the residual nucleons. We also determine the possible contribution of the ppK- bound state to the Σ0p final state. The yield of ppK- / Kstop- is found to be (0.044 ± 0.009stat-0.005+0.004 syst) ṡ10-2 but its statistical significance based on an F-test is only 1σ.

  8. Energetics and structure of the bound states in a lithium complex: The (LiH 2) + electronic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Cristina; Bodo, Enrico; Gianturco, Franco A.

    2005-07-01

    The ionic complex formed by the lithium cation and the hydrogen molecule is analyzed in its electronic ground state and the region of the interaction potential that leads to an asymptotic fragmentation with the H 2 molecule in its v = 0 level is described. The corresponding potential energy surface is employed to obtain the J = 0 bound states of the complex. The computed wavefunctions are analyzed in terms of local modes of the full system and qualitative correspondence is found between their spatial shapes and the locally active vibrational coordinates up to the highest excited states near dissociation threshold, where mode-mixing effects defy such a simple analysis. The case of vibrationally excited H 2, and some of the corresponding resonances, are also presented and the resonant states discussed.

  9. Relativistic three-body bound states in scalar QFT: Variational basis-state approach

    SciTech Connect

    Emami-Razavi, Mohsen; Bergeron, Nantel; Darewych, Jurij W.; Kowalski, Marian

    2009-10-15

    We use the Hamiltonian formalism of quantum field theory and the variational basis-state method to derive relativistic three-body wave equations for scalar particles interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). A variational trial state comprised of three and five Fock-space states is used to derive coupled wave equations for a relativistic three- (and five-) body system. Approximate variational three-body ground-state solutions of the relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields. The results show that the inclusion of virtual pairs has a large effect on the three-body binding energy at strong coupling.

  10. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.

  11. Real and virtual bound states in Lüscher corrections for CP3 magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês; Bombardelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    We study classical and quantum finite-size corrections to giant magnons in AdS4 × CP3 using generalized Lüscher formulae. Lüscher F-terms are organized in powers of the exponential suppression factor (e-Δ/2h)m, and we calculate all terms in this series, matching one-loop algebraic curve results from our previous paper [1]. Starting with the second term, the structure of these terms is different to those in AdS5 × S5 thanks to the appearance of heavy modes in the loop, which can here be interpreted as two-particle bound states in the mirror theory. By contrast, physical bound states can represent dyonic giant magnons, and we also calculate F-terms for these solutions. Lüscher μ-terms, suppressed by e-Δ/E, instead give at leading order the classical finite-size correction. For the elementary dyonic giant magnon we recover the correction given by [2]. We then extend this to calculate the next term in 1/h, giving a one-loop prediction. Finally we also calculate F-terms for the various composite giant magnons, RP3 and ‘big’, again finding agreement to all orders.

  12. Bound states of Dirac fermions in monolayer gapped graphene in the presence of local perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsen, Yarmohammadi; Malek, Zareyan

    2016-06-01

    In graphene, conductance electrons behave as massless relativistic particles and obey an analogue of the Dirac equation in two dimensions with a chiral nature. For this reason, the bounding of electrons in graphene in the form of geometries of quantum dots is impossible. In gapless graphene, due to its unique electronic band structure, there is a minimal conductivity at Dirac points, that is, in the limit of zero doping. This creates a problem for using such a highly motivated new material in electronic devices. One of the ways to overcome this problem is the creation of a band gap in the graphene band structure, which is made by inversion symmetry breaking (symmetry of sublattices). We investigate the confined states of the massless Dirac fermions in an impured graphene by the short-range perturbations for “local chemical potential” and “local gap”. The calculated energy spectrum exhibits quite different features with and without the perturbations. A characteristic equation for bound states (BSs) has been obtained. It is surprisingly found that the relation between the radial functions of sublattices wave functions, i.e., , , and , , can be established by SO(2) group.

  13. Shot noise in a quantum dot system coupled with Majorana bound states.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu; Zhao, Hong-Kang

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the spectral density of shot noise and current for the system of a quantum dot coupled to Majorana bound states (MBS) employing the nonequilibrium Green's function. The Majorana bound states at the end of the wire strongly affect the shot noise. There are two types of coupling in the system: dot-MBS and MBS-MBS coupling. The curves of shot noise and current versus coupling strength have novel steps owing to the energy-level splitting caused by dot-MBS coupling. The magnitude of these steps increases with the strength of dot-MBS coupling λ but decreases with the strength of MBS-MBS coupling. The steps shift toward the large ∣eV∣ region as λ or ϵ(M) increases. In addition, dot-MBS coupling enhances the shot noise while MBS-MBS coupling suppresses the shot noise. In the absence of MBS-MBS coupling, a sharp jump emerges in the curve of the Fano factor at zero bias owing to the differential conductance being reduced by a factor of 1/2. This provides a novel technique for the detection of Majorana fermions. PMID:25016999

  14. Interband type-II miniband-to-bound state diode lasers for the midinfrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, C.; Schmitz, J.; Kiefer, R.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.

    2004-07-01

    A design for midinfrared diode lasers based on interband type-II miniband-to-bound state transitions is proposed and has been demonstrated experimentally. Type-II miniband-to-bound state laser structures emitting at 3.25μm with active regions consisting of 5 and 10W periods were grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy and processed into ridge waveguide lasers. Substrate-side down mounted devices with a 10 period active region and uncoated facets could be operated in continuous-wave (cw) mode up to 185K and as high as 260K in pulsed mode. A high characteristic temperature of 100K has been achieved for heat-sink temperatures below 140K, decreasing to 33K for the 140 to 185K interval. At 110K, a 5 period laser structure exhibited a threshold current density of 177A/cm2 and a slope efficiency of 61mW /A. Single-ended output powers of 144mW in cw mode and exceeding 330mW in pulsed operation were obtained for a substrate-side down mounted 5 period diode laser with high-reflection/antireflection coated mirror facets, operated at 110K.

  15. Role of the bound-state wave function in capture-loss rates: Slow proton in an electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Alducin, M.; Nagy, I.

    2003-07-01

    Capture and loss rates for protons moving in an electron gas are calculated using many-body perturbation theory. The role of the form of the bound-state wave function for weakly bound states around the proton is analyzed. We find significant differences (up to a factor of 2 higher) in the values of Auger capture and loss rates when using Hulthen-type instead of hydrogenic wave functions. Its relevance in stopping power is briefly discussed.

  16. Observation of the spatial distribution of gravitationally bound quantum states of ultracold neutrons and its derivation using the Wigner function.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, G; Komamiya, S; Kamiya, Y; Minami, Y; Tani, M; Geltenbort, P; Yamamura, K; Nagano, M; Sanuki, T; Kawasaki, S; Hino, M; Kitaguchi, M

    2014-02-21

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) can be bound by the potential of terrestrial gravity and a reflecting mirror. The wave function of the bound state has characteristic modulations. We carried out an experiment to observe the vertical distribution of the UCNs above such a mirror at the Institut Laue-Langevin in 2011. The observed modulation is in good agreement with that prediction by quantum mechanics using the Wigner function. The spatial resolution of the detector system is estimated to be 0.7  μm. This is the first observation of gravitationally bound states of UCNs with submicron spatial resolution.

  17. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry-Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. We show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectors not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors. PMID:27557882

  18. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-08-25

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry–Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. As a result, we show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectorsmore » not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors.« less

  19. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry–Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. We show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectors not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors.

  20. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry–Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. We show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectors not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors. PMID:27557882

  1. Andreev bound states and current-phase relations in three-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelder, M.; Veldhorst, M.; Golubov, A. A.; Brinkman, A.

    2013-03-01

    To guide the search for the Majorana fermion, we theoretically study superconductor/topological-insulator/superconductor (S/TI/S) junctions in an experimentally relevant regime. We find that the striking features present in these systems, including the doubled periodicity of the Andreev bound states (ABSs) due to tunneling via Majorana states, can still be present at high electron densities. We show that via the inclusion of magnetic layers, this 4π periodic ABS can still be observed in three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators, where finite angle incidence usually results in the opening of a gap at zero energy and hence results in a 2π periodic ABS. Furthermore, we study the Josephson-junction characteristics and find that the gap size can be controlled and decreased by tuning the magnetization direction and amplitude. These findings pave the way for designing experiments on S/3DTI/S junctions.

  2. Calculation of screened Coulomb potential matrices and its application to He bound and resonant states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Li Guang; Ho, Yew Kam

    2014-07-01

    We present two analytical methods, Taylor expansion and Gegenbauer expansion, to efficiently and accurately calculate the two-electron screened Coulomb potential matrix elements with Slater-type configuration-interaction basis functions. The former permits great advantages in fast computation of the potential matrices at small screening parameters and the latter allows accurate calculation of the matrices at all screening parameters. The bound and resonant states of a He atom embedded in the screening environment are calculated by employing the variational and complex-scaling methods, respectively, and the results are compared with other theoretical predictions. The expectation values of some physical quantities for He ground state are compared with the recent calculation of Ancarani and Rodriguez [Phys. Rev. A 89, 012507 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.012507] and extended to stronger screening environment. The energies and widths for the doubly excited resonant states are in good agreement with previous calculations, while the interelectronic angle arccos show significant discrepancies with the Feshbach projection calculation of Ordóñez-Lasso et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012702 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.012702]. The expectation values of are also calculated for the resonant states investigated here. We conclude that the present methods in the framework of complex scaling enable us to get reliable energy, width, and other physical quantities of the resonant states in a variety of screening conditions.

  3. An upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of state redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    State redistribution is the protocol in which given an arbitrary tripartite quantum state, with two of the subsystems initially being with Alice and one being with Bob, the goal is for Alice to send one of her subsystems to Bob, possibly with the help of prior shared entanglement. We derive an upper bound on the second order asymptotic expansion for the quantum communication cost of achieving state redistribution with a given finite accuracy. In proving our result, we also obtain an upper bound on the quantum communication cost of this protocol in the one-shot setting, by using the protocol of coherent state merging as a primitive.

  4. Estimation of Relative Protein-RNA Binding Strengths from Fluctuations in the Bound State.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Zhaleh; Guzman, Irisbel; Baek, Jung-Un Julia; Gruebele, Martin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-09-13

    Protein-RNA complexes are increasingly important in our understanding of cell signaling, metabolism, and transcription. Electrostatic interactions play dominant role in stabilizing such complexes. Using conventional computational approaches, very long simulations of both bound and unbound states are required to obtain accurate estimates of complex dissociation constants (Kd). Here, we derive a simple formula that offers an alternative approach based on the theory of fluctuations. Our method extracts a strong correlate to experimental Kd values using short molecular dynamics simulations of the bound complex only. To test our method, we compared the computed relative Kd values to our experimentally measured values for the U1A-Stem Loop 2 (SL2) RNA complex, which is one of the most-studied protein-RNA complexes. Additionally we also included several experimental values from the literature, to enlarge the data set. We obtain a correlation of r = 0.93 between theoretical and measured estimates of Kd values of the mutated U1A protein-RNA complexes relative to the wild type dissociation constant. The proposed method increases the efficiency of relative Kd values estimation for multiple protein mutants, allowing its applicability to protein engineering projects. PMID:27529183

  5. In-situ measurement of bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchmair, Stefan; Gansch, Roman; Genevet, Patrice; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Capasso, Federico; Loncar, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Photonic crystal slabs have been subject to research for more than a decade, yet the existence of bound states in the radiation continuum (BICs) in photonic crystals has been reported only recently [1]. A BIC is formed when the radiation from all possible channels interferes destructively, causing the overall radiation to vanish. In photonic crystals, BICs are the result of accidental phase matching between incident, reflected and in-plane waves at seemingly random wave vectors [2]. While BICs in photonic crystals have been discussed previously using reflection measurements, we reports for the first time in-situ measurements of the bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs. By embedding a photodetector into a photonic crystal slab we were able to directly observe optical BICs. The photonic crystal slabs are processed from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells heterostructure, providing intersubband absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The generated photocurrent is collected via doped contact layers on top and bottom of the suspended photonic crystal slab. We were mapping out the photonic band structure by rotating the device and by acquiring photocurrent spectra every 5°. Our measured photonic bandstructure revealed several BICs, which was confirmed with a rigorously coupled-wave analysis simulation. Since coupling to external fields is suppressed, the photocurrent measured by the photodetector vanishes at the BIC wave vector. To confirm the relation between the measured photocurrent and the Q-factor we used temporal coupled mode theory, which yielded an inverse proportional relation between the photocurrent and the out-coupling loss from the photonic crystal. Implementing a plane wave expansion simulation allowed us to identify the corresponding photonic crystal modes. The ability to directly measure the field intensity inside the photonic crystal presents an important milestone towards integrated opto-electronic BIC devices. Potential

  6. Lattice and momentum space approach to bound states and excitonic condensation via user friendly interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamell, Christopher Ray

    In this thesis, we focus on two broad categories of problems, exciton condensation and bound states, and two complimentary approaches, real and momentum space, to solve these problems. In chapter 2 we begin by developing the self-consistent mean field equations, in momentum space, used to calculate exciton condensation in semiconductor heterostructures/double quantum wells and graphene. In the double quantum well case, where we have one layer containing electrons and the other layer with holes separated by a distance d, we extend the analytical solution to the two dimensional hydrogen atom in order to provide a semi-quantitative measure of when a system of excitons can be considered dilute. Next we focus on the problem of electron-electron screening, using the random phase approximation, in double layer graphene. The literature contains calculations showing that when screening is not taken into account the temperature at which excitons in double layer graphene condense is approximately room temperature. Also in the literature is a calculation showing that under certain assumptions the transition temperature is approximately mK. The essential result is that the condensate is exponentially suppressed by the number of electron species in the system. Our mean field calculations show that the condensate, is in fact, not exponentially suppressed. Next, in chapter 3, we show the use of momentum space to solve the Schrodinger equation for a class of potentials that are not usually a part of a quantum mechanics courses. Our approach avoids the typical pitfalls that exist when one tries to discretize the real space Schrodinger equation. This technique widens the number of problems that can presented in an introductory quantum mechanics course while at the same time, because of the ease of its implementation, provides a simple introduction to numerical techniques and programming in general to students. We have furthered this idea by creating a modular program that allows

  7. Attosecond transient absorption probing of electronic superpositions of bound states in neon. Detection of quantum beats

    DOE PAGES

    Beck, Annelise R; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Warrick, Erika R.; Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-11-07

    Electronic wavepackets composed of multiple bound excited states of atomic neon lying between 19.6 and 21.5 eV are launched using an isolated attosecond pulse. Individual quantum beats of the wavepacket are detected by perturbing the induced polarization of the medium with a time-delayed few-femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) pulse via coupling the individual states to multiple neighboring levels. All of the initially excited states are monitored simultaneously in the attosecond transient absorption spectrum, revealing Lorentzian to Fano lineshape spectral changes as well as quantum beats. The most prominent beating of the several that were observed was in the spin–orbit split 3d absorptionmore » features, which has a 40 femtosecond period that corresponds to the spin–orbit splitting of 0.1 eV. The few-level models and multilevel calculations confirm that the observed magnitude of oscillation depends strongly on the spectral bandwidth and tuning of the NIR pulse and on the location of possible coupling states.« less

  8. Attosecond transient absorption probing of electronic superpositions of bound states in neon. Detection of quantum beats

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Annelise R; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Warrick, Erika R.; Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-11-07

    Electronic wavepackets composed of multiple bound excited states of atomic neon lying between 19.6 and 21.5 eV are launched using an isolated attosecond pulse. Individual quantum beats of the wavepacket are detected by perturbing the induced polarization of the medium with a time-delayed few-femtosecond near-infrared (NIR) pulse via coupling the individual states to multiple neighboring levels. All of the initially excited states are monitored simultaneously in the attosecond transient absorption spectrum, revealing Lorentzian to Fano lineshape spectral changes as well as quantum beats. The most prominent beating of the several that were observed was in the spin–orbit split 3d absorption features, which has a 40 femtosecond period that corresponds to the spin–orbit splitting of 0.1 eV. The few-level models and multilevel calculations confirm that the observed magnitude of oscillation depends strongly on the spectral bandwidth and tuning of the NIR pulse and on the location of possible coupling states.

  9. Structural Model of the R State of Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase with Substrates Bound

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,J.; Eldo, J.; Kantrowitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) exists in two conformational states. The enzyme, in the absence of substrates is primarily in the low-activity T state, is converted to the high-activity R state upon substrate binding, and remains in the R state until substrates are exhausted. These conformational changes have made it difficult to obtain structural data on R-state active-site complexes. Here we report the R-state structure of ATCase with the substrate Asp and the substrate analog phosphonoactamide (PAM) bound. This R-state structure represents the stage in the catalytic mechanism immediately before the formation of the covalent bond between the nitrogen of the amino group of Asp and the carbonyl carbon of carbamoyl phosphate. The binding mode of the PAM is similar to the binding mode of the phosphonate moiety of N-(phosphonoacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA), the carboxylates of Asp interact with the same residues that interact with the carboxylates of PALA, although the position and orientations are shifted. The amino group of Asp is 2.9 {angstrom} away from the carbonyl oxygen of PAM, positioned correctly for the nucleophilic attack. Arg105 and Leu267 in the catalytic chain interact with PAM and Asp and help to position the substrates correctly for catalysis. This structure fills a key gap in the structural determination of each of the steps in the catalytic cycle. By combining these data with previously determined structures we can now visualize the allosteric transition through detailed atomic motions that underlie the molecular mechanism.

  10. Solution of two-body relativistic bound state equations with confining plus Coulomb interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maung, Khin Maung; Kahana, David E.; Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of meson spectroscopy have often employed a nonrelativistic Coulomb plus Linear Confining potential in position space. However, because the quarks in mesons move at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light, it is necessary to use a relativistic treatment of the bound state problem. Such a treatment is most easily carried out in momentum space. However, the position space Linear and Coulomb potentials lead to singular kernels in momentum space. Using a subtraction procedure we show how to remove these singularities exactly and thereby solve the Schroedinger equation in momentum space for all partial waves. Furthermore, we generalize the Linear and Coulomb potentials to relativistic kernels in four dimensional momentum space. Again we use a subtraction procedure to remove the relativistic singularities exactly for all partial waves. This enables us to solve three dimensional reductions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We solve six such equations for Coulomb plus Confining interactions for all partial waves.

  11. Structural Diversity in Free and Bound States of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Allaire, M.; Dancheck, B.; Ragusa, M.J.; Forman-Kay, J.D.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2010-09-08

    Complete folding is not a prerequisite for protein function, as disordered and partially folded states of proteins frequently perform essential biological functions. In order to understand their functions at the molecular level, we utilized diverse experimental measurements to calculate ensemble models of three nonhomologous, intrinsically disordered proteins: I-2, spinophilin, and DARPP-32, which bind to and regulate protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The models demonstrate that these proteins have dissimilar propensities for secondary and tertiary structure in their unbound forms. Direct comparison of these ensemble models with recently determined PP1 complex structures suggests a significant role for transient, preformed structure in the interactions of these proteins with PP1. Finally, we generated an ensemble model of partially disordered I-2 bound to PP1 that provides insight into the relationship between flexibility and biological function in this dynamic complex.

  12. Two-magnon bound state causes ultrafast thermally induced magnetisation switching

    PubMed Central

    Barker, J.; Atxitia, U.; Ostler, T. A.; Hovorka, O.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the discovery of thermally induced magnetisation switching using femtosecond laser excitation, where a ferrimagnetic system can be switched deterministically without an applied magnetic field. Experimental results suggest that the reversal occurs due to intrinsic material properties, but so far the microscopic mechanism responsible for reversal has not been identified. Using computational and analytic methods we show that the switching is caused by the excitation of two-magnon bound states, the properties of which are dependent on material factors. This discovery allows us to accurately predict the onset of switching and the identification of this mechanism will allow new classes of materials to be identified or designed for memory devices in the THz regime. PMID:24253110

  13. Potential energy surface and bound states of the NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar complexes.

    PubMed

    Loreau, J; Liévin, J; Scribano, Y; van der Avoird, A

    2014-12-14

    A new, four-dimensional potential energy surface for the interaction of NH3 and ND3 with Ar is computed using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations and large basis sets. The umbrella motion of the ammonia molecule is explicitly taken into account. The bound states of both NH3-Ar and ND3-Ar are calculated on this potential for total angular momentum values from J = 0 to 10, with the inclusion of Coriolis interactions. The energies and splittings of the rovibrational levels are in excellent agreement with the extensive high-resolution spectroscopic data accumulated over the years in the infrared and microwave regions for both complexes, which demonstrates the quality of the potential energy surface.

  14. Three-body bound state calculations using three-dimensional low-momentum interaction Vlow k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional Faddeev integral equations are solved for the three-body (3B) bound state problem without using the partial wave form of low-momentum two-body interaction V_{{low} k} which is constructed from spin-independent Malfliet-Tjon V (MT-V) potential. The dependence of 3B binding energy on the cutoff momentum of V_{{low} k} is investigated for a wide range of Λ from 1.0 to 7.0 {fm}^{-1}. The properties of the Faddeev components and 3B wave function are displayed and the effect of the number of grid points for momentum and angle variables on the accuracy and stability of the numerical results is studied by calculation of the expectation value of the total Hamiltonian.

  15. Observation of excitonic N-body bound states: polyexcitons in diamond.

    PubMed

    Omachi, J; Suzuki, T; Kato, K; Naka, N; Yoshioka, K; Kuwata-Gonokami, M

    2013-07-12

    We have found a series of resonances associated with the bound state (polyexcitons, PE(N)s) of N excitons up to N=6 in the emission spectra of diamond under two-photon excitation at around 10 K. Time-resolved spectra show a stepwise formation of PE(N)s with smaller to larger N, as well as a successive decay from larger to smaller N. At higher excitation levels, the transformation of PE(N)s into a condensed phase of electron-hole droplets occurs. The binding energies of the PE(N)s, normalized to the exciton Rydberg energy, agree well with those of silicon, suggesting the universality of the phenomena. PMID:23889423

  16. Scaling of the ground-state energy of relativistic ions in high locally bounded magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.

    2010-08-15

    We consider the pseudorelativistic Chandrasekhar/Herbst operator h{sup H} for the description of relativistic one-electron ions in a locally bounded magnetic field. We show that for Coulomb potentials of strength {gamma}<2/{pi}, the spectrum of h{sup H} is discrete below m (the electron mass). For magnetic fields in the class B{sub A}(x)=B{center_dot}(1+{tau}/2)(|x{sub 1}|{sup {tau}+}|x{sub 2}|{sup {tau}})e{sub z}, the ground-state energy of h{sup H} decreases according to B{sup 1}/(2+{tau}) as B{yields}{infinity} for 0{<=}{tau}<{tau}{sub c}, where {tau}{sub c} is some critical value, depending on {gamma}.

  17. Entangling many-body bound states with propagative modes in Bose-Hubbard systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collura, Mario; Aufderheide, Helge; Roux, Guillaume; Karevski, Dragi

    2012-07-01

    The quantum evolution of a cloud of bosons initially localized on part of a one-dimensional optical lattice and suddenly subjected to a linear ramp is studied, realizing a quantum analog of the “Galileo ramp” experiment. The main remarkable effects of this realistic setup are revealed using analytical and numerical methods. Only part of the particles are ejected for a high enough ramp, while the others remain self-trapped. Then, the trapped density profile displays rich dynamics with Josephson-type oscillations around a plateau. This setup, by coupling bound states to propagative modes, creates two diverging condensates for which the entanglement is computed and related to the equilibrium one. Further, we address the role of integrability on the entanglement and on the damping and thermalization of simple observables.

  18. Inverting the Nakanishi Integral Relation for a Bound State Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, T.; Carbonell, J.; Gigante, V.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction of the weight function g of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is investigated. We studied the numerical inversion of the discretized Nakanishi kernel in the case of an Euclidean bound state. The discretized kernel is regularized by adding the identity operator times a small regularisation parameter {\\varepsilon} to avoid numerically unstabilities. We have found that the weight function g as well as the associated light-front valence wave function are unstable against variation of {\\varepsilon}. These results suggest that the extraction of the Nakanishi weight function from an Euclidean amplitude, is an ill-defined problem. Without further assumptions on the solution or/and without developing more elaborate methods, the Nakanishi weight function, as well as the corresponding light-front valence wave function, cannot be safely determined.

  19. Three-body bound states in atomic mixtures with resonant p-wave interaction.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Maxim A; Plimak, Lev; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2013-09-13

    We employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to find the effective potential in a three-body system consisting of a light particle and two heavy ones when the heavy-light short-range interaction potential has a resonance corresponding to a nonzero orbital angular momentum. In the case of an exact resonance in the p-wave scattering amplitude, the effective potential is attractive and long range; namely, it decreases as the third power of the interatomic distance. Moreover, we show that the range and power of the potential, as well as the number of bound states, are determined by the mass ratio of the particles and the parameters of the heavy-light short-range potential. PMID:24074084

  20. Bloch bound states in the radiation continuum in a periodic array of dielectric rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2014-11-01

    We consider an infinite periodic array of dielectric rods in vacuum with the aim to demonstrate three types of Bloch bound states in the continuum (BSCs): symmetry protected with a zero Bloch vector, embedded in one diffraction channel with nonzero Bloch vector, and embedded in two and three diffraction channels. The first and second types of the BSC exist for a wide range of material parameters of the rods, while the third occurs only at a specific value of the radius of the rods. We show that the second type supports the power flux along the array. In order to find BSCs we put forward an approach based on the expansion over the Hankel functions. We show how the BSC reveals itself in the scattering function when the singular BSC point is approached along a specific path in the parametric space.

  1. Remarkable coincidence for the top Yukawa coupling and an approximately massless bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Froggatt, C. D.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2009-08-01

    We calculate, with several corrections, the nonrelativistic binding by Higgs exchange and gluon exchange between six top and six antitop quarks (actually replaced by left-handed b quarks from time to time). The remarkable result is that, within our calculational accuracy of the order of 14% in the top-quark Yukawa coupling g{sub t}, the experimental running top-quark Yukawa coupling g{sub t}=0.935 happens to have just that value which gives a perfect cancellation of the unbound mass=12 top-quark masses by this binding energy. In other words the bound state is massless to the accuracy of our calculation. Our calculation is in disagreement with a similar calculation by Kuchiev et al., but this deviation may be explained by a phase transition. We and Kuchiev et al. compute on different sides of this phase transition.

  2. Logarithms of alpha in QED bound states from the renormalization group

    PubMed

    Manohar; Stewart

    2000-09-11

    The velocity renormalization group is used to determine lnalpha contributions to QED bound state energies. The leading-order anomalous dimension for the potential gives the alpha(5)lnalpha Lamb shift. The next-to-leading-order anomalous dimension determines the alpha(6)lnalpha, alpha(7)ln (2)alpha, and alpha(8)ln (3)alpha corrections to the energy. These are used to obtain the alpha(8)ln (3)alpha Lamb shift and alpha(7)ln (2)alpha hyperfine splitting for hydrogen, muonium, and positronium, as well as the alpha(2)lnalpha and alpha(3)ln (2)alpha corrections to the ortho- and parapositronium lifetimes. This shows for the first time that these logarithms can be computed from the renormalization group.

  3. Macroscopic manipulation of high-order-harmonic generation through bound-state coherent control.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Itai; Bahabad, Alon

    2014-12-19

    We propose a paradigm for macroscopic control of high-order harmonic generation by modulating the bound-state population of the medium atoms. A unique result of this scheme is that apart from regular spatial quasi-phase-matching (QPM), also purely temporal QPM of the emitted radiation can be established. Our simulations demonstrate temporal QPM by inducing homogenous Rabi oscillations in the medium and also spatial QPM by creating a grating of population inversion using the process of rapid adiabatic passage. In the simulations a scaled version of high-order harmonic generation is used: a far off-resonance 2.6  μm source generates UV-visible high-order harmonics from alkali-metal-atom vapor, while a resonant near IR source is used to coherently control the medium.

  4. Detecting the Exchange Phase of Majorana Bound States in a Corbino Geometry Topological Josephson Junction.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghun; Recher, Patrik

    2015-12-11

    A phase from an adiabatic exchange of Majorana bound states (MBS) reveals their exotic anyonic nature. For detecting this exchange phase, we propose an experimental setup consisting of a Corbino geometry Josephson junction on the surface of a topological insulator, in which two MBS at zero energy can be created and rotated. We find that if a metallic tip is weakly coupled to a point on the junction, the time-averaged differential conductance of the tip-Majorana coupling shows peaks at the tip voltages eV=±(α-2πl)ℏ/T_{J}, where α=π/2 is the exchange phase of the two circulating MBS, T_{J} is the half rotation time of MBS, and l an integer. This result constitutes a clear experimental signature of Majorana fermion exchange.

  5. Transport through Andreev Bound States in a Graphene-base Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanjing; Mason, Nadya

    2012-02-01

    We perform tunneling spectroscopy on a graphene-quantum dot (QD)-superconductor junction, a system in which sharp, gate-tunable Andreev bound states (ABS) in the spectra have been observed [1]. Here we extend previous results, particularly regarding the origins of the QD. In particular, we discuss how a discontinuous layer of AlOx between the superconductor and the graphene plays a role in the formation of the QD. We also discuss additional spectroscopic features that may be due to multiple QDs and energy levels. Finally, we show that a robust superconducting tunneling junction can be created in a lead-graphene structure, without the explicit deposition of a tunneling barrier. [4pt] [1] Dirks, T., Nature Physics 7, 386--390 (2011)

  6. Quantum few-body bound states of dipolar particles in a helical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J. K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    We study a quantum mechanical system consisting of up to three identical dipoles confined to move along a helical shaped trap. The long-range interactions between particles confined to move in this one dimension leads to an interesting effective two-particle potential with an oscillating behavior. For this system we calculate the spectrum and the wave functions of the bound states. The full quantum solutions show clear imprints of the tendency for the system to form chains of dipoles along the helix, i.e. a configuration in which the dipoles are sitting approximately one winding of the helix apart so that they can take maximal advantage of the strong head-to-tail attraction that is a generic feature of the dipole–dipole interaction.

  7. Unprecedented solid-state chemical reaction-from (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}Oto(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. From centrosymmetric to non-centrosymmetric crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Gagor, A.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2010-12-15

    Tris(imidazolium) hexabromoantimonate(III) hydrate, (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O, (abbreviated as TIBA) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray (at 295, 225, 160, and 110 K), differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, and dielectric spectroscopy. At room temperature (phase I), the structure consists of discrete SbB{sub 6}{sup -} anions, disordered imidazolium cations, and water molecules forming a 3D array of hydrogen bonds. Below room temperature, TIBA was found to undergo isostructural discontinuous phase transition at 212/221 K (cooling-heating) (P2{sub 1}/c{r_reversible}P2{sub 1}/c). The phase transition mechanism is characterized by two contributions: an order-disorder (cationic substructure) and a displacive (water molecules) one. At high temperatures, the TIBA crystal was found to undergo an unprecedented in situ solid-state chemical reaction: (1)2(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O{sub (S)}{yields}(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11(S)}+(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5})Br{sub (S)}+2H{sub 2}O This chemical transformation leads to multiphase crystallites dominated by an amorphous phase of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. The creation of ferroelectric crystallites - (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} - in an 'annealed' sample of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O was confirmed by X-ray diffraction phase analysis, dielectric spectroscopy, and pyroelectric measurements. The dielectric response of the electric permittivity and the critical slowing down of the process observed near 140 K in the 'annealed' sample of TIBA are treated as a 'fingerprint' of a neat (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} ferroelectric. -- Graphical Abstract: Chemical reaction taking place in (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O at 328 K. Display Omitted

  8. Dynamical study of the X(3915) as a D*D* bound state in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Youchang; Ping Jialun

    2010-06-01

    Considering the coupling of color 1 x 1 and 8 x 8 structures, we calculate the energy of the newly observed X(3915) as an S-wave D*D* state in the Bhaduri, Cohler, and Nogami quark model by the Gaussian expansion method. Because of the color coupling, the bound state of D*D* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} is found, which is well consonant with the experimental data of the X(3915). The bound states of B*B* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} are also predicted in this work.

  9. Communication: Observation of dipole-bound state and high-resolution photoelectron imaging of cold acetate anions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-03-07

    We report the observation of a dipole-bound state and a high-resolution photoelectron imaging study of cryogenically cooled acetate anions (CH{sub 3}COO{sup −}). Both high-resolution non-resonant and resonant photoelectron spectra via the dipole-bound state of CH{sub 3}COO{sup −} are obtained. The binding energy of the dipole-bound state relative to the detachment threshold is determined to be 53 ± 8 cm{sup −1}. The electron affinity of the CH{sub 3}COO neutral radical is measured accurately as 26 236 ± 8 cm{sup −1} (3.2528 ± 0.0010 eV) using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. This accurate electron affinity is validated by observation of autodetachment from two vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state of CH{sub 3}COO{sup −}. Excitation spectra to the dipole-bound states yield rotational profiles, allowing the rotational temperature of the trapped CH{sub 3}COO{sup −} anions to be evaluated.

  10. Robust zero-energy bound states around a pair-density-wave vortex core in locally noncentrosymmetric superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Yoichi; Nagai, Yuki; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Masaki, Yusuke; Yanase, Youichi

    2016-03-01

    We numerically investigate the electronic structures around a vortex core in a bilayer superconducting system, with s -wave pairing, Rashba spin-orbit coupling, and Zeeman magnetic field, with the use of the quasiclassical Green's function method. The BCS phase and the so-called pair-density-wave (PDW) phase appear in the temperature-magnetic-field phase diagram in a bulk uniform system [T. Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 134514 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.134514]. In the low magnetic field perpendicular to the layers, the zero-energy vortex bound states in the BCS phase are split by the Zeeman magnetic field. On the other hand, the PDW state appears in the high magnetic field, and the sign of the order parameter is opposite between the layers. We find that the vortex core suddenly shrinks and the zero-energy bound states appear by increasing the magnetic field through the BCS-PDW transition. We discuss the origin of the change in the vortex-core structure between the BCS and PDW states by clarifying the relation between the vortex bound states and the bulk energy spectra. In the high-magnetic-field region, the PDW state and vortex bound states are protected by the spin-orbit coupling. These characteristic behaviors in the PDW state can be observed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy.

  11. Probing Majorana bound states via counting statistics of a single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zeng-Zhao; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.

    2015-06-01

    We propose an approach for probing Majorana bound states (MBSs) in a nanowire via counting statistics of a nearby charge detector in the form of a single-electron transistor (SET). We consider the impacts on the counting statistics by both the local coupling between the detector and an adjacent MBS at one end of a nanowire and the nonlocal coupling to the MBS at the other end. We show that the Fano factor and the skewness of the SET current are minimized for a symmetric SET configuration in the absence of the MBSs or when coupled to a fermionic state. However, the minimum points of operation are shifted appreciably in the presence of the MBSs to asymmetric SET configurations with a higher tunnel rate at the drain than at the source. This feature persists even when varying the nonlocal coupling and the pairing energy between the two MBSs. We expect that these MBS-induced shifts can be measured experimentally with available technologies and can serve as important signatures of the MBSs.

  12. Vortices and gate-tunable bound states in a topological insulator coupled to superconducting leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finck, Aaron; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    It has been predicted that zero energy Majorana bound states can be found in the core of vortices within topological superconductors. Here, we report on Andreev spectroscopy measurements of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a normal metal lead and one or more niobium leads. The niobium induces superconductivity in the Bi2Se3 through the proximity effect, leading to both signatures of Andreev reflection and a prominent re-entrant resistance effect. When a large magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the surface of the Bi2Se3, we observe multiple abrupt changes in the subgap conductance that are accompanied by sharp peaks in the dynamical resistance. These peaks are very sensitive to changes in magnetic field and disappear at temperatures associated with the critical temperature of the induced superconductivity. The appearance of the transitions and peaks can be tuned by a top gate. At high magnetic fields, we also find evidence of gate-tunable states, which can lead to stable zero-bias conductance peaks. We interpret our results in terms of a transition occurring within the proximity effect region of the topological insulator, likely due to the formation of vortices. We acknowledge support from Microsoft Project Q.

  13. Harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons fiber laser based on MoS(2) saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadong; Mao, Dong; Gan, Xuetao; Han, Lei; Ma, Chaojie; Xi, Teli; Zhang, Yi; Shang, Wuyun; Hua, Shijia; Zhao, Jianlin

    2015-01-12

    We present a kind of harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons in a fiber laser based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). The mode locker is fabricated by depositing MoS(2) nanosheets on a D-shaped fiber (DF). In the fiber laser, two solitons form the bound-state pulses with a temporal separation of 3.4 ps, and the bound-state pulses are equally distributed at a repetition rate of 125 MHz, corresponding to 14th harmonics of fundamental cavity repetition rate (8.968 MHz). Single- and multiple-pulses emissions are also observed by changing the pump power and optimizing the DF based MoS(2) SA. Our experiment demonstrates an interesting operation regime of mode-locked fiber laser, and shows that DF based MoS(2) SA can work as a promising high-power mode locker in ultrafast lasers. PMID:25835667

  14. Generation of bound states of pulses in a soliton laser with complex relaxation of a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, I O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, O G; Gumenyuk, R V

    2015-01-31

    A numerical model of a soliton fibre laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), characterised by the complex dynamics of absorption relaxation, is considered. It is shown that stationary bound states of pulses can be formed in this laser as a result of their interaction via the dispersion-wave field. The stability of stationary bound states of several pulses is analysed. It is shown that an increase in the number of pulses in a stationary bound state leads eventually to its decay and formation of a random bunch. It is found that the bunch stability is caused by the manifestation of nonlinear self-phase modulation, which attracts pulses to the bunch centre. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Quantum phase transition triggering magnetic bound states in the continuum in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessi, L. H.; Marques, Y.; Machado, R. S.; Kristinsson, K.; Ricco, L. S.; Shelykh, I. A.; Figueira, M. S.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Graphene hosting a pair of collinear adatoms in the phantom atom configuration has density of states vanishing in the vicinity of the Dirac point which can be described in terms of the pseudogap scaling as cube of the energy, Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 , which leads to the appearance of spin-degenerate bound states in the continuum (BICs) [Phys. Rev. B 92, 045409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045409]. In the case when adatoms are locally coupled to a single carbon atom the pseudogap scales linearly with energy, which prevents the formation of BICs. Here, we explore the effects of nonlocal coupling characterized by the Fano factor of interference q0, tunable by changing the slope of the Dirac cones in the graphene band structure. We demonstrate that three distinct regimes can be identified: (i) for q0qc 2 the cubic scaling of the pseudogap with energy Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 characteristic to the phantom atom configuration is restored and the phase with nonmagnetic BICs is recovered. The phase with magnetic BICs can be described in terms of an effective intrinsic exchange field of ferromagnetic nature between the adatoms mediated by graphene monolayer. We thus propose a new type of QPT resulting from the competition between two ground states, respectively characterized by spin-degenerate and magnetic BICs.

  16. All-optical light storage in bound states in the continuum and release by demand.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, E N; Pichugin, K N; Sadreev, A F

    2015-08-24

    In the framework of the temporal coupled mode theory we consider bound states embedded in the continuum (BSC) of photonic crystal waveguide as a capacity for light storage. A symmetry protected BSC occurs in two off-channel microresonators positioned symmetrically relative to the waveguide. We demonstrate that the symmetry protected BSC captures a fraction of a light pulse due to the Kerr effect as the pulse passes by the microresonators. However the amount of captured light is found to be strongly sensitive to the parameters of the gaussian light pulse such as basic frequency, duration and intensity. In contrast to the above case the BSC resulted from a full destructive interference of two eigenmodes of a single microresonator accumulates a fixed amount of light dependent on the material parameters of the microresonator but independent of the light pulse. The BSCs in the Fabry-Perot resonator show similar effects. We also show that the accumulated light can be released by a secondary pulse. These phenomena pave a way for all-optical storage and release of light.

  17. Tunable transport through a quantum dot chain with side-coupled Majorana bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Cui; Lu, Gang; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2014-09-14

    We investigate the transport properties of a quantum dot (QD) chain side-coupled to a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that the zero-bias conductance is tightly dependent on the parity of QD number. First, if a Majorana zero mode is introduced to couple to one QD of the odd-numbered QD structure, the zero-bias conductance is equal to (e{sup 2})/(2h) , but the zero-bias conductance will experience a valley-to-peak transition if the Majorana zero mode couples to the different QDs of the even-numbered QD structure. On the other hand, when the inter-MBS coupling is nonzero, the zero-bias conductance spectrum shows a peak in the odd-numbered QD structure, and in the even-numbered QD structure one conductance valley appears at the zero-bias limit. These results show the feasibility to manipulate the current in a multi-QD structure based on the QD-MBS coupling. Also, such a system can be a candidate for detecting the MBSs.

  18. Ab initio potential energy surface and bound states for the Kr-OCS complex.

    PubMed

    Feng, Eryin; Sun, Chunyan; Yu, Chunhua; Shao, Xi; Huang, Wuying

    2011-09-28

    The first ab initio potential energy surface of the Kr-OCS complex is developed using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with noniterative inclusion of connected triples [CCSD(T)]. The mixed basis sets, aug-cc-pVTZ for the O, C, and S atom, and aug-cc-pVQZ-PP for the Kr atom, with an additional (3s3p2d1f) set of midbond functions are used. A potential model is represented by an analytical function whose parameters are fitted numerically to the single point energies computed at 228 configurations. The potential has a T-shaped global minimum and a local linear minimum. The global minimum occurs at R = 7.146 a(0), θ = 105.0° with energy of -270.73 cm(-1). Bound state energies up to J = 9 are calculated for three isotopomers (82)Kr-OCS, (84)Kr-OCS, and (86)Kr-OCS. Analysis of the vibrational wavefunctions and energies suggests the complex can exist in two isomeric forms: T-shaped and quasi-linear. The calculated transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants of the three isotopomers are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  19. Multi-triplet bound states and finite-temperature dynamics in highly frustrated quantum spin ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honecker, Andreas; Mila, Frédéric; Normand, B.

    2016-09-01

    Low-dimensional quantum magnets at finite temperatures present a complex interplay of quantum and thermal fluctuation effects in a restricted phase space. While some information about dynamical response functions is available from theoretical studies of the one-triplet dispersion in unfrustrated chains and ladders, little is known about the finite-temperature dynamics of frustrated systems. Experimentally, inelastic neutron scattering studies of the highly frustrated two-dimensional material SrCu2(BO3)2 show an almost complete destruction of the one-triplet excitation band at a temperature only 1/3 of its gap energy, accompanied by strong scattering intensities for apparent multi-triplet excitations. We investigate these questions in the frustrated spin ladder and present numerical results from exact diagonalization for the dynamical structure factor as a function of temperature. We find anomalously rapid transfer of spectral weight out of the one-triplet band and into both broad and sharp spectral features at a wide range of energies, including below the zero-temperature gap of this excitation. These features are multi-triplet bound states, which develop particularly strongly near the quantum phase transition, fall to particularly low energies there, and persist all the way to infinite temperature. Our results offer valuable insight into the physics of finite-temperature spectral functions in SrCu2(BO3)2 and many other highly frustrated spin systems.

  20. Experimental study of bound states in 12Be through low-energy 11Be(d,p)-transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, J. G.; Bildstein, V.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cubero, M.; Diriken, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gernhäuser, R.; Jonson, B.; Koldste, G. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Mücher, D.; Nilsson, T.; Nowak, K.; Pakarinen, J.; Pesudo, V.; Raabe, R.; Riisager, K.; Seidlitz, M.; Tengblad, O.; Törnqvist, H.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; De Witte, H.

    2013-10-01

    The bound states of 12Be have been studied through a 11Be(d,p)12Be transfer reaction experiment in inverse kinematics. A 2.8 MeV/u beam of 11Be was produced using the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. The outgoing protons were detected with the T-REX silicon detector array. The MINIBALL germanium array was used to detect gamma rays from the excited states in 12Be. The gamma-ray detection enabled a clear identification of the four known bound states in 12Be, and each of the states has been studied individually. Differential cross sections over a large angular range have been extracted. Spectroscopic factors for each of the states have been determined from distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations and have been compared to previous experimental and theoretical results.

  1. Theoretical study of photoproduction of an η'N bound state on a deuteron target with forward proton emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekihara, Takayasu; Sakai, Shuntaro; Jido, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Possibilities of observing a signal of an η'n bound state are investigated by considering photoproductions of the η and η' mesons on a deuteron target with forward proton emission. For this purpose, we take the η'n interaction from the linear σ model with a coupling to η n , in which an s -wave η'n bound state can be dynamically generated, and we fix the γ p →η p and η'p scattering amplitudes so as to reproduce the experimental cross sections with forward proton emission. By using these γ p →η(')p and η(')n →η(')n amplitudes, we calculate cross sections of the γ d →η n p and η'n p reactions with forward proton emission in single and η(')-exchange double-scattering processes. As a result, we find that the signal of the η'n bound state can be seen below the η'n threshold in the η n invariant mass spectrum of the γ d →η n p reaction and is comparable with the contribution from the quasifree η' production above the η'n threshold. We also discuss the behavior of the signal of the η'n bound state in several experimental conditions and model parameters.

  2. On the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space: Bound states, scattering and helicity nonconservation

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, F.M.; Silva, E.O.; Pereira, M.

    2013-12-15

    In this work the bound state and scattering problems for a spin- 1/2 particle undergone to an Aharonov–Bohm potential in a conical space in the nonrelativistic limit are considered. The presence of a δ-function singularity, which comes from the Zeeman spin interaction with the magnetic flux tube, is addressed by the self-adjoint extension method. One of the advantages of the present approach is the determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter in terms of physics of the problem. Expressions for the energy bound states, phase-shift and S matrix are determined in terms of the self-adjoint extension parameter, which is explicitly determined in terms of the parameters of the problem. The relation between the bound state and zero modes and the failure of helicity conservation in the scattering problem and its relation with the gyromagnetic ratio g are discussed. Also, as an application, we consider the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space plus a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. -- Highlights: •Planar dynamics of a spin- 1/2 neutral particle. •Bound state for Aharonov–Bohm systems. •Aharonov–Bohm scattering. •Helicity nonconservation. •Determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter.

  3. Reprint of : Effect of a tunnel barrier on the scattering from a Majorana bound state in an Andreev billiard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciani, M.; Schomerus, H.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the joint distribution P(S , Q) of the scattering matrix S and time-delay matrix Q = - iℏS† dS / dE of a chaotic quantum dot coupled by point contacts to metal electrodes. While S and Q are statistically independent for ballistic coupling, they become correlated for tunnel coupling. We relate the ensemble averages of Q and S and thereby obtain the average density of states at the Fermi level. We apply this to a calculation of the effect of a tunnel barrier on the Majorana resonance in a topological superconductor. We find that the presence of a Majorana bound state is hidden in the density of states and in the thermal conductance if even a single scattering channel has unit tunnel probability. The electrical conductance remains sensitive to the appearance of a Majorana bound state, and we calculate the variation of the average conductance through a topological phase transition.

  4. Analytical study of bound states in graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes: The variable phase method and the relativistic Levinson theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miserev, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of localized states in 1D systems with a relativistic spectrum, namely, graphene stripes and carbon nanotubes, is studied analytically. The bound state as a superposition of two chiral states is completely described by their relative phase, which is the foundation of the variable phase method (VPM) developed herein. Based on our VPM, we formulate and prove the relativistic Levinson theorem. The problem of bound states can be reduced to the analysis of closed trajectories of some vector field. Remarkably, the Levinson theorem appears as the Poincaré index theorem for these closed trajectories. The VPM equation is also reduced to the nonrelativistic and semiclassical limits. The limit of a small momentum p y of transverse quantization is applicable to an arbitrary integrable potential. In this case, a single confined mode is predicted.

  5. Approximate bound-state solutions of the Dirac equation for the generalized yukawa potential plus the generalized tensor interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikot, Akpan N.; Maghsoodi, Elham; Hassanabadi, Hassan; Obu, Joseph A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we obtain the approximate analytical bound-state solutions of the Dirac particle with the generalized Yukawa potential within the framework of spin and pseudospin symmetries for the arbitrary к state with a generalized tensor interaction. The generalized parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions in closed form. We also report some numerical results and present figures to show the effect of the tensor interaction.

  6. Structural Characterization of Two Metastable ATP-Bound States of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Megan L.; Mark, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters couple the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to the transport of substrate molecules across the membrane. The mechanism by which ATP binding and/or hydrolysis drives the conformational changes associated with substrate transport has not yet been characterized fully. Here, changes in the conformation of the ABC export protein P-glycoprotein on ATP binding are examined in a series of molecular dynamics simulations. When one molecule of ATP is placed at the ATP binding site associated with each of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), the membrane-embedded P-glycoprotein crystal structure adopts two distinct metastable conformations. In one, each ATP molecule interacts primarily with the Walker A motif of the corresponding NBD. In the other, the ATP molecules interacts with both Walker A motif of one NBD and the Signature motif of the opposite NBD inducing the partial dimerization of the NBDs. This interaction is more extensive in one of the two ATP binding site, leading to an asymmetric structure. The overall conformation of the transmembrane domains is not altered in either of these metastable states, indicating that the conformational changes associated with ATP binding observed in the simulations in the absence of substrate do not lead to the outward-facing conformation and thus would be insufficient in themselves to drive transport. Nevertheless, the metastable intermediate ATP-bound conformations observed are compatible with a wide range of experimental cross-linking data demonstrating the simulations do capture physiologically important conformations. Analysis of the interaction between ATP and its cofactor Mg2+ with each NBD indicates that the coordination of ATP and Mg2+ differs between the two NBDs. The role structural asymmetry may play in ATP binding and hydrolysis is discussed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our results are not heavily influenced by the crystal structure chosen for initiation of the simulations

  7. Quantum Transport through a Triple Quantum Dot System in the Presence of Majorana Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao-Tan; Cao, Zhi-Yuan; Zhong, Cheng-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We study the electron transport through a special quantum-dot (QD) structure composed of three QDs and two Majorana bound states (MBSs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. This QD-MBS ring structure includes two channels with the two coupled MBSs being Channel 1 and one QD being Channel 2, and three types of transport processes such as the electron transmission (ET), the Andreev reflection (AR), and the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR). By comparing the ET, AR, and CAR processes through Channels 1 and 2, we make a systematic study on the transport properties of the QD-MBS ring. It is shown that there appear two kinds of characteristic transport patterns for Channels 1 and 2, as well as the interplay between the two patterns. Of particular interest is that there exists an AR-assisted ET process in Channel 2, which is different from that in Channel 1. Thus a clear “X” pattern due to the ET and AR processes appears in the ET, AR, and CAR transmission coefficients. Moreover, we study how Channel 2 affects the three transport processes when Channel 1 is tuned in the ET and CAR regimes. It is shown that the transport properties of the ET, AR and CAR processes can be adjusted by tuning the energy level of the QD embedded in Channel 2. We believe this research should be a helpful reference for understanding the transport properties in the QD-MBS coupled systems. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11274040, and by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University under Grant No. NCET-08-0044

  8. Tunneling spectroscopy of a single quantum dot coupled to a superconductor: From Kondo ridge to Andreev bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, J.-D.; Joyez, P.; Žitko, Rok; Goffman, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    We performed tunneling spectroscopy of a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic reservoir either in the normal or in the superconducting state. We explore how the Kondo resonance, observed when the QD's occupancy is odd and the reservoir is normal, evolves towards Andreev bound states (ABS) in the superconducting state. Within this regime, the ABS spectrum observed is consistent with a quantum phase transition from a singlet to a degenerate magnetic doublet ground state, in quantitative agreement with a single-level Anderson model with superconducting leads.

  9. Coulomb Driven New Bound States at the Integer Quantum Hall States in GaAs/Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As Single Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H.W.; Kim, Yongmin; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Lee, X.; Munteanu, F.M.; Perry, C.H.; Simmons, J.A.

    1999-05-25

    Coulomb driven, magneto-optically induced electron and hole bound states from a series of heavily doped GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As single heterojunctions (SHJ) are revealed in high magnetic fields. At low magnetic fields ({nu} >2), the photohuninescence spectra display Shubnikov de-Haas type oscillations associated with the empty second subband transition. In the regime of the Landau filling factor {nu} <1 and 1< {nu} <2, we found strong bound states due to Mott type Vocalizations. Since a SHJ has an open valence band structure, these bound states area unique property of the dynamic movement of the valence holes in strong magnetic fields.

  10. Application of solid state NMR for the study of surface bound species and fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, Stacey

    Recent advances in solid state NMR have been utilized to study a variety of systems. These advancements have allowed for the acquisition of sequences previously only available for solution state detection. The protocol for the measurement of coals and other carbonaceous materials was updated to incorporate the recent advancements in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and high magnetic fields. Argonne Premium Coals were used to test the sensitivity and resolution of the experiments preformed at high field and fast MAS. The higher field spectra were shown to be slightly less sensitive than the traditional lower field spectra, however, the new high field fast MAS spectra had better resolution. This increased resolution allowed for the separation of a variety of different functional groups, thereby allowing the composition of the coal to be determined. The use of 1 H detection allowed for 2D spectra of coals for the first time. These spectra could be filtered to examine either through-space or through-bond correlations. Indirect detection via 1 H was also pivotal in the detection of natural abundance 15 N spectra. Through-space and through-bond 2D spectra of natural abundance bulk species are shown with a sensitivity increase of 15 fold over traditional detection. This sensitivity enhancement allowed for the detection of natural abundance 15 N surface bound species in 2D, something that could not be acquired via traditional methods. The increased efficiency of the through-space magnetization transfer, Cross polarization, at fast MAS compared to the slower MAS rates is shown. The through-bond magnetization transfer via INEPT was examined and the effect of J-coupling is confirmed. Solid State NMR can be utilized to help improve catalytic interactions. Solid state NMR was used to examine the aldol condensation between p-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone. The formation of a stable intermediate with p-nitrobenzaldehyde was found on the primary functionalized amine mesoporous

  11. Single-molecule imaging reveals a collapsed conformational state for DNA-bound cohesin

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Johannes; Çamdere, Gamze Ö.; Koshland, Douglas E.; Greene, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is essential for the hierarchical organization of the eukaryotic genome and plays key roles in many aspects of chromosome biology. The conformation of cohesin bound to DNA remains poorly defined, leaving crucial gaps in our understanding of how cohesin fulfills its biological functions. Here we use single molecule microscopy to directly observe the dynamic and functional characteristics of cohesin bound to DNA. We show that cohesin can undergo rapid one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA, but individual nucleosomes, nucleosome arrays, and other protein obstacles significantly restrict its mobility. We further demonstrate that DNA motor proteins can readily push cohesin along DNA, but they cannot pass through the interior of the cohesin ring. Together, our results reveal that DNA-bound cohesin has a central pore that is substantially smaller than anticipated. These findings have direct implications for understanding how cohesin and other SMC proteins interact with and distribute along chromatin. PMID:27117417

  12. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Dipolar Radicals via Autodetachment of Dipole-Bound States of Cold Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Tao; Dau, Phuong Diem; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution vibrational spectroscopy of transient species is important for determining their molecular structures and understanding their chemical reactivity. However, the low abundance and high reactivity of molecular radicals pose major challenges to conventional absorption spectroscopic methods. The observation of dipole-bound states (DBS) in anions extend autodetachment spectroscopy to molecular anions whose corresponding neutral radicals possess a large enough dipole moment (>2.5 D).1,2 However, due to the difficulty of assigning the congested spectra at room temperature, there have been only a limited number of autodetachment spectra via DBS reported. Recently, we have built an improved version of a cold trap3 coupled with high-resolution photoelectron imaging.4 The first observation of mode-specific auotodetachment of DBS of cold phenoxide have shown that not only vibrational hot bands were completely suppressed, but also rotational profile was observed.5 The vibrational frequencies of the DBS were found to be the same as those of the neutral radical, suggesting that vibrational structures of dipolar radicals can be probed via DBS.5 More significantly, the DBS resonances allowed a number of vibrational modes with very weak Frank-Condon factors to be "lightened" up via vibrational autodetachment.5 Recently, our first high-resolution vibrational spectroscopy of the dehydrogenated uracil radical, with partial rotational resolution, via autodetachment from DBS of cold deprotonated uracil anions have been reported.6 Rich vibrational information is obtained for this important radical species. The resolved rotational profiles also allow us to characterize the rotational temperature of the trapped anions for the first time.6 1 K. R. Lykke, D. M. Neumark, T. Andersen, V. J. Trapa, and W. C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6842 (1987). 2 D. M. Wetzel, and J. I. Brauman, J. Chem. Phys. 90, 68 (1989). 3 P. D. Dau, H. T. Liu, D. L. Huang, and L. S. Wang, J. Chem. Phys

  13. Gerade-ungerade symmetry breaking in HD: bound states supported by the I' (1)Pi(g) outer potential well.

    PubMed

    Grozdanov, T P; McCarroll, R

    2008-03-21

    Gerade-ungerade symmetry breaking in HD for the bound states supported by the shallow outer I' (1)Pi(g) potential is studied theoretically. By clarifying the asymptotic behavior of the relevant nonadiabatic couplings among the stats correlating to the n=2 dissociation limit, simple two-state (for f-parity) and three-state (for e-parity) approximations are formulated. They reproduce binding energies in very good agreement with recent spectroscopic measurements. Comparisons with the calculations based on a single model potential are presented and the dependence of the results on the used ab initio Born-Oppenheimer (clamped nuclei) potentials is discussed.

  14. Single-Molecule Folding Mechanisms of the apo- and Mg2+-Bound States of Human Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Mohsin M.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Otazo, Mariela R.; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Cecconi, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is the primordial member of a family of proteins responsible primarily for sensing changes in neuronal Ca2+ concentration. NCS-1 is a multispecific protein interacting with a number of binding partners in both calcium-dependent and independent manners, and acting in a variety of cellular processes in which it has been linked to a number of disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive studies on the Ca2+-activated state of NCS proteins, little is known about the conformational dynamics of the Mg2+-bound and apo states, both of which are populated, at least transiently, at resting Ca2+ conditions. Here, we used optical tweezers to study the folding behavior of individual NCS-1 molecules in the presence of Mg2+ and in the absence of divalent ions. Under tension, the Mg2+-bound state of NCS-1 unfolds and refolds in a three-state process by populating one intermediate state consisting of a folded C-domain and an unfolded N-domain. The interconversion at equilibrium between the different molecular states populated by NCS-1 was monitored in real time through constant-force measurements and the energy landscapes underlying the observed transitions were reconstructed through hidden Markov model analysis. Unlike what has been observed with the Ca2+-bound state, the presence of Mg2+ allows both the N- and C-domain to fold through all-or-none transitions with similar refolding rates. In the absence of divalent ions, NCS-1 unfolds and refolds reversibly in a two-state reaction involving only the C-domain, whereas the N-domain has no detectable transitions. Overall, the results allowed us to trace the progression of NCS-1 folding along its energy landscapes and provided a solid platform for understanding the conformational dynamics of similar EF-hand proteins. PMID:26153708

  15. Topological nature of in-gap bound states in disordered large-gap monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fanyao; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Diniz, G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a physical model based on disordered (a hole punched inside a material) monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) to demonstrate a large-gap quantum valley Hall insulator. We find an emergence of bound states lying inside the bulk gap of the TMDs. They are strongly affected by spin-valley coupling, rest- and kinetic- mass terms and the hole size. In addition, in the whole range of the hole size, at least two in-gap bound states with opposite angular momentum, circulating around the edge of the hole, exist. Their topological insulator (TI) feature is analyzed by the Chern number, characterized by spacial distribution of their probabilities and confirmed by energy dispersion curves (Energy vs. angular momentum). It not only sheds light on overcoming low-temperature operating limitation of existing narrow-gap TIs, but also opens an opportunity to realize valley- and spin- qubits.

  16. Bound states for an induced electric dipole in the presence of an azimuthal magnetic field and a disclination

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.

    2010-09-15

    Based on the Wei-Han-Wei setup [H. Wei, R. Han, and X. Wei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2071 (1995)], where a neutral particle with an induced electric dipole moment interacts with a configuration of crossed electric and magnetic fields, in this paper we study the bound states that arise when we change the Wei-Han-Wei field configuration and consider a field configuration of crossed azimuthal magnetic field and a radial electric field. Moreover, we consider here a spin-half neutral particle and the presence of a linear topological defect called disclination. We obtain the bound states in two distinct cases: in the first case, we consider that the wave function of the neutral particle is well-behaved at the origin and vanishes at the asymptotic limit; in the second case, we consider the neutral particle confined to a parabolic potential like a quantum dot.

  17. Factors governing the protonation state of Zn-bound histidine in proteins: a DFT/CDM study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-lin; Lim, Carmay

    2004-03-01

    We have performed systematic theoretical studies to elucidate the factors governing the His protonation/deprotonation state in Zn-binding sites, especially those containing the ubiquitous Zn-His-Asp/Glu triad. Specifically, we have addressed the following three questions: (1) How does the transfer of the Zn-bound His imidazole proton to the second-shell Asp/Glu carboxylate oxygen depend on the composition of the other first-shell ligands and the solvent accessibility of the metal-binding site? (2) Can any second-shell ligand with a proton acceptor group such as the backbone carbonyl oxygen also act as a proton acceptor? (3) What is the effect of the Asp/Glu in the Zn-His-Asp/Glu triad on the Zn-bound water protonation state? To address these questions, we used a combination of quantum mechanical and continuum dielectric methods to compute the free energies for deprotonating a Zn-bound imidazole/water in various Zn complexes. The calculations show that whether the Zn-bound His is protonated or deprotonated depends on (1) the solvent accessibility of the metal-binding site, and (2) the Lewis acid ability of Zn, which is indirectly determined by both the first- and the second-shell Zn ligands. The calculations also show that the effect of the Zn-His-Asp/Glu interaction on the nucleophilicity of the Zn-bound water depends on the solvent accessibility of the catalytic Zn site. Furthermore, they show that the Asp/Glu side chain in the Zn-His-Asp/Glu triad can increase the negative charge of its partner, His, and create an anionic hole that may stabilize a cation in buried cavities, provided that the Zn complex is cationic/neutral. The findings of this work are in accord with available experimental data.

  18. Meson-meson bound state in a 2+1 lattice QCD model with two flavors and strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael; Neto, Antonio Francisco

    2005-08-01

    We consider the existence of bound states of two mesons in an imaginary-time formulation of lattice QCD. We analyze an SU(3) theory with two flavors in 2+1 dimensions and two-dimensional spin matrices. For a small hopping parameter and a sufficiently large glueball mass, as a preliminary, we show the existence of isoscalar and isovector mesonlike particles that have isolated dispersion curves (upper gap up to near the two-particle threshold {approx}-4ln{kappa}). The corresponding meson masses are equal up to and including O({kappa}{sup 3}) and are asymptotically of order -2ln{kappa}-{kappa}{sup 2}. Considering the zero total isospin sector, we show that there is a meson-meson bound state solution to the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a ladder approximation, below the two-meson threshold, and with binding energy of order b{kappa}{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.02359{kappa}{sup 2}. In the context of the strong coupling expansion in {kappa}, we show that there are two sources of meson-meson attraction. One comes from a quark-antiquark exchange. This is not a meson exchange, as the spin indices are not those of the meson particle, and we refer to this as a quasimeson exchange. The other arises from gauge field correlations of four overlapping bonds, two positively oriented and two of opposite orientation. Although the exchange part gives rise to a space range-one attractive potential, the main mechanism for the formation of the bound state comes from the gauge contribution. In our lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, this mechanism is manifested by an attractive distance-zero energy-dependent potential. We recall that no bound state appeared in the one-flavor case, where the repulsive effect of Pauli exclusion is stronger.

  19. Metallocorrole Interactions with Carbon Monoxide, Nitric Oxide, and Nitroxyl-A DFT Study of Low-Energy Bound States.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Lima, Hugo; Conradie, Jeanet; Ghosh, Abhik

    2016-09-01

    Presented herein is a first DFT survey of metallocorrole (M = Mn, Fe, Co) adducts of CO, NO, NO(-), and HNO. Bound states with relatively short M-N(O) distances <1.9 Å are predicted for both [M(Cor)(NO)](-) and [M(Cor)(HNO)] derivatives for all three metals. The calculations also confirm the existence of moderately stable charge-neutral CoCO corrole adducts. PMID:27525455

  20. Bound state solution of Dirac equation for Hulthen plus trigonometric Rosen Morse non-central potential using Romanovski polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Suparmi, A. Cari, C.; Angraini, L. M.

    2014-09-30

    The bound state solutions of Dirac equation for Hulthen and trigonometric Rosen Morse non-central potential are obtained using finite Romanovski polynomials. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum and the radial wave functions which are given in terms of Romanovski polynomials are obtained from solution of radial Dirac equation. The angular wave functions and the orbital quantum number are found from angular Dirac equation solution. In non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy spectrum reduces into non-relativistic energy.

  1. Spectroscopy of η'-nucleus bound states at GSI and FAIR — very preliminary results and future prospects —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.

    2015-08-01

    The possible existence of η'-nucleus bound states has been put forward through theoretical and experimental studies. It is strongly related to the η' mass at finite density, which is expected to be reduced because of the interplay between the U A (1) anomaly and partial restoration of chiral symmetry. The investigation of the C( p, d) reaction at GSI and FAIR, as well as an overview of the experimental program at GSI and future plans at FAIR are discussed.

  2. Do the higher oxidation states of the photosynthetic O2-evolving system contain bound H2O?

    PubMed

    Radmer, R; Ollinger, O

    1986-01-01

    A modified mass spectrometer was used to determine whether the higher oxidation states of the photosynthetic O2-evolving system contain substrate water that is not freely exchangeable with the external medium. Our data indicated that the higher oxidation states contain no appreciable bound, non-exchangeable H2O. This suggests that H2O oxidation takes place via a rapid, concerted, all-or-none mechanism rather than by a mechanism involving stable, partially oxidized, H2O-derived intermediates. These findings set definite constraints on possible mechanisms of O2 evolution.

  3. Two-sided estimates of minimum-error distinguishability of mixed quantum states via generalized Holevo-Curlander bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, Jon

    2009-03-15

    We prove a concise factor-of-2 estimate for the failure rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor. Probab. Appl. 23, 411 (1978)] and Curlander [Ph.D. Thesis, MIT, 1979]. A modification to the minimal principle of Cocha and Poor [Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing (Rinton, Princeton, NJ, 2003)] is used to derive a suboptimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of 2 of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted and has appeared as the first iterate of a sequence of measurements proposed by Jezek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 060301 (2002)]. Unlike the so-called pretty good measurement, it coincides with Holevo's asymptotically optimal measurement in the case of nonequiprobable pure states. A quadratically weighted version of the measurement bound by Barnum and Knill [J. Math. Phys. 43, 2097 (2002)] is proven. Bounds on the distinguishability of syndromes in the sense of Schumacher and Westmoreland [Phys. Rev. A 56, 131 (1997)] appear as a corollary. An appendix relates our bounds to the trace-Jensen inequality.

  4. Two-sided estimates of minimum-error distinguishability of mixed quantum states via generalized Holevo-Curlander bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Jon

    2009-03-01

    We prove a concise factor-of-2 estimate for the failure rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor. Probab. Appl. 23, 411 (1978)] and Curlander [Ph.D. Thesis, MIT, 1979]. A modification to the minimal principle of Cocha and Poor [Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement, and Computing (Rinton, Princeton, NJ, 2003)] is used to derive a suboptimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of 2 of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted and has appeared as the first iterate of a sequence of measurements proposed by Ježek et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 060301 (2002)]. Unlike the so-called pretty good measurement, it coincides with Holevo's asymptotically optimal measurement in the case of nonequiprobable pure states. A quadratically weighted version of the measurement bound by Barnum and Knill [J. Math. Phys. 43, 2097 (2002)] is proven. Bounds on the distinguishability of syndromes in the sense of Schumacher and Westmoreland [Phys. Rev. A 56, 131 (1997)] appear as a corollary. An appendix relates our bounds to the trace-Jensen inequality.

  5. Polarization Effects of GaN and AlGaN: Polarization Bound Charge, Band Bending, and Electronic Surface States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Brianna S.; Yang, Jialing; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-12-01

    GaN-based devices are currently limited by reliability issues such as gate leakage and current collapse, where the mechanisms responsible for degradation are closely related to the electronic surface state configuration. Therefore, understanding the electronic surface state configuration of GaN-based materials will help improve device performance. Since GaN has an inherent polarization, these materials are also subject to a bound polarization charge, which influences the electronic state configuration. In this study, the surface band bending of N-face GaN, Ga-face GaN, and Ga-face AlGaN was measured with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy after various cleaning steps to investigate the effects of the polarization. Despite the different surface bound charge on these materials, similar band bending was observed regardless of the magnitude or direction of the charge. Specifically, the band bending varied from -0.1 eV to 0.9 eV on these samples, which supported the models of a Fermi level pinning state at ˜0.4 eV to 0.8 eV below the conduction band. Based on available literature, we suggest this pinning state is indirectly evident of a nitrogen vacancy or gallium-dangling bond.

  6. Crystal structure of M-Ras reveals a GTP-bound "off" state conformation of Ras family small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Shima, Fumi; Muraoka, Shin; Liao, Jingling; Okamoto, Hidetsugu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tamura, Atsuo; Yagi, Naoto; Ueki, Tatzuo; Kataoka, Tohru

    2005-09-01

    Although some members of Ras family small GTPases, including M-Ras, share the primary structure of their effector regions with Ras, they exhibit vastly different binding properties to Ras effectors such as c-Raf-1. We have solved the crystal structure of M-Ras in the GDP-bound and guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p)-bound forms. The overall structure of M-Ras resembles those of H-Ras and Rap2A, except that M-Ras-Gpp(NH)p exhibits a distinctive switch I conformation, which is caused by impaired intramolecular interactions between Thr-45 (corresponding to Thr-35 of H-Ras) of the effector region and the gamma-phosphate of Gpp(NH)p. Previous 31P NMR studies showed that H-Ras-Gpp(NH)p exists in two interconverting conformations, states 1 and 2. Whereas state 2 is a predominant form of H-Ras and corresponds to the "on" conformation found in the complex with effectors, state 1 is thought to represent the "off" conformation, whose tertiary structure remains unknown. 31P NMR analysis shows that free M-Ras-Gpp(NH)p predominantly assumes the state 1 conformation, which undergoes conformational transition to state 2 upon association with c-Raf-1. These results indicate that the solved structure of M-Ras-Gp-p(NH)p corresponds to the state 1 conformation. The predominance of state 1 in M-Ras is likely to account for its weak binding ability to the Ras effectors, suggesting the importance of the tertiary structure factor in small GTPase-effector interaction. Further, the first determination of the state 1 structure provides a molecular basis for developing novel anti-cancer drugs as compounds that hold Ras in the state 1 "off" conformation. PMID:15994326

  7. Scattering states of the Majorana-bound-state-supporting vortices at the interface of a topological insulator and an s-wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Adam

    We consider an isolated vortex in the 2D proximity-induced superconducting state formed at the interface of a 3D topological insulator (TI) and an s-wave superconductor (sSC). Prior calculations of the bound states of this system famously revealed a zero-energy state that is its own conjugate, a Majorana fermion bound to the vortex core. We calculate, not the bound states, but the scattering states of this system, and ask how the spin-momentum-locked massless Dirac form of the single-particle Hamiltonian, inherited from the TI surface, affects the cross section for scattering Bogoliubov quasiparticles from the vortex. As in the case of an ordinary superconductor, this is a two-channel problem with the vortex mixing particle-like and hole-like excitations. And as in the ordinary case, the same-channel differential cross section diverges in the forward direction due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, resulting in an infinite total cross section but finite transport and skew cross sections. We calculate the transport and skew cross sections numerically, via a partial wave analysis, as a function of both quasiparticle excitation energy and chemical potential. Novel effects emerge as particle-like or hole-like excitations are tuned through the Dirac point.

  8. Probing the Vibrational Spectroscopy of the Deprotonated Thymine Radical by Photodetachment and State-Selective Autodetachment Photoelectron Spectroscopy via Dipole-Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Zhu, Guo-Zhu; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonated thymine can exist in two different forms, depending on which of its two N sites is deprotonated: N1[T-H]^- or N3[T-H]^-. Here we report a photodetachment study of the N1[T-H]^- isomer cooled in a cryogenic ion trap and the observation of an excited dipole-bound state. Eighteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state are observed, and its vibrational ground state is found to be 238 ± 5 wn below the detachment threshold of N1[T-H]^-. The electron affinity of the deprotonated thymine radical (N1[T-H]^.) is measured accruately to be 26 322 ± 5 wn (3.2635 ± 0.0006 eV). By tuning the detachment laser to the sixteen vibrational levels of the dipole-bound state that are above the detachment threshold, highly non-Franck-Condon resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectra are obtained due to state- and mode-selective vibrational autodetachment. Much richer vibrational information is obtained for the deprotonated thymine radical from the photodetachment and resonant-enhanced photoelectron spectroscopy. Eleven fundamental vibrational frequencies in the low-frequency regime are obtained for the N1[T-H]^. radical, including the two lowest-frequency internal rotational modes of the methyl group at 70 ± 8 wn and 92 ± 5 wn. D. L. Huang, H. T. Liu, C. G. Ning, G. Z. Zhu and L. S. Wang, Chem. Sci., 6, 3129-3138 (2015)

  9. Waveguide QED: Many-body bound-state effects in coherent and Fock-state scattering from a two-level system

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Huaixiu; Baranger, Harold U.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2010-12-15

    Strong coupling between a two-level system (TLS) and bosonic modes produces dramatic quantum optics effects. We consider a one-dimensional continuum of bosons coupled to a single localized TLS, a system which may be realized in a variety of plasmonic, photonic, or electronic contexts. We present the exact many-body scattering eigenstate obtained by imposing open boundary conditions. Multiphoton bound states appear in the scattering of two or more photons due to the coupling between the photons and the TLS. Such bound states are shown to have a large effect on scattering of both Fock- and coherent-state wave packets, especially in the intermediate coupling-strength regime. We compare the statistics of the transmitted light with a coherent state having the same mean photon number: as the interaction strength increases, the one-photon probability is suppressed rapidly, and the two- and three-photon probabilities are greatly enhanced due to the many-body bound states. This results in non-Poissonian light.

  10. Masking of Lewis acidity trends in the solid-state structures of trichlorido- and tribromido(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ(3)N,N',N'')gallium(III).

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Igor V; Bodensteiner, Michael; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

    2014-03-01

    The molecular structures of trichlorido(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ(3)N,N',N'')gallium(III), [GaCl3(C15H11N3)], and tribromido(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ(3)N,N',N'')gallium(III), [GaBr3(C15H11N3)], are isostructural, with the Ga(III) atom displaying an octahedral geometry. It is shown that the Ga-N distances in the two complexes are the same within experimental error, in contrast to expected bond lengthening in the bromide complex due to the lower Lewis acidity of GaBr3. Thus, masking of the Lewis acidity trends in the solid state is observed not only for complexes of group 13 metal halides with monodentate ligands but for complexes with the polydentate 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine donor as well.

  11. Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Barbara; Lombardi, Maurice; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2004-08-01

    Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincaré map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map.

  12. Experimental realization of robust dynamical decoupling with bounded controls in a solid-state spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Wang, W.-B.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a robust dynamical decoupling protocol with bounded controls using long soft pulses, eliminating a challenging requirement of strong control pulses in conventional implementations. This protocol is accomplished by designing the decoupling propagators to go through a Eulerian cycle of the coupler group [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 037901 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.037901]. We demonstrate that this Eulerian decoupling scheme increases the coherence time by two orders of magnitude in our experiment under either dephasing or a universal noise environment.

  13. Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i PMID:23870061

  14. Andreev reflection and bound state formation in a ballistic two-dimensional electron gas probed by a quantum point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Hiroshi; Todt, Clemens; Kumada, Norio; Harada, Yuichi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Muraki, Koji

    2016-10-01

    We study coherent transport and bound state formation of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in a high-mobility I n0.75G a0.25As two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to a superconducting Nb electrode by means of a quantum point contact (QPC) as a tunable single-mode probe. Below the superconducting critical temperature of Nb, the QPC shows a single-channel conductance greater than the conductance quantum 2 e2/h at zero bias, which indicates the presence of Andreev-reflected quasiparticles, time-reversed states of the injected electron, returning back through the QPC. The marked sensitivity of the conductance enhancement to voltage bias and perpendicular magnetic field suggests a mechanism analogous to reflectionless tunneling—a hallmark of phase-coherent transport, with the boundary of the 2DEG cavity playing the role of scatterers. When the QPC transmission is reduced to the tunneling regime, the differential conductance vs bias voltage probes the single-particle density of states in the proximity area. Measured conductance spectra show a double peak within the superconducting gap of Nb, demonstrating the formation of Andreev bound states in the 2DEG. Both of these results, obtained in the open and closed geometries, underpin the coherent nature of quasiparticles, i.e., phase-coherent Andreev reflection at the InGaAs/Nb interface and coherent propagation in the ballistic 2DEG.

  15. Analytical continuation from bound to resonant states in the Dirac equation with quadrupole-deformed potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Signoracci, A. J.; Smith, M. S.; Li, Z. P.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Resonances with pronounced single-particle characteristics are crucial for quantitative descriptions of exotic nuclei near and beyond the drip lines, and often impact halo formation and nucleon decay processes. Since the majority of nuclei are deformed, the interplay between deformation and orbital structure near threshold can lead to improved descriptions of exotic nuclei. Purpose: Develop a method to study single-particle resonant orbital structure in the Dirac equation with a quadrupole-deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Determine the structure evolution of bound and resonant levels with deformation in this scheme, and examine the impact on halo formation in loosely bound systems, with a focus on the recent halo candidate nucleus 37Mg. Method: Analytical continuation of the coupling constant (ACCC) method is developed on the basis of the Dirac equation with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The scalar and vector terms in the deformed potential are determined by the energies of the valence neutron and nearby orbitals, which are extracted from a self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculation with the PC-PK1 density functional. Results: We compare the energies and widths of resonant orbitals in the recent halo nucleus candidate 37Mg using the ACCC method based on the Dirac coupled-channel equations with those determined from the scattering phase shift (SPS) method. It is found that the results from the two methods agree well for narrow resonances, whereas the SPS method fails for broad resonances. Nilsson levels for bound and resonant orbitals from the ACCC method are calculated over a wide range of deformations and show some decisive hints of halo formation in 37Mg. Conclusions: In our ACCC model for deformed potentials in the coupled-channel Dirac equations, the crossing of the configuration 1 /2 [321 ] and 5 /2 [312 ] orbitals at a deformation of approximately 0.5 enhances the probability to occupy the 1 /2 [321 ] orbital coming from

  16. On absence of bound states for weakly attractive δ'-interactions supported on non-closed curves in ℝ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jex, Michal; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Let Λ ⊂ ℝ2 be a non-closed piecewise-C1 curve, which is either bounded with two free endpoints or unbounded with one free endpoint. Let u±|Λ ∈ L2(Λ) be the traces of a function u in the Sobolev space H1(ℝ2∖Λ) onto two faces of Λ. We prove that for a wide class of shapes of Λ the Schrödinger operator Hω Λ with δ'-interaction supported on Λ of strength ω ∈ L∞(Λ; ℝ) associated with the quadratic form H 1 ( R 2 ∖ Λ ) ∋ u ↦ ∫ R 2 |" separators=" ∇ u | 2 d x - ∫ Λ ω |" separators=" u + | Λ - u - | Λ | 2 d s has no negative spectrum provided that ω is pointwise majorized by a strictly positive function explicitly expressed in terms of Λ. If, additionally, the domain ℝ2∖Λ is quasi-conical, we show that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) . For a bounded curve Λ in our class and non-varying interaction strength ω ∈ ℝ, we derive existence of a constant ω∗ > 0 such that σ ( Hω Λ ) = [ 0 , + ∞ ) for all ω ∈ (-∞, ω∗]; informally speaking, bound states are absent in the weak coupling regime.

  17. Normal coordinate structural decomposition of the heme distortions of hemoglobin in various quaternary states and bound to allosteric effectors.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Monique; Yonetani, Takashi; Fidy, Judit

    2003-01-01

    The distortions of the alpha1, alpha2, beta1, and beta2 hemes of human hemoglobin (HbA) in various quaternary states and as affected by the presence of allosteric effectors was investigated by subjecting CHARMM energy-minimized models to normal coordinate structural decomposition (NSD) analysis. NSD was applied to the individual hemes extracted from the R, T, and R2-state models of HbA and to HbA bound to DPG and to IHP. Overall, NSD results are indicative of characteristic distortions, not only for the hemes of the different HbA quaternary states, but also for the hemes of the HbA models bound to allosteric effectors. Comparing the distortions of the inequivalent alpha and beta hemes in T-state HbA, we show good correlation between NSD and the experimentally observed low-frequency nu52 (Eg) and gamma7 (A2u) modes reported in the literature for alpha and beta HbA hemes while noting substantial differences between these types for B2u and B1u distortions. For the R2 hemes, NSD yields heme distortions that are more comparable to those of the R-state, especially in magnitude. However, the R2 hemes do not exhibit inequivalence of alpha and beta heme distortions, a result that may contribute to an understanding of the functional importance of this state. Relative to T-state heme distortions, NSD results on the effector-bound hemes show that tertiary changes induced in T-state HbA as a result of binding DPG and IHP drastically affect heme distortions. In the alpha hemes extracted from the HbA-DPG model, most noteworthy are the increased wav(x) and wav(y) distortions and enhancement of ruf and dom deformations. In the beta hemes, the wav(y) is the most affected distortion with increase in sad. The NSD results are also different for the hemes of the HbA-IHP model, in that the beta sad and ruf deformations are more enhanced with increase of doming in the alpha hemes. Our results describe the effect of the subtle protein-induced changes on the nonplanarity of the HbA hemes

  18. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    PubMed

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  19. The Deuteron and Exotic Two-Body Bound States from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Silas; Detmold, Will; Detmold, William; Lin, Huey-Wen; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, Assumpta; Savage, Martin; Torok, Aaron; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2012-03-01

    Results of a high-statistics, multi-volume Lattice QCD exploration of the deuteron, the di-neutron, the H-dibaryon, and the {Xi}-{Xi}- system at a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} ~ 390 MeV are presented. Calculations were performed with an anisotropic n{sub f} = 2+1 Clover discretization in four lattice volumes of spatial extent L ~ 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with a lattice spacing of b{sub s} ~ 0.123 fm in the spatial-direction, and b{sub t} ~ b{sub s}/3.5 in the time-direction. The {Xi}-{Xi}- is found to be bound by B{sub {Xi}-{Xi}} = 14.0(1.4)(6.7) MeV, consistent with expectations based upon phenomenological models and low-energy effective field theories constrained by nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon scattering data at the physical light-quark masses. We find weak evidence that both the deuteron and the di-neutron are bound at this pion mass, with binding energies of B{sub d} = 11(05)(12) MeV and B{sub nn} = 7.1(5.2)(7.3) MeV, respectively. With an increased number of measurements and a refined analysis, the binding energy of the H-dibaryon is B{sub H} = 13.2(1.8)(4.0) MeV at this pion mass, updating our previous result.

  20. Explanation of the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930) as a {rho}{delta} bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, P.; Oset, E.; Vijande, J.

    2009-02-15

    We use the {rho}{delta} interaction in the hidden gauge formalism to dynamically generate N* and {delta}* resonances. We show, through a comparison of the results from this analysis and from a quark model study with data, that the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930), {delta}{sub 3/2{sup -}}(1940), and {delta}{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1900) resonances can be assigned to {rho}{delta} bound states. More precisely the {delta}{sub 5/2{sup -}}(1930) can be interpreted as a {rho}{delta} bound state whereas the {delta}{sub 3/2{sup -}}(1940) and {delta}{sub 1/2{sup -}}(1900) may contain an important {rho}{delta} component. This interpretation allows for a solution of a long-standing puzzle concerning the description of these resonances in constituent quark models. In addition we also obtain degenerate J{sup P}=1/2{sup -},3/2{sup -},5/2{sup -} N* states but their assignment to experimental resonances is more uncertain.

  1. Bound states in two-dimensional spin systems near the Ising limit: A quantum finite-lattice study

    SciTech Connect

    Dusuel, Sebastien; Kamfor, Michael; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Thomale, Ronny; Vidal, Julien

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the properties of low-energy bound states in the transverse-field Ising model and in the XXZ model on the square lattice. To this end, we develop an optimized implementation of perturbative continuous unitary transformations. The Ising model is studied in the small-field limit which is found to be a special case of the toric code model in a magnetic field. To analyze the XXZ model, we perform a perturbative expansion about the Ising limit in order to discuss the fate of the elementary magnon excitations when approaching the Heisenberg point.

  2. Morphology of α-Si3N4 in Fe-Si3N4 prepared via flash combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Jun-hong; Su, Jin-dong; Yan, Ming-wei; Sun, Jia-lin; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The state and formation mechanism of α-Si3N4 in Fe-Si3N4 prepared by flash combustion were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that α-Si3N4 crystals exist only in the Fe-Si3N4 dense areas. When FeSi75 particles react with N2, which generates substantial heat, a large number of Si solid particles evaporate. The product between Si gas and N2 is a mixture of α-Si3N4 and β-Si3N4. At the later stage of the flash combustion process, α-Si3N4 crystals dissolve and reprecipitate as β-Si3N4 and the β-Si3N4 crystals grow outward from the dense areas in the product pool. As the temperature decreases, the α-Si3N4 crystals cool before transforming into β-Si3N4 crystals in the dense areas of Fe-Si3N4. The phase composition of flash-combustion-synthesized Fe-Si3N4 is controllable through manipulation of the gas-phase reaction in the early stage and the α→β transformation in the later stage.

  3. Bound and resonance states of the dipolar anion of hydrogen cyanide: Competition between threshold effects and rotation in an open quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.; Płoszajczak, M.; Jaganathen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bound and resonance states of the dipole-bound anion of hydrogen cyanide HCN- are studied using a nonadiabatic pseudopotential method and the Berggren expansion technique involving bound states, decaying resonant states, and nonresonant scattering continuum. We devise an algorithm to identify the resonant states in the complex energy plane. To characterize spatial distributions of electronic wave functions, we introduce the body-fixed density and use it to assign families of resonant states into collective rotational bands. We find that the nonadiabatic coupling of electronic motion to molecular rotation results in a transition from the strong-coupling to weak-coupling regime. In the strong-coupling limit, the electron moving in a subthreshold, spatially extended halo state follows the rotational motion of the molecule. Above the ionization threshold, the electron's motion in a resonance state becomes largely decoupled from molecular rotation. The widths of resonance-band members depend primarily on the electron orbital angular momentum.

  4. Ab initio characterization of the Ne-I2 van der Waals complex: intermolecular potentials and vibrational bound states.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Tellez, Laura; Valdés, Álvaro; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical study of the potential energy surface and bound states is performed for the ground state of the NeI(2) van der Waals (vdW) complex. The three-dimensional interaction energies are obtained from ab initio coupled-cluster, coupled-cluster single double (triple)/complete basis set, calculations using large basis sets, of quadruple- through quintuple-zeta quality, in conjunction with relativistic effective core potentials for the heavy iodine atoms. For the analytical representation of the surface two different schemes, based on fitting and interpolation surface generation techniques, are employed. The surface shows a double-minimum topology for linear and T-shaped configurations. Full variational quantum mechanical calculations are carried out using the model surfaces, and the vibrationally averaged structures and energetics for the NeI(2) isomers are determined. The accuracy of the potential energy surfaces is validated by a comparison between the present results and the corresponding experimental data available. In lieu of more experimental measurements, we also report our results/predictions on higher bound vibrational vdW levels, and the influence of the employed surface on them is discussed.

  5. Solvable light-front model of the electromagnetic form factor of the relativistic two-body bound state in 1+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Mankiewicz, L. ); Sawicki, M. )

    1989-11-15

    Within a relativistically correct yet analytically solvable model of light-front quantum mechanics we construct the electromagnetic form factor of the two-body bound state and we study the validity of the static approximation to the full form factor. Upon comparison of full form factors calculated for different values of binding energy we observe an unexpected effect that for very strongly bound states further increase in binding leads to an increase in the size of the bound system. A similar effect is found for another quantum-mechanical model of relativistic dynamics.

  6. A Transformation Approach to Optimal Control Problems with Bounded State Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanafy, Lawrence Hanafy

    1971-01-01

    A technique is described and utilized in the study of the solutions to various general problems in optimal control theory, which are converted in to Lagrange problems in the calculus of variations. This is accomplished by mapping certain properties in Euclidean space onto closed control and state regions. Nonlinear control problems with a unit m cube as control region and unit n cube as state region are considered.

  7. Modification of continua and quasi-bound states through coherent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charalambidis, D.; Faucher, O.; Shao, Y. L.; Karapanogioti, N. E.; Fotakis, C.

    1995-04-01

    We present and compare experimental results of laser induced continium structure (LICS) for {lambda}-coupling schemes in a smooth atomic continium (Na atom), in the vicinity of autoionizing states (Ca-atom), as well as for a ladder scheme involving two coupled autoionizing states. The LICS structure is prodded through multiphoton ionization in all the investigated systems and through third harmonic generation (THG) in the Ca experiments.

  8. Unified calculation of generalized oscillator strength of argon ranging from bound to continuum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Jin, Rui; Zeng, De-Ling; Han, Xiao-Ying; Yan, Jun; Li, Jia-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The electron and photon scattering data of an atom are crucial for many scientific fields, including plasma physics, astrophysics, and so on. For high enough but nonrelativistic incident energies, the first Born approximation is applicable for calculating these data, in which the key physics quantity is the generalized oscillator strength (GOS). In high-energy electron impact excitation processes, atoms will be excited into various excited states including strongly perturbed Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. How to calculate these quantities of a nontrivial many-electron atom rapidly and accurately is still a great challenge. Based on our eigenchannel R -matrix method R -eigen, we further extend it to calculate the GOS of a whole channel in an atom, which includes all Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. The Jπ=1- states of argon are chosen as an illustrating example. The calculation results are in good agreement with the available benchmark absolute experimental measurements. The calculated eigenchannel GOS matrix elements are smooth functions of the excitation energy and momentum transfer. From such smooth eigenchannel GOS matrix elements, we can obtain the GOS of any specific excited state through multichannel quantum defect theory, e.g., infinite Rydberg (including a strongly perturbed one), autoionization, and continuum states.

  9. γ -ray decay from neutron-bound and unbound states in 95Mo and a novel technique for spin determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeking, M.; Krtička, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Allmond, J. M.; Basunia, M. S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Daub, B. H.; Fallon, P.; Firestone, R. B.; Goldblum, B. L.; Hatarik, R.; Lake, P. T.; Larsen, A. C.; Lee, I.-Y.; Lesher, S. R.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N. D.; Volya, A.

    2016-02-01

    The emission of γ rays from neutron-bound and neutron-unbound states in 95Mo, populated in the 94Mo(d ,p ) reaction, has been investigated. Charged particles and γ radiation were detected with arrays of annular silicon and Clover-type high-purity Germanium detectors, respectively. Utilizing p -γ and p -γ -γ coincidences, the 95Mo level scheme was greatly enhanced with 102 new transitions and 43 new states. It agrees well with shell model calculations for excitation energies below ≈2 MeV. From p -γ coincidence data, a new method for the determination of spins of discrete levels is proposed. The method exploits the suppression of high-angular momentum neutron emission from levels with high spins populated in the (d ,p ) reaction above the neutron separation energy. Spins for almost all 95Mo levels below 2 MeV (and for a few levels above) have been determined with this method.

  10. Observation of bound and unbound 1- states in 208Pb by particle spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz-Labaratorium at Garching (Germany), experiments on the 208Pb(d,d'), the 207Pb(d,p), the resonant and the non-resonant 208Pb(p,p') reactions were performed. The 208Pb(p,p') reaction was investigated near all seven known isobaric analog resonances in 209Bi. The excitation energies of about 300 states in 208Pb at Ex < 8MeV were determined with an accuracy of about 100 eV. The mean distance between states in 208Pb is about 10keV up to the neutron threshold (S(n) = 7368 keV). The number of 1- states observed by particle spectroscopy up to the proton threshold (S(p) = 8.00 MeV) is close to the number predicted by the schematic shell model without residual interaction. The structure of several 1- states is deduced from particle spectroscopy. Four out of the seven lowest 1- states contain about 80% strength of a single configuration.

  11. Electric and magnetic dipole excitations to bound states in 70,72,74,76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, A.; Lindenstruth, S.; Schacht, H.; Starck, B.; Stock, R.; Wesselborg, C.; Heil, R. D.; Kneissl, U.; Margraf, J.; Pitz, H. H.; Steiper, F.

    1995-02-01

    The nuclei 70,72,74,76Ge were studied by nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. Partially linearly polarized and unpolarized bremsstrahlung of 9 to 14 MeV endpoint energy was used at the Giessen 65 MeV electron linear accelerator; unpolarized bremsstrahlung of 4 MeV endpoint energy was used at the Stuttgart Dynamitron. The scattered photons were detected by Ge γ-ray spectrometers with high energy resolution. Multipolarities were determined by measuring the angular correlations between the beam and the scattered γ rays at different scattering angles. Precise excitation energies and ground-state decay widths of numerous (> 120) previously unknown spin-1 states were extracted. For 65 ground-state transitions (20 M1 transitions, 45 E1 transitions) parities were assigned, in a model-independent way, by polarized bremsstrahlung. A detailed distribution of electric and magnetic dipole strength in the even Ge isotopes was established.

  12. State-dependent self-representations: a culture-bound aspect of identity.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Amar

    2009-03-01

    The concepts of identity, self and self-representation have been discussed extensively in psychoanalytic metapsychology. These concepts are at times confusing and are used interchangeably by various authors. Regardless of what one calls it, what one experiences in a given moment is one's representation as an analyst or a father or a son or daughter, depending on the situation one is in. This paper describes such state-dependent self-representations as an aspect of the self and argues that state-dependent self-representations are probably more clinically relevant and useful in day-to-day practice.

  13. Tightly bound 3D quantum dot energy states in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J.; Liu, S. Y.; Sawamura, M.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the detailed quantum dynamics of a 3D quantum dot in a magnetic field. The dot is taken to be lodged in a bulk medium in a high magnetic field and it is represented by a three-dimensional Dirac delta function potential which would support just one subband state if there were no magnetic field. The integral equation for the Schrödinger Green's function of this system is solved in closed form analytically and the single particle subband energy spectrum and the density of states are examined taking account of splintering of the subband spectrum by landau quantization.

  14. Molecular parameters for weakly bound 2g(aa, ab) and {0}_{u}^{-}(ab) states of molecular iodine and dipole moment functions of transitions to these states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturo, V. V.; Cherepanov, I. N.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Weakly bound valence states of 2g symmetry, correlating with the I(2 P 3/2) + I(2 P 3/2) (aa) and I(2 P 3/2) + I(2 P 1/2) (ab) dissociation limits, as well as {0}u-(ab) state, were studied using vibrationally resolved luminescence spectra corresponding to transitions from δ2u(3 P 2) and g {0}g-(3 P 1) ion-pair states, in molecular iodine, respectively, populated using a three-step three-color laser excitation scheme. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of the valence states are determined for the first time. Dipole moment functions of δ2u → 2g(aa, ab) and g {0}g- → {0}u-(ab) transitions are found to exponentially decrease.

  15. Probing transfer to unbound states of the ejectile with weakly bound

  16. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, S. K.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Keeley, N.; Parkar, V. V.; Rout, P. C.; Ramachandran, K.; Martel, I.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Kumar, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2016-06-01

    The two-step process of transfer followed by breakup is explored by measuring a rather complete set of exclusive data for reaction channels populating states in the ejectile continua of the states of the ejectile.

  17. Population of bound excited states in intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Obertelli, A.; Gade, A.; Bazin, D.; Hansen, P.G.; Hoagland, T.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Mueller, W.F.; Yoneda, K.; Campbell, C.M.; Cook, J.M.; Davies, A.D.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Terry, J.R.; Zwahlen, H.; Cottle, P.D.; Kemper, K.W.; Reynolds, R.R.; Roeder, B.T.; Tostevin, J.A.

    2006-04-15

    Fragmentation reactions with intermediate-energy heavy-ion beams exhibit a wide range of reaction mechanisms, ranging from direct reactions to statistical processes. We examine this transition by measuring the relative population of excited states in several sd-shell nuclei produced by fragmentation with the number of removed nucleons ranging from two to sixteen. The two-nucleon removal is consistent with a non-dissipative process, whereas the removal of more than five nucleons appears to be mainly statistical.

  18. Human γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase 1: STRUCTURES OF THE FREE ENZYME, INHIBITOR-BOUND TETRAHEDRAL TRANSITION STATES, AND GLUTAMATE-BOUND ENZYME REVEAL NOVEL MOVEMENT WITHIN THE ACTIVE SITE DURING CATALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Terzyan, Simon S; Burgett, Anthony W G; Heroux, Annie; Smith, Clyde A; Mooers, Blaine H M; Hanigan, Marie H

    2015-07-10

    γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (GGT1) is a cell surface, N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase that cleaves glutathione and other γ-glutamyl compounds. GGT1 expression is essential in cysteine homeostasis, and its induction has been implicated in the pathology of asthma, reperfusion injury, and cancer. In this study, we report four new crystal structures of human GGT1 (hGGT1) that show conformational changes within the active site as the enzyme progresses from the free enzyme to inhibitor-bound tetrahedral transition states and finally to the glutamate-bound structure prior to the release of this final product of the reaction. The structure of the apoenzyme shows flexibility within the active site. The serine-borate-bound hGGT1 crystal structure demonstrates that serine-borate occupies the active site of the enzyme, resulting in an enzyme-inhibitor complex that replicates the enzyme's tetrahedral intermediate/transition state. The structure of GGsTop-bound hGGT1 reveals its interactions with the enzyme and why neutral phosphonate diesters are more potent inhibitors than monoanionic phosphonates. These structures are the first structures for any eukaryotic GGT that include a molecule in the active site covalently bound to the catalytic Thr-381. The glutamate-bound structure shows the conformation of the enzyme prior to release of the final product and reveals novel information regarding the displacement of the main chain atoms that form the oxyanion hole and movement of the lid loop region when the active site is occupied. These data provide new insights into the mechanism of hGGT1-catalyzed reactions and will be invaluable in the development of new classes of hGGT1 inhibitors for therapeutic use.

  19. Three-dimensional steady state flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous bounded aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, Alberto; Riva, Monica; Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2003-03-01

    We consider flow in a confined aquifer of uniform thickness due to a well of zero radius that fully penetrates the aquifer and discharges at a constant rate. If the lateral extent of the aquifer is infinite, a steady state flow regime never develops. It is, however, well known that if the aquifer is additionally uniform, a quasi-steady state region extends from the well out to a cylindrical surface whose radius expands as the square root of time. On the expanding surface, head is uniform and time invariant. Inside this surface, head at any time is described by a steady state solution. A rigorous analysis of the analogous situation in a randomly heterogeneous aquifer would require the solution of a three-dimensional transient stochastic flow problem in an aquifer of infinite lateral extent. Here we take a different approach by developing a three-dimensional steady solution for mean flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous aquifer with a cylindrical prescribed head boundary. In analogy to the uniform case we expect our solution to approximate a quasi-steady state region whose radius is initially small in comparison to the horizontal correlation scale of log conductivity but grows with time to become eventually much larger. We treat log conductivity as a statistically homogeneous random field characterized by a Gaussian spatial covariance function that may have different horizontal and vertical correlation scales. Our solution consists of analytical expressions for the ensemble mean and variance of head in the aquifer to second order in the standard deviation of log conductivity. It is based on recursive approximations of exact nonlocal moment equations that are free of distributional assumptions and so apply to both Gaussian and non-Gaussian log conductivity fields. The analytical solution is supported by numerical Monte Carlo simulations. It clarifies the manner in which relationships between the horizontal and vertical scales of the quasi-steady state region and

  20. Application of the Recoupled Pair Bonding Model to Bound Doublet and Quartet States of Hso, Soh, Osf and Sof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Woon, D. E.; Dunning, T. H., Jr.

    2010-06-01

    The recoupled pair bonding model and high level ab initio calculations [MRCI, RCCSD(T)] with correlation consistent basis sets were used to examine the optimized structures, bonding behavior and bond energies of bound HSO, SOH, OSF and SOF doublet and quartet states. This was done by the systematic addition of H or F to the 3Σ-, 1Δ and 3Π states of SO or by adding O(3P,1D) to the 2Π and 4Σ- states of SF. Of particular interest are those states that are either formed as a result of decoupling a pair of electrons or by further addition to a molecule that has already undergone the decoupling process. One of the goals of these studies is to explore the effect of ligand properties such as electronegativity or electron affinity in order to anticipate their impact on trends in bond energy and other properties similar to those observed in previous SFn (n=1--6) recoupled pair bonding studies. This study marks the first exploration of the behavior of a divalent ligand in hypervalent bonding under the recoupled pair bonding model.

  21. Rapidly converging bound state eigenenergies for the two dimensional quantum dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, C. R.; Vrinceanu, D.

    2013-06-01

    We examine the effectiveness of a new spectral method in solving the two dimensional dipole problem (DP), as originally formulated by Dasbiswas et al (2010 Phys. Rev. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 81 064516), and recently analysed by Amore and Fernandez (AF, 2012 Phys. Rev. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 235004), through a large, non-orthogonal basis, Rayleigh-Ritz (RR) analysis. This deceptively simple problem has a long history of poorly approximated energy values, particularly for the ground state, until the recent work by AF. In contrast to their approach, we implement an orthogonal polynomial projection quantization (OPPQ) analysis (Handy and Vrinceanu 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 135202), involving expanding the wavefunction in terms of a complete basis, \\Psi ({\\overrightarrow{r}}) = \\sum _n \\Omega _n P_n( {\\overrightarrow{r}}) R({\\overrightarrow{r}}), where P_n are the orthogonal polynomials relative to the weight R. For systems transformable into a moment equation, such as DP, the projection coefficients are determinable in closed form, yielding an efficient quantization procedure, particularly when the weight assumes the asymptotic form of the physical solutions. There are several theoretical reasons why the OPPQ should be more effective than the above RR approach. Indeed, comparable results are achieved with significantly fewer OPPQ variational parameters as compared to RR-variational parameters. For instance, with regards to the delicate ground state energy, 130 OPPQ variables are required to achieve Egr = -0.137 7614 (Egr = -0.137 7514 after a Shanks transform) as opposed to the 821 required within the RR formulation: Egr = -0.137 7478. Despite this, the relative slow convergence for low lying even parity states, within both the OPPQ and RR formulations, suggests that significant logarithmic contributions to the wavefunction, at the origin, have been ignored by all previous investigators. Modifying the RR variational analysis to include log

  1. Bound states in one-dimensional acoustic parity-time-symmetric lattices for perfect sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Degang; Shen, Yaxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Yi, Lin

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through a one-dimensional multilayer structure composed of a thin defect layer sandwiched by two phononic crystals. Two kinds of defect states will generate in band gaps and both of them cause unitary transmission. However, they have very unlike field distributions due to the different contrasted acoustic impedances between the defect layer and its neighboring layers. Spectral positions of transmission peaks can be exactly determined by the resonant phase condition. In a non-dissipative system, these resonant states correspond to single crossing point of two eigenvalues of scattering matrix. When gain and loss are introduced to judiciously construct an acoustic parity-time-symmetric lattice, the crossing point will split into a pair of exceptional points (EPs). Interestingly, the EPs correspond to unidirectional zero reflection that is very sensitive to the thickness of defect layer. Taking advantage of this virtue, a very sensitive acoustic sensor can be designed, which has potentially applications in ultrasonic inspection, noise detection, ultrasonic medicine, etc.

  2. Ionization of barium through a coherent excitation of two bound intermediate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc-Koenig, E.; Aymar, M.; Millet, M.; Lecomte, J.-M.; Lyras, A.

    We have investigated theoretically the asymmetrical photoionization yields into the 6s1/2, 5d3/2 and 5d5/2 continuum channels of atomic barium observed by Wang, Chen and Elliott [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2416 (1996)] in the study of coherent control through two-color resonant interfering paths. The atomic parameters obtained from a theoretical approach based on a combination of jj-coupled eigenchannel R-matrix and Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory are used to analyze the photoionization spectra from the and 6s7p states with polarized light beams. The studied energy range includes the 6p7p autoionizing resonances. The dynamics of the two-color photoionization is governed by the coherent excitation of the 6s6p and intermediate states. This excitation is described as an adiabatic process in the rotating wave approximation. The influence of the radiative decay, spatial distribution of the intensities of the laser beams and hyperfine interaction is discussed.

  3. Absence of Andreev bound states in β -PdBi2 probed by point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Liqiang; Le, Tian; Xu, C. Q.; Xing, X. Z.; Shi, Zhixiang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Xin

    2016-07-01

    We report point-contact spectroscopic studies on high quality single crystalline β -PdBi2 with a superconducting Tc=5.2 K . Our measurements show a typical double-peak structure in the voltage-biased junction conductance at low temperatures, probably excluding the existence of topological Andreev bound states. The conductance curves can be well fitted with the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model for s -wave superconductors, yielding a superconducting gap Δ0≃0.92 meV with 2 Δ0/kBTc˜4.1 . Our results strongly suggest that β -PdBi2 is a conventional intermediate-coupling s -wave superconductor.

  4. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N; Sadreev, Almas F

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase. PMID:27165662

  5. Using bound exciton transitions to optically resolve neutral donor hyperfine states of various donor species in Silicon-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvail, Jeff; Dluhy, Phillip; Saeedi, Kamyar; Szech, Michael; Riemann, Helge; Abromisov, Nikolai; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Thewalt, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus in silicon is established as a promising resource for use in quantum information processing tasks. The neutral donor hyperfine states have been shown to have record long coherence times, high fidelity gates via RF pulses, and projective readout via optical bound exciton transitions. As Shannon's theory of information tells us, we can process more information in an alphabet of more symbols, so there is motivation to look at donors with higher nuclear spin than the I = 1 / 2 of 31P, which provide access to Hilbert spaces of dimension greater than two. In this talk I will describe optical studies of the donors 75As (I = 3 / 2), 121Sb (I = 5 / 2), and 209Bi (I = 9 / 2) in 28Si.

  6. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase.

  7. Channel dropping via bound states in the continuum in a system of two nonlinear cavities between two linear waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Evgeny; Pichugin, Konstantin; Sadreev, Almas

    2013-10-01

    We show that two nonlinear resonant cavities aligned between two parallel waveguides can support self-induced bound states in the continuum (BSCs). These BSCs are symmetrical relative to an inversion of the waveguides and to inversion of the transport axis. Due to this BSCs can drop an incident wave from one waveguide to another with very high efficiency. We show also that the frequency of the efficient channel dropping can be tuned by injecting power. All these results are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of GaAs rods holding two parallel waveguides and two defects made of a Kerr medium.

  8. Dipole-bound states of the alkali-superhalogen anions: LiBeX3- (X = F, Cl, Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jing; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Cui, Song-Hua; Li, Zhi-Ru; Huang, Xu-Ri

    2010-08-01

    The dipole-bound states of the LiBeX3- (X = F, Cl, Br) anions were predicted at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ+5 s5 p level of theory. Upon electron attachment, the neutral LiBeX 3 host shows noteworthy geometrical relaxation, which is accompanied by a significant increase of the dipole moment. The LiBeX3- anions exhibit large vertical electron detachment energies of 539.2-886.5 MeV at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ+6 s6 p4 d level, indicating that the binding of electrons to the alkali-superhalogen LiBeX 3 molecules is feasible. In addition, the stabilities of the LiBeX3- anions with respect to the neutral hosts, are found to be closely related to the electronegativity of the X ligands and partial atomic charge localized on Be.

  9. Observability of surface Andreev bound states in a topological insulator in proximity to an s-wave superconductor.

    PubMed

    Snelder, M; Golubov, A A; Asano, Y; Brinkman, A

    2015-08-12

    To guide experimental work on the search for Majorana zero-energy modes, we calculate the superconducting pairing symmetry of a three-dimensional topological insulator in combination with an s-wave superconductor. We show how the pairing symmetry changes across different topological regimes. We demonstrate that a dominant p-wave pairing relation is not sufficient to realise a Majorana zero-energy mode useful for quantum computation. Our main result is the relation between odd-frequency pairing and Majorana zero energy modes by using Green functions techniques in three-dimensional topological insulators in the so-called Majorana regime. We discuss thereafter how the pairing relations in the different regimes can be observed in the tunneling conductance of an s-wave proximised three-dimensional topological insulator. We discuss the necessity to incorporate a ferromagnetic insulator to localise the zero-energy bound state to the interface as a Majorana mode.

  10. Crystal structure of a Na+-bound Na+,K+-ATPase preceding the E1P state.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryuta; Ogawa, Haruo; Vilsen, Bente; Cornelius, Flemming; Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2013-10-10

    Na(+),K(+)-ATPase pumps three Na(+) ions out of cells in exchange for two K(+) taken up from the extracellular medium per ATP molecule hydrolysed, thereby establishing Na(+) and K(+) gradients across the membrane in all animal cells. These ion gradients are used in many fundamental processes, notably excitation of nerve cells. Here we describe 2.8 Å-resolution crystal structures of this ATPase from pig kidney with bound Na(+), ADP and aluminium fluoride, a stable phosphate analogue, with and without oligomycin that promotes Na(+) occlusion. These crystal structures represent a transition state preceding the phosphorylated intermediate (E1P) in which three Na(+) ions are occluded. Details of the Na(+)-binding sites show how this ATPase functions as a Na(+)-specific pump, rejecting K(+) and Ca(2+), even though its affinity for Na(+) is low (millimolar dissociation constant). A mechanism for sequential, cooperative Na(+) binding can now be formulated in atomic detail. PMID:24089211

  11. Excited state dynamics in SO2. I. Bound state relaxation studied by time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Iain; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Mikosch, Jochen; Bertrand, Julien B; Wörner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, David M; Spanner, Michael; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Stolow, Albert

    2014-05-28

    The excited state dynamics of isolated sulfur dioxide molecules have been investigated using the time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. Excited state wavepackets were prepared in the spectroscopically complex, electronically mixed (B̃)(1)B1/(Ã)(1)A2, Clements manifold following broadband excitation at a range of photon energies between 4.03 eV and 4.28 eV (308 nm and 290 nm, respectively). The resulting wavepacket dynamics were monitored using a multiphoton ionisation probe. The extensive literature associated with the Clements bands has been summarised and a detailed time domain description of the ultrafast relaxation pathways occurring from the optically bright (B̃)(1)B1 diabatic state is presented. Signatures of the oscillatory motion on the (B̃)(1)B1/(Ã)(1)A2 lower adiabatic surface responsible for the Clements band structure were observed. The recorded spectra also indicate that a component of the excited state wavepacket undergoes intersystem crossing from the Clements manifold to the underlying triplet states on a sub-picosecond time scale. Photoelectron signal growth time constants have been predominantly associated with intersystem crossing to the (c̃)(3)B2 state and were measured to vary between 750 and 150 fs over the implemented pump photon energy range. Additionally, pump beam intensity studies were performed. These experiments highlighted parallel relaxation processes that occurred at the one- and two-pump-photon levels of excitation on similar time scales, obscuring the Clements band dynamics when high pump beam intensities were implemented. Hence, the Clements band dynamics may be difficult to disentangle from higher order processes when ultrashort laser pulses and less-differential probe techniques are implemented.

  12. Nature of the Bound States of Molecular Hydrogen in Carbon Nanohorns

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Alonso, F.; Bermejo, F. J.; Cabrillo, C.; Leon, V.; Saboungi, M. L.

    2007-05-25

    The effects of confining molecular hydrogen within carbon nanohorns are studied via high-resolution quasielastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopies. Both sets of data are remarkably different from those obtained in bulk samples in the liquid and crystalline states. At temperatures where bulk hydrogen is liquid, the spectra of the confined sample show an elastic component indicating a significant proportion of immobile molecules as well as distinctly narrower quasielastic line widths and a strong distortion of the line shape of the para{yields}ortho rotational transition. The results show that hydrogen interacts far more strongly with such carbonous structures than it does to carbon nanotubes, suggesting that nanohorns and related nanostructures may offer significantly better prospects as lightweight media for hydrogen storage applications.

  13. Communication: Evidence for dipole-bound excited states in gas-phase I(-) ⋅ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) anionic salt microclusters.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Andrew J A; Yoshikawa, Naruo; Wang, Jin-Guo; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2015-09-14

    We report the first UV laser photodissociation spectra of gas-phase I(-) ⋅ MI (M = Na, K, Cs) alkali halide anionic microclusters. The photodepletion spectra of these clusters display strong absorption bands just below the calculated vertical detachment energies, indicative of the presence of dipole-bound excited states. Photoexcitation at the peak of the transition to the dipole-bound excited state results in production of a primary [MI](-) photofragment along with a less intense I(-) ion. The photofragmentation mechanism of the excited state cluster is discussed in the context of an initial dipole-bound excited state that subsequently relaxes via a vibrational Feschbach resonance. The experiments described have been performed in an electrospray source laser-interfaced quadrupole ion-trap instrument and demonstrated for the first time that dipole-bound excited states can be identified in the relatively high-collision environment of a quadrupole ion-trap, in particular for systems with large dipole moments associated with the presence of charge separation. This indicates considerable potential for future experiments that identify dipole-bound excited states as a "low-resolution" structural probe of biomolecules and molecular charge separation using the instrumentation employed in this work.

  14. Gauge invariant description of heavy quark bound states in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.

    1980-08-01

    A model for a heavy quark meson is proposed in the framework of a gauge-invariant version of quantum chromodynamics. The field operators in this formulation are taken to be Wilson loops and strings with quark-antiquark ends. The fundamental differential equations of point-like Q.C.D. are expressed as variational equations of the extended loops and strings. The 1/N expansion is described, and it is assumed that nonleading effects such as intermediate quark pairs and nonplanar gluonic terms can be neglected. The action of the Hamiltonian in the A/sub 0/ = 0 gauge on a string operator is derived. A trial meson wave functional is constructed consisting of a path-averaged string operator applied to the full vacuum. A Gaussian in the derivative of the path location is assumed for the minimal form of the measure over paths. A variational parameter is incorporated in the measure as the exponentiated coefficient of the squared path location. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the trial state is evaluated for the assumption that the negative logarithm of the expectation value of a Wilson loop is proportional to the loop area. The energy is then minimized by deriving the equivalent quantum mechanical Schroedinger's equation and using the quantum mechanical 1/n expansion to estimate the effective eigenvalues. It is found that the area law behavior of the Wilson loop implies a nonzero best value of the variational parameter corresponding to a quantum broadening of the flux tube.

  15. SO(4) algebraic approach to the three-body bound state problem in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrašinović, V.; Salom, Igor

    2014-08-01

    We use the permutation symmetric hyperspherical three-body variables to cast the non-relativistic three-body Schrödinger equation in two dimensions into a set of (possibly decoupled) differential equations that define an eigenvalue problem for the hyper-radial wave function depending on an SO(4) hyper-angular matrix element. We express this hyper-angular matrix element in terms of SO(3) group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and use the latter's properties to derive selection rules for potentials with different dynamical/permutation symmetries. Three-body potentials acting on three identical particles may have different dynamical symmetries, in order of increasing symmetry, as follows: (1) S3 ⊗ OL(2), the permutation times rotational symmetry, that holds in sums of pairwise potentials, (2) O(2) ⊗ OL(2), the so-called "kinematic rotations" or "democracy symmetry" times rotational symmetry, that holds in area-dependent potentials, and (3) O(4) dynamical hyper-angular symmetry, that holds in hyper-radial three-body potentials. We show how the different residual dynamical symmetries of the non-relativistic three-body Hamiltonian lead to different degeneracies of certain states within O(4) multiplets.

  16. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  17. Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera. PMID:27332748

  18. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  19. Structural models of intrinsically disordered and calcium-bound folded states of a protein adapted for secretion

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Darragh P.; Hernandez, Belen; Durand, Dominique; Hourdel, Véronique; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Vachette, Patrice; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Ladant, Daniel; Brier, Sébastien; Chenal, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type I secretion systems, T1SS, to secrete virulence factors that contain calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) motifs. Here, we present structural models of an RTX protein, RD, in both its intrinsically disordered calcium-free Apo-state and its folded calcium-bound Holo-state. Apo-RD behaves as a disordered polymer chain comprising several statistical elements that exhibit local rigidity with residual secondary structure. Holo-RD is a folded multi-domain protein with an anisometric shape. RTX motifs thus appear remarkably adapted to the structural and mechanistic constraints of the secretion process. In the low calcium environment of the bacterial cytosol, Apo-RD is an elongated disordered coil appropriately sized for transport through the narrow secretion machinery. The progressive folding of Holo-RD in the extracellular calcium-rich environment as it emerges form the T1SS may then favor its unidirectional export through the secretory channel. This process is relevant for hundreds of bacterial species producing virulent RTX proteins. PMID:26374675

  20. Two interacting charged particles in an Aharonov-Bohm ring: Bound state transitions, symmetry breaking, persistent currents, and Berry's phase

    SciTech Connect

    Moulopoulos, Konstantinos; Constantinou, Martha

    2004-12-15

    By using a Green's function procedure we determine exactly the energy spectrum and the associated eigenstates of a system of two oppositely charged particles interacting through a contact potential and moving in a one-dimensional ring threaded by a magnetic flux. Critical interactions for the appearance of bound states are analytically determined and are viewed as limiting cases of many-body results from the area of interaction-induced metal-insulator transitions in charged quantal mixtures. Analytical expressions on one-body probability and charge current densities for this overall neutral system are derived and their single-valuedness leads to the possibility of states with broken symmetry, with possible experimental signatures in exciton spectra. Persistent currents are analytically determined and their properties investigated from the point of view of an interacting mesoscopic system. A cyclic adiabatic process on the interaction potential is also identified, with the associated Berry's phase directly linked to the electric (persistent) currents, the probability currents having no contribution for a neutral system.

  1. Effects of an intense, high-frequency laser field on bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well.

    PubMed

    Ungan, Fatih; Yesilgul, Unal; Sakiroğlu, Serpil; Kasapoglu, Esin; Erol, Ayse; Arikan, Mehmet Cetin; Sarı, Huseyin; Sökmen, Ismail

    2012-10-31

    Within the envelope function approach and the effective-mass approximation, we have investigated theoretically the effect of an intense, high-frequency laser field on the bound states in a GaxIn1 - xNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well for different nitrogen and indium mole concentrations. The laser-dressed potential, bound states, and squared wave functions related to these bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well are investigated as a function of the position and laser-dressing parameter. Our numerical results show that both intense laser field and nitrogen (indium) incorporation into the GaInNAs have strong influences on carrier localization.

  2. Transfer of spin angular momentum of an incident wave into orbital angular momentum of the bound states in the continuum in an array of dielectric spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2016-09-01

    We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a linear periodic array of dielectric spheres. For incident waves with circular polarization with frequency tuned to the bound states with orbital angular momentum in the radiation continuum, the spin angular momentum of the incident wave transfers into the orbital angular momentum. This, in turn, gives rise to giant vortical power currents rotating around the array. Incident wave with linear polarization with frequency tuned to the Bloch bound state in the continuum induces giant laminar power currents.

  3. Solving Faddeev equations for a bound state and a continuous spectrum of a three-nucleon system by the method of K-harmonic expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchuk, V. I.; Kozlovsky, I. V.; Tartakovsky, V. K.

    2011-05-15

    A method for solving Faddeev equations in configuration space for a bound state and a continuous spectrum of the system of three nucleons was developed on the basis of expansions in K harmonics. Coulomb interaction and particle spins were not taken into account in this study. The method in question was used to describe the triton bound state and differential cross sections for neutron-deuteron scattering at subthreshold incident-neutron energies. The Volkov, Malfliet-Tjon, and Eikemeier-Hackenbroich local nucleon-nucleon potentials were employed in the present calculations.

  4. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of {sup 195m}Hg and {sup 197m}Hg(7/2{sup −}), {sup 198m}Tl and {sup 196m}Tl(7{sup +}), and {sup 196m}Au and {sub 198m}Au(12{sup −}) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of {sup 3}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 6}He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios (δ{sub m}/δ{sub g}) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions)

  5. I(-)·(CH3I)2 photoexcitation: the influence of dipole bound states on detachment and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Van Duzor, Matthew; Mbaiwa, Foster; Lasinski, Joshua; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Mabbs, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of a photoelectron imaging study of the I(-)·(CH(3)I)(2) cluster anion over excitation wavelengths 355-260 nm. The resulting spectra and photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) suggest extensive electron-molecule interaction following photoexcitation. Fragmentation channels are observed subsequent to excitation between 355 and 330 nm. The origin of these features, which begin 200 meV and peak 70 meV below the X band direct detachment threshold, is described in terms of a predissociative dipole bound state. The nature of the fragments detected and the energetics of the channel opening argue strongly in favor of an asymmetric, head to tail cluster anion geometry posited by Dessent et al. [Acc. Chem. Res. 31, 527 (1998)]. Above the direct detachment threshold, PADs display evidence of phenomena akin to electron-molecule scattering. The fragment anions disappear above the X band threshold but reappear some distance below the second (A) direct detachment band. At these energies there is also rapid variation of the X band PAD, an observation attributed to autodetachment via spin-orbit relaxation of the iodine core of the cluster.

  6. I-.(CH3I)2 photoexcitation: The influence of dipole bound states on detachment and fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Duzor, Matthew; Mbaiwa, Foster; Lasinski, Joshua; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Mabbs, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of a photoelectron imaging study of the I-.(CH3I)2 cluster anion over excitation wavelengths 355-260 nm. The resulting spectra and photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) suggest extensive electron-molecule interaction following photoexcitation. Fragmentation channels are observed subsequent to excitation between 355 and 330 nm. The origin of these features, which begin 200 meV and peak 70 meV below the X band direct detachment threshold, is described in terms of a predissociative dipole bound state. The nature of the fragments detected and the energetics of the channel opening argue strongly in favor of an asymmetric, head to tail cluster anion geometry posited by Dessent et al. [Acc. Chem. Res. 31, 527 (1998)], 10.1021/ar950061f. Above the direct detachment threshold, PADs display evidence of phenomena akin to electron-molecule scattering. The fragment anions disappear above the X band threshold but reappear some distance below the second (A) direct detachment band. At these energies there is also rapid variation of the X band PAD, an observation attributed to autodetachment via spin-orbit relaxation of the iodine core of the cluster.

  7. Visualizing the substrate-, superoxo-, alkylperoxo-, and product-bound states at the nonheme Fe(II) site of homogentisate dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Bommer, Martin; Lin, Tzong-Yuan; Dobbek, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGDO) uses a mononuclear nonheme Fe2+ to catalyze the oxidative ring cleavage in the degradation of Tyr and Phe by producing maleylacetoacetate from homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetate). Here, we report three crystal structures of HGDO, revealing five different steps in its reaction cycle at 1.7–1.98 Å resolution. The resting state structure displays an octahedral coordination for Fe2+ with two histidine residues (His331 and His367), a bidentate carboxylate ligand (Glu337), and two water molecules. Homogentisate binds as a monodentate ligand to Fe2+, and its interaction with Tyr346 invokes the folding of a loop over the active site, effectively shielding it from solvent. Binding of homogentisate is driven by enthalpy and is entropically disfavored as shown by anoxic isothermal titration calorimetry. Three different reaction cycle intermediates have been trapped in different HGDO subunits of a single crystal showing the influence of crystal packing interactions on the course of enzymatic reactions. The observed superoxo:semiquinone-, alkylperoxo-, and product-bound intermediates have been resolved in a crystal grown anoxically with homogentisate, which was subsequently incubated with dioxygen. We demonstrate that, despite different folds, active site architectures, and Fe2+ coordination, extradiol dioxygenases can proceed through the same principal reaction intermediates to catalyze the O2-dependent cleavage of aromatic rings. Thus, convergent evolution of nonhomologous enzymes using the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad motif developed different solutions to stabilize closely related intermediates in unlike environments. PMID:23858455

  8. Comparisons of predicted steady-state levels in rooms with extended- and local-reaction bounding surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Murray; Wareing, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A combined beam-tracing and transfer-matrix model for predicting steady-state sound-pressure levels in rooms with multilayer bounding surfaces was used to compare the effect of extended- and local-reaction surfaces, and the accuracy of the local-reaction approximation. Three rooms—an office, a corridor and a workshop—with one or more multilayer test surfaces were considered. The test surfaces were a single-glass panel, a double-drywall panel, a carpeted floor, a suspended-acoustical ceiling, a double-steel panel, and glass fibre on a hard backing. Each test surface was modeled as of extended or of local reaction. Sound-pressure levels were predicted and compared to determine the significance of the surface-reaction assumption. The main conclusions were that the difference between modeling a room surface as of extended or of local reaction is not significant when the surface is a single plate or a single layer of material (solid or porous) with a hard backing. The difference is significant when the surface consists of multilayers of solid or porous material and includes a layer of fluid with a large thickness relative to the other layers. The results are partially explained by considering the surface-reflection coefficients at the first-reflection angles.

  9. Structure analysis of free and bound states of an RNA aptamer against ribosomal protein S8 from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Davlieva, Milya; Donarski, James; Wang, Jiachen; Shamoo, Yousif; Nikonowicz, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    Several protein-targeted RNA aptamers have been identified for a variety of applications and although the affinities of numerous protein-aptamer complexes have been determined, the structural details of these complexes have not been widely explored. We examined the structural accommodation of an RNA aptamer that binds bacterial r-protein S8. The core of the primary binding site for S8 on helix 21 of 16S rRNA contains a pair of conserved base triples that mold the sugar-phosphate backbone to S8. The aptamer, which does not contain the conserved sequence motif, is specific for the rRNA binding site of S8. The protein-free RNA aptamer adopts a helical structure with multiple non-canonical base pairs. Surprisingly, binding of S8 leads to a dramatic change in the RNA conformation that restores the signature S8 recognition fold through a novel combination of nucleobase interactions. Nucleotides within the non-canonical core rearrange to create a G-(G-C) triple and a U-(A-U)-U quartet. Although native-like S8-RNA interactions are present in the aptamer-S8 complex, the topology of the aptamer RNA differs from that of the helix 21-S8 complex. This is the first example of an RNA aptamer that adopts substantially different secondary structures in the free and protein-bound states and highlights the remarkable plasticity of RNA secondary structure.

  10. Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hasovic, E.; Busuladzic, M.; Becker, W.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2011-12-15

    The molecular strong-field approximation (MSFA), which includes dressing of the molecular bound state, is introduced and applied to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Expressions for the laser-induced molecular dipole and polarizability as functions of the laser parameters (intensity and frequency) and molecular parameters [molecular orientation, dipole, and parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)] are presented. Our previous MSFA theory, which incorporates the rescattering effects, is generalized from homonuclear to heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Angle- and energy-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization spectra of oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules, exemplified by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule, exhibit pronounced minima, which can be related to the shape of their HOMO-electron-density distribution. For the CO molecule we have found an analytical condition for the positions of these minima. We have also shown that the effect of the dressing of the HOMO is twofold: (i) the laser-induced Stark shift decreases the ionization yield and (ii) the laser-induced time-dependent dipole and polarizability change the oscillatory structure of the spectra.

  11. Structure analysis of free and bound states of an RNA aptamer against ribosomal protein S8 from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Davlieva, Milya; Donarski, James; Wang, Jiachen; Shamoo, Yousif; Nikonowicz, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Several protein-targeted RNA aptamers have been identified for a variety of applications and although the affinities of numerous protein-aptamer complexes have been determined, the structural details of these complexes have not been widely explored. We examined the structural accommodation of an RNA aptamer that binds bacterial r-protein S8. The core of the primary binding site for S8 on helix 21 of 16S rRNA contains a pair of conserved base triples that mold the sugar-phosphate backbone to S8. The aptamer, which does not contain the conserved sequence motif, is specific for the rRNA binding site of S8. The protein-free RNA aptamer adopts a helical structure with multiple non-canonical base pairs. Surprisingly, binding of S8 leads to a dramatic change in the RNA conformation that restores the signature S8 recognition fold through a novel combination of nucleobase interactions. Nucleotides within the non-canonical core rearrange to create a G-(G-C) triple and a U-(A-U)-U quartet. Although native-like S8-RNA interactions are present in the aptamer-S8 complex, the topology of the aptamer RNA differs from that of the helix 21-S8 complex. This is the first example of an RNA aptamer that adopts substantially different secondary structures in the free and protein-bound states and highlights the remarkable plasticity of RNA secondary structure. PMID:25140011

  12. HC3N maps of OMC1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, C. R.; Mundy, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    We have made 3.8 sec resolution maps of HC3N (J = 12-11) and 2.7 mm continuum emission in OMC1 using the OVRO mm interferometer. The continuum map, which traces dust column density, shows that the hot core region consists of several clumps, the densest of which lies 3 sec SE of IRc2. HC3N, which traces dense gas, shows the velocity structure in the region. There is no simple pattern of rotation or expansion, nor does the emission resemble a disk centered on IRc2. Since the velocity difference between the hot core and IRc2 and the velocity dispersion in the hot core are comparable with the orbital velocity at a distance of 3 sec. from a 20 M(solar) object, it is possible that the hot core material is bound to IRc2. In the channel at 10.4 km s(-1) V(LSR), we detect strong emission from the source 20 sec NE of IRc2, which confirms indications from continuum and CS (J = 2-1) maps that this is a very dense, possibly protostellar, object. This emission is clearly resolved from the hot core and is elongated north-south, along the direction of the ridge emission. An additional interesting feature in these maps is a compact high velocity source located 4 sec SW of IRc2. This source has a velocity dispersion greather than 20 km/s (FWHM) and is spatially coincident with the zero-offset source seen by Pauls et al. (1983) and a point source in the near IR images taken by Allen et al. (1984). The large localized velocity, dispersion and the highly obscured IR source suggest that this compact source is an outflow from a young stellar companion to IRc2.

  13. Evidencing `Tight Bound States' in the Hydrogen Atom:. Empirical Manipulation of Large-Scale XD in Violation of QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.; Vigier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    In this work we extend Vigier's recent theory of `tight bound state' (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a `super quantum potential' extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a `force of coherence' inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.

  14. Three-dimensional study of the six-body bound-state for the case of effective three-body configuration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouya, E. Ahmadi; Rajabi, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    A recently developed three-Dimensional (3D) approach, without Partial-Wave (PW) decomposition is considered to investigate solutions of Faddeev-Yakubovsky (F-Y) integral equations in momentum space representation. The F-Y formulation for six-nucleon bound-state problem leads to five coupled equations in terms of five independent structures, which can be reduced to two coupled ones for considering the effective interactions of the two loosely bound nucleons with respect to the α-core nucleus. In order to study, the effective structure of six-nucleon bound-state in 3D representation, the coupled equations are represented in momentum space as a two coupled 3D integral equations. This is the first step to approach the calculations, of six-nucleon bound-state problem in 3D approach. In our calculations, we considered simple potential models, namely spin-independent two-body (2B) interactions. Our numerical results are fair compatible with results of other methods.

  15. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  16. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  17. Universal bounds on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  18. Lower bounds on parallel, distributed, and automata computations

    SciTech Connect

    Gereb-Graus, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a collection of lower bound results from several areas of computer science. Conventional wisdom states that lower bounds are much more difficult to prove than upper bounds. To get an upper bound one has to demonstrate just one scheme with the appropriate complexity. On the other hand, to prove lower bounds one has to deal with all possible schemes. The difficulty of lower bounds can be further demonstrated by the fact that wherever for some problem he has a very large gap between the lower and the upper bound, the conjecture for the truth usually is the known upper bound. His first two results are impossibility results for finite state automata. A hierarchy of complexity classes on tree languages (analogous to the polynomial hierarchy) accepted by alternating finite state machines is introduced. It turns out that the alternating class is equal to the well known tree language class accepted by the treeautomata. By separating the deterministic and the nondeterministic classes of his hierarchy he gives a negative answer to the folklore question whether the expressive power of the treeautomata is the same as that of the finite state automaton that can walk on the edges of the tree (bugautomaton). He proves that three-head one-way DFA cannot perform string-matching, that is, no three-head one-way DFA accepts the language L = (x{number sign}y {vert bar} x is a substring of y, where x,y {element of} (0,1){sup *}). He proves that in a one round fair coin flipping (or voting) scheme with n participants, there is at least one participant who has a chance to decide the outcome with probability at least 3/n {minus} o(1/n).

  19. Quantum transport through a multi-quantum-dot-pair chain side-coupled with Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Tan, Jiang; Cheng-Cheng, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the quantum transport properties through a special kind of quantum dot (QD) system composed of a serially coupled multi-QD-pair (multi-QDP) chain and side-coupled Majorana bound states (MBSs) by using the Green functions method, where the conductance can be classified into two kinds: the electron tunneling (ET) conductance and the Andreev reflection (AR) one. First we find that for the nonzero MBS-QDP coupling a sharp AR-induced zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h is present (or absent) when the MBS is coupled to the far left (or the other) QDP. Moreover, the MBS-QDP coupling can suppress the ET conductance and strengthen the AR one, and further split into two sub-peaks each of the total conductance peaks of the isolated multi-QDPs, indicating that the MBS will make obvious influences on the competition between the ET and AR processes. Then we find that the tunneling rate Γ L is able to affect the conductances of leads L and R in different ways, demonstrating that there exists a Γ L-related competition between the AR and ET processes. Finally we consider the effect of the inter-MBS coupling on the conductances of the multi-QDP chains and it is shown that the inter-MBS coupling will split the zero-bias conductance peak with the height of e 2/h into two sub-peaks. As the inter-MBS coupling becomes stronger, the two sub-peaks are pushed away from each other and simultaneously become lower, which is opposite to that of the single QDP chain where the two sub-peaks with the height of about e 2/2h become higher. Also, the decay of the conductance sub-peaks with the increase of the MBS-QDP coupling becomes slower as the number of the QDPs becomes larger. This research should be an important extension in studying the transport properties in the kind of QD systems coupled with the side MBSs, which is helpful for understanding the nature of the MBSs, as well as the MBS-related QD transport properties. Project supported by the National Natural

  20. I Search of Narrow Proton-Antiproton Bound States: High Resolution Gamma and Charged Flow Pion Spectra from Protonium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petridou, Chariclia I.

    We studied the pp annihilations at rest looking for narrow bound states in the proton-antiproton system. We looked, with high energy resolution, for radiative and pionic transitions in the gamma and charged pion spectra. The detector for the (gamma)(--->)e+e- and the (pi)('(+OR-)) was a magnetic pair spectrometer. The directions of the incident particles (e(+OR-) and (pi)(+OR-)) were determined by a drift chamber module in front of the magnet and the final directions of the particles, if reflected in the magnet, by the same chamber; if transversing the magnet, by an identical module at the rear of the magnet. The momentum was calculated from the directions of the particle. The following gamma spectra were obtained. Gammas with both e+, e- reflected in the magnet at a field of about 6 Kgauss (RR-gammas). That covers the region between 80 and 180 MeV, corresponding to a missing mass 1794 to 1686 MeV/c. The energy resolution is about 2.5 MeV ((sigma)) at 129 MeV (confirmed by the observed Panofsky gammas from stopping (pi)('-)p data) and 5 MeV ((sigma)) at 80 MeV. We have no evidence for narrow peaks except for the Panofsky gamma produced with a branching ratio of 3.3 x 10('-3) from (pi)('-) stops in the target. Upper limits for (gamma) -transitions in the region between 80 to 180 MeV were set at about 10('-3). Gammas with one e+(e-) reflected and the other transversing the magnet (RP-gammas) for fields of about 6 and 12 Kgauss, covering the region (GREATERTHEQ) 200 MeV, which corresponds to missing mass (LESSTHEQ) 1664 MeV/c('2). The gamma energy resolution in MeV is 51(.)E('2) (GeV) and 25.5(.)E('2)(GeV) for the low and high field respectively. Finally the charged pion spectra for those transversing the magnet are given for both magnet settings and as a function of charge multiplicity, covering the momentum region from (GREATERTHEQ) 150 MeV/c. The momentum resolution is the same as that for the RP-gammas. The two body annihilations (pi)('+)(pi)('-) and (pi

  1. Photo-sensitization of ZnS nanoparticles with renowned ruthenium dyes N3, N719 and Z907 for application in solid state dye sensitized solar cells: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive relative report on the grafting of ZnS with renowned ruthenium ((Ru) dyes i.e. N3, N719 and Z907) and gives insight into their charge transfer interaction and sensitization mechanism for boosting solar cell efficiency. Influence of dye concentration on cell performance is also reported here. ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 15±2nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms the successful grafting of these dyes over ZnS nanoparticles surface. Low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition (MLCT) bands of dyes are mainly affected on grafting over the nanoparticle surface. Moreover their current voltage (I-V) results confirm the efficiency enhancement in ZnS solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) owing to effective sensitization of this material with Ru dyes and helps in finding the optimum dye concentration for nanoparticles sensitization. Highest rise in overall solar cell efficiency i.e. 64% of the reference device has been observed for 0.3mM N719-ZnS sample owing to increased open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Experimental and proposed results were found in good agreement with each other. PMID:27479838

  2. Photo-sensitization of ZnS nanoparticles with renowned ruthenium dyes N3, N719 and Z907 for application in solid state dye sensitized solar cells: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive relative report on the grafting of ZnS with renowned ruthenium ((Ru) dyes i.e. N3, N719 and Z907) and gives insight into their charge transfer interaction and sensitization mechanism for boosting solar cell efficiency. Influence of dye concentration on cell performance is also reported here. ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 15±2nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms the successful grafting of these dyes over ZnS nanoparticles surface. Low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition (MLCT) bands of dyes are mainly affected on grafting over the nanoparticle surface. Moreover their current voltage (I-V) results confirm the efficiency enhancement in ZnS solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) owing to effective sensitization of this material with Ru dyes and helps in finding the optimum dye concentration for nanoparticles sensitization. Highest rise in overall solar cell efficiency i.e. 64% of the reference device has been observed for 0.3mM N719-ZnS sample owing to increased open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Experimental and proposed results were found in good agreement with each other.

  3. 2N and 3N Systems in a Three Dimensional Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolnicki, Kacper; Golak, Jacek; Skibiński, Roman; Elmeshneb, Alaa Eldeen; Witała, Henryk; Nogga, Andreas; Kamada, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    We present an overview of our framework used to treat two- and three-nucleon (2N, 3N) systems employing three dimensional momentum eigenstates. Using a three dimensional formalism instead of the classical partial wave approach is an attractive alternative for a number of reasons, the most prominent being the very direct way of performing calculations. With the use of our tools it is possible to produce a working numerical realization of calculations in only a couple of steps from the fundamental (Schrödinger or Lippmann-Schwinger) equations. The FORTRAN implementations of the most complicated parts of the calculations are generated automatically by software that was written in our group. Additionally, at higher energies, three dimensional calculations avoid problems arising from slow convergence of partial wave decomposition based techniques. Our approach utilizes a very general form of the 2N and 3N forces and has been successfully used to obtain results for the 2N transition operator as well as for the 2N and 3N bound states (Golak et al. in Phys Rev C 81:034006, 2010; Few-Body Syst 53:237, 2012a; Few-Body Syst, 2012b).

  4. Recent progress in the 3N system including three-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect

    Hueber, D.; Witala, H.; Kamada, H.; Nogga, A.; Gloeckle, W.

    1997-07-01

    A new single Faddeev equation for the inclusion of a three-nucleon force (3NF) into the three-nucleon (3N) continuum and a new partial wave decomposition of a 3NF is presented. This allows for the first time in momentum space calculations the inclusion of a 3NF in higher angular momenta. The authors present converged calculations including a 3NF up to j{sub max} = 6 for the three-nucleon bound state and j{sub max} = 3 in the 3N continuum, where j is the total nucleon-nucleon angular momentum. Several 3N Hamiltonians are generated based on modern nucleon-nucleon (NN) forces and properly adjusted 3NFs, which give the correct triton binding energy. They are used to analyze recent measurements of spin transfer coefficients in elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering. They show that scales with the triton binding energy, whereas K{sub y}{sup z{prime}z{prime}} does not.

  5. The Impact of Welfare State Regimes on Barriers to Participation in Adult Education: A Bounded Agency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell; Desjardins, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative findings on barriers to participation in adult education are reviewed and some of the defining parameters that may explain observed national differences are considered. A theoretical perspective based on bounded agency is put forth to take account of the interaction between structurally and individually based barriers…

  6. Bound states for a Coulomb-type potential induced by the interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.

    2014-02-15

    We discuss the arising of bound states solutions of the Schrödinger equation due to the presence of a Coulomb-type potential induced by the interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field. Furthermore, we study the influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator by showing a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of the angular frequency on the quantum numbers of the system, whose meaning is that not all values of the angular frequency are allowed. -- Highlights: • Interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field. • Arising of bound states solutions due to the presence of a Coulomb-type potential. • Influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator. • Dependence of the angular frequency on the quantum numbers of the system.

  7. Treatment of continuum in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound systems. A simple model to test different prescriptions describing the coupling to continuum states

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C. H.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-03-04

    We exploit a model describing the break-up of weakly-bound nuclei that can be used as a laboratory for testing different prescriptions that have been advanced in the literature to take into account the near-by presence of continuum states. In the model we follow the evolution of a single particle wave function in one dimension, initially bound by a Woods-Saxon type potential and then perturbed by a time- and position-dependent external field. Proper choices of this potential can simulate the effect of the interaction between reaction partners in a nuclear collision. These processes generate inelastic excitation probabilities that--distributed over the bound and continuum states of the system--lead to either a partial or a total fragmentation of the final wave function. The comparison with the exact calculations shows that standard coupled channel descriptions based on discretization of the continuum can be accurate only when a proper choice is made of the number of discrete states, of the energy mesh and of the energy cutoff. This may imply, even in simplified cases, the use of a rather large (and unpracticable) number of channels. The use of a more restricted number of channels may lead to misleading results.

  8. LHCb pentaquarks as a baryon-ψ (2 S ) bound state: Prediction of isospin-3/2 pentaquarks with hidden charm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalova, Irina A.; Polyakov, Maxim V.; Schweitzer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The pentaquark Pc+(4450 ) recently discovered by the LHCb has been interpreted as a bound state of Ψ (2 S ) and a nucleon. The charmonium-nucleon interaction which provides the binding mechanism is given, in the heavy-quark limit, in terms of charmonium chromoelectric polarizabilities and densities of the nucleon energy-momentum tensor. In this work, we show in a model-independent way, by exploring general properties of the effective interaction, that Ψ (2 S ) can form bound states with a nucleon and Δ . Using the Skyrme model to evaluate the effective interaction in the large-Nc limit and estimate 1 /Nc corrections, we confirm the results from prior work which were based on a different effective model (chiral quark soliton model). This shows that the interpretation of Pc+(4450 ) is remarkably robust and weakly dependent on the details of the effective theories for the nucleon energy-momentum tensor. We explore the formalism further and present robust predictions of isospin-3/2 bound states of Ψ (2 S ) and Δ with masses around 4.5 GeV and widths around 70 MeV. The approach also predicts broader resonances in the Ψ (2 S )-Δ channel at 4.9 GeV with widths of the order of 150 MeV. We discuss in which reactions these new isospin-3/2 pentaquarks with hidden charm can be observed.

  9. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…

  10. Crystal Structures of SlyA Protein, a Master Virulence Regulator of Salmonella, in Free and DNA-bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Kyle T.; Duguid, Erica M.; He, Chuan

    2011-11-17

    SlyA is a master virulence regulator that controls the transcription of numerous genes in Salmonella enterica. We present here crystal structures of SlyA by itself and bound to a high-affinity DNA operator sequence in the slyA gene. SlyA interacts with DNA through direct recognition of a guanine base by Arg-65, as well as interactions between conserved Arg-86 and the minor groove and a large network of non-base-specific contacts with the sugar phosphate backbone. Our structures, together with an unpublished structure of SlyA bound to the small molecule effector salicylate (Protein Data Bank code 3DEU), reveal that, unlike many other MarR family proteins, SlyA dissociates from DNA without large conformational changes when bound to this effector. We propose that SlyA and other MarR global regulators rely more on indirect readout of DNA sequence to exert control over many genes, in contrast to proteins (such as OhrR) that recognize a single operator.

  11. Approaching an exact treatment of electronic correlations at solid surfaces: The binding energy of the lowest bound state of helium adsorbed on MgO(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Casado, Ruth; Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Mallia, Giuseppe; Casassa, Silvia; Ellis, John; Schütz, Martin; Harrison, Nicholas M.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we employ ab initio electronic structure theory at a very high level to resolve a long standing experimental controversy; the interaction between helium and the MgO (100) surface has been studied extensively by other groups, employing diverse experimental approaches. Nevertheless, the binding energy of the lowest bound state is still unclear: the existence of a state at around -5.5 meV is well established but a state at -10 meV has also been reported. The MgO (100)-He system captures the fundamental physics involved in many adsorption problems; the weak binding is governed by long-range electronic correlation for which a fully predictive theory applicable to the solid state has been elusive. The above-mentioned experimental controversy can now be resolved on the basis of the calculations presented in this work. We performed three-dimensional vibrational dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential-energy surface. The latter was constructed using a method which systematically approaches the exact limit in its treatment of electronic correlation. The outcome is clear: our calculations do not support the existence of a bound state around -10 meV.

  12. Evidence of Andreev bound states as a hallmark of the FFLO phase in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaffre, H.; Krämer, S.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Miyagawa, K.; Kanoda, K.; Mitrović, V. F.

    2014-12-01

    Superconductivity is a quantum phenomenon arising, in its simplest form, from the pairing of fermions with opposite spin into a state with zero net momentum. Whether superconductivity can occur in fermionic systems with an unequal number of two species distinguished by spin or flavour presents an important open question in condensed-matter physics or quantum chromodynamics. In condensed matter the imbalance between spin-up and spin-down electrons that form the Cooper pairs is induced by the magnetic field. Such an imbalanced system can lead to exotic superconductivity in which pairs acquire finite momentum. This momentum leads to a spatially inhomogeneous state consisting of periodically alternating `normal' and `superconducting' regions. Here, we establish that the hallmark of this state is the appearance of spatially localized and spin-polarized quasiparticles forming the so-called Andreev bound states (ABS). These are detected through our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  13. Bone mineral (31)P and matrix-bound water densities measured by solid-state (31)P and (1)H MRI.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alan C; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Bashoor-Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A; Wright, Alexander C; Zemel, Babette S; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W

    2014-07-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging because of extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors' age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, aged 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31-phosphorus ((31)P) and 1-hydrogen ((1)H) MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-computed tomography (μCT), and apparent mineral density by peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). MRI-derived densities were compared to X-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral (31)P density was 6.74 ± 1.22 mol/l (corresponding to 1129 ± 204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water (1)H density was 31.3 ± 4.2 mol/l (corresponding to 28.3 ± 3.7 %v/v). Both (31)P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity ((31)P: R(2) = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R(2) = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age ((31)P: R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density ((31)P: R(2) = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of (31)P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound

  14. Chemical shift assignment of the intrinsically disordered N-terminus and the rubredoxin domain in the folded metal bound and unfolded oxidized state of mycobacterial protein kinase G.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Matthias; Dames, Sonja A

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein kinase G (PknG) is a 82 kDa multidomain eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase mediating the survival of pathogenic mycobacteria within host macrophages. The N-terminal sequence preceding the catalytic kinase domain contains an approximately 75 residues long tail, which was predicted to show no regulatory secondary structure (1-75 = NORS) but harbors the major in vivo phosphorylation site (T63), and a rubredoxin-like metal binding motif (74-147 = RD). In the reduced rubredoxin motif, four conserved cysteine residues that are present as two C-X-X-C-G motifs coordinate a metal ion. The cysteines are further involved in sensing the redox environment to regulate PknG catalytic activity. Here, we report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of the highly dynamic unstructured N-terminal region NORS and the RD in the reduced, metal bound, presumably folded and the oxidized, presumably unfolded state. Chemical shifts have been deposited at the BioMagResBank under the BMRB accession numbers 26,028 for the His-PknG1-147 with the RD in reduced, metal bound state, 26,027 for His-PknG1-75, and 26,030 and 26,029 for PknG74-147 either in the reduced, metal bound or oxidized state, respectively. The presented chemical shift assignments pave the route for the structural characterization of the regulation of PknG by redox changes and posttranslational modifications (phosphorylation).

  15. Interaction of NH(X 3Sigma-) with He: potential energy surface, bound states, and collisional Zeeman relaxation.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, H; Krems, R V; Sadeghpour, H R; Dalgarno, A; Kłos, J; Groenenboom, G C; van der Avoird, A; Zgid, D; Chałasiński, G

    2005-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the He-NH((3)Sigma(-)) van der Waals complex is presented. We discuss ab initio calculations of the potential energy surface and fitting procedures with relevance to cold collisions, and we present accurate calculations of bound energy levels of the triatomic complex as well as collisional properties of NH molecules in a buffer gas of (3)He. The influence of the external magnetic field used to trap the NH molecules and the effect of the atom-molecule interaction potential on the collisionally induced Zeeman relaxation are explored. It is shown that minute variations of the interaction potential due to different fitting procedures may alter the Zeeman relaxation rate at ultralow temperatures by as much as 50%.

  16. Influence of higher-order dispersion coefficients on near-threshold bound and continuum states: Application to {sup 88}Sr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Alexander; Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-12-07

    We give a simple description of quantum states near the dissociation threshold of deep interatomic potentials. The influence of the potential tail is separated from effects due to the interaction at short distances. We present a general formalism which is valid for weakly bound and low-energy continuum states, both for vanishing and non-vanishing angular momentum. Its applicability is demonstrated for the example of the electronic ground state of the strontium dimer {sup 88}Sr{sub 2}. With an appropriate choice of the potential tail that includes higher-order dispersion coefficients, all short-range effects are incorporated via the threshold quantum number v{sub D} and one further parameter accounting for residual short-range effects.

  17. Search for the deeply bound K-pp state from the semi-inclusive forward-neutron spectrum in the in-flight K- reaction on helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Ajimura, S.; Beer, G.; Bhang, H.; Bragadireanu, M.; Busso, L.; Cargnelli, M.; Choi, S.; Curceanu, C.; Enomoto, S.; Faso, D.; Fujioka, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R. S.; Hiraiwa, T.; Iio, M.; Iliescu, M.; Inoue, K.; Ishiguro, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishimoto, S.; Itahashi, K.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Kato, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Kienle, P.; Kou, H.; Ma, Y.; Marton, J.; Matsuda, Y.; Mizoi, Y.; Morra, O.; Nagae, T.; Noumi, H.; Ohnishi, H.; Okada, S.; Outa, H.; Piscicchia, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sada, Y.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sakuma, F.; Sato, M.; Scordo, A.; Sekimoto, M.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Tanida, K.; Tatsuno, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tomono, D.; Toyoda, A.; Tsukada, K.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Yamaga, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Yim, H.; Zhang, Q.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-06-01

    An experiment to search for the K-pp bound state was performed via the in-flight {}^3He(K-,n) reaction using 5.3 × 10^9 kaons at 1 GeV/c at the J-PARC hadron experimental facility. In the semi-inclusive neutron missing-mass spectrum at θ n^{lab}=0°, no significant peak was observed in the region corresponding to K-pp binding energy larger than 80 MeV, where a bump structure has been reported in the Λ p final state in different reactions. Assuming the state to be isotropically decaying into Λ p, mass-dependent upper limits on the production cross section were determined to be 30-180, 70-250, and 100-270μb/sr, for the natural widths of 20, 60, and 100 MeV, respectively, at 95% confidence level.

  18. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Experimental study of highly excited even-parity bound states of the Sm atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Dai, Chang-Jian; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Hong-Ying

    2009-08-01

    In this work, a three-step autoionization detection method and direct photoionization detection method are employed to measure the highly excited even-parity states of the Sm atom in the energy region between 36360 cm-1 and 40800 cm-1. Comparisons between the results from the two detection techniques enable us to discriminate the Rydberg states from the valence states in the same energy region with the information of level energies, possible J values and their relative intensities. Furthermore, in the experiment two different excitation schemes are designed to obtain the spectra of highly excited even-parity states of the Sm atom. With a detailed analysis of the experimental data, this work not only confirms the results about many spectral data from the literature with different excitation schemes, but also reports new spectral data on 29 Rydberg states and 23 valence states.

  19. Effect of bound state of water on hydronium ion mobility in hydrated Nafion using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Takuya; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2014-09-14

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the structural properties of the sulfonate groups in terms of isolated and overlapped solvation shells in the nanostructure of hydrated Nafion membrane using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations have demonstrated the correlation between the two different areas in bound water region, i.e., the first solvation shell, and the vehicular transport of hydronium ions at different water contents. We have employed a model of the Nafion membrane using the improved force field, which is newly modified and validated by comparing the density and water diffusivity with those obtained experimentally. The first solvation shells were classified into the two types, the isolated area and the overlapped area. The mean residence times of solvent molecules explicitly showed the different behaviors in each of those areas in terms of the vehicular transport of protons: the diffusivity of classical hydronium ions in the overlapped area dominates their total diffusion at lower water contents while that in the isolated area dominates for their diffusion at higher water contents. The results provided insights into the importance role of those areas in the solvation shells for the diffusivity of vehicular transport of hydronium ions in hydrated Nafion membrane.

  20. Rovibrational energy transfer in the He-C{sub 3} collision: Potential energy surface and bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe

    2014-02-28

    We present a four-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the collision of C{sub 3} with He. Ab initio calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and mid-bond functions. The global minimum of the potential energy is found to be −26.9 cm{sup −1} and corresponds to an almost T-shaped structure of the van der Waals complex along with a slightly bent configuration of C{sub 3}. This PES is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the He-C{sub 3} complex using the rigid monomer approximation (RMA) and the recently developed atom-rigid bender approach at the Close Coupling level (RB-CC). The calculated dissociation energies are −9.56 cm{sup −1} and −9.73 cm{sup −1}, respectively at the RMA and RB-CC levels. This is the first theoretical prediction of the bound levels of the He-C{sub 3} complex with the bending motion.

  1. A large acceptance scintillator detector with wavelength shifting fibre readout for search of η-nucleus bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betigeri, M. G.; Biswas, P. K.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Jahn, R.; Guha, S.; Hawranek, P.; Jain, B. K.; Jawale, S. B.; Jha, V.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Kirillov, Da.; Kirillov, Di.; Kolev, D.; Kravcikova, M.; Kutsarova, T.; Lesiak, M.; Lieb, J.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Martinska, G.; Nedev, S.; Piskunov, N.; Prasuhn, D.; Protić, D.; Ritman, J.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B. J.; Shukla, P.; Sitnik, I.; Siudak, R.; Tsenov, R.; Ulicny, M.; Urban, J.; Vankova, G.; GEM Collaboration

    2007-07-01

    A large acceptance scintillator detector with wavelength shifting optical fibre readout has been designed and built to detect the decay particles of η-nucleus bound system (the so-called η-mesic nuclei), namely, protons and pions. The detector, named as ENSTAR detector, consists of 122 pieces of plastic scintillator of various shapes and sizes, which are arranged in a cylindrical geometry to provide particle identification, energy loss and coarse position information for these particles. A solid angle coverage of ˜95% of total 4 π is obtained in the present design of the detector. Monte Carlo phase space calculations performed to simulate the formation and decay of η-mesic nuclei suggest that its decay particles, the protons and pions are emitted with an opening angle of 150±20∘, and with energies in the range of 25-300 and 225-450 MeV, respectively. The detailed GEANT simulations show that ˜80 % of the decay particles (protons and pions) can be detected within ENSTAR. Several test measurements using alpha source, cosmic-ray muons, etc. have been carried out to study the response of ENSTAR scintillator pieces. The in-beam tests of fully assembled detector with proton beam of momentum 870 MeV/c from the Cooler synchrotron COSY have been performed. The test results show that the scintillator fibre design chosen for the detector has performed satisfactorily well. The present article describes the detector design, simulation studies, construction details and test results.

  2. Coherent Behavior and the Bound State of Water and K+ Imply Another Model of Bioenergetics: Negative Entropy Instead of High-energy Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Laurent; Vasilievich Matveev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Observations of coherent cellular behavior cannot be integrated into widely accepted membrane (pump) theory (MT) and its steady state energetics because of the thermal noise of assumed ordinary cell water and freely soluble cytoplasmic K+. However, Ling disproved MT and proposed an alternative based on coherence, showing that rest (R) and action (A) are two different phases of protoplasm with different energy levels. The R-state is a coherent metastable low-entropy state as water and K+ are bound to unfolded proteins. The A-state is the higher-entropy state because water and K+ are free. The R-to-A phase transition is regarded as a mechanism to release energy for biological work, replacing the classical concept of high-energy bonds. Subsequent inactivation during the endergonic A-to-R phase transition needs an input of metabolic energy to restore the low entropy R-state. Matveev’s native aggregation hypothesis allows to integrate the energetic details of globular proteins into this view. PMID:23264833

  3. Substrate-bound outward-open state of the betaine transporter BetP provides insights into Na+ coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Camilo; Faust, Belinda; Mehdipour, Ahmad Reza; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Forrest, Lucy R.; Ziegler, Christine

    2014-07-01

    The Na+-coupled betaine symporter BetP shares a highly conserved fold with other sequence unrelated secondary transporters, for example, with neurotransmitter symporters. Recently, we obtained atomic structures of BetP in distinct conformational states, which elucidated parts of its alternating-access mechanism. Here, we report a structure of BetP in a new outward-open state in complex with an anomalous scattering substrate, adding a fundamental piece to an unprecedented set of structural snapshots for a secondary transporter. In combination with molecular dynamics simulations these structural data highlight important features of the sequential formation of the substrate and sodium-binding sites, in which coordinating water molecules play a crucial role. We observe a strictly interdependent binding of betaine and sodium ions during the coupling process. All three sites undergo progressive reshaping and dehydration during the alternating-access cycle, with the most optimal coordination of all substrates found in the closed state.

  4. Prediction of a weakly bound excited state of Efimov character in a 7LiHe42 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Shan; Han, Hui-Li; Li, Cheng-Bin; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2014-12-01

    We carry out calculations on the van der Waals trimer 7LiHe42 using the mapping method within the frame of hyperspherical coordinates, which allows us to give accurate binding energies and wave functions for both the ground and excited state of the system. When the realistic two-body potentials are adopted, the system presents an excited state which shows Efimov character. We study the range of the interaction strength in which the excited state could exist and find that the state persists within the experiment error band for binding energy of LiHe molecule. We also study the three-body parameter (3BP) of 7LiHe42 system and its relationship with the background scattering length aHeHe. Our calculations demonstrate that the 3BP of 7LiHe42 system is dependent on the value of the scattering length aHeHe, independent of the short-range details of the He-He interaction. The results confirm the prediction of Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.243201] that the 3BP for a heteronuclear atomic system is universally determined from the van der Waals lengths and the homonuclear scattering length.

  5. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  6. Seroepidemiological Evidence of Subtype H3N8 Influenza Virus Infection among Pet Dogs in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, San; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lifang; Fu, Xinliang; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    The H3N8 virus and the H3N2 virus are the main subtypes of canine influenza virus (CIV). H3N8 CIV mainly circulates in America, and H3N2 CIV mainly circulates in Asia. However, there was an outbreak of the Asian H3N2 virus in the United States (US) in 2015. Thus, it is important to evaluate the presence of subtype H3N8 virus in dogs in China. From May 2015 to November 2015, 600 sera from pet dogs were collected from Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays and microneutralization (MN) assays. Fifty-two (8.66%) of the 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N2 virus, which matched the previous reports. Five (0.83%) of 600 sera were positive for the subtype H3N8 virus (H3N8 EIV or H3N8 AIV or H3N8 CIV), which is the first report of subtype H3N8 virus infection among dogs in China and remind us to play more attention to this subtype virus. Therefore, further serological and virological surveillance of influenza virus infection among dogs in China is imperative. PMID:27414031

  7. Applying Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Identify Rarely Sampled Ligand-bound Conformational States of Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase, an Antibacterial Target

    SciTech Connect

    Sinko, William; de Oliveira, César; Williams, Sarah; Van Wynsberghe, Adam; Durrant, Jacob D.; Cao, Rong; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-04-30

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase is a cis-prenyltransferase enzyme, which is required for cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria. Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase is an attractive target for antimicrobial therapy. We performed long molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies on undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase to investigate its dynamic behavior and the influence of protein flexibility on the design of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors. We also describe the first X-ray crystallographic structure of Escherichia coli apo-undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase. The molecular dynamics simulations indicate that undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase is a highly flexible protein, with mobile binding pockets in the active site. By carrying out docking studies with experimentally validated undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors using high- and low-populated conformational states extracted from the molecular dynamics simulations, we show that structurally dissimilar compounds can bind preferentially to different and rarely sampled conformational states. By performing structural analyses on the newly obtained apo-undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase and other crystal structures previously published, we show that the changes observed during the molecular dynamics simulation are very similar to those seen in the crystal structures obtained in the presence or absence of ligands. We believe that this is the first time that a rare 'expanded pocket' state, key to drug design and verified by crystallography, has been extracted from a molecular dynamics simulation.

  8. Semi-globally input-to-state stable controller design for flexible spacecraft attitude stabilization under bounded disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinglei

    2010-02-01

    Semi-globally input-to-state stable (ISS) control law is derived for flexible spacecraft attitude maneuvers in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The modified rodrigues parameters (MRP) are used as the kinematic variables since they are nonsingular for all possible rotations. This novel simple control is a proportional-plus-derivative (PD) type controller plus a sign function through a special Lyapunov function construction involving the sum of quadratic terms in the angular velocities, kinematic parameters, modal variables and the cross state weighting. A sufficient condition under which this nonlinear PD-type control law can render the system semi-globally input-to-state stable is provided such that the closed-loop system is robust with respect to any disturbance within a quantifiable restriction on the amplitude, as well as the set of initial conditions, if the control gains are designed appropriately. In addition to detailed derivations of the new controllers design and a rigorous sketch of all the associated stability and attitude convergence proofs, extensive simulation studies have been conducted to validate the design and the results are presented to highlight the ensuring closed-loop performance benefits when compared with the conventional control schemes.

  9. sup 13 C and sup 15 N nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of the ionization state of substrates bound to bovine dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Selinsky, B.S.; Perlman, M.E.; London, R.E. ); Unkefer, C.J. ); Mitchell, J. ); Blakley, R.L. Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis )

    1990-02-06

    The state of protonation of substrates bound to mammalian dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has significance for the mechanism of catalysis. To investigate this, dihydrofolate and dihydropteroylpentaglutamate have been synthesized with {sup 15}N enrichment at N-5. {sup 15}N NMR studies have been performed on the binary complexes formed by bovine DHFR with these compounds and with (5-{sup 15}N)dihydrobiopterin. The results indicate that there is no protonation at N-5 in the binary complexes, and this was confirmed by {sup 13}C NMR studies with folate and dihydrofolate synthesized with {sup 13}C enrichment at C-6. The chemical shift displacements produced by complex formation are in the same direction as those which result from deprotonation of the N-3/C-4-O amide group and are consistent with at least partial loss of the proton from N-3. This would be possible if, as crystallographic data indicate, there is interaction of N-3 and the 2-amino group of the bound ligands with the carboxylate of the active site glutamate residue (Glu{sup 30}).

  10. Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES

  11. Optimization Method to Branch and Bound Large SBO State Spaces Under Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment via use of LENDIT Scales and S2R2 Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Nielsen; Akira Tokurio; Robert Hiromoto; Jivan Khatry

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods have been developed and are quite effective in evaluating risk associated with complex systems, but lack the capability to evaluate complex dynamic systems. These time and energy scales associated with the transient may vary as a function of transition time to a different physical state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems, while complete, results in issues associated with combinatorial explosion. In order to address the combinatorial complexity arising from the number of possible state configurations and discretization of transition times, a characteristic scaling metric (LENDIT – length, energy, number, distribution, information and time) is proposed as a means to describe systems uniformly and thus provide means to describe relational constraints expected in the dynamics of a complex (coupled) systems. Thus when LENDIT is used to characterize four sets – ‘state, system, resource and response’ (S2R2) – describing reactor operations (normal and off-normal), LENDIT and S2R2 in combination have the potential to ‘branch and bound’ the state space investigated by DPRA. In this paper we introduce the concept of LENDIT scales and S2R2 sets applied to a branch-and-bound algorithm and apply the methods to a station black out transient (SBO).

  12. Reflection factors and a two-parameter family of boundary bound states in the sinh-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, E.; Taormina, A.

    2000-12-01

    The investigation of boundary breather states of the sinh-Gordon model restricted to a half-line is revisited. Properties of the classical boundary breathers for the two-parameter family of integrable boundary conditions are reviewed and extended. The energy spectrum of the quantized boundary states is computed, firstly by using a bootstrap technique and, subsequently using a WKB approximation. Requiring that the two descriptions of the spectrum agree with one another allows a determination of the relationship between the boundary parameters, the bulk coupling constant, and the two parameters appearing in the reflection factor describing the scattering of the sinh-Gordon particle from the boundary. These calculations had been performed previously for the case in which the boundary conditions preserve the bulk Z2 symmetry of the model. The significantly more difficult case of general boundary conditions which violate the bulk symmetry is treated in this paper. The results clarify the weak-strong-coupling duality of the sinh-Gordon model with integrable boundary conditions.

  13. Relativistic Landau–He–McKellar–Wilkens quantization and relativistic bound states solutions for a Coulomb-like potential induced by the Lorentz symmetry breaking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.; Belich, H.

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we discuss the relativistic Landau–He–McKellar–Wilkens quantization and relativistic bound states solutions for a Dirac neutral particle under the influence of a Coulomb-like potential induced by the Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. We present new possible scenarios of studying Lorentz symmetry breaking effects by fixing the space-like vector field background in special configurations. It is worth mentioning that the criterion for studying the violation of Lorentz symmetry is preserving the gauge symmetry. -- Highlights: •Two new possible scenarios of studying Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. •Coulomb-like potential induced by the Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. •Relativistic Landau–He–McKellar–Wilkens quantization. •Exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  14. Steady-state kinetics of solitary batrachotoxin-treated sodium channels. Kinetics on a bounded continuum of polymer conformations.

    PubMed

    Rubinson, K A

    1992-02-01

    The underlying principles of the kinetics and equilibrium of a solitary sodium channel in the steady state are examined. Both the open and closed kinetics are postulated to result from round-trip excursions from a transition region that separates the openable and closed forms. Exponential behavior of the kinetics can have origins different from small-molecule systems. These differences suggest that the probability density functions (PDFs) that describe the time dependences of the open and closed forms arise from a distribution of rate constants. The distribution is likely to arise from a thermal modulation of the channel structure, and this provides a physical basis for the following three-variable equation: [formula; see text] Here, A0 is a scaling term, k is the mean rate constant, and sigma quantifies the Gaussian spread for the contributions of a range of effective rate constants. The maximum contribution is made by k, with rates faster and slower contributing less. (When sigma, the standard deviation of the spread, goes to zero, then p(f) = A0 e-kt.) The equation is applied to the single-channel steady-state probability density functions for batrachotoxin-treated sodium channels (1986. Keller et al. J. Gen. Physiol. 88: 1-23). The following characteristics are found: (a) The data for both open and closed forms of the channel are fit well with the above equation, which represents a Gaussian distribution of first-order rate processes. (b) The simple relationship [formula; see text] holds for the mean effective rat constants. Or, equivalently stated, the values of P open calculated from the k values closely agree with the P open values found directly from the PDF data. (c) In agreement with the known behavior of voltage-dependent rate constants, the voltage dependences of the mean effective rate constants for the opening and closing of the channel are equal and opposite over the voltage range studied. That is, [formula; see text] "Bursts" are related to the well

  15. Steady-state kinetics of solitary batrachotoxin-treated sodium channels. Kinetics on a bounded continuum of polymer conformations.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinson, K A

    1992-01-01

    The underlying principles of the kinetics and equilibrium of a solitary sodium channel in the steady state are examined. Both the open and closed kinetics are postulated to result from round-trip excursions from a transition region that separates the openable and closed forms. Exponential behavior of the kinetics can have origins different from small-molecule systems. These differences suggest that the probability density functions (PDFs) that describe the time dependences of the open and closed forms arise from a distribution of rate constants. The distribution is likely to arise from a thermal modulation of the channel structure, and this provides a physical basis for the following three-variable equation: [formula; see text] Here, A0 is a scaling term, k is the mean rate constant, and sigma quantifies the Gaussian spread for the contributions of a range of effective rate constants. The maximum contribution is made by k, with rates faster and slower contributing less. (When sigma, the standard deviation of the spread, goes to zero, then p(f) = A0 e-kt.) The equation is applied to the single-channel steady-state probability density functions for batrachotoxin-treated sodium channels (1986. Keller et al. J. Gen. Physiol. 88: 1-23). The following characteristics are found: (a) The data for both open and closed forms of the channel are fit well with the above equation, which represents a Gaussian distribution of first-order rate processes. (b) The simple relationship [formula; see text] holds for the mean effective rat constants. Or, equivalently stated, the values of P open calculated from the k values closely agree with the P open values found directly from the PDF data. (c) In agreement with the known behavior of voltage-dependent rate constants, the voltage dependences of the mean effective rate constants for the opening and closing of the channel are equal and opposite over the voltage range studied. That is, [formula; see text] "Bursts" are related to the well

  16. New England harbor seal H3N8 influenza virus retains avian-like receptor specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Islam T. M.; Krammer, Florian; Ma, Eric; Estrin, Michael; Viswanathan, Karthik; Stebbins, Nathan W.; Quinlan, Devin S.; Sasisekharan, Ram; Runstadler, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    An influenza H3N8 virus, carrying mammalian adaptation mutations, was isolated from New England harbor seals in 2011. We sought to assess the risk of its human transmissibility using two complementary approaches. First, we tested the binding of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of seal H3N8 and human-adapted H3N2 viruses to respiratory tissues of humans and ferrets. For human tissues, we observed strong tendency of the seal H3 to bind to lung alveoli, which was in direct contrast to the human-adapted H3 that bound mainly to the trachea. This staining pattern was also consistent in ferrets, the primary animal model for human influenza pathogenesis. Second, we compared the binding of the recombinant HAs to a library of 610 glycans. In contrast to the human H3, which bound almost exclusively to α-2,6 sialylated glycans, the seal H3 bound preferentially to α-2,3 sialylated glycans. Additionally, the seal H3N8 virus replicated in human lung carcinoma cells. Our data suggest that the seal H3N8 virus has retained its avian-like receptor binding specificity, but could potentially establish infection in human lungs. PMID:26888262

  17. Heme-bound SiaA from Streptococcus pyogenes: Effects of Mutations and Oxidation State on Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Akbas, Neval; Draganova, Elizabeth B.; Block, Darci R.; Sook, Brian R.; Chan, Yau Fong; Zhuo, Joy; Eichenbaum, Zehava; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Dixon, Dabney W.

    2016-01-01

    The protein SiaA (HtsA) is part of a heme uptake pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes. In this report, we present the heme binding of the alanine mutants of the axial histidine (H229A) and methionine (M79A) ligands, as well as a lysine (K61A) and cysteine (C58A) located near the heme propionates (based on homology modeling) and a control mutant (C47A). pH titrations gave pKa values ranging from 9.0 to 9.5, close to the value of 9.7 for WT SiaA. Resonance Raman spectra of the mutants suggested that the ferric heme environment may be distinct from the wild-type; spectra of the ferrous states were similar. The midpoint reduction potential of the K61A mutant was determined by spectroelectrochemical titration to be 61 ± 3 mV vs. SHE, similar to the wild-type protein (68 ± 3 mV). The addition of guanidine hydrochloride showed two processes for protein denaturation, consistent with heme loss from protein forms differing by the orientation of the heme in the binding pocket (the half-life for the slower process was one to three days). The ease of protein unfolding was related to the strength of interaction of the residues with the heme. We hypothesize that kinetically facile but only partial unfolding, followed by a very slow approach to the completely unfolded state, may be a fundamental attribute of heme trafficking proteins. Small motions to release/transfer the heme accompanied by resistance to extensive unfolding may preserve the three dimensional form of the protein for further uptake and release. PMID:26746808

  18. Heme-bound SiaA from Streptococcus pyogenes: Effects of mutations and oxidation state on protein stability.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Neval; Draganova, Elizabeth B; Block, Darci R; Sook, Brian R; Chan, Yau Fong; Zhuo, Joy; Eichenbaum, Zehava; Rodgers, Kenton R; Dixon, Dabney W

    2016-05-01

    The protein SiaA (HtsA) is part of a heme uptake pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes. In this report, we present the heme binding of the alanine mutants of the axial histidine (H229A) and methionine (M79A) ligands, as well as a lysine (K61A) and cysteine (C58A) located near the heme propionates (based on homology modeling) and a control mutant (C47A). pH titrations gave pKa values ranging from 9.0 to 9.5, close to the value of 9.7 for WT SiaA. Resonance Raman spectra of the mutants suggested that the ferric heme environment may be distinct from the wild-type; spectra of the ferrous states were similar. The midpoint reduction potential of the K61A mutant was determined by spectroelectrochemical titration to be 61±3mV vs. SHE, similar to the wild-type protein (68±3mV). The addition of guanidine hydrochloride showed two processes for protein denaturation, consistent with heme loss from protein forms differing by the orientation of the heme in the binding pocket (the half-life for the slower process ranged from less than half a day to two days). The ease of protein unfolding was related to the strength of interaction of the residues with the heme. We hypothesize that kinetically facile but only partial unfolding, followed by a very slow approach to the completely unfolded state, may be a fundamental attribute of heme trafficking proteins. Small motions to release/transfer the heme accompanied by resistance to extensive unfolding may preserve the three dimensional form of the protein for further uptake and release. PMID:26746808

  19. The quadratic Zeeman effect used for state-radius determination in neutral donors and donor bound excitons in Si:P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, K. L.; Li, Juerong; Stavrias, N.; Meaney, A. J.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Engelkamp, H.; Homewood, K. P.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Murdin, B. N.

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the near-infrared photoluminescence spectrum of phosphorus doped silicon (Si:P) and extracted the donor-bound exciton (D0X) energy at magnetic fields up to 28 T. At high field the Zeeman effect is strongly nonlinear because of the diamagnetic shift, also known as the quadratic Zeeman effect (QZE). The magnitude of the QZE is determined by the spatial extent of the wave-function. High field data allows us to extract values for the radius of the neutral donor (D0) ground state, and the light and heavy hole D0X states, all with more than an order of magnitude better precision than previous work. Good agreement was found between the experimental state radius and an effective mass model for D0. The D0X results are much more surprising, and the radius of the m J = ±3/2 heavy hole is found to be larger than that of the m J = ±1/2 light hole.

  20. Dissociation of molecular chlorine in a Coulomb explosion: Potential curves, bound states, and deviation from Coulombic behavior for Cln+2 (n=2,3,4,6,8,10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. S.; Dilabio, G. A.; Matusek, D. R.; Corkum, P. B.; Ivanov, M. Yu.; Ellert, Ch.; Buenker, R. J.; Alekseyev, A. B.; Hirsch, G.

    1999-06-01

    Highly charged molecular ions are generated in Coulomb explosion experiments involving multielectron dissociative ionization, but little is known about the precise mechanisms involved in their formation. To help improve the understanding of such experiments, potential energy curves are calculated in this paper for diatomic chlorine (Cl2) and its ions Cln+2, where n=1,2,3,4,6,8,10. Bound vibrational states are obtained in three low-lying electronic states for Cl2+2 and one state for Cl3+2. Vertical excitation energies are given for stepwise excitations up to Cl10+2. For all the ions examined there is a significant energy defect (Δ) from the corresponding Coulomb potential, in one case reaching magnitudes of over 20 eV. We analyze the origin of these energy defects in terms of residual chemical bonding, and discuss the contribution of strongly bonding configurations at short internuclear distance. Finally, we present a simple physical model which describes the qualitative behavior of Δ(R,Q).

  1. Crystal structures of free and antagonist-bound states of human α9 nicotinic receptor extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Zouridakis, Marios; Giastas, Petros; Zarkadas, Eleftherios; Chroni-Tzartou, Dafni; Bregestovski, Piotr; Tzartos, Socrates J

    2014-11-01

    We determined the X-ray crystal structures of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the monomeric state of human neuronal α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and of its complexes with the antagonists methyllycaconitine and α-bungarotoxin at resolutions of 1.8 Å, 1.7 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively. The structure of the monomeric α9 ECD superimposed well with the structures of homologous proteins in pentameric assemblies, denoting native folding, despite the absence of a complementary subunit and transmembrane domain. The interaction motifs of both antagonists were similar to those in the complexes with homologous pentameric proteins, thus highlighting the major contribution of the principal side of α9 ECD to their binding. The structures revealed a functionally important β7-β10 strand interaction in α9-containing nAChRs, involving their unique Thr147, a hydration pocket similar to that of mouse α1 ECD and a membrane-facing network coordinated by the invariant Arg210. PMID:25282151

  2. Search for weakly decaying Λn ‾ and ΛΛ exotic bound states in central Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a search for two hypothetical strange dibaryon states, i.e. the H-dibaryon and the possible Λn ‾ bound state. The search is performed with the ALICE detector in central (0-10%) Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV, by invariant mass analysis in the decay modes Λn ‾ → d ‾π+ and H-dibaryon → Λpπ-. No evidence for these bound states is observed. Upper limits are determined at 99% confidence level for a wide range of lifetimes and for the full range of branching ratios. The results are compared to thermal, coalescence and hybrid UrQMD model expectations, which describe correctly the production of other loosely bound states, like the deuteron and the hypertriton.

  3. Molecular evidence for interspecies transmission of H3N2pM/H3N2v influenza A viruses at an Ohio agricultural fair, July 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew S; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Killian, Mary L; Page, Shannon L; Nelson, Sarah W; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Cardona, Carol; Slemons, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence accumulating in 2011–2012 indicates that there is significant intra- and inter-species transmission of influenza A viruses at agricultural fairs, which has renewed interest in this unique human/swine interface. Six human cases of influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus infections were epidemiologically linked to swine exposure at fairs in the United States in 2011. In 2012, the number of H3N2v cases in the Midwest had exceeded 300 from early July to September, 2012. Prospective influenza A virus surveillance among pigs at Ohio fairs resulted in the detection of H3N2pM (H3N2 influenza A viruses containing the matrix (M) gene from the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus). These H3N2pM viruses were temporally and spatially linked to several human H3N2v cases. Complete genomic analyses of these H3N2pM isolates demonstrated >99% nucleotide similarity to the H3N2v isolates recovered from human cases. Actions to mitigate the bidirectional interspecies transmission of influenza A virus between people and animals at agricultural fairs may be warranted. PMID:26038404

  4. Pathogenicity and transmission in pigs of the novel A(H3N2)v influenza virus isolated from humans and characterization of swine H3N2 viruses isolated in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Kitikoon, Pravina; Vincent, Amy L; Gauger, Phillip C; Schlink, Sarah N; Bayles, Darrell O; Gramer, Marie R; Darnell, Daniel; Webby, Richard J; Lager, Kelly M; Swenson, Sabrina L; Klimov, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) H3N2 with triple reassorted internal genes (TRIG) has been enzootic in Unites States since 1998. Transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus to pigs in the United States was followed by reassortment with endemic SIV, resulting in reassorted viruses that include novel H3N2 genotypes (rH3N2p). Between July and December 2011, 12 cases of human infections with swine-lineage H3N2 viruses containing the pandemic matrix (pM) gene [A(H3N2)v] were detected. Whole-genome analysis of H3N2 viruses isolated from pigs from 2009 to 2011 sequenced in this study and other available H3N2 sequences showed six different rH3N2p genotypes present in the U.S. swine population since 2009. The presence of the pM gene was a common feature among all rH3N2p genotypes, but no specific genotype appeared to predominate in the swine population. We compared the pathogenic, transmission, genetic, and antigenic properties of a human A(H3N2)v isolate and two swine H3N2 isolates, H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p. Our in vivo study detected no increased virulence in A(H3N2)v or rH3N2p viruses compared to endemic H3N2-TRIG virus. Antibodies to cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses had reduced cross-reactivity to A(H3N2)v compared to other cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene indicated that although rH3N2p and A(H3N2)v are related to cluster IV of H3N2-TRIG, some recent rH3N2p isolates appeared to be forming a separate cluster along with the human isolates of A(H3N2)v. Continued monitoring of these H3N2 viruses is necessary to evaluate the evolution and potential loss of population immunity in swine and humans.

  5. Pathogenicity and Transmission in Pigs of the Novel A(H3N2)v Influenza Virus Isolated from Humans and Characterization of Swine H3N2 Viruses Isolated in 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kitikoon, Pravina; Gauger, Phillip C.; Schlink, Sarah N.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Gramer, Marie R.; Darnell, Daniel; Webby, Richard J.; Lager, Kelly M.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Klimov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) H3N2 with triple reassorted internal genes (TRIG) has been enzootic in Unites States since 1998. Transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus to pigs in the United States was followed by reassortment with endemic SIV, resulting in reassorted viruses that include novel H3N2 genotypes (rH3N2p). Between July and December 2011, 12 cases of human infections with swine-lineage H3N2 viruses containing the pandemic matrix (pM) gene [A(H3N2)v] were detected. Whole-genome analysis of H3N2 viruses isolated from pigs from 2009 to 2011 sequenced in this study and other available H3N2 sequences showed six different rH3N2p genotypes present in the U.S. swine population since 2009. The presence of the pM gene was a common feature among all rH3N2p genotypes, but no specific genotype appeared to predominate in the swine population. We compared the pathogenic, transmission, genetic, and antigenic properties of a human A(H3N2)v isolate and two swine H3N2 isolates, H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p. Our in vivo study detected no increased virulence in A(H3N2)v or rH3N2p viruses compared to endemic H3N2-TRIG virus. Antibodies to cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses had reduced cross-reactivity to A(H3N2)v compared to other cluster IV H3N2-TRIG and rH3N2p viruses. Genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene indicated that although rH3N2p and A(H3N2)v are related to cluster IV of H3N2-TRIG, some recent rH3N2p isolates appeared to be forming a separate cluster along with the human isolates of A(H3N2)v. Continued monitoring of these H3N2 viruses is necessary to evaluate the evolution and potential loss of population immunity in swine and humans. PMID:22491461

  6. Zn3N2 nanowires: growth, properties and oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zinc nitride (Zn3N2) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 to 100 nm and a cubic crystal structure have been grown on 1 nm Au/Al2O3 via the reaction of Zn with NH3 including H2 between 500°C and 600°C. These exhibited an optical band gap of ≈ 3.2 eV, estimated from steady state absorption-transmission spectroscopy. We compared this with the case of ZnO NWs and discussed the surface oxidation of Zn3N2 NWs which is important and is expected to lead to the formation of a Zn3N2/ZnO core-shell NW, the energy band diagram of which was calculated via the self-consistent solution of the Poisson-Schrödinger equations within the effective mass approximation by taking into account a fundamental energy band gap of 1.2 eV. In contrast, only highly oriented Zn3N2 layers with a cubic crystal structure and an optical band gap of ≈ 2.9 eV were obtained on Au/Si(001) using the same growth conditions. PMID:23663554

  7. Capturing a reactive state of amyloid aggregates: NMR-based characterization of copper-bound Alzheimer disease amyloid β-fibrils in a redox cycle.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Yoo, Brian; McElheny, Dan; Tay, William; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of redox-active copper ions with misfolded amyloid β (Aβ) is linked to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been associated with oxidative stress and neuronal damages in Alzheimer disease. Despite intensive studies, it is still not conclusive how the interaction of Cu(+)/Cu(2+) with Aβ aggregates leads to ROS production even at the in vitro level. In this study, we examined the interaction between Cu(+)/Cu(2+) and Aβ fibrils by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and other spectroscopic methods. Our photometric studies confirmed the production of ~60 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from a solution of 20 μM Cu(2+) ions in complex with Aβ(1-40) in fibrils ([Cu(2+)]/[Aβ] = 0.4) within 2 h of incubation after addition of biological reducing agent ascorbate at the physiological concentration (~1 mM). Furthermore, SSNMR (1)H T1 measurements demonstrated that during ROS production the conversion of paramagnetic Cu(2+) into diamagnetic Cu(+) occurs while the reactive Cu(+) ions remain bound to the amyloid fibrils. The results also suggest that O2 is required for rapid recycling of Cu(+) bound to Aβ back to Cu(2+), which allows for continuous production of H2O2. Both (13)C and (15)N SSNMR results show that Cu(+) coordinates to Aβ(1-40) fibrils primarily through the side chain Nδ of both His-13 and His-14, suggesting major rearrangements from the Cu(2+) coordination via Nε in the redox cycle. (13)C SSNMR chemical shift analysis suggests that the overall Aβ conformations are largely unaffected by Cu(+) binding. These results present crucial site-specific evidence of how the full-length Aβ in amyloid fibrils offers catalytic Cu(+) centers.

  8. New ab initio adiabatic potential energy surfaces and bound state calculations for the singlet ground X˜ 1A1 and excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2016-05-01

    We report new and more accurate adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the ground X˜ 1A1 and electronically excited C˜ 1B2(21A') states of the SO2 molecule. Ab initio points are calculated using the explicitly correlated internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI-F12) method. A second less accurate PES for the ground X ˜ state is also calculated using an explicitly correlated single-reference coupled-cluster method with single, double, and non-iterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]. With these new three-dimensional PESs, we determine energies of the vibrational bound states and compare these values to existing literature data and experiment.

  9. γ-ray decay from neutron-bound and unbound states in 95Mo and a novel technique for spin determination

    DOE PAGES

    Wiedeking, M.; Krticka, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Allmond, James M.; Basunia, M. S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Daub, B. H.; Fallon, P.; Firestone, R. B.; et al

    2016-02-01

    The emission of γ rays from neutron-bound and neutron-unbound states in 95Mo, populated in the 94Mo(d,p) reaction, has been investigated. Charged particles and γ radiation were detected with arrays of annular silicon and Clover-type high-purity Germanium detectors, respectively. Utilizing p-γ and p-γ-γ coincidences, the 95Mo level scheme was greatly enhanced with 102 new transitions and 43 new states. It agrees well with shell model calculations for excitation energies below ≈2 MeV. From p-γ coincidence data, a new method for the determination of spins of discrete levels is proposed. The method exploits the suppression of high-angular momentum neutron emission from levelsmore » with high spins populated in the (d,p) reaction above the neutron separation energy. As a result, spins for almost all 95Mo levels below 2 MeV (and for a few levels above) have been determined with this method.« less

  10. Ligand Binding Shifts Highly Mobile Retinoid X Receptor to the Chromatin-Bound State in a Coactivator-Dependent Manner, as Revealed by Single-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brazda, Peter; Krieger, Jan; Daniel, Bence; Jonas, David; Szekeres, Tibor; Langowski, Jörg; Tóth, Katalin; Vámosi, György

    2014-01-01

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a promiscuous nuclear receptor forming heterodimers with several other receptors, which activate different sets of genes. Upon agonist treatment, the occupancy of its genomic binding regions increased, but only a modest change in the number of sites was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, suggesting a rather static behavior. However, such genome-wide and biochemical approaches do not take into account the dynamic behavior of a transcription factor. Therefore, we characterized the nuclear dynamics of RXR during activation in single cells on the subsecond scale using live-cell imaging. By applying fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), techniques with different temporal and spatial resolutions, a highly dynamic behavior could be uncovered which is best described by a two-state model (slow and fast) of receptor mobility. In the unliganded state, most RXRs belonged to the fast population, leaving ∼15% for the slow, chromatin-bound fraction. Upon agonist treatment, this ratio increased to ∼43% as a result of an immediate and reversible redistribution. Coactivator binding appears to be indispensable for redistribution and has a major contribution to chromatin association. A nuclear mobility map recorded by light sheet microscopy-FCS shows that the ligand-induced transition from the fast to the slow population occurs throughout the nucleus. Our results support a model in which RXR has a distinct, highly dynamic nuclear behavior and follows hit-and-run kinetics upon activation. PMID:24449763

  11. Effects of an intense, high-frequency laser field on bound states in Ga1 − xInxNyAs1 − y/GaAs double quantum well

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Within the envelope function approach and the effective-mass approximation, we have investigated theoretically the effect of an intense, high-frequency laser field on the bound states in a GaxIn1 − xNyAs1 − y/GaAs double quantum well for different nitrogen and indium mole concentrations. The laser-dressed potential, bound states, and squared wave functions related to these bound states in Ga1 − xInxNyAs1 − y/GaAs double quantum well are investigated as a function of the position and laser-dressing parameter. Our numerical results show that both intense laser field and nitrogen (indium) incorporation into the GaInNAs have strong influences on carrier localization. PMID:23113959

  12. Structure of Avian Thymic Hormone, a High-Affinity Avian [beta]-Parvalbumin, in the Ca[superscript 2+]-Free and Ca[superscript 2+]-Bound States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Tan, Anmin; Tanner, John J.; Henzl, Michael T.

    2010-09-03

    Originally isolated on the basis of its capacity to stimulate T-cell maturation and proliferation, avian thymic hormone (ATH) is nevertheless a parvalbumin, one of two {beta}-lineage isoforms expressed in birds. We recently learned that addition of Ca{sup 2+}-free ATH to a solution of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS) markedly increases ANS emission. This behavior, not observed in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, suggests that apolar surface area buried in the Ca{sup 2+}-bound state becomes solvent accessible upon Ca{sup 2+} removal. In order to elucidate the conformational alterations that accompany Ca{sup 2+} binding, we have obtained the solution structure of the Ca{sup 2+}-free protein using NMR spectroscopy and compared it to the Ca{sup 2+}-loaded protein, solved by X-ray crystallography. Although the metal-ion-binding (CD-EF) domains are largely coincident in the superimposed structures, a major difference is observed in the AB domains. The tight association of helix B with the E and F helices in the Ca{sup 2+}-bound state is lost upon removal of Ca{sup 2+}, producing a deep hydrophobic cavity. The B helix also undergoes substantial rotation, exposing the side chains of F24, Y26, F29, and F30 to solvent. Presumably, the increase in ANS emission observed in the presence of unliganded ATH reflects the interaction of these hydrophobic residues with the fluorescent probe. The increased solvent exposure of apolar surface area in the Ca{sup 2+}-free protein is consistent with previously collected scanning calorimetry data, which indicated an unusually low change in heat capacity upon thermal denaturation. The Ca{sup 2+}-free structure also provides added insight into the magnitude of ligation-linked conformational alteration compatible with a high-affinity metal-ion-binding signature. The exposure of substantial apolar surface area suggests the intriguing possibility that ATH could function as a reverse Ca{sup 2+} sensor.

  13. Crystal structure of a periplasmic solute binding protein in metal-free, intermediate and metal-bound states from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Bhose, Sumit; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The Znu system, a member of ABC transporter family, is critical for survival and pathogenesis of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLA). Two homologues of this system have been identified in CLA. Here, we report high resolution crystal structure of a periplasmic solute binding protein from second of the two gene clusters of Znu system in CLA (CLas-ZnuA2) in metal-free, intermediate and metal-bound states. CLas-ZnuA2 showed maximum sequence identity to the Mn/Fe-specific solute binding proteins (SBPs) of cluster A-I family. The overall fold of CLas-ZnuA2 is similar to the related cluster A-I family SBPs. The sequence and structure analysis revealed the unique features of CLas-ZnuA2. The comparison of CLas-ZnuA2 structure in three states showed that metal binding and release is facilitated by a large displacement along with a change in orientation of the side chain for one of the metal binding residue (His39) flipped away from metal binding site in metal-free form. The crystal structure captured in intermediate state of metal binding revealed the changes in conformation and interaction of the loop hosting His39 during the metal binding. A rigid body movement of C-domain along with partial unfolding of linker helix at its C-terminal during metal binding, as reported for PsaA, was not observed in CLas-ZnuA2. The present results suggest that despite showing maximum sequence identity to the Mn/Fe-specific SBPs, the mechanistic resemblance of CLas-ZnuA2 seems to be closer to Zn-specific SBPs of cluster A-I family.

  14. Particle bound black carbon size distribution and mixing state in urban environments using a novel tandem differential mobility analyzer and aethalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhi; Westerdahl, Dane; Wong, Ka-Chun; Chan, Ka-Lok

    2013-04-01

    Particle bound black carbon (BC) has dominant anthropogenic origins from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning sources. It is an important component of the light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere, playing a role in the earth's radiative balance and climate change. While the mixing states of the BC largely determine the coating on the particles, knowledge of the size distribution of BC is key to the accurate modelling of their absorption of solar radiation. Also, BC is a major component of the diesel PM emissions, recently classified by World Health Organization as Class I carcinogen, and has been widely documented with association of a variety of adverse health effects. Their sizes also determine the fraction of lung deposition. Due to the limited information of the mixing state and size distribution of BC, there still exists large uncertainty of the role of BC in climate change modelling. This study presents a novel approach of the direct and continuous measurement of atmospheric BC size distribution and coating by tandem operation of a differential mobility analyzer and a modified aethalometer. A condensation particle counter was deployed concurrently with the aethalometer to determine the particle number size distribution. Particle coating on BC was further estimated. A wide range of particle sizes (15-700nm) was investigated to determine the BC mass size distribution in fresh diesel engine tailpipe emissions and different ambient environments including urban and roadside. The results showed the evolution of BC mixing state and size distribution from fresh engine emissions to the roadside and urban ambient environments. The results provide important references for climate modelling to better determine the effect of radiative forcing from urban aerosols.

  15. Bound Exciton Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  16. Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-11-02

    Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K{sub i} = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same 'in action' state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of {alpha}-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.

  17. Particle size reduction of Si3N4 with Si3N4 milling hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Freedman, M. R.; Kiser, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The grinding of Si3N4 powder using reaction bonded Si3N4 attrition, vibratory, and ball mills with Si3N4 media was examined. The rate of particle size reduction and the change in the chemical composition of the powder were determined in order to compare the grinding efficiency and the increase in impurity content resulting from mill and media wear for each technique. Attrition and vibratory milling exhibited rates of specific surface area increase that were approximately eight times that observed in ball milling. Vibratory milling introduced the greatest impurity pickup.

  18. Blog life: Entropy Bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  19. The weak bound state with the non-zero charge density as the LHC 126.5 GeV state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syska, J.

    2016-09-01

    The self-consistent model of classical field interactions formulated as the counterpart of the quantum electroweak model leads to homogeneous boson ground state solutions in presence of non-zero extended fermionic charge density fluctuations. Two different types of electroweak configurations of fields are analyzed. The first one has non-zero electric and weak charge fluctuations. The second one is electrically uncharged but weakly charged. Both types of configurations have two physically interesting solutions which possess masses equal to 126.67 GeV at the value of the scalar fluctuation potential parameter λ equal to ~0.0652. The spin zero electrically uncharged droplet formed as a result of the decay of the charged one is interpreted as the ~126.5 GeV state found in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment. (The other two configurations correspond to solutions with masses equal to 123.7 GeV and λ equal to ~0.0498 and thus the algebraic mean of the masses of two central solutions, i.e., 126.67 GeV and 123.7 GeV, is equal to 125.185 GeV.) The problem of a mass of this kind of droplets will be considered on the basis of the phenomenon of the screening of the fluctuation of charges. Their masses are found in the thin wall approximation.

  20. Approach to chaos in ultracold atomic and molecular physics: Statistics of near-threshold bound states for Li+CaH and Li+CaF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Matthew D.; Morita, Masato; Vaillant, Christophe L.; Green, Dermot G.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate near-threshold bound states and Feshbach resonance positions for atom-rigid-rotor models of the highly anisotropic systems Li+CaH and Li+CaF. We perform statistical analysis on the resonance positions to compare with the predictions of random matrix theory. For Li+CaH with total angular momentum J =0 we find fully chaotic behavior in both the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution and the level number variance. However, for J >0 we find different behavior due to the presence of a nearly conserved quantum number. Li+CaF (J =0 ) also shows apparently reduced levels of chaotic behavior despite its stronger effective coupling. This may indicate the development of another good quantum number relating to a bending motion of the complex. However, continuously varying the rotational constant over a wide range shows unexpected structure in the degree of chaotic behavior, including a dramatic reduction around the rotational constant of CaF. This demonstrates the complexity of the relationship between coupling and chaotic behavior.

  1. The role of free and bound water in irradiation preservation: Free radical damage as a function of the physical state of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Dollar, A.M.

    1964-01-01

    English sole fillets previously equilibrated with aqueous 0.1% cysteine were dehydrated by three methods to moisture levels ranging from 2 to 72%. Model systems using cellulose to replace the fish tissue were also used. The samples were irradiated at 1 Mrad in an air, nitrogen, or oxygen atmosphere. The destruction of −SH groups was measured and related to the amount and physical state of the tissue water. As free water was removed, destruction steadily increased, reaching a maximum at about 20% moisture. Destruction decreased markedly at moisture levels below 10%, and calorimetric measurements confirmed that 10% moisture was about the level of bound water in this species. These data suggest that dehydration favors the reaction of solute molecules with free radicals formed in the free water of muscle cells. At moisture levels greater than about 20%, simple free radical recombination is more likely than reaction with solute molecules, while below 20% moisture the reverse is true. The calculated α values support this conclusion, as do the results from model systems using cellulose.

  2. Numerical computations of a nearly singular nonlinear equation: Weakly nonlocal bound states of solitons for the fifth-order Korteweg-deVries equation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    We numerically calculate bions, which are bound states of two solitary waves which travel together as a single coherent structure with a fixed peak-to-peak separation, for the fifth-order Korteweg-deVries equation. R.H.J. Grimshaw and B.A. Malomed predicted such bions using perturbation theory. We find that the nearly singular quasi-translational eigen-mode which is the heart of the theory is also numerically important in the sense that later iterations are approximately proportional to this eigenmode. However, the near-singularity does not create any serious probelms for our Fourier pseudospectral/Newton-Kantorovich/pseudoarclength continuation algorithms. This type of theory for weakly overlapping solitary waves has been previously developed by Gorshkov, Ostrovskii, Papko, and others. However, Grimshaw and Malomed`s work and our own are the first on bions which are {open_quotes}weakly nonlocal,{close_quotes} that is, decay for large {vert_bar}x{vert_bar} to small amplitude oscillations rather than to zero. Our numerical calculations confirm the main assertions of Grimshaw and Malomed. However, thre are other features, such as a complicated branch structure with multiple turning points and the existence of bions with narrow peak-to-peak separation, which are not predicted by the theory. 20 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Saturating the holographic entropy bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

  4. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M

    2003-07-01

    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway. PMID:12820877

  5. OTX2 sustains a bivalent-like state of OTX2-bound promoters in medulloblastoma by maintaining their H3K27me3 levels.

    PubMed

    Bunt, Jens; Hasselt, Nancy A; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Kool, Marcel

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies showed frequent mutations in histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylases in medulloblastomas of Group 3 and Group 4, suggesting a role for H3K27 methylation in these tumors. Indeed, trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) levels were shown to be higher in Group 3 and 4 tumors compared to WNT and SHH medulloblastomas, also in tumors without detectable mutations in demethylases. Here, we report that polycomb genes, required for H3K27 methylation, are consistently upregulated in Group 3 and 4 tumors. These tumors show high expression of the homeobox transcription factor OTX2. Silencing of OTX2 in D425 medulloblastoma cells resulted in downregulation of polycomb genes such as EZH2, EED, SUZ12 and RBBP4 and upregulation of H3K27 demethylases KDM6A, KDM6B, JARID2 and KDM7A. This was accompanied by decreased H3K27me3 and increased H3K27me1 levels in promoter regions. Strikingly, the decrease of H3K27me3 was most prominent in promoters that bind OTX2. OTX2-bound promoters showed high levels of the H3K4me3 and H3K9ac activation marks and intermediate levels of the H3K27me3 inactivation mark, reminiscent of a bivalent modification. After silencing of OTX2, H3K27me3 levels strongly dropped, but H3K4me3 and H3K9ac levels remained high. OTX2-bound bivalent genes showed high expression levels in D425, but the expression of most of these genes did not change after OTX2 silencing and loss of the H3K27me3 mark. Maintaining promoters in a bivalent state by sustaining H3K27 trimethylation therefore seems to be an important function of OTX2 in medulloblastoma, while other transcription factors might regulate the actual expression levels of these genes.

  6. A Initio Mr-Rci Calculations of ((n - 1)D + Ns)(n) Atomic Bound States: Application to Hyperfine Structure and Electron Affinity Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Debasis

    ions. Neutral Th has been predicted to possess multiple opposite parity negative ion states below its ground state, which also suggests alternative attachment processes involving a p or a d electron. For all Th^{-} bound states electron configurations and electron affinity estimates have been provided. In conclusion, this work answers the major concerns of the many-body problem in open d systems and lays the foundation for relativistic ab initio studies of open f systems.

  7. Chemical behavior in diffusion bonding of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Ni and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-superalloy IN-738

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.C.; Iwamoto, C.; Ishida, Y.

    1996-09-15

    The bulk chemical reactions between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ni have been investigated from a thermodynamics perspective by Klomp et al. and Heikinheimo et al., and from experiments by Suganuma et al., Schuster et al., Brito et al., Ishikawa et al., and Heikinheimo et al. The chemical interaction between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ni-based alloy was investigated by Benett et al., Mehan et al., and Peteves et al. In this work, instead of the Ni-Cr, or model Ni-based superalloy (Ni-Cr-Al alloy), the industrial superalloy, IN-738, was used. For comparing the different chemical behaviors between the pure Ni and Ni-based superalloy with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, solid state diffusion bonding of Ni/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and IN-738/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were bonded in the same bonding conditions, except Ni/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimens whose bonding time were longer than that of IN-738/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} specimen.

  8. Solution- and bound-state conformational study of N,N',N"-triacetyl chitotriose and other analogous potential inhibitors of hevamine: application of trNOESY and STD NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Germer, Antje; Mügge, Clemens; Peter, Martin G; Rottmann, Antje; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2003-05-01

    The solution-state conformations of N,N',N"-triacetyl chitotriose (1) and other potential chitinase inhibitors 2-4 were studied using a combination of NMR spectroscopy (NOESY) and molecular mechanics calculations. Determination solely of the global energy minimum conformation was found to be insufficient for an agreement with the NMR results. An appropriate consistency between the NMR experimental data and theoretical calculations was only reached by assessing the structures as population-weighted average conformers based on Boltzmann distributions derived from the calculated relative energies. Analogies, but also particular differences, between the synthetic compounds 2-4 and the naturally-occurring N,N',N"-triacetyl chitotriose were found. Furthermore, the conformation of compounds 1 and 2 when bound to hevamine was also studied using transferred NOESY experiments and the binding process was found to impart a level of conformational restriction on the ligands. The preferred conformation as determined for 1 in the bound state to hevamine belonged to one of the conformational families found for the compound when free in solution, although full characterisation of the bound-state conformations was impeded due to severe signal overlap. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments were also employed to analyse the binding epitopes of the bound compounds. We thus determined that it is mainly the acetyl amido groups of the trisaccharide and the heterocyclic moiety which are in close contact with hevamine. PMID:12740843

  9. Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

  10. Unified ab initio approach to bound and unbound states: No-core shell model with continuum and its application to 7He

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Simone; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2013-03-26

    In this study, we introduce a unified approach to nuclear bound and continuum states based on the coupling of the no-core shell model (NCSM), a bound-state technique, with the no-core shell model/resonating group method (NCSM/RGM), a nuclear scattering technique. This new ab initio method, no-core shell model with continuum (NCSMC), leads to convergence properties superior to either NCSM or NCSM/RGM while providing a balanced approach to different classes of states. In the NCSMC, the ansatz for the many-nucleon wave function includes (i) a square-integrable A-nucleon component expanded in a complete harmonic oscillator basis and (ii) a binary-cluster component with asymptotic boundary conditions that can properly describe weakly bound states, resonances, and scattering. The Schrödinger equation is transformed into a system of coupled-channel integral-differential equations that we solve using a modified microscopic R-matrix formalism within a Lagrange mesh basis. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by investigating the unbound 7He nucleus.

  11. Prediction of novel hard phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}: First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Lin; Hu, Meng; Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Yu, Dongli; Liu, Zhongyuan; He, Julong

    2015-08-15

    Exploration of novel hard metastable phases of silicon nitride was performed using a recently developed particle-swarm optimization method within the CALYPSO software package. Three potential hard metastable phases of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were predicted. These phases are mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure based on their elastic constants and phonon dispersions. t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibit lower energies than γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at pressures below 2.5 GPa and 2.9 GPa, respectively, which promise that the formers could be obtained by quenching from γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is a better high-pressure metastable phase than CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} proposed by Tatsumi et al. and it can come from the transition of γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} under 198 GPa. The theoretical band gaps of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at ambient pressure were 3.15 eV, 3.90 eV, and 3.36 eV, respectively. At ambient pressure, the Vickers hardness values of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (32.6 GPa), m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (31.5 GPa), and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (36.1 GPa) are comparable to β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. With the pressure increasing, t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} will change from the brittle to ductile state at about 15.7 GPa, 7.3 GPa and 28.9 GPa, respectively. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the crystal structures of three Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} predicted in this manuscript, and left to right: t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Highlights: • We explored three metastable phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} — t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The enthalpies of t and m- are much lower than that of γ at ambient pressure. • ois one further high pressure phase than γ. • o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is the most hardest phase in Si

  12. Experimental activation of bound entanglement.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2012-07-27

    Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.

  13. Vibrationally-resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Model GFP Chromophore Anion Revealing the Photoexcited S-1 State being both Vertically and Adiabatically Bound against the Photodetached D-0 Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, GuanXin; Yang, Yan; Zheng, Weijun; Sun, Zhenrong; Zhang, De-Qing; Wang, Xue B.

    2014-06-19

    The first excited state of the model green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore anion (S1) and its energy level against the electron-detached neutral radical, D0 state are crucial in determining the photophysics and the photo-induced dynamics of GFP. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies, particularly several very recent gas phase investigations concluded that S1 is a bound state in the Franck-Condon vertical region with respect to D0. However, what remains unknown and challenging is if S1 is bound adiabatically, primarily due to lack of accurate experimental measurements, as well as due to close proximity in energy for these two states that even sophisticated high-level ab initio calculations can’t reliably predict. Here, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy study on the model GFP chromophore anion, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone anion (HBDI–). Despite the considerable size and low symmetry of the molecule, well resolved vibrational structures were obtained with the 0–0 transition being the most intense peak. The adiabatic (ADE) and vertical detachment energy (VDE) therefore are determined, both to be 2.73 ± 0.01 eV, indicating the detached D0 state is 0.16 eV higher in energy than the photon excited S1 state. The accurate ADE and VDE values and the well-resolved photoelectron spectra reported here provide much needed, robust benchmarks for future theoretical investigations.

  14. Functional Analyses of the Plant Photosystem I–Light-Harvesting Complex II Supercomplex Reveal That Light-Harvesting Complex II Loosely Bound to Photosystem II Is a Very Efficient Antenna for Photosystem I in State II[W

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Pierre; Santabarbara, Stefano; Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Degand, Hervé; Morsomme, Pierre; Jennings, Robert C.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Caffarri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that allows energy distribution balancing between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants when PSII is preferentially excited compared with PSI (State II), part of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII migrates to PSI to form a PSI-LHCII supercomplex. So far, little is known about this complex, mainly due to purification problems. Here, a stable PSI-LHCII supercomplex is purified from Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays) plants. It is demonstrated that LHCIIs loosely bound to PSII in State I are the trimers mainly involved in state transitions and become strongly bound to PSI in State II. Specific Lhcb1-3 isoforms are differently represented in the mobile LHCII compared with S and M trimers. Fluorescence analyses indicate that excitation energy migration from mobile LHCII to PSI is rapid and efficient, and the quantum yield of photochemical conversion of PSI-LHCII is substantially unaffected with respect to PSI, despite a sizable increase of the antenna size. An updated PSI-LHCII structural model suggests that the low-energy chlorophylls 611 and 612 in LHCII interact with the chlorophyll 11145 at the interface of PSI. In contrast with the common opinion, we suggest that the mobile pool of LHCII may be considered an intimate part of the PSI antenna system that is displaced to PSII in State I. PMID:22822202

  15. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  16. An experimental study of the reactivity of CN- and C3N- anions with cyanoacetylene (HC3N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanzin, Claire; Louarn, Essyllt; Lemaire, Joël; Žabka, Ján; Polášek, Miroslav; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Alcaraz, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The reactions of the CN- and C3N- anions with cyanoacetylene HC3N, of special interest for the chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere, have been investigated by means of FTICR mass-spectrometry. Primary ions, CN- and C3N-, have been produced by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) from BrCN and BrC3N, and prepared in a clean way before reaction. Total rate constants have been measured for both reactions at 300 K and are found to be as follows: (3.9 ± 0.5) × 10-9 and (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 for the reaction of HC3N with CN- and C3N-, respectively. For the CN- + HC3N reaction, proton transfer is found to be the only reactive channel within our detection limits. Proton transfer is also dominant for the C3N- + HC3N reaction but the resulting ionic product being identical to the primary ion C3N-, this process is transparent for the kinetics of the C3N- + HC3N reaction and the kinetic rate retrieved corresponds to a slow and competitive detachment pathway. Yet the nature and energetics of the neutral product(s) formed through this process remain unknown. Additional experiments using isotopic products have allowed to retrieve specific rate constants associated with the proton transfer channel in the C315N- + HC3N and C3N- + HC315N reactions and the measured rates are found to be significantly lower than for the CN- + HC3N system. This decrease and the evolution of reactivity when going from CN- to C3N- and the opening of a new detachment pathway are finally discussed.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel versus Solvent-Based Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichansavakul, Kittaya

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the US. Although early detection and treatment help to increase survival rates, some unfortunate patients develop metastatic breast cancer that has no cure. Palliative treatment is the main objective in this group of patients in order to prolong life and reduce toxicities from interventions. In the advancement of treatment for metastatic breast cancer, solvent-based paclitaxel has been widely used. However, solvent-based paclitaxel often causes adverse reactions. Therefore, researchers have developed a new chemotherapy based on nanotechnology. One of these drugs is the Nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel. This nanodrug aims to increase therapeutic index by reducing adverse reactions from solvents and to improve efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Breast cancer is a disease with high epidemiological and economic burden. The treatment of metastatic breast cancer has not only high direct costs but also high indirect costs. Breast cancer affects mass populations, especially women younger than 50 years of age. It relates to high indirect costs due to lost productivity and premature death because the majority of these patients are in the workforce. Because of the high cost of breast cancer therapies and short survival rates, the question is raised whether the costs and benefits are worth paying or not. Due to the rising costs in healthcare and new financing policies that have been developed to address this issue, economic evaluation is an important aspect of the development and use of any new interventions. To guide policy makers on how to allocate limited healthcare resources in the most efficient and effective manner, many economic evaluation methods can be used to measure the costs, benefits, and impacts of healthcare innovations. Currently, economic evaluation and health outcomes studies have focused greatly on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. However, the previous studies

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of Co-Si 3N 4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S. M.; Xi, K.; Li, G. R.; Gao, X. P.

    Cobalt nanoparticles on an amorphous Si 3N 4 matrix were synthesized by direct ball-milling of Co and Si 3N 4 powders for an improvement of their electrochemical performance. The microstructure, morphology and chemical state of the ball-milled Co-Si 3N 4 composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical performance of Co-Si 3N 4 composites was investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge process and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. It is found that metallic Co nanoparticles of 10-20 nm in size are highly dispersed on the amorphous inactive Si 3N 4 matrix after the ball-milling. The composite with a Co/Si molar ratio of 2/1 shows the optimized electrochemical performance, including discharge capacity and cycle stability. The formation of Co nanoparticles with a good reaction activity is responsible for the discharge capacity of the composites. The reversible faradic reaction between Co and β-Co(OH) 2 is dominant for ball-milled Co-Si 3N 4 composite. The surface modification of the hydrogen storage PrMg 12-Ni composites using Co-Si 3N 4 composites can enhance the initial discharge capacity based on the hydrogen electrochemical oxidation and Co redox reaction.

  19. Superactivation, unlockability, and secrecy distribution of bound information

    SciTech Connect

    Prettico, Giuseppe; Bae, Joonwoo

    2011-04-15

    Bound information, a cryptographic classical analog of bound entanglement, is defined as classical secret correlations from which no secret key can be extracted. Its existence was conjectured and shown in a multipartite case. In this work, we provide an example of bound information in a four-partite scenario. Later, using this example, we prove that bound information can be superactivated and moreover unlockable in a finite-copy scenario. We also show that bound entangled states (bound information) can be used to distribute multipartite pure-state entanglements (secret keys).

  20. Spin-dipole-induced lifetime of the least-bound {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state of He(2 {sup 3}S{sub 1})+He(2 {sup 3}S{sub 1})

    SciTech Connect

    Beams, Timothy J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Peach, Gillian

    2006-07-15

    The properties of the least-bound vibrational level (v=14) of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state formed during the ultracold collision of two spin-polarized metastable 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1} helium atoms are crucial to studies of photoassociation spectroscopy of metastable helium. We report a calculation of the autoionization lifetime {tau}{sub g} of this state induced by spin-dipole coupling of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state to the {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state from which Penning and associative ionization processes are highly probable. We find {tau}{sub g}{approx_equal}150 {mu}s, significantly larger than the recent experimental estimates of (0.5-3) {mu}s.