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Sample records for 3pi faint galaxy

  1. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low-mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We present improved clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a scenario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  2. Cold H I in faint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisin, Serafim S.; Begum, Ayesha

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight H I spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold H I. In the second method, the brightness temperature (TB ) is used as a tracer of cold H I. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the TB method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the TB method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by cold gas. For regions where the star formation and the cold gas overlap, we study the relationship between the star formation rate density and the cold H I column density. We find that the star formation rate density has a power-law dependence on the H I column density, but that the slope of this power law is significantly flatter than that of the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt relation.

  3. First Results from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Levine, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first result from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey (IIFGS), a program designed to obtain ISO observations of the most distant and luminous galaxies in the IRAS Faint Source Survey by filling short gaps in the ISO observing schedule with pairs of 12um ISOCAM AND 90um ISOPHOT observation.

  4. The nature of faint emission-line galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetanka, John J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the results of faint galaxy redshift surveys is the increased fraction of galaxies which have strong emission-line spectra. These faint surveys find that roughly 50 percent of the galaxies have an equivalent width of (OII), W sub 3727, greater than 20 A while this fraction is less than 20 percent in the DARS survey. This has been interpreted as evidence for strong evolution in the galaxy population at redshifts less than 0.5. In order to further investigate the properties of the galaxies in faint redshift surveys, two important factors must be addressed. The first is the observed correlation between color, luminosity, and W sub 3727. There is a correlation between color and the strength of emission lines, bluer galaxies having stronger emission features, as evident for Markarian galaxies and for galaxies in Kennicutt's spectrophotometric atlas. This correlation also applies galaxies in faint redshift surveys. In addition, low luminosity galaxies have a larger average W sub 3727 (and bluer colors) than higher luminosity galaxies. This is illustrated for Kennicutt's low z late-type galaxies, for the Durham Faint Surveys, and for galaxies in SA68. The second factor which must be incorporated into any interpretation of the faint emission galaxies is the different luminosity functions for galaxies depending on color. This is usually modeled by varying M* for different color classes (or morphological types); however, the shape of the luminosity function is different for galaxies with different colors. Low luminosity, blue galaxies have a much larger number density than low luminosity, red galaxies. Furthermore, the low luminosity end of the blue galaxy luminosity function is not well fit by a Schechter function. These two factors have been included in a very simple, no-evolution, model for the galaxy population. This model uses the luminosity functions from Shanks (1990) and spectral energy distributions (SED's) from Bruzual (1988). W sub 3727 is predicted using

  5. Faint Blue Galaxies and the Epoch of Dwarf Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babul, Arif; Ferguson, Henry C.

    1996-02-01

    Several independent lines of reasoning, both theoretical and observational, suggest that the very faint (B ≳ 24) galaxies seen in deep images of the sky are small low-mass galaxies that experienced a short starburst at redshifts 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 1 and have since faded into low-luminosity, low surface brightness (LSB) objects. We examine this hypothesis in detail in order to determine whether a model incorporating such dwarfs can account for the observed wavelength-dependent number counts, as well as redshift, color, and size distributions. Low-mass galaxies generically arise in large numbers in hierarchical clustering scenarios with realistic initial conditions. Generally, these galaxies are expected to form at high redshifts. Babul & Rees have argued that the formation epoch of these galaxies is, in fact, delayed until z ≲ 1 due to the photoionization of the gas by the metagalactic UV radiation at high redshifts. We combine these two elements, along with simple heuristic assumptions regarding star formation histories and efficiency, to construct our bursting dwarf model. The slope and the normalization of the mass function of the dwarf galaxies are derived from the initial conditions and are not adjusted to fit the data. We further augment the model with a phenomenological prescription for the formation and evolution of the locally observed population of galaxies (E, S0, Sab, Sbc, and Sdm types). We use spectral synthesis and Monte Carlo methods to generate realistic model galaxy catalogs for comparison with observations. We find that for reasonable choices of the star formation histories for the dwarf galaxies, the model results are in very good agreement with the results of the deep galaxy surveys. Such a dwarf-dominated model is also qualitatively supported by recent studies of faint galaxy gravitational lensing and clustering, by galaxy size distributions measured with the Hubble Space Telescope, and by the evidence for very modest evolution in regular galaxy

  6. The ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harding E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey ISO Satellite observations of over 600 IRAS sources have been obtained with the ISOCAM instrument. Because our survey strategy involved relatively short integrations, great care was required in developing analysis software including cosmic-ray and transient removal and calibration. These observations have now been through final pipeline processing at IPAC and ground-based follow-up is ongoing. The observations are for sources from two samples: a " Filler' sample selected to be at z greater than 0.1 and a fainter sample which selected for the highest redshift galaxies in the IRAS survey, with redshifts 0.2 less than z less than 1.0. I now have obtained ground-based follow-up spectrophotometry at Lick and Palomar observatories for 100 LFIRGs with 0.1 less than z less than 0.7. Our observations have confirmed that these systems are comparable to nearby LFIRGs such as Arp 220, with L (sub -)(fir) greater than 10(exp 11) L(sub -) sun and typically HII/Liner optical excitation. About 10% of the galaxies show true AGN (Sy2) excitation. Based on our work on a nearby complete sample of LFIRGS, we believe that the majority of these systems are luminous Starbursts, thus this project is tracing the luminous end of the galaxy star-forming luminosity function - the (infrared) star-formation history of the Universe to z approx. 1, a topic of some considerable recent interest. A by-product of these ISOCAM observations is approximately 1 square degree of deep 2 microns pointings outside the IRAS error boxes, allowing us an independent estimate of the mid-infrared log N - log S relation. Ground-based observations of this sample are continuing.

  7. The faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Shaun; Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Models of the faint galaxy contribution to the diffuse extragalactic background light are presented, which are consistent with current data on faint galaxy number counts and redshifts. The autocorrelation function of surface brightness fluctuations in the extragalactic diffuse light is predicted, and the way in which these predictions depend on the cosmological model and assumptions of biasing is determined. It is confirmed that the recent deep infrared number counts are most compatible with a high density universe (Omega-0 is approximately equal to 1) and that the steep blue counts then require an extra population of rapidly evolving blue galaxies. The faintest presently detectable galaxies produce an interesting contribution to the extragalactic diffuse light, and still fainter galaxies may also produce a significant contribution. These faint galaxies still only produce a small fraction of the total optical diffuse background light, but on scales of a few arcminutes to a few degrees, they produce a substantial fraction of the fluctuations in the diffuse light.

  8. CONFIRMATION OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Tully, R. Brent; Karachentsev, Igor D. E-mail: bjacobs@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: ikar@luna.sao.ru

    2013-11-01

    We have followed up on the results of a 65 deg{sup 2} CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey of the nearby M81 Group searching for faint and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. The original survey turned up 22 faint candidate dwarf members. Based on two-color HST ACS/WFC and WFPC2 photometry, we now confirm 14 of these as dwarf galaxy members of the group. Distances and stellar population characteristics are discussed for each. To a completeness limit of M{sub r{sup '}}= -10, we find a galaxy luminosity function slope of –1.27 ± 0.04 for the M81 Group. In this region, there are now 36 M81 Group members known, including 4 blue compact dwarfs; 8 other late types including the interacting giants M81, NGC 3077, and M82; 19 early type dwarfs; and at least 5 potential tidal dwarf galaxies. We find that the dSph galaxies in M81 appear to lie in a flattened distribution, similar to that found for the Milky Way and M31. One of the newly discovered dSph galaxies has properties similar to the ultra-faint dwarfs being found in the Local Group with a size R{sub e} ∼ 100 pc and total magnitude estimates M{sub r{sup '}}= -6.8 and M{sub I} ∼ –9.1.

  9. The faint end of the galaxy luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treyer, Marie A.; Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the B- and K-band luminosity functions of galaxies is inferred in a relatively model-independent way from deep spectroscopic and photometric surveys. We confirm earlier evidence by Eales for an increase in the amplitude of the B-band galaxy luminosity function at modest redshift (z less than or approx. 0.2). We find in addition that the slope of the faint end of the luminosity function must systematically steepen and progress toward more luminous galaxies with increasing lookback time, assuming that the galaxy redshift distribution may be smoothly extrapolated 2 mag fainter than observed, as suggested by recent gravitational lensing studies. This evolution is shown to be color-dependent, and we predict the near-infrared color distribution of faint galaxies. The luminosity function of blue (B - K less than or approx. 4) galaxies in the range 0.2 less than or approx. z less than or approx. 1 can be represented by a Schechter function with characteristic light density phi(sup *) L(sup *) comparable to that of present-day late-type galaxies, but with a steeper faint end slope alpha approx. 1.4.

  10. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness. If you're about to faint, you'll feel dizzy, ... at the same time, and may fall down. Fainting usually happens when your blood pressure drops suddenly, ...

  11. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind the Frontier Field Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy; Wang, Wei-Hao; Chen, Chian-Chou

    2015-08-01

    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. To explore this faint submillimeter population, we have been observing nine galaxy clusters with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, including five of the clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array to determine the positions of our detected sources precisely. Our recent observations have discovered several high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies but which are undetected in current deep radio, optical and near-infrared images. These remarkable results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  12. Chemical enrichment in Ultra-Faint Dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Donatella

    2016-08-01

    Our view of the Milky Way's satellite population has radically changed after the discovery, ten years ago, of the first Ultra-Faint Dwarf galaxies (UFDs). These extremely faint, dark-matter dominated, scarcely evolved stellar systems are found in ever-increasing number in our cosmic neighbourhood and constitute a gold-mine for studies of early star formation conditions and early chemical enrichment pathways. Here we show what can be learned from the measurements of chemical abundances in UFD stars read through the lens of chemical evolution studies, point out the limitations of the classic approach, and discuss the way to go to improve the models.

  13. Results of a search for faint galaxies in voids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, B.; Hopp, U.; Elsaesser, H.

    1997-02-01

    We present the results of a search for intrinsically faint galaxies towards three regions with known voids and the Hercules supercluster. The intention was to identify galaxies of low luminosity in order to find possibly a galaxy population in the voids. Within these selected fields we increased the range of observations in comparison with the recent large field surveys which revealed the non-uniform spatial distribution of galaxies. The limiting magnitude was raised by about 5mag, the limiting surface brightness by 2mag/sq.arcsec, and the limiting diameter reduced to less than 1/3. The individual observational data of our sample are published in the previous PaperI (Hopp et al. 1995) which describes our search strategy and contains B and R magnitudes, apparent diameters, redshifts and galaxy types of about 200 newly identified objects. Their luminosity distribution demonstrates a relatively high percentage of dwarfish galaxies. As the essential result of our survey we have to point out that no clear indication of a void-population was found. The majority of our objects lie outside voids in regions where the already known galaxies are concentrated. Some are located in the middle or near the edges of voids. They appear to be rather isolated, their distances to the nearest neighbour are quite large. Only few of our objects seem to be real void galaxies. Even in the three nearest and rather well defined voids we do not find any hitherto unknown galaxy.

  14. On the Morphology of the HST Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Livio, Mario; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1996-08-01

    Deep imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a population of rapidly evolving galaxies, which account for < 50% of the total counts at I <~ 22.5, are well distinct from the passively evolving normal ellipticals and spirals, and have morphologies that elude the traditional Hubble classification scheme. This classification has been derived from the morphological properties of local galaxies observed at optical wavelengths. Since galaxy morphology is a function of the wavelength and of the localization and intensity of the star-formation activity, the appearance of galaxies at large redshifts is subject to k- correction and evolutionary effects of the stellar populations, even if the underlying dynamics does not change significantly. In addition, the strong dependence of the surface brightness on redshift as σ ~(1 +z)^-4^ implies that the observed morphology of distant galaxies is also affected by the limiting surface brightness that can be reached. This paper shows how local galaxies observed at UV wavelengths with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) would appear to HST if placed at cosmological distances, with the UV light redshifted to the optical wavelengths. The simulated distant galaxies have morphologies that are of later type or more irregular than their local (optical) counterparts, and some are in qualitative agreement with those revealed by the faint HST surveys, suggesting that dynamical evolution has played a minor role in the evolution of the majority of the galaxies over a large fraction of the Hubble time. However, the dependence of galaxy morphology on the star-formation activity and on the wavelength must be properly understood before any conclusion on the overall morphological evolution of galaxies can be derived.

  15. THE PRIMEVAL POPULATIONS OF THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C. E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.edu E-mail: avila@stsci.edu; and others

    2012-07-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, using deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A galaxy class recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the UFDs appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. They are the least luminous, most dark-matter-dominated, and least chemically evolved galaxies known. Our HST survey of six UFDs seeks to determine if these galaxies are true fossils from the early universe. We present here the preliminary analysis of three UFD galaxies: Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Classical dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group exhibit extended star formation histories, but these three Milky Way satellites are at least as old as the ancient globular cluster M92, with no evidence for intermediate-age populations. Their ages also appear to be synchronized to within {approx}1 Gyr of each other, as might be expected if their star formation was truncated by a global event, such as reionization.

  16. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle control at the same time, and may fall down. Fainting usually happens when your blood pressure drops suddenly, causing a decrease in blood flow to your brain. It is more common in older people. Some causes of fainting include Heat or dehydration ...

  17. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... reasons why teens faint: Physical triggers. Getting too hot or being in a crowded, poorly ventilated setting ...

  18. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fainting: Certain medicines, including those used for anxiety, depression, and high blood pressure (these drugs may cause a drop in blood pressure) Drug or alcohol use Hyperventilation Low blood sugar Seizures Sudden drop in blood pressure (such as ...

  19. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain does not get enough oxygen. You lose consciousness, or "pass out," for a brief time (usually ... Taking longer than a few seconds to regain consciousness Fainting when you turn your head to the ...

  20. MEASURING SIZES OF ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Ricardo R.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Geha, Marla

    2012-02-01

    The discovery of ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies in the halo of the Milky Way extends the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function to a few hundred solar luminosities. This extremely low luminosity regime poses a significant challenge for the photometric characterization of these systems. We present a suite of simulations aimed at understanding how different observational choices related to the properties of a low-luminosity system impact our ability to determine its true structural parameters such as half-light radius and central surface brightness. We focus on estimating half-light radii (on which mass estimates depend linearly) and find that these numbers can have up to 100% uncertainties when relatively shallow photometric surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are used. Our simulations suggest that to recover structural parameters within 10% or better of their true values: (1) the ratio of the field of view to the half-light radius of the satellite must be greater than three, (2) the total number of stars, including background objects should be larger than 1000, and (3) the central to background stellar density ratio must be higher than 20. If one or more of these criteria are not met, the accuracy of the resulting structural parameters can be significantly compromised. In the context of future surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, the latter condition will be closely tied to our ability to remove unresolved background galaxies. Assessing the reliability of measured structural parameters will become increasingly critical as the next generation of deep wide-field surveys detects UFDs beyond the reach of current spectroscopic limits.

  1. WISE × SuperCOSMOS Photometric Redshift Catalog: 20 Million Galaxies over 3/pi Steradians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Peacock, John A.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Maddox, Natasha; Brown, Michael J. I.; Taylor, Edward N.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Solarz, Aleksandra; Holwerda, Benne W.; Baldry, Ivan; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Driver, Simon P.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2016-07-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs—mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates—to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3π steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic data set, we use external GAMA and Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning, we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of more than 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic data. Our sample has a median redshift of {z}{med}=0.2, with a broad {dN}/{dz} reaching up to z > 0.4. The photometric redshifts have a mean bias of | δ z| ∼ {10}-3, a normalized scatter of σ z = 0.033, and less than 3% outliers beyond 3σ z . Comparison with external data sets shows no significant variation of photo-z quality with sky position. Together with the overall statistics, we also provide a more detailed analysis of photometric redshift accuracy as a function of magnitudes and colors. The final catalog is appropriate for “all-sky” three-dimensional (3D) cosmology to unprecedented depths, in particular through cross-correlations with other large-area surveys. It should also be useful for source preselection and identification in forthcoming surveys, such as TAIPAN or WALLABY.

  2. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.

    The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.

    The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.

    Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by

  3. Detectability of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateu, C.; Antoja, T.; Aguilar, L.; Figueras, F.; Brown, A.; Antiche, E.; Hernández-Pérez, F.; Valenzuela, O.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Velázquez, H.

    2014-07-01

    We present a technique to detect Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies (UFDs) in the Galactic Halo, using sky and proper motion information.The method uses wavelet transforms to detect peaks in the sky and proper motion planes, and to evaluate the probability of these being stochastic fluctuations. We aim to map thoroughly the detection limits of this technique. For this, we have produced a library of 15,000 synthetic UFDs, embedded in the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot (GUMS) background (Robin et al. 2012), each at a different distance, different luminosity, half-light radius, velocity dispersion and center-of-mass velocity, varying in ranges that extend well beyond those spanned by known classical and ultra-faint dSphs. We use these synthetic UFDs as a benchmark to characterize the completeness and detection limits of our technique, and present our results as a function of different physical and observable parameters of the UFDs (see full poster for more details at https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_UFGX_Bcn_C_Mateu.pdf).

  4. Passive Evolution: Are the Faint Blue Galaxy Counts Produced by a Population of Eternally Young Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Silk, Joseph

    1996-11-01

    A constant-age population of blue galaxies, postulated in the model of Gronwall & Koo, seems to provide an attractive explanation of the excess of very blue galaxies in the deep galaxy counts. Such a population may be generated by a set of galaxies with cycling star formation rates or, at the other extreme, be maintained by the continual formation of new galaxies that fade after they reach the age specified in the Gronwall & Koo model. For both of these hypotheses, we have calculated the luminosity functions, including the respective selection criteria, the redshift distributions, and the number counts in the BJ and K bands. We find a substantial excess in the number of galaxies at low redshift (0 < z < 0.05) over that observed in the Canada-France-Hawaii redshift survey (Lilly et al.) and at the faint end of the Las Campanas luminosity function (Lin et al.). Passive or mild evolution fails to account for the deep galaxy counts because of the implications for low-redshift determinations of the I-selected redshift distribution and the r-selected luminosity function in samples where the faded counterparts of the star-forming galaxies would be detectable.

  5. Faint Lyα Emitters, Star-forming Galaxies, and Damped Lyα Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Bunker, A.; Becker, G.; Marleau, F.; Graham, J.; Cristiani, S.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Morris, S.; Peroux, C.; Roettgering, H.; Theuns, T.

    2008-10-01

    We have discovered a population of faint single line emitters, likely to be identified with faint z˜ 3 Lyα emitters and with the host galaxies of damped Lyman alpha systems. The objects appear to constitute the bulk of the star-forming galaxies detected so far from the ground, and are likely to provide the gaseous reservoir from which present-day Milky way type galaxies have formed. Unlike color-selected (yman break galaxies, these objects appear to have low star-formation rates, relatively strong Lyalpha emission, and low masses, metallicities, and dust content (s.a. arXiv:0711.1354).

  6. Galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster - III. Properties of faint early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía. V.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Faifer, Favio R.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Richtler, Tom; Romero, Gisela A.; Calderón, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the early-type galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster, focusing on the faint systems such as dwarf ellipticals (dEs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). The colour-magnitude relation (CMR) and the relation between luminosity and mean effective surface brightness for galaxies in the central region of Antlia have been previously studied in Paper I of the present series. Now we confirm 22 early-type galaxies as Antlia members, using Gemini-GMOS and Magellan-MIKE spectra. Among them, 15 are dEs from the FS90 Antlia Group catalogue, two belong to the rare type of compact ellipticals (cEs) and five are new faint dwarfs that had never been catalogued before. In addition, we present 16 newly identified low-surface-brightness galaxy candidates, almost half of them displaying morphologies consistent with being Antlia's counterparts of Local Group dSphs, which extend the faint luminosity limit of our study down to MB=-10.1(BT= 22.6) mag. With these new data, we built an improved CMR in the Washington photometric system, i.e. integrated T1 magnitudes versus (C-T1) colours, which extends ˜4 mag faintwards the limit of spectroscopically confirmed Antlia members. When only confirmed early-type members are considered, this relation extends over 10 mag in luminosity with no apparent change in slope or increase in colour dispersion towards its faint end. The intrinsic colour scatter of the relation is compared with those reported for other clusters of galaxies; we argue that it is likely that the large scatter of the CMR, usually reported at faint magnitudes, is mostly due to photometric errors along with an improper membership/morphological classification. The distinct behaviour of the luminosity versus mean effective surface brightness relation at the bright and faint ends is analysed, while it is confirmed that dE galaxies on the same relation present a very similar effective radius, regardless of their colour. The projected spatial

  7. NEUTRAL GAS OUTFLOWS AND INFLOWS IN INFRARED-FAINT SEYFERT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Hannah B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N. E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.ed

    2010-01-10

    Previous studies of the Na I D interstellar absorption line doublet have shown that galactic winds occur in most galaxies with high infrared luminosities. However, in infrared-bright composite systems where a starburst coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is unclear whether the starburst, the AGN, or both are driving the outflows. The present paper describes the results from a search for outflows in 35 infrared-faint Seyferts with 10{sup 9.9}< L{sub IR}/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 11}, or, equivalently, star formation rates (SFRs) of approx0.4-9 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, to attempt to isolate the source of the outflow. We find that the outflow detection rates for the infrared-faint Seyfert 1s (6%) and Seyfert 2s (18%) are lower than previously reported for infrared-luminous Seyfert 1s (50%) and Seyfert 2s (45%). The outflow kinematics of infrared-faint and infrared-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies resemble those of starburst galaxies, while the outflow velocities in Seyfert 1 galaxies are significantly larger. Taken together, these results suggest that the AGN does not play a significant role in driving the outflows in most infrared-faint and infrared-bright systems, except the high-velocity outflows seen in Seyfert 1 galaxies. Another striking result of this study is the high rate of detection of inflows in infrared-faint galaxies (39% of Seyfert 1s, 35% of Seyfert 2s), significantly larger than in infrared-luminous Seyferts (15%). This inflow may be contributing to the feeding of the AGN in these galaxies, and potentially provides more than enough material to power the observed nuclear activity over typical AGN lifetimes.

  8. Results and analyses of faint field galaxy surveys with the Keck Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, D. W.

    1996-12-01

    A large collaboration at Caltech has been using the Keck and other telescopes to perform UBVRIKL imaging and take spectra of faint galaxies. The spectroscopic samples contain several hundred objects to K=20 mag or R=24 mag and the imaging samples contain thousands of sources to R~ 27. Faint field galaxies are found to be strongly clustered in velocity space; the angular coherence, masses and morphologies in configuration space of these structures are investigated. In cooperation with the University of Hawaii group, the luminosity function of galaxies is computed in the near-infrared; strong evolution is found in the number of low-luminosity galaxies to z~ 1, although the statistical properties of high-luminosity objects are relatively constant. A range of models for the faint galaxy counts are constructed, not on the basis of a priori information about galaxy properties (from, say, cosmogonic theory) but rather by ``inverting'' the data under a range of qualitatively distinct simplifying assumptions. Predictions are made for ongoing or future imaging and spectroscopy surveys which will clearly distinguish the models. The prospects for a ``meta-analysis'' of a large collection of heterogeneous surveys to create consistent galaxy evolution models from z=0 to the highest observed redshifts are discussed.

  9. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  10. Constraints on MACHO Dark Matter from Compact Stellar Systems in Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.

    2016-06-01

    I show that a recently discovered star cluster near the center of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Eridanus II provides strong constraints on massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) of ≳5 M ⊙ as the main component of dark matter. MACHO dark matter will dynamically heat the cluster, driving it to larger sizes and higher velocity dispersions until it dissolves into its host galaxy. The stars in compact ultra-faint dwarf galaxies themselves will be subject to the same dynamical heating; the survival of at least 10 such galaxies places independent limits on MACHO dark matter of masses ≳10 M ⊙. Both Eri II’s cluster and the compact ultra-faint dwarfs are characterized by stellar masses of just a few thousand M ⊙ and half-light radii of 13 pc (for the cluster) and ∼30 pc (for the ultra-faint dwarfs). These systems close the ∼20–100 M ⊙ window of allowed MACHO dark matter and combine with existing constraints from microlensing, wide binaries, and disk kinematics to rule out dark matter composed entirely of MACHOs from ∼10‑7 M ⊙ up to arbitrarily high masses.

  11. A single prolific r-process event preserved in an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Alexander; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    The heaviest elements in the periodic table are synthesized through the r-process, but the astrophysical site for r-process nucleosynthesis is still unknown. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies contain a simple fossil record of early chemical enrichment that may determine this site. Previous measurements found very low levels of neutron-capture elements in ultra-faint dwarfs, preferring supernovae as the r-process site. I present high-resolution chemical abundances of nine stars in the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf Reticulum II, which display extremely enhanced r-process abundances 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the other ultra-faint dwarfs. Stars with such extreme r-process enhancements are only rarely found in the Milky Way halo. The r-process abundances imply that the neutron-capture material in Reticulum II was synthesized in a single prolific event that is incompatible with r-process yields from ordinary core-collapse supernovae. Reticulum II provides an opportunity to discriminate whether the source of this pure r-process signature is a neutron star merger or magnetorotationally driven supernova. The single event is also a uniquely stringent constraint on the metal mixing and star formation history of this ultra-faint dwarf galaxy.

  12. On the faint-end of the high-z galaxy luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Bin; Ferrara, Andrea; Xu, Yidong

    2016-08-01

    Recent measurements of the Luminosity Function (LF) of galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (EoR, zlower.5ex buildrel> over ˜ 6) indicate a very steep increase of the number density of low-mass galaxies populating the LF faint-end. However, as star formation in low-mass halos can be easily depressed or even quenched by ionizing radiation, a turnover is expected at some faint UV magnitudes. Using a physically-motivated analytical model, we quantify reionization feedback effects on the LF faint-end shape. We find that if reionization feedback is neglected, the power-law Schechter parameterization characterizing the LF faint-end remains valid up to absolute UV magnitude ˜-9. If instead radiative feedback is strong enough that quenches star formation in halos with circular velocity smaller than 50 km s-1, the LF starts to drop at absolute UV magnitude ˜-15, i.e. slightly below the detection limits of current (unlensed) surveys at z ˜ 5. The LFs may rise again at higher absolute UV magnitude, where, as a result of interplay between reionization process and galaxy formation, most of the galaxy light is from relic stars formed before the EoR. We suggest that the galaxy number counts data, particularly in lensed fields, can put strong constraints on reionization feedback. In models with stronger reionization feedback, stars in galaxies with absolute UV magnitude higher than ˜-13 and smaller than ˜-8 are typically older. Hence, the stellar age - UV magnitude relation can be used as an alternative feedback probe.

  13. Faint Dwarf Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Eigenthaler, Paul; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mamon, Gary; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W.; Peng, Eric W.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a very diverse set of five low-surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxy candidates in Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) detected in deep U- and I-band images obtained with VLT/VIMOS. These are the first LSB dwarf galaxy candidates found in a compact group of galaxies. We measure spheroid half-light radii in the range 0.7 ≲ reff/kpc ≲ 1.5 with luminosities of -11.65 ≲ MU ≲ -9.42 and -12.79 ≲ MI ≲ -10.58 mag, corresponding to a color range of (U - I)0 ≃ 1.1 - 2.2 mag and surface brightness levels of μU ≃ 28.1 mag/arcsec2 and μI ≃ 27.4 mag/arcsec2. Their colours and luminosities are consistent with a diverse set of stellar population properties. Assuming solar and 0.02 Z⊙ metallicities we obtain stellar masses in the range M_*|_{Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{5.7-6.3} M_{odot } and M_*|_{0.02 Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{6.3-8} M_{odot }. Three dwarfs are older than 1 Gyr, while the other two significantly bluer dwarfs are younger than ˜2 Gyr at any mass/metallicity combination. Altogether, the new LSB dwarf galaxy candidates share properties with dwarf galaxies found throughout the Local Volume and in nearby galaxy clusters such as Fornax. We find a pair of candidates with ˜2 kpc projected separation, which may represent one of the closest dwarf galaxy pairs found. We also find a nucleated dwarf candidate, with a nucleus size of reff ≃ 46 - 63 pc and magnitude MU, 0 = -7.42 mag and (U - I)0 = 1.51 mag, which is consistent with a nuclear stellar disc with a stellar mass in the range 104.9 - 6.5 M⊙.

  14. A faint galaxy redshift survey behind massive clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Brenda

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the gravitational lensing effect by massive galaxy clusters. We have explored a new technique for measuring galaxy masses and for detecting high-z galaxies by their optical colors. A redshift survey has been obtained at the Keck for a magnitude limited sample of objects (I<23) behind three clusters, A1689, A2390, and A2218 within a radius of 0.5M pc. For each cluster we see both a clear trend of increasing flux and redshift towards the center. This behavior is the result of image magnifications, such that at fixed redshift one sees further down the luminosity function. The gradient of this magnification is, unlike measurements of image distortion, sensitive to the mass profile, and found to depart strongly from a pure isothermal halo. We have found that V RI color selection can be used effectively as a discriminant for finding high-z galaxies behind clusters and present five 4.1 < z < 5.1 spectra which are of very high quality due to their high mean magnification of {approximately}20, showing strong, visibly-saturated interstellar metal lines in some cases. We have also investigated the radio ring lens PKS 1830-211, locating the source and multiple images and detected molecular absorption at mm wavelengths. Broad molecular absorption of width 1/40kms is found toward the southwest component only, where surprisingly it does not reach the base of the continuum, which implies incomplete coverage of the SW component by molecular gas, despite the small projected size of the source, less than 1/8h pc at the absorption redshift.

  15. Isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies to very faint levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chaware, Laxmikant; Pandey, S. K.; Cannon, Russell; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Mahabal, Ashish

    2014-06-01

    We report on a study of the isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies to very faint levels, reaching ∼0.1% of the sky brightness. The galaxies are from the Large Format Camera (LFC) fields obtained using the Palomar 5 m Hale Telescope, with integrated exposures ranging from 1 to 4 hr in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey r, i, and z bands. The shapes of isophotes of early-type galaxies are important, as they are correlated with the physical properties of the galaxies and are influenced by galaxy formation processes. In this paper, we report on a sample of 132 E and SO galaxies in one LFC field. We have redshifts for 53 of these, obtained using AAOmega on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The shapes of early-type galaxies often vary with radius. We derive average values of isophotal shape parameters in four different radial bins along the semi-major axis in each galaxy. We obtain empirical fitting formulae for the probability distribution of the isophotal parameters in each bin and investigate for possible correlations with other global properties of the galaxies. Our main finding is that the isophotal shapes of the inner regions are statistically different from those in the outer regions. This suggests that the outer and inner parts of early-type galaxies have evolved somewhat independently.

  16. ARE THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES JUST CUSPS?

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, Adi; Hogg, David W.; Willman, Beth

    2011-01-20

    We develop a technique to investigate the possibility that some of the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way might be cusp caustics rather than gravitationally self-bound systems. Such cusps can form when a stream of stars folds, creating a region where the projected two-dimensional surface density is enhanced. In this work, we construct a Poisson maximum likelihood test to compare the cusp and exponential models of any substructure on an equal footing. We apply the test to the Hercules dwarf (d {approx} 113 kpc, M{sub V} {approx} -6.2, e {approx} 0.67). The flattened exponential model is strongly favored over the cusp model in the case of Hercules, ruling out at high confidence that Hercules is a cusp catastrophe. This test can be applied to any of the Milky Way dwarfs, and more generally to the entire stellar halo population, to search for the cusp catastrophes that might be expected in an accreted stellar halo.

  17. Eight ultra-faint galaxy candidates discovered in year two of the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, A.

    2015-11-04

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found by three independent automated search techniques and are identified as overdensities of stars, consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (MV > -4.7 ) and span a range of physical sizes (17 pc < r1/2 < 181pc) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (μ 27.5 mag arcsec -2). Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies. Most of the candidates are found in the southern part of the DES footprint close to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 10-3) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites and that the observed distribution can be well, though not uniquely, described by an association between several of the DES satellites and the Magellanic system. Furthermore, our model predicts that the full sky may hold ~100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites and that 20%–30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.

  18. Eight ultra-faint galaxy candidates discovered in year two of the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Drlica-Wagner, A.

    2015-11-04

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found by three independent automated search techniques and are identified as overdensities of stars, consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (MV > -4.7 ) and span a range of physical sizes (17 pc < r1/2more » < 181pc) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D⊙ < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (μ 27.5 mag arcsec -2). Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies. Most of the candidates are found in the southern part of the DES footprint close to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 10-3) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites and that the observed distribution can be well, though not uniquely, described by an association between several of the DES satellites and the Magellanic system. Furthermore, our model predicts that the full sky may hold ~100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites and that 20%–30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.« less

  19. Eight Ultra-faint Galaxy Candidates Discovered in Year Two of the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; Bechtol, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Luque, E.; Queiroz, A.; Mao, Y.-Y.; Wechsler, R. H.; Simon, J. D.; Santiago, B.; Yanny, B.; Balbinot, E.; Dodelson, S.; Fausti Neto, A.; James, D. J.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Pieres, A.; Stringer, K.; Walker, A. R.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found by three independent automated search techniques and are identified as overdensities of stars, consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (MV > -4.7 {mag}) and span a range of physical sizes (17 {pc} < r1/2 < 181 {pc}) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D⊙ < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (μ ≳ 27.5 {mag} {arcsec}-2). Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies. Most of the candidates are found in the southern part of the DES footprint close to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 10-3) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites and that the observed distribution can be well, though not uniquely, described by an association between several of the DES satellites and the Magellanic system. Our model predicts that the full sky may hold ˜100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites and that 20%-30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.

  20. Spectral evolution of galaxies. III - Cosmological predictions for the Space Telescope faint object camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzual A., G.

    1983-10-01

    The galactic spectral evolutionary models of Bruzual A. (1981) are employed to estimate parameters which will be observable by the wide-field camera and faint-object camera of the Space Telescope. The capabilities and bandpasses of the instruments are reviewed, and the results are presented in tables and graphs. Parameters calculated include the amplitude of the Lyman discontinuity at 912 A, stellar and galaxy rest-frame colors, color evolution, two-color diagrams as a function of redshift, luminosity evolution, surface brightness profiles, galaxy counts, and color and redshift distributions. In general, it is predicted that the space measurements will follow the trends noted in round-based observations.

  1. FAINT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTS AT 450 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2013-01-10

    We present the results of SCUBA-2 observations at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area >100 arcmin{sup 2} and 1{sigma} sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy beam{sup -1} at 450 and 850 {mu}m, respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 {mu}m and 26 sources at 850 {mu}m with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 {mu}m number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that {approx}47%-61% of the 450 {mu}m extragalactic background light resolved into individual sources with 450 {mu}m fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 {mu}m sources in the 4{sigma} sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcsec, while brighter sources (S/N >6{sigma}) are good to 1.4 arcsec. Using a deep radio map (1{sigma} {approx} 6 {mu}Jy) we find that the percentage of submillimeter sources having secure radio counterparts is 85% for 450 {mu}m sources with intrinsic fluxes >6 mJy and 67% for 850 {mu}m sources with intrinsic fluxes >4 mJy. We also find that 67% of the >4{sigma} 450 {mu}m sources are detected at 850 {mu}m, while the recovery rate at 450 {mu}m of >4{sigma} 850 {mu}m sources is 54%. Combined with the source redshifts estimated using millimetric flux ratios, the recovered rate is consistent with the scenario where both 450 {mu}m and 20 cm emission preferentially select lower redshift dusty sources, while 850 {mu}m emission traces a higher fraction of dusty sources at higher redshifts. We identify potential counterparts in various wavelengths from X-ray to mid-infrared and measure the multiwavelength photometry, which we then use to analyze the characteristics of the sources. We find three X-ray counterparts to our robust submillimeter sample (S/N > 5), giving an active galactic nucleus

  2. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  3. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-06-01

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SEXTRACTOR), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  4. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3{pi} PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-20

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r{sub P1}- and i{sub P1}-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M{sub V} {approx} -12) located at projected distances of 20. Degree-Sign 3 and 10. Degree-Sign 5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756{sup +44}{sub -28} kpc and 772{sup +61}{sub -56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 {+-} 7 kpc and 144{sup +6}{sub -4} kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r{sub h} = 4.2{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5} arcmin or 912{sup +124}{sub -93} pc for Lac I; r{sub h} = 6.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} arcmin or 1456 {+-} 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness ({mu}{sub 0} {approx} 26.0 mag arcsec{sup -2}), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  5. Faint blue counts from formation of dwarf galaxies at z approximately equals 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babul, Arif; Rees, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The nature of faint blue objects (FBO's) has been a source of much speculation since their detection in deep CCD images of the sky. Their high surface density argues against them being progenitors of present-day bright galaxies and since they are only weakly clustered on small scales, they cannot be entities that merged together to form present-day galaxies. Babul & Rees (1992) have suggested that the observed faint blue counts may be due to dwarf elliptical galaxies undergoing their initial starburst at z is approximately equal to 1. In generic hierarchical clustering scenarios, however, dwarf galaxy halos (M is approximately 10(exp 9) solar mass) are expected to form at an earlier epoch; for example, typical 10(exp 9) solar mass halos will virialize at z is approximately equal to 2.3 if the power-spectrum for the density fluctuations is that of the standard b = 2 cold dark matter (CDM) model. Under 'ordinary conditions' the gas would rapidly cool, collect in the cores, and undergo star-formation. Conditions at high redshifts are far from 'ordinary'. The intense UV background will prevent the gas in the dwarf halos from cooling, the halos being released from their suspended state only when the UV flux has diminished sufficiently.

  6. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  7. Faint Tidal Features in Galaxies within the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M_{r^\\prime }<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >1010.5 M ⊙, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  8. Abundance ratios of red giants in low-mass ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Monaco, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Moni Bidin, C.; Geisler, D.; Sbordone, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. Aims: We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to five different ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) that is based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Methods: Medium-resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Results: Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low-mass galaxies, we found that the [α/Fe] ratios vs.s [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to that which is found for the population of stars that belong to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [α/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than for the dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We report for the first time the abundance of strontium in CVn II. The star we analyzed in this galaxy has a very high [Sr/Fe] and a very low upper limit of barium which makes it a star with an exceptionally high [Sr/Ba] ratio.

  9. DISCOVERY OF A NEW FAINT DWARF GALAXY ASSOCIATED WITH NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, D. J.; Crnojević, D.; Strader, J.; Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Caldwell, N.; McLeod, B.; Seth, A. C.

    2014-09-20

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, which we dub Scl-MM-Dw1, at a projected distance of ∼65 kpc from the spiral galaxy NGC 253. The discovery results from the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), a program with the Magellan/Megacam imager to study faint substructure in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to Scl-MM-Dw1 of D = 3.9 ± 0.5 Mpc, consistent with that of NGC 253, making their association likely. The new dwarf's stellar population is complex, with an old, metal-poor red giant branch (≳10 Gyr, [Fe/H] ∼ –2), and an asymptotic giant branch with an age of ∼500 Myr. Scl-MM-Dw1 has a half-light radius of r{sub h} = 340 ± 50 pc and an absolute magnitude of M{sub V}  = –10.3 ± 0.6 mag, comparable to the Milky Way's satellites at the same luminosity. Once complete, our imaging survey of NGC 253 and other nearby massive galaxies will provide a census of faint substructure in halos beyond the Local Group, both to put our own environment into context and to confront models of hierarchical structure formation.

  10. A Chemical Confirmation of the Faint Boötes II Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael

    2014-10-01

    We present a chemical abundance study of the brightest confirmed member star of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II from Keck/HIRES high-resolution spectroscopy at moderate signal-to-noise ratios. At [Fe/H] = -2.93 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.17(sys.), this star chemically resembles metal-poor halo field stars and the signatures of other faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies at the same metallicities in that it shows enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, Solar Fe-peak element abundances, and low upper limits on the neutron-capture element Ba. Moreover, this star shows no chemical peculiarities in any of the eight elements we were able to measure. This implies that the chemical outliers found in other systems remain outliers pertaining to the unusual enrichment histories of the respective environments, while Boo II appears to have experienced an enrichment history typical of its very low mass. We also re-calibrated previous measurements of the galaxy's metallicity from the calcium triplet (CaT) and find a much lower value than reported before. The resulting broad metallicity spread, in excess of one dex, the very metal-poor mean, and the chemical abundance patterns of the present star imply that Boötes II is a low-mass, old, metal-poor dwarf galaxy and not an overdensity associated with the Sagittarius Stream as has been previously suggested based on its sky position and kinematics. The low, mean CaT metallicity of -2.7 dex falls right on the luminosity-metallicity relation delineated over four orders of magnitude from the more luminous to the faintest galaxies. Thus Boötes II's chemical enrichment appears representative of the galaxy's original mass, while tidal stripping and other mass loss mechanisms were probably not significant as for other low-mass satellites.

  11. A chemical confirmation of the faint Boötes II dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael

    2014-10-10

    We present a chemical abundance study of the brightest confirmed member star of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II from Keck/HIRES high-resolution spectroscopy at moderate signal-to-noise ratios. At [Fe/H] = –2.93 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.17(sys.), this star chemically resembles metal-poor halo field stars and the signatures of other faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies at the same metallicities in that it shows enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, Solar Fe-peak element abundances, and low upper limits on the neutron-capture element Ba. Moreover, this star shows no chemical peculiarities in any of the eight elements we were able to measure. This implies that the chemical outliers found in other systems remain outliers pertaining to the unusual enrichment histories of the respective environments, while Boo II appears to have experienced an enrichment history typical of its very low mass. We also re-calibrated previous measurements of the galaxy's metallicity from the calcium triplet (CaT) and find a much lower value than reported before. The resulting broad metallicity spread, in excess of one dex, the very metal-poor mean, and the chemical abundance patterns of the present star imply that Boötes II is a low-mass, old, metal-poor dwarf galaxy and not an overdensity associated with the Sagittarius Stream as has been previously suggested based on its sky position and kinematics. The low, mean CaT metallicity of –2.7 dex falls right on the luminosity-metallicity relation delineated over four orders of magnitude from the more luminous to the faintest galaxies. Thus Boötes II's chemical enrichment appears representative of the galaxy's original mass, while tidal stripping and other mass loss mechanisms were probably not significant as for other low-mass satellites.

  12. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Anna Katherina; Olsen, Knut A.; Blum, Robert D.; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Munoz, Ricardo; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2016-06-01

    We searched for variable stars in Hydra II, one of the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, using gri time-series obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We discovered one RR Lyrae star in the galaxy which was used to derive a distance of 154±8 kpc to this system and to re-calculate its absolute magnitude and half-light radius.A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  13. Revealing a comet-like shape of the faint periphery of the nearby galaxy M 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Ts. B.

    2016-02-01

    We performed BVRI photometry of the galaxy M 32 building images and isophote maps in magnitudes and in color indexes. While searching for the faint thick disk of M 32 we apply median filtering with aperture of 7.3 arcmin to detach the residual image of M 32 and its periphery above the surrounding magnitude or color background. The residual images in all photometric systems show that the periphery of M 32 possesses a comet-like shape with a tail oriented to SSE, in a direction opposite to the direction of M 110. The images calibrated in color indexes (b - v) and (b - v)+(r - i) show that the tail is redder than the local median background. The residual images in color indexes show that the red tail broadens and curves in direction towards S and SW. Simultaneously, the brightest part of M 32 occurs bounded from NW-NE-SE sides by a sickle-like formation with a significantly lower red color index. Generally, we do not find a faint thick disk of M 32. However, the comet-like shape on the periphery of M 32, especially as a formation with an increased red color index, provokes involuntarily the impression that the satellite M 32 overtakes the Andromeda galaxy. The redshifts show that the intimacy velocity of M 32 and Andromeda galaxy is about 100 km/s.

  14. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    2016-06-01

    The high dark matter content and the shallow potential wells of low mass galaxies (10^3 Msun < Mstar < 10^9.5 Msun) make them excellent testbeds for differing theories of galaxy formation. Additionally, the recent up-tick in the number and detail of Local Group dwarf galaxy observations provides a rich dataset for comparison to simulations that attempt to answer important questions in near field cosmology: why are there so few observed dwarfs compared to the number predicted by simulations? What shuts down star formation in ultra-faint galaxies? Why do dwarfs have inverted age gradients and what does it take to convert a dwarf irregular (dIrrs) into a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy?We to attempt to answer these questions by running ultra-high resolution cosmological FIRE simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We predict that many ultra-faint dwarfs should exist as satellites of more massive isolated Local Group dwarfs. The ultra-faints (Mstar < 10^4 Msun) formed in these simulations have uniformly ancient stellar populations (> 10 Gyr), having had their star formation shut down by reionization. Additionally, we show that the kinematics and ellipticities of isolated simulated dwarf centrals are consistent with observed dSphs satellites without the need for harassment from a massive host. We further show that most (but not all) observed *isolated* dIrrs in the Local Volume also have dispersion-supported stellar populations, contradicting the previous view that these objects are rotating. Finally, we investigate the stellar age gradients in dwarfs — showing that early mergers and strong feedback can create an inverted gradient, with the older stars occupying larger galactocentric radii.These results offer an interesting direction in testing models that attempt to solve dark matter problems via explosive feedback episodes. Can the same models that create large cores in simulated dwarfs preserve the mild stellar rotation that is seen in a minority of isolated d

  15. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Alyson Ford, H.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2014-01-10

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M{sub V}∼−9.85{sub −0.33}{sup +0.40}, making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  16. Cosmic Reionization on Computers: The Faint End of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-07-01

    Using numerical cosmological simulations completed under the “Cosmic Reionization On Computers” project, I explore theoretical predictions for the faint end of the galaxy UV luminosity functions at z≳ 6. A commonly used Schechter function approximation with the magnitude cut at {M}{{cut}}˜ -13 provides a reasonable fit to the actual luminosity function of simulated galaxies. When the Schechter functional form is forced on the luminosity functions from the simulations, the magnitude cut {M}{{cut}} is found to vary between ‑12 and ‑14 with a mild redshift dependence. An analytical model of reionization from Madau et al., as used by Robertson et al., provides a good description of the simulated results, which can be improved even further by adding two physically motivated modifications to the original Madau et al. equation.

  17. Cosmic reionization on computers: The faint end of the galaxy luminosity function

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-07-01

    Using numerical cosmological simulations completed under the “Cosmic Reionization On Computers” project, I explore theoretical predictions for the faint end of the galaxy UV luminosity functions atmore » $$z\\gtrsim 6$$. A commonly used Schechter function approximation with the magnitude cut at $${M}_{{\\rm{cut}}}\\sim -13$$ provides a reasonable fit to the actual luminosity function of simulated galaxies. When the Schechter functional form is forced on the luminosity functions from the simulations, the magnitude cut $${M}_{{\\rm{cut}}}$$ is found to vary between -12 and -14 with a mild redshift dependence. Here, an analytical model of reionization from Madau et al., as used by Robertson et al., provides a good description of the simulated results, which can be improved even further by adding two physically motivated modifications to the original Madau et al. equation.« less

  18. The Chemical Evolution of the Bootes I Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements of two metal-poor red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes I, based on Magellan/MIKE high-resolution spectra. For Boo-980, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-3.1, we present the first elemental abundance measurements, while Boo-127, with {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.0, shows abundances in good agreement with previous measurements. Light and iron-peak element abundance ratios in the two Boötes I stars, as well as those of most other Boötes I members, collected from the literature, closely resemble those of regular metal-poor halo stars. Neutron-capture element abundances Sr and Ba are systematically lower than the main halo trend and also show a significant abundance spread. Overall, this is similar to what has been found for other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We apply corrections to the carbon abundances (commensurate with stellar evolutionary status) of the entire sample and find 21% of stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, compared to 13% without using the carbon correction. We reassess the metallicity distribution functions for the CEMP stars and non-CEMP stars, and confirm earlier claims that CEMP stars might belong to a different, earlier population. Applying a set of abundance criteria to test to what extent Boötes I could be a surviving first galaxy suggests that it is one of the earliest assembled systems that perhaps received gas from accretion from other clouds in the system, or from swallowing a first galaxy or building block type object. This resulted in the two stellar populations observable today. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicay, M. D.; Kojoian, G.; Seal, J.; Dickinson, D. F.; Malkan, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey of Markarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared data from the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKs observed at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% of those objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHz measurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from the National Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported. Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at 10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from the IRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, with reasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infrared characteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, that is well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratio among Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60 micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25 micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey the well-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightest correlation seen for starburst MRKs.

  20. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  1. Measurable relationship between bright galaxies and their faint companions in WHL J085910.0+294957, a galaxy cluster at z = 0.30: vestiges of infallen groups?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Hye-Ran; Kim, Minjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Sang Chul; Yang, Soung-Chul; Ree, Chang Hee; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin; Ko, Jongwan; Choi, Changsu

    2014-08-20

    The properties of satellite galaxies are closely related to their host galaxies in galaxy groups. In cluster environments, on the other hand, the interaction between close neighbors is known to be limited. Our goal is to examine the relationships between host and satellite galaxies in the harsh environment of a galaxy cluster. To achieve this goal, we study a galaxy cluster WHL J085910.0+294957 at z = 0.30 using deep images obtained with CQUEAN CCD camera mounted on the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope. After member selection based on the scaling relations of photometric and structural parameters, we investigate the relationship between bright (M{sub i} ≤ –18) galaxies and their faint (–18 < M{sub i} ≤ –15) companions. The weighted mean color of faint companion galaxies shows no significant dependence (<1σ to bootstrap uncertainties) on cluster-centric distance and local luminosity density as well as the luminosity and concentration of an adjacent bright galaxy. However, the weighted mean color shows marginal dependence (∼2.2σ) on the color of an adjacent bright galaxy when the sample is limited to bright galaxies with at least two faint companions. By using a permutation test, we confirm that the correlation in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in this cluster is statistically significant with a confidence level of 98.7%. The statistical significance increases if we additionally remove non-members using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric redshift information (∼2.6σ and 99.3%). Our results suggest three possible scenarios: (1) vestiges of infallen groups, (2) dwarf capturing, and (3) tidal tearing of bright galaxies.

  2. The Quenching of the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies in the Reionization Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.; Vargas, Luis C.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Kirby, Evan N.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Gennaro, Mario; Ferguson, Henry C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Renzini, Alvio

    2014-12-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of six ultra-faint dwarf galaxies: Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Our analysis employs a combination of high-precision photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the W. M. Keck Observatory, and updated Victoria-Regina isochrones tailored to the abundance patterns appropriate for these galaxies. The data for five of these Milky Way satellites are best fit by a star formation history where at least 75% of the stars formed by z ~ 10 (13.3 Gyr ago). All of the galaxies are consistent with 80% of the stars forming by z ~ 6 (12.8 Gyr ago) and 100% of the stars forming by z ~ 3 (11.6 Gyr ago). The similarly ancient populations of these galaxies support the hypothesis that star formation in the smallest dark-matter sub-halos was suppressed by a global outside influence, such as the reionization of the universe. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-12549.

  3. The quenching of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies in the reionization era

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Gennaro, Mario; Ferguson, Henry C. E-mail: tumlinson@stsci.edu E-mail: avila@stsci.edu E-mail: gennaro@stsci.edu; and others

    2014-12-01

    We present new constraints on the star formation histories of six ultra-faint dwarf galaxies: Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Our analysis employs a combination of high-precision photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the W. M. Keck Observatory, and updated Victoria-Regina isochrones tailored to the abundance patterns appropriate for these galaxies. The data for five of these Milky Way satellites are best fit by a star formation history where at least 75% of the stars formed by z ∼ 10 (13.3 Gyr ago). All of the galaxies are consistent with 80% of the stars forming by z ∼ 6 (12.8 Gyr ago) and 100% of the stars forming by z ∼ 3 (11.6 Gyr ago). The similarly ancient populations of these galaxies support the hypothesis that star formation in the smallest dark-matter sub-halos was suppressed by a global outside influence, such as the reionization of the universe.

  4. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. XI. The Merger Rate to Redshift 1 from Kinematic Pairs.

    PubMed

    Carlberg; Cohen; Patton; Blandford; Hogg; Yee; Morris; Lin; Hall; Sawicki; Wirth; Cowie; Hu; Songaila

    2000-03-20

    The rate of mass accumulation due to galaxy merging depends on the mass, density, and velocity distribution of galaxies in the near neighborhood of a host galaxy. The fractional luminosity in kinematic pairs combines all of these effects in a single estimator that is relatively insensitive to population evolution. Here we use a k-corrected and evolution-compensated volume-limited sample having an R-band absolute magnitude of Mk,eRFaint Galaxy Redshift Survey and 3000 from the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology field galaxy survey to measure the rate and redshift evolution of merging. The combined sample has an approximately constant comoving number and luminosity density from redshift 0.1 to 1.1 (OmegaM=0.2, OmegaLambda=0.8); hence, any merger evolution will be dominated by correlation and velocity evolution, not density evolution. We identify kinematic pairs with projected separations less than either 50 or 100 h-1 kpc and rest-frame velocity differences of less than 1000 km s-1. The fractional luminosity in pairs is modeled as fL&parl0;Deltav,rp,Mk,er&parr0;&parl0;1+z&parr0;mL, where &sqbl0;fL,mL&sqbr0; are &sqbl0;0.14+/-0.07,0+/-1.4&sqbr0; and &sqbl0;0.37+/-0.7,0.1+/-0.5&sqbr0; for rpgalaxy (M1,M2>/=0.2M*) is 0.02+/-0.01&parl0;1+z&parr0;0.1+/-0.5M* Gyr-1. Present-day high-luminosity galaxies therefore have accreted approximately 0.15M* of their mass over the approximately 7 Gyr to redshift 1. Since merging is likely only weakly dependent on the host mass, the fractional effect, deltaM&solm0;M approximately 0.15M*&solm0;M, is dramatic for lower mass

  5. A Deeper Look at Faint Hα Emission in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Janice C.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael; Hilbert, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    We present deep Hα imaging of three nearby dwarf galaxies, carefully selected to optimize observations with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan 6.5 m telescope. An effective bandpass of ˜13 Å is used, and the images reach 3σ flux limits of ˜8 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2, which is about an order of magnitude lower than standard narrowband observations obtained by the most recent generation of local Hα galaxy surveys. The observations were originally motivated by the finding that the Hα/FUV flux ratio of galaxies systematically declines as global galactic properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass decrease. The three dwarf galaxies selected for study have SFRs that, when calculated from their Hα luminosities using standard conversion recipes, are ˜50% of those based on the FUV. Follow-up studies of many of the potential causes for the trends in the Hα/FUV flux ratio have been performed, but the possibility that previous observations have missed a non-negligible fraction of faint ionized emission in dwarf galaxies has not been investigated. The MMTF observations reveal both diffuse and structured Hα emission (filaments, shells, possible single-star H ii regions) spanning extents up to 2.5 times larger relative to previous observations. However, only up to an additional ˜5% of Hα flux is captured, which does not account for the trends in the Hα/FUV ratio. Beyond investigation of the Hα/FUV ratio, the impact of the newly detected extended flux on our understanding of star formation, the properties of H ii regions, and the propagation of ionizing photons warrant further investigation.

  6. The optical-infrared colour distribution of a statistically complete sample of faint field spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menanteau, F.; Ellis, R. S.; Abraham, R. G.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    1999-10-01

    In hierarchical models, where spheroidal galaxies are primarily produced via a continuous merging of disc galaxies, the number of intrinsically red systems at faint limits will be substantially lower than in `traditional' models where the bulk of star formation was completed at high redshifts. In this paper we analyse the optical-near-infrared colour distribution of a large flux-limited sample of field spheroidal galaxies identified morphologically from archival Hubble Space Telescope data. The I_814-HK' colour distribution for a sample jointly limited at I_814<23mag and HK'<19.5mag is used to constrain their star formation history. We compare visual and automated methods for selecting spheroidals from our deep HST images and, in both cases, detect a significant deficit of intrinsically red spheroidals relative to the predictions of high-redshift monolithic-collapse models. However, the overall space density of spheroidals (irrespective of colour) is not substantially different from that seen locally. Spectral synthesis modelling of our results suggests that high-redshift spheroidals are dominated by evolved stellar populations polluted by some amount of subsidiary star formation. Despite its effect on the optical-infrared colour, this star formation probably makes only a modest contribution to the overall stellar mass. We briefly discuss the implications of our results in the context of earlier predictions based on models where spheroidals assemble hierarchically.

  7. Ultra-light dark matter in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models struggle to match the observations at galactic scales. The tension can be reduced either by dramatic baryonic feedback effects or by modifying the particle physics of CDM. Here, we consider an ultra-light scalar field DM particle manifesting a wave nature below a DM particle mass-dependent Jeans scale. For DM mass m ˜ 10-22 eV, this scenario delays galaxy formation and avoids cusps in the centre of the dark matter haloes. We use new measurements of half-light mass in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Draco II and Triangulum II to estimate the mass of the DM particle in this model. We find that if the stellar populations are within the core of the density profile then the data are in agreement with a Wave Dark Matter model having a DM particle with m ˜ 3.7-5.6 × 10-22 eV. The presence of this extremely light particle will contribute to the formation of a central solitonic core replacing the cusp of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and bringing predictions closer to observations of cored central density in dwarf galaxies.

  8. A Search for Faint, Diffuse Halo Emission in Edge-On Galaxies with Spitzer/IRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Arendt, R. G.; Pipher, J. L.; Forrest, W. J.; Marengo, M.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Fazio, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    We present deep infrared mosaics of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 891, 4244, 4565, and 5907. These data were acquired at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns using the Infrared Array Camera aboard Spitzer as part of GTO program number 3. This effort is designed to detect the putative faint, diffuse emission from halos and thick disks of spiral galaxies in the near-mid infrared under the thermally stable, low-background conditions of space. These conditions in combination with the advantageous viewing angles presented by these well-known edge-on spirals provide arguably the best opportunity to characterize the halo/thick disk components of such galaxies in the infrared. In this contribution we describe our observations, data reduction techniques, corrections for artifacts in the data, and the modeling approach we applied to analyze this unique dataset. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  9. Ultra-light dark matter in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models struggle to match the observations at galactic scales. The tension can be reduced either by dramatic baryonic feedback effects or by modifying the particle physics of CDM. Here, we consider an ultra-light scalar field DM particle manifesting a wave nature below a DM particle mass-dependent Jeans scale. For DM mass $m\\sim10^{-22}{\\rm eV}$, this scenario delays galaxy formation and avoids cusps in the center of the dark matter haloes. We use new measurements of half-light mass in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies Draco II and Triangulum II to estimate the mass of the DM particle in this model. We find that if the stellar populations are within the core of the density profile then the data are in agreement with a wave dark matter model having a DM particle with $m\\sim 3.7-5.6\\times 10^{-22}{\\rm eV}$. The presence of this extremely light particle will contribute to the formation of a central solitonic core replacing the cusp of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and bringing predictions closer to observations of cored central density in dwarf galaxies.

  10. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of $62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$ and a velocity dispersion of $3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is ${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.

  11. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. D.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Li, T. S.; Nord, B.; Geha, M.; Bechtol, K.; Balbinot, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Marshall, J.; Santiago, B.; Strigari, L.; Wang, M.; Wechsler, R. H.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T.; Bauer, A. H.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dodelson, S.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8+/- 0.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a velocity dispersion of 3.3+/- 0.7 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470+/- 210 {M}⊙ /{L}⊙ , demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 {km} {{{s}}}-1, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with {{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of {{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65+/- 0.07, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is {{log}}10(J)=18.8+/- 0.6 {GeV}{ }2 {{cm}}-5 within 0.°2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 157689.

  12. DISCOVERY OF A CLOSE PAIR OF FAINT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE HALO OF CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; McLeod, B.; Guhathakurta, P.; Toloba, E.; Simon, J. D.; Strader, J.

    2014-11-10

    As part of the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we report the discovery of a pair of faint dwarf galaxies (CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2) at a projected distance of ∼90 kpc from the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (CenA). We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance to each dwarf, finding D = 3.63 ± 0.41 Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and D = 3.60 ± 0.41 Mpc for CenA-MM-Dw2, both of which are consistent with the distance to NGC 5128. A qualitative analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams indicates stellar populations consisting of an old, metal-poor red giant branch (≳12 Gyr, [Fe/H] ∼ –1.7 to –1.9). In addition, CenA-MM-Dw1 seems to host an intermediate-age population as indicated by its candidate asymptotic giant branch stars. The derived luminosities (M{sub V} = –10.9 ± 0.3 for CenA-MM-Dw1 and –8.4 ± 0.6 for CenA-MM-Dw2) and half-light radii (r{sub h} = 1.4 ± 0.04 kpc for CenA-MM-Dw1 and 0.36 ± 0.08 kpc for CenA-MM-Dw2) are consistent with those of Local Group dwarfs. CenA-MM-Dw1's low central surface brightness (μ {sub V,} {sub 0} = 27.3 ± 0.1 mag arcsec{sup –2}) places it among the faintest and most extended M31 satellites. Most intriguingly, CenA-MM-Dw1 and CenA-MM-Dw2 have a projected separation of only 3 arcmin (∼3 kpc): we are possibly observing the first, faint satellite of a satellite in an external group of galaxies.

  13. The universe at faint magnitudes. I - Models for the galaxy and the predicted star counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Soneira, R. M.

    1980-09-01

    ) are provided. Further ground-based observations at attainable faint magnitudes (mV ≤ 23 mag) would be important. Star counts and (B - V) colors in several widely separated selected fields would permit a more accurate determination of the disk scale length and the spheroid star density and ellipticity. The most effective regions in which to make these observations are specified. The Galaxy model of the disk and spheroid is used to predict the star densities (in B and V) that may be observable with the aid of the Space Telescope down to very faint magnitudes. The stellar density to mV = 28 from the disk and spheroid is predicted to be 104 stars per square degree at the galactic pole. The predicted star counts are insensitive to many of the model parameters, although drastic changes in the shape of the luminosity function outside the presently determined magnitude range could produce measurable departures from the predicted star counts at faint magnitudes. The rotation curve computed solely from the disk and spheroid components decreases beyond about 10 kpc from the center of the Galaxy. A halo with even a relatively small mass density in the Solar neighborhood (ρHalo (Sun) = 0.01 Msun pc-3) can give rise to a flat rotation curve. The stellar content of such a halo would be revealed by observations with Space Telescope cameras if the halo consists of main sequence stars with MV ≲ 19.0 mag (existing observations imply MVMS ≳ 14.0 mag) or faint white dwarfs with MVWD ≲ 17.5 mag (existing observations imply MVWD ≳ 13.0 mag). Existing data imply (M/L)Halo ≳650 (Solar Visual units). The results for V magnitudes are described in the main text; the corresponding results for B magnitudes are summarized in Appendix A. A table of predicted differential and integrated star counts for both V and B magnitudes is given in Appendix B. Simple formulae that reproduce to an accuracy of 15% the predicted model star densities as a function of magnitude, latitude, and longitude

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA ELEMENTS IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Kirby, Evan N.; Simon, Joshua D.

    2013-04-20

    The Milky Way ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies contain some of the oldest, most metal-poor stars in the universe. We present [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and mean [{alpha}/Fe] abundance ratios for 61 individual red giant branch stars across eight UFDs. This is the largest sample of alpha abundances published to date in galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub V} > -8, including the first measurements for Segue 1, Canes Venatici II, Ursa Major I, and Leo T. Abundances were determined via medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and spectral synthesis. The sample spans the metallicity range -3.4 <[Fe/H] < -1.1. With the possible exception of Segue 1 and Ursa Major II, the individual UFDs show on average lower [{alpha}/Fe] at higher metallicities, consistent with enrichment from Type Ia supernovae. Thus, even the faintest galaxies have undergone at least a limited level of chemical self-enrichment. Together with recent photometric studies, this suggests that star formation in the UFDs was not a single burst, but instead lasted at least as much as the minimum time delay of the onset of Type Ia supernovae ({approx}100 Myr) and less than {approx}2 Gyr. We further show that the combined population of UFDs has an [{alpha}/Fe] abundance pattern that is inconsistent with a flat, Galactic halo-like alpha abundance trend, and is also qualitatively different from that of the more luminous CVn I dSph, which does show a hint of a plateau at very low [Fe/H].

  15. What do you gain from deconvolution? - Observing faint galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schade, David J.; Elson, Rebecca A. W.

    1993-01-01

    We describe experiments with deconvolutions of simulations of deep HST Wide Field Camera images containing faint, compact galaxies to determine under what circumstances there is a quantitative advantage to image deconvolution, and explore whether it is (1) helpful for distinguishing between stars and compact galaxies, or between spiral and elliptical galaxies, and whether it (2) improves the accuracy with which characteristic radii and integrated magnitudes may be determined. The Maximum Entropy and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithms give the same results. For medium and low S/N images, deconvolution does not significantly improve our ability to distinguish between faint stars and compact galaxies, nor between spiral and elliptical galaxies. Measurements from both raw and deconvolved images are biased and must be corrected; it is easier to quantify and remove the biases for cases that have not been deconvolved. We find no benefit from deconvolution for measuring luminosity profiles, but these results are limited to low S/N images of very compact (often undersampled) galaxies.

  16. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity ofmore » $$62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and a velocity dispersion of $$3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $$470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $$\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is $${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.« less

  17. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  18. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M {sub r} = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M {sub r} = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  19. ACCURATE STELLAR KINEMATICS AT FAINT MAGNITUDES: APPLICATION TO THE BOOeTES I DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Gilmore, G.; Walker, M. G.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. Wyn; Okamoto, S.; Penarrubia, J.; Fellhauer, M.; Gieren, W.; Geisler, D.; Monaco, L.; Norris, J. E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zucker, D. B.

    2011-08-01

    We develop, implement, and characterize an enhanced data reduction approach which delivers precise, accurate, radial velocities from moderate resolution spectroscopy with the fiber-fed VLT/FLAMES+GIRAFFE facility. This facility, with appropriate care, delivers radial velocities adequate to resolve the intrinsic velocity dispersions of the very faint dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Importantly, repeated measurements let us reliably calibrate our individual velocity errors (0.2 kms{sup -1} {<=} {delta}{sub V} {<=} 5 km s{sup -1}) and directly detect stars with variable radial velocities. We show, by application to the Booetes I dSph, that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of this system is significantly below 6.5 km s{sup -1} reported by previous studies. Our data favor a two-population model of Booetes I, consisting of a majority 'cold' stellar component, with velocity dispersion 2.4{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5} km s{sup -1}, and a minority 'hot' stellar component, with velocity dispersion {approx}9 km s{sup -1}, although we cannot completely rule out a single component distribution with velocity dispersion 4.6{sup 0.8}{sub -0.6} km s{sup -1}. We speculate that this complex velocity distribution actually reflects the distribution of velocity anisotropy in Booetes I, which is a measure of its formation processes.

  20. Exploring Faint, Large-Scale Filaments in the Warm Ionized Medium of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, G. J.; Reynolds, R. J.; Haffner, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    We have used the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM) to investigate the properties of faint, large-scale Hα -emitting filaments in the warm ionized medium of the Galaxy. The recent WHAM Northern Sky Survey has revealed several of these remarkable features, some of which may extend over 1 kpc above the Galactic plane. In an effort to understand the origin and physical conditions of these structures, we have obtained optical emission line spectra toward a collection of filaments in Hα , Hβ , [N 2], [S 2], He 1, and [O 3]. These filaments include a 60o-long vertical structure which rises above the CMa R1 OB association in the plane, a horizontal feature that stretches 20o perpendicular to this larger filament, and an isolated filament extending 5o near the Lockman window at high Galactic latitude. The temperature, density, extinction, kinematics, and ionization state of these filaments, as revealed by their spectra, is discussed. We also compare the physical conditions within these filaments to classical H 2 regions and speculate on their origin. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation through grant AST 96-19424.

  1. VARIABLE STARS IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY URSA MAJOR I

    SciTech Connect

    Garofalo, Alessia; Moretti, Maria Ida; Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Coppola, Giuseppina; Musella, Ilaria; Marconi, Marcella E-mail: fcusano@na.astro.it E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it E-mail: imoretti@na.astro.it E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it

    2013-04-10

    We have performed the first study of the variable star population of Ursa Major I (UMa I), an ultra-faint dwarf satellite recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Combining time series observations in the B and V bands from four different telescopes, we have identified seven RR Lyrae stars in UMa I, of which five are fundamental-mode (RRab) and two are first-overtone pulsators (RRc). Our V, B - V color-magnitude diagram of UMa I reaches V {approx} 23 mag (at a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}6) and shows features typical of a single old stellar population. The mean pulsation period of the RRab stars (P{sub ab}) = 0.628, {sigma} = 0.071 days (or (P{sub ab}) = 0.599, {sigma} = 0.032 days, if V4, the longest period and brightest variable, is discarded) and the position on the period-amplitude diagram suggest an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars trace the galaxy horizontal branch (HB) at an average apparent magnitude of (V(RR)) = 20.43 {+-} 0.02 mag (average on six stars and discarding V4), giving in turn a distance modulus for UMa I of (m - M){sub 0} = 19.94 {+-} 0.13 mag, distance d = 97.3{sup +6.0}{sub -5.7} kpc, in the scale where the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud is 18.5 {+-} 0.1 mag. Isodensity contours of UMa I red giants and HB stars (including the RR Lyrae stars identified in this study) show that the galaxy has an S-shaped structure, which is likely caused by the tidal interaction with the MW. Photometric metallicities were derived for six of the UMa I RR Lyrae stars from the parameters of the Fourier decomposition of the V-band light curves, leading to an average metal abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.29 dex ({sigma} = 0.06 dex, average on six stars) on the Carretta et al. metallicity scale.

  2. Detailed Chemical Abundances in the r-process-rich Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Song, Yingyi; Bell, Eric F.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Loebman, Sarah; Nidever, David L.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Valluri, Monica; Walker, Matthew G.

    2016-03-01

    The ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe] = +1.69 ± 0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H] = -2.88 ± 0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS 22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other UFD galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H] = -3.42 ± 0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe] = -1.73 ± 0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe] ≈ +1.1). This is only the third such star known, which suggests that the nucleosynthesis sites leading to C and r-process enhancements are decoupled. The r-process-deficient star is enhanced in Mg ([Mg/Fe] = +0.81 ± 0.14), and the other three stars show normal levels of α-enhancement (mean [Mg/Fe] = +0.34 ± 0.03). The abundances of other α and Fe-group elements closely resemble those in UFD galaxies and metal-poor halo stars, suggesting that the nucleosynthesis that led to the large r-process enhancements either produced no light elements or produced light-element abundance signatures indistinguishable from normal supernovae. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  3. Star formation rate and extinction in faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    To, Chun-Hao; Wang, Wei-Hao; Owen, Frazer N.

    2014-09-10

    We present a statistical detection of 1.5 GHz radio continuum emission from a sample of faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). To constrain their extinction and intrinsic star formation rate (SFR), we combine the latest ultradeep Very Large Array 1.5 GHz radio image and the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) optical images in the GOODS-N. We select a large sample of 1771 z ∼ 4 LBGs from the ACS catalog using B {sub F435W}-dropout color criteria. Our LBG samples have I {sub F775W} ∼ 25-28 (AB), ∼0-3 mag fainter than M{sub UV}{sup ⋆} at z ∼ 4. In our stacked radio images, we find the LBGs to be point-like under our 2'' angular resolution. We measure their mean 1.5 GHz flux by stacking the measurements on the individual objects. We achieve a statistical detection of S {sub 1.5} {sub GHz} = 0.210 ± 0.075 μJy at ∼3σ for the first time on such a faint LBG population at z ∼ 4. The measurement takes into account the effects of source size and blending of multiple objects. The detection is visually confirmed by stacking the radio images of the LBGs, and the uncertainty is quantified with Monte Carlo simulations on the radio image. The stacked radio flux corresponds to an obscured SFR of 16.0 ± 5.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and implies a rest-frame UV extinction correction factor of 3.8. This extinction correction is in excellent agreement with that derived from the observed UV continuum spectral slope, using the local calibration of Meurer et al. This result supports the use of the local calibration on high-redshift LBGs to derive the extinction correction and SFR, and also disfavors a steep reddening curve such as that of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  4. SMA observations on faint submillimeter galaxies with S {sub 850} < 2 mJy: Ultra dusty low-luminosity galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2014-07-01

    We obtained Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of eight faint (intrinsic 850 μm fluxes < 2 mJy) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) discovered in SCUBA images of the massive lensing cluster fields A370, A2390, and A1689 and detected five. In total, we obtain five SMA detections, all of which have de-lensed fluxes <1 mJy with estimated total infrared luminosities 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, comparable to luminous infrared galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Based on the latest number counts, these galaxies contribute ∼70% of the 850 μm extragalactic background light and represent the dominant star-forming galaxy population in the dusty universe. However, only 40{sub −16}{sup +30}% of our faint SMGs would be detected in deep optical or near-infrared surveys, which suggests many of these sources are at high redshifts (z ≳ 3) or extremely dusty, and they are not included in current star formation history estimates.

  5. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 ± 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  6. Properties of galaxies at the faint end of the Hα luminosity function at z ~ 0.62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Gallego, Jesús; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Context. Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function, and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at 0.5 < z < 0.8 in Hα-based studies. Aims: Our main goal is to study the properties of a sample of faint Hα emitters at z ~ 0.62. We focus on their contribution to the faint end of the luminosity function and derived star formation rate density, characterising their morphologies and basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. Methods: We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centred at 1.06 μm. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. In addition to our survey, we mainly make use of ancillary data coming from the CANDELS and Rainbow Cosmological Surveys Database, from the 3D-HST for comparison, and also spectra from the literature. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. In order to obtain the luminosity function, we apply a traditional V/Vmax method and perform individual extinction corrections for each object to accurately trace the shape of the function. Results: Our 28 Hα-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function α = - 1.46-0.08+0.16 . The derived star formation rate density at z ~ 0.62 is ρSFR = 0.036-0.008+0.012 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 . The sample is mainly composed of disks, but an important contribution of compact galaxies with Sérsic indexes n ~ 2 display the highest specific star formation rates. Conclusions: The luminosity function at z ~ 0.62 from our ultra-deep data points towards a steeper α when an individual extinction correction for each object is applied. Compact galaxies are low-mass, low-luminosity, and starburst-dominated objects with a light profile in an intermediate stage from early to late types. Based on observations

  7. Discovery of an Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy in the Intracluster Field of the Virgo Center: A Fossil of the First Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2014-11-01

    Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are newcomers among galaxies, and are the faintest galaxies in the observed universe. To date, they have only been found around the Milky Way Galaxy and M31 in the Local Group. We present the discovery of a UFD in the intracluster field in the core of the Virgo cluster (Virgo UFD1), which is far from any massive galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars in this galaxy shows a narrow red giant branch, similar to those of metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way. We estimate its distance by comparing the red giant branch with isochrones, and we obtain a value 16.4 ± 0.4 Mpc. This shows that it is indeed a member of the Virgo cluster. From the color of the red giants we estimate its mean metallicity to be very low, [Fe/H] =-2.4 ± 0.4. Its absolute V-band magnitude and effective radius are derived to be MV = -6.5 ± 0.2 and r eff = 81 ± 7 pc, much fainter and smaller than the classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Its central surface brightness is estimated to be as low as μ V, 0 = 26.37 ± 0.05 mag arcsec-2. Its properties are similar to those of the Local Group analogs. No evidence of tidal features are found in this galaxy. Considering its narrow red giant branch with no asymptotic giant branch stars, low metallicity, and location, it may be a fossil remnant of the first galaxies.

  8. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXY IN THE INTRACLUSTER FIELD OF THE VIRGO CENTER: A FOSSIL OF THE FIRST GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-01

    Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are newcomers among galaxies, and are the faintest galaxies in the observed universe. To date, they have only been found around the Milky Way Galaxy and M31 in the Local Group. We present the discovery of a UFD in the intracluster field in the core of the Virgo cluster (Virgo UFD1), which is far from any massive galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars in this galaxy shows a narrow red giant branch, similar to those of metal-poor globular clusters in the Milky Way. We estimate its distance by comparing the red giant branch with isochrones, and we obtain a value 16.4 ± 0.4 Mpc. This shows that it is indeed a member of the Virgo cluster. From the color of the red giants we estimate its mean metallicity to be very low, [Fe/H] =–2.4 ± 0.4. Its absolute V-band magnitude and effective radius are derived to be M{sub V} = –6.5 ± 0.2 and r {sub eff} = 81 ± 7 pc, much fainter and smaller than the classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Its central surface brightness is estimated to be as low as μ {sub V,} {sub 0} = 26.37 ± 0.05 mag arcsec{sup –2}. Its properties are similar to those of the Local Group analogs. No evidence of tidal features are found in this galaxy. Considering its narrow red giant branch with no asymptotic giant branch stars, low metallicity, and location, it may be a fossil remnant of the first galaxies.

  9. Near-Infrared Faint Galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field: Comparing the Theory with Observations for Galaxy Counts, Colors, and Size Distributions to K ~ 24.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Maihara, Toshinori; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Motohara, Kentaro

    2001-10-01

    Galaxy counts in the K band, (J-K) colors, and apparent size distributions of faint galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) down to K~24.5 were studied in detail. Special attention has been paid to take into account various selection effects, including the cosmological dimming of surface brightness, to avoid any systematic bias that may be the origin of controversy in previously published results. We also tried to be very careful about systematic model uncertainties; we present a comprehensive survey of these systematic uncertainties and dependence on various parameters, and we have shown that the dominant factors to determine galaxy counts in this band are cosmology and number evolution. We found that the pure luminosity evolution (PLE) model is very consistent with all the SDF data down to K~22.5, without any evidence for number or size evolution in a low-density, Λ-dominated flat universe, which is now favored by various cosmological observations. On the other hand, a number evolution of galaxies with η~2, when invoked as the luminosity conserving mergers as φ*~(1+z)η and L*~(1+z)-η for all types of galaxies, is necessary to explain the data in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. If the popular Λ-dominated universe is taken for granted, our result then gives a strong constraint on the number evolution of giant elliptical or early-type galaxies to z~1-2 that must be met by any models in the hierarchically clustering universe, since such galaxies are the dominant population in this magnitude range (K<~22.5). A number evolution with η~1 is already difficult to reconcile with the data in this universe. On the other hand, number evolution of late-type galaxies and/or dwarf galaxies, which has been suggested by previous studies of optical galaxies, is allowed from the data. In the fainter magnitude range of K>~22.5, we found a slight excess of observed counts over the prediction of the PLE model when elliptical galaxies are treated as a single population. We

  10. A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of faint Galactic satellites: searching for the least massive dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Irwin, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2007-09-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey of the recently discovered faint Milky Way satellites Boötes, Ursa Major I, Ursa Major II and Willman 1 (Wil1). Using the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope, we have obtained samples that contain from ~15 to ~85 probable members of these satellites for which we derive radial velocities precise to a few kms-1 down to i ~ 21-22. About half of these stars are observed with a high enough signal-to-noise ratio to estimate their metallicity to within +/-0.2 dex. The characteristics of all the observed stars are made available, along with those of the Canes Venatici I dwarf galaxy that have been analysed in a companion paper. From this data set, we show that Ursa Major II is the only object that does not show a clear radial velocity peak. However, the measured systemic radial velocity (vr = 115 +/- 5kms-1) is in good agreement with simulations in which this object is the progenitor of the recently discovered Orphan Stream. The three other satellites show velocity dispersions that make them highly dark matter dominated systems (under the usual assumptions of symmetry and virial equilibrium). In particular, we show that despite its small size and faintness, the Wil1 object is not a globular cluster given its metallicity scatter over -2.0 <~ [Fe/H] <~ -1.0 and is therefore almost certainly a dwarf galaxy or dwarf galaxy remnant. We measure a radial velocity dispersion of only 4.3+2.3-1.3kms-1 around a systemic velocity of -12.3 +/- 2.3kms-1 which implies a mass-to-light ratio of ~700 and a total mass of ~5 × 105Msolar for this satellite, making it the least massive satellite galaxy known to date. Such a low mass could mean that the 107Msolar limit that had until now never been crossed for Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies may only be an observational limit and that fainter, less massive systems exist within the Local Group. However, more modelling and an extended search for

  11. FAME Astrometry of Faint Objects and the Kinematics of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.; Gould, A.; Olling, R.

    2001-12-01

    We explore what the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) can achieve by observing a ``small'' (< 106) sample of faint objects (R< ~18) in addition to its standard R<15 magnitude limited catalog of 40x 106 stars. Observing some 50,000 quasars will improve the accuracy of the reference frame from 16 micro-as/yr to 6 micro-as/yr, allowing proper motion of the Galactic center due to reflex of the Sun's motion to be determined with an accuracy of 0.1%. It will also permit very accurate proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds. Quasar observations also offer a powerful check on any unmodeled parallax systematics. Proper motions of 30,000 faint field blue horizontal branch stars will allow stellar halo rotation to be mapped to beyond 35 kpc. Halo substructures producing clumps in the velocity space will be detectable to 10 kpc. In addition to this, allowing inclusion of objects with R>15 will increase the number of good parallaxes of late M-dwarfs 30-fold, and provide distances of over 200 L-dwarfs. FAME could obtain good (10%) parallaxes for 3700 white dwarfs, a 10-fold increase over the R<15 sample. These parallaxes will yield precise mass and luminosity functions. Candidate quasars, BHB stars, and nearby stars will be selected from existing and planned surveys (SDSS, USNO, 2MASS, etc.) The total number of faint candidates should be about 500,000, a small fraction of the FAME input catalog.

  12. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3>z>7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: A HIGH FRACTION OF LINE EMITTERS AT REDSHIFT SIX

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-02-10

    As Ly{alpha} photons are scattered by neutral hydrogen, a change with redshift in the Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) distribution of distant galaxies offers a promising probe of the degree of ionization in the intergalactic medium and hence when cosmic reionization ended. This simple test is complicated by the fact that Ly{alpha} emission can also be affected by variations in the kinematics and dust content of the host galaxies. In the first paper in this series, we demonstrated both a luminosity- and redshift-dependent trend in the fraction of Ly{alpha} emitters seen within color-selected 'Lyman break' galaxies (LBGs) over the range 3 < z < 6; lower luminosity galaxies and those at higher redshift show an increased likelihood of strong emission. Here, we present the results from 12.5 hr exposures with the Keck DEIMOS spectrograph focused primarily on LBGs at z {approx_equal} 6 which enable us to confirm the redshift dependence of line emission more robustly and to higher redshift than was hitherto possible. We find that 54% {+-} 11% of faint z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs show strong (W{sub Ly{alpha},0}>25 A) emission, an increase of 55% from a sample of similarly luminous z {approx_equal} 4 galaxies. With a total sample of 74 z {approx_equal} 6 LBGs, we determine the luminosity-dependent Ly{alpha} EW distribution. Assuming continuity in these trends to the new population of z {approx_equal} 7 sources located with the Hubble WFC3/IR camera, we predict that unless the neutral fraction rises in the intervening 200 Myr, the success rate for spectroscopic confirmation using Ly{alpha} emission should be high.

  13. THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS: HST SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT GALAXIES LENSED BY THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACSJ0717.5+3745

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Wang, X.; Jones, T. A.; Mason, C.; Brammer, G. B.; Stiavelli, M.; Bradač, M.; Hoag, A.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Poggianti, B.; Trenti, M.; Von der Linden, A.; and others

    2014-02-20

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Large Program, which will obtain 140 orbits of grism spectroscopy of the core and infall regions of 10 galaxy clusters, selected to be among the very best cosmic telescopes. Extensive HST imaging is available from many sources including the CLASH and Frontier Fields programs. We introduce the survey by analyzing spectra of faint multiply-imaged galaxies and z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates obtained from the first 7 orbits out of 14 targeting the core of the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. Using the G102 and G141 grisms to cover the wavelength range 0.8-1.7 μm, we confirm four strongly lensed systems by detecting emission lines in each of the images. For the 9 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates clear from contamination, we do not detect any emission lines down to a 7 orbit 1σ noise level of ∼5 × 10{sup –18} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Taking lensing magnification into account, our flux sensitivity reaches ∼0.2-5 × 10{sup –18} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}. These limits over an uninterrupted wavelength range rule out the possibility that the high-z galaxy candidates are instead strong line emitters at lower redshift. These results show that by means of careful modeling of the background—and with the assistance of lensing magnification—interesting flux limits can be reached for large numbers of objects, avoiding pre-selection and the wavelength restrictions inherent to ground-based multi-slit spectroscopy. These observations confirm the power of slitless HST spectroscopy even in fields as crowded as a cluster core.

  14. Connecting faint-end slopes of the Lyman α emitter and Lyman-break galaxy luminosity functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronke, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Trenti, M.; Wyithe, S.

    2015-05-01

    We predict Lyman α (Lyα) luminosity functions (LFs) of Lyα-selected galaxies (Lyα emitters, or LAEs) at z = 3-6 using the phenomenological model. This model combines observed UV-LFs of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs, or drop-out galaxies), with constraints on their distribution of Lyα line strengths as a function of UV-luminosity and redshift. Our analysis shows that while Lyα LFs of LAEs are generally not Schechter functions, these provide a good description over the luminosity range of log10(Lα/erg s-1) = 41-44. Motivated by this result, we predict Schechter function parameters at z = 3-6. Our analysis further shows that (i) the faint-end slope of the Lyα LF is steeper than that of the UV-LF of LBGs, (with a median αLyα < -2.0 at z ≳ 4), and (ii) a turnover in the Lyα LF of LAEs at Lyα luminosities 1040 ≲ Lα ≲ 1041 erg s-1 may signal a flattening of UV-LF of LBGs at -12 > MUV > -14. We discuss the implications of these results - which can be tested directly with upcoming surveys - for the Epoch of Reionization.

  15. The chosen few: the low-mass haloes that host faint galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-02-01

    Since reionization prevents star formation in most haloes less massive than 3 × 109 M⊙, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter haloes. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and haloes. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of haloes in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of haloes that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Haloes that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, haloes more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite haloes are populated more frequently than field haloes, and satellite haloes of 108-109 M⊙ or vmax of 12-20 km s-1, compatible with stellar kinematics of Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have experienced a greater than average reduction in both mass and vmax after infall. They are on closer, more radial orbits with higher infall velocities and earlier infall times. Together, these effects make dwarf galaxies highly biased tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution.

  16. Effects of Interstellar Dust on the Photometric Properties of Faint Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzual, G. A.; Magris, C.

    1986-02-01

    We compute the effects of interstellar dust on the photometric properties of disk galaxies in several photographic and photoelectric bands. The solution to the radiative transfer problem including absorption and multiple scattering 0+ light by dust grains is taken from a previous paper by the authors (Magris and Bruzual, this conference). We present magnitudes and colors V. redshift for galaxies seen at different inclination angles and with different values of the optical depth through the plane of the galaxy. The results are compared with those obtained from a straightforward application of the galactic extinction law. It is concluded that in order to properly take into account the effects of dust in the photometric properties of distant galaxies of cosmological interest it is necessary to use correction factors such as those of Magris and Bruzual.

  17. Probing the Peak Epoch of Cosmic Star Formation (1Faint Star-forming Galaxies Behind the Lensing Clusters: UV Luminosity Function and the Dust Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian D.; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Stark, Daniel; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a complete census of cosmic star formation requires an understanding of faint star-forming galaxies that are far below the detection limits of current surveys. To search for the faint galaxies, we use the power of strong gravitational lensing from foreground galaxy clusters to boost the detection limits of HST to much fainter luminosities. Using the WFC3/UVIS on board the HST, we obtain deep UV images of 4 lensing clusters with existing deep optical and near-infrared data (three from Frontier Fields survey). Building multiband photometric catalogs and applying a photometric redshift selection, we uncover a large population of dwarf galaxies (-18.5galaxies keeps increasing steeply toward very faint magnitudes (MUV=-12.5). As an important implication of a steep faint-end slope LF, we show that the faint galaxies (-18.550%) at these redshifts. We use this unique sample to investigate further the various properties of dwarf galaxies as it is claimed to deviate from the trends seen for the more massive galaxies. Recent hydro-dynamical simulations and observations of local dwarfs show that these galaxies have episodic bursts of star formation on short time scales (< 10 Myr). We find that the bursty star formation histories (SFHs) cause a large intrinsic scatter in UV colors (β) at MUV > -16, comparing a sample of low mass galaxies from simulations with bursty SFHs with our comprehensive measurements of the observed β values. As this scatter can also be due to the dust extinction, we distinguish these two effects by measuring the dust attenuation using Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ) ratios from our MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy.

  18. ALMA Census of Faint 1.2 mm Sources Down to ~ 0.02 mJy: Extragalactic Background Light and Dust-poor, High-z Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ishigaki, Masafumi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Momose, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    We present statistics of 133 faint 1.2 mm continuum sources detected in about 120 deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) pointing data that include all the archival deep data available by 2015 June. We derive number counts of 1.2 mm continuum sources down to 0.02 mJy partly with the assistance of gravitational lensing, and find that the total integrated 1.2 mm flux of the securely identified sources is {22.9}-5.6+6.7 Jy deg-2 which corresponds to {104}-25+31% of the extragalactic background light (EBL) measured by Cosmic Background Explorer observations. These results suggest that the major 1.2 mm EBL contributors are sources with 0.02 mJy, and that very faint 1.2 mm sources with ≲0.02 mJy contribute negligibly to the EBL with the possible flattening and/or truncation of number counts in this very faint flux regime. To understand the physical origin of our faint ALMA sources, we measure the galaxy bias bg by the counts-in-cells technique, and place a stringent upper limit of bg < 3.5 that is not similar to bg values of massive distant red galaxies and submillimeter galaxies but comparable to those of UV-bright, star-forming BzK galaxies (sBzKs) and Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Moreover, in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) deep fields, we identify optical-NIR counterparts for 59% of our faint ALMA sources, the majority of which have luminosities, colors, and the IRX-β relation the same as sBzKs and LBGs. We thus conclude that about a half of our faint ALMA sources are dust-poor, high-z galaxies as known as sBzKs and LBGs in optical studies, and that these faint ALMA sources are not miniature (U)LIRGs simply scaled down with the infrared brightness.

  19. Probing Bursty Star Formation in Faint Galaxies with the Hubble Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven; Livermore, Rachael; Song, Mimi

    2015-08-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields have magnified our view into the formation and evolution of galaxies in the first billion years after the Big Bang. One key issue these data can probe is how galaxies grow their stellar masses. Do they grow smoothly with time, dominated by steady gas inflow? Or is their growth more stochastic, dominated by starburst triggering events such as mergers or clumpy gas inflows? A bevy of observational studies have shown that the star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies increase with time, while theoretical studies, which broadly agree on long timescales, show that the SFRs may vary significantly on shorter timescales. We have compiled a sample of galaxies over a wide dynamic range in SFR by combining the HFF imaging with the CANDELS and HUDF datasets. By comparing the scatter in SFRs to SPH and semi-analytic models with known star formation histories, we directly measure the fraction of galaxies at a given epoch undergoing starbursts. This has a variety of implications on the distant universe, including reionization, as a significant burst fraction could both increase the number of ionizing photons being produced, as well as disturb the interstellar medium enough to allow these photons to escape.

  20. The Lyα–LyC Connection: Evidence for an Enhanced Contribution of UV-faint Galaxies to Cosmic Deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Gronke, Max; Venkatesan, Aparna

    2016-09-01

    The escape of ionizing Lyman continuum (LyC) photons requires the existence of low-N H i sightlines, which also promote escape of Lyα. We use a suite of 2500 Lyα Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations through models of dusty, clumpy interstellar (“multiphase”) media from Gronke & Dijkstra, and compare the escape fractions of Lyα ({f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α }) and LyC radiation ({f}{{esc}}{{ion}}). We find that {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} and {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } are correlated: galaxies with a low {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } consistently have a low {f}{{esc}}{{ion}}, while galaxies with a high {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } exhibit a large dispersion in {f}{{esc}}{{ion}}. We argue that there is increasing observational evidence that Lyα escapes more easily from UV-faint galaxies. The correlation between {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} and {f}{{esc}}{{Ly}α } then implies that UV-faint galaxies contribute more to the ionizing background than implied by the faint-end slope of the UV luminosity function. In multiphase gases, the ionizing escape fraction is most strongly affected by the cloud covering factor, f cl, which implies that {f}{{esc}}{{ion}} is closely connected to the observed Lyα spectral line shape. Specifically, LyC-emitting galaxies typically having narrower, more symmetric line profiles. This prediction is qualitatively similar to that for “shell models.”

  1. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  2. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II - The IRAS faint source survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.; Conrow, T. P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling.

  3. Constraints on Photoionization Feedback from Number Counts of Ultra-faint High-redshift Galaxies in the Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Yue, B.; Ferrara, A.; Merlin, E.; Fontana, A.; Amorín, R.; Grazian, A.; Mármol-Queralto, E.; Michałowski, M. J.; Mortlock, A.; Paris, D.; Parsa, S.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit a sample of ultra-faint high-redshift galaxies (demagnified Hubble Space Telescope, HST, H 160 magnitude > 30) in the Frontier Fields clusters A2744 and M0416 to constrain a theoretical model for the UV luminosity function in the presence of photoionization feedback. The objects have been selected on the basis of accurate photometric redshifts computed from multi-band photometry including seven HST bands and deep K s and IRAC observations. Magnification is computed on an object-by-object basis from all available lensing models of the two clusters. We take into account source detection completeness as a function of luminosity and size, magnification effects, and systematics in the lens modeling of the clusters under investigation. We find that our sample of high-z galaxies constrain the cutoff halo circular velocity below which star formation is suppressed by photoionization feedback to {v}c{{cut}}\\lt 50 km s‑1. This circular velocity corresponds to a halo mass of ≈5.6 × 109 M ⊙ and ≈2.3 × 109 M ⊙ at z = 5 and 10, respectively: higher-mass halos can thus sustain continuous star formation activity without being quenched by external ionizing flux. More stringent constraints are prevented by the uncertainty in the modeling of the cluster lens, as embodied by systematic differences among the lens models available.

  4. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M. Queen Mary College, London )

    1990-07-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs.

  5. THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF FAINT SATELLITE GALAXIES AS A TEST OF GALAXY FORMATION AND THE NATURE OF DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T.; Menci, N.; Lu, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-08-01

    The standard cosmological model based on cold dark matter (CDM) predicts a large number of subhalos for each galaxy-size halo. Matching the subhalos to the observed properties of luminous satellites of galaxies in the local universe poses a significant challenge to our understanding of the astrophysics of galaxy formation. We show that the cosmic evolution and host mass dependence of the luminosity function of satellites provide a powerful new diagnostic to disentangle astrophysical effects from variations in the underlying dark matter mass function. We illustrate this by comparing recent observations of satellites between redshifts 0.1 < z < 0.8 based on Hubble Space Telescope images, with predictions from three different state-of-the-art semi-analytic models applied to CDM power spectra, with one model also applied to a warm dark matter (WDM) spectrum. We find that even though CDM models provide a reasonable fit to the local luminosity function of satellites around galaxies comparable to the Milky Way, they do not reproduce the data as well for different redshifts and host galaxy stellar masses, indicating that further improvements in the description of star formation are likely needed. The WDM model matches the observed mass dependence and redshift evolution of satellite galaxies more closely, indicating that a modification of the underlying power spectrum may offer an alternative solution to this tension. We conclude by presenting predictions for the color distribution of satellite galaxies to demonstrate how future observations will be able to further distinguish between these models and to help constrain baryonic and non-baryonic physics.

  6. Faint Companions in the Close Environment of Starforming Dwarf Galaxies: possible overlooked starburst triggers? (Oral Contribution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noeske, K. G.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Fricke, K. J.

    Using the NASA Extragalactic Database, we have searched the close environment of 98 star-forming dwarf galaxies (SFDGs) from field- and low density environments for companion galaxies. Most of the found companions are dwarf galaxies, previously disregarded in environmental studies of SFDGs. Using a subsample at low redshifts, cz < 2000 km/s, i.e. less biased against dwarf companions, we find that 30% of the SFDGs have close companions within a projected linear separation s_p < 100 kpc and a redshift difference of (Delta cz) < 500 km/s. This fraction must be considered a lower limit, given the incompleteness of the available data sets and the non-negligible frequency of HI clouds in the vicinity of SFDGs, so that the majority of SFDGs should not be considered isolated. The redshift differences between companion candidates and sample SFDGs are typically smaller than ~250 km/s and concentrated towards lower values. This is similarly observed for dwarf satellites of spiral galaxies and suggests a physical association between the companion candidates and the sample SFDGs. SFDGs with a close companion do not show significant differences in their H(beta) equivalent widths and B-V colours as compared to isolated ones. However, the available data do not allow to rule out close dwarf companions as an influencing factor for star formation activity.

  7. Star formation in infrared bright and infrared faint starburst interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Bushouse, Howard A.; Towns, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Short wavelength IUE spectra of Arp 248b and UGC 8315N are combined with optical spectra and interpreted using a combination of spectrum synthesis and spectral diagnostics to place constraints on the massive star populations of the central regions of these galaxies and to deduce information about the star formation histories in the last 10(exp 8) years. The authors find that both galaxies have substantial fractions of their optical light coming from massive stars and that Arp 248b may be dominated in the UV by WR stars. The UV spectra are dominated by radiation from evolved massive stars and the authors place and age on the burst in Arp 248b of a few tens of millions of years.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF FAINT LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES NEAR REDSHIFT FIVE IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Grogin, Norman; Hathi, Nimish; Ryan, Russell; Straughn, Amber; Windhorst, Rogier A. Pirzkal, Norbert; Xu Chun; Koekemoer, Anton; Panagia, Nino; Dickinson, Mark; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Meurer, Gerhardt; Pasquali, Anna; Yan, H.-J.

    2009-05-20

    We present the faintest spectroscopically confirmed sample of z {approx} 5 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to date. The sample is based on slitless grism spectra of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region from the Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) and Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) projects, using the G800L grism on the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. We report here confirmations of 39 galaxies, preselected as candidate LBGs using photometric selection criteria. We compare a 'traditional' V-dropout selection, based on the work of Giavalisco et al., to a more liberal one (with V - i > 0.9), and find that the traditional criteria are about 64% complete and 81% reliable. We also study the Ly{alpha} emission properties of our sample. We find that Ly{alpha} emission is detected in {approx}1/4 of the sample, and that the liberal V-dropout color selection includes {approx}55% of previously published line-selected Ly{alpha} sources. Finally, we examine our stacked two-dimensional spectra. We demonstrate that strong, spatially extended ({approx}1'') Ly{alpha} emission is not a generic property of these LBGs, but that a modest extension of the Ly{alpha} photosphere (compared to the starlight) may be present in those galaxies with prominent Ly{alpha} emission.

  9. BOO-1137-AN EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STAR IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY BOOeTES I

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 40,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio (20-90) spectra of an extremely metal-poor giant star Boo-1137 in the 'ultra-faint' dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Booetes I, absolute magnitude M{sub V} {approx} -6.3. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.7, making this the most metal-poor star as yet identified in an ultra-faint dSph. Our derived effective temperature and gravity are consistent with its identification as a red giant in Booetes I. Abundances for a further 15 elements have also been determined. Comparison of the relative abundances, [X/Fe], with those of the extremely metal-poor red giants of the Galactic halo shows that Boo-1137 is 'normal' with respect to C and N, the odd-Z elements Na and Al, the iron-peak elements, and the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, in comparison with the bulk of the Milky Way halo population having [Fe/H] {approx}<-3.0. The alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti are all higher by DELTA[X/Fe] {approx} 0.2 than the average halo values. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that DELTA[alpha/Fe] values this large are expected with a probability {approx}0.02. The elemental abundance pattern in Boo-1137 suggests inhomogeneous chemical evolution, consistent with the wide internal spread in iron abundances we previously reported. The similarity of most of the Boo-1137 relative abundances with respect to halo values, and the fact that the alpha-elements are all offset by a similar small amount from the halo averages, points to the same underlying galaxy-scale stellar initial mass function, but that Boo-1137 likely originated in a star-forming region where the abundances reflect either poor mixing of supernova (SN) ejecta, or poor sampling of the SN progenitor mass range, or both.

  10. Triangulum II: Possibly a Very Dense Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Simon, Joshua D.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2015-11-01

    Laevens et al. recently discovered Triangulum II (Tri II), a satellite of the Milky Way. Its Galactocentric distance is 36 kpc, and its luminosity is only 450 {L}⊙ . Using Keck/DEIMOS, we measured the radial velocities of six member stars within 1.‧2 of the center of Tri II, and we found a velocity dispersion of {σ }v={5.1}-1.4+4.0 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We also measured the metallicities of three stars and found a range of 0.8 dex in [Fe/H]. The velocity and metallicity dispersions identify Tri II as a dark matter-dominated galaxy. The galaxy is moving very quickly toward the Galactic center ({v}{{GSR}}=-262 {km} {{{s}}}-1). Although it might be in the process of being tidally disrupted as it approaches pericenter, there is no strong evidence for disruption in our data set. The ellipticity is low, and the mean velocity, < {v}{{helio}}> =-382.1+/- 2.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1, rules out an association with the Triangulum-Andromeda substructure or the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey stellar stream. If Tri II is in dynamical equilibrium, then it would have a mass-to-light ratio of {3600}-2100+3500 {M}⊙ {L}⊙ -1, the highest of any non-disrupting galaxy (those for which dynamical mass estimates are reliable). The density within the 3D half-light radius would be {4.8}-3.5+8.1 {M}⊙ {{{pc}}}-3, even higher than Segue 1. Hence, Tri II is an excellent candidate for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  11. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR IMF VARIATIONS WITH GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Geha, Marla; Brown, Thomas M.; Tumlinson, Jason; Kalirai, Jason S.; Avila, Roberto J.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Simon, Joshua D.; Kirby, Evan N.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Guhathakurta, Puragra E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu

    2013-07-01

    We present constraints on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in two ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Hercules and Leo IV, based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. The Hercules and Leo IV galaxies are extremely low luminosity (M{sub V} = -6.2, -5.5), metal-poor (([Fe/H]) = -2.4, -2.5) systems that have old stellar populations (>11 Gyr). Because they have long relaxation times, we can directly measure the low-mass stellar IMF by counting stars below the main-sequence turnoff without correcting for dynamical evolution. Over the stellar mass range probed by our data, 0.52-0.77 M{sub Sun }, the IMF is best fit by a power-law slope of {alpha}= 1.2{sub -0.5}{sup +0.4} for Hercules and {alpha} = 1.3 {+-} 0.8 for Leo IV. For Hercules, the IMF slope is more shallow than a Salpeter ({alpha} = 2.35) IMF at the 5.8{sigma} level, and a Kroupa ({alpha} = 2.3 above 0.5 M{sub Sun }) IMF slope at 5.4{sigma} level. We simultaneously fit for the binary fraction, f{sub binary}, finding f{sub binary}= 0.47{sup +0.16}{sub -0.14} for Hercules, and 0.47{sup +0.37}{sub -0.17} for Leo IV. The UFD binary fractions are consistent with that inferred for Milky Way stars in the same mass range, despite very different metallicities. In contrast, the IMF slopes in the UFDs are shallower than other galactic environments. In the mass range 0.5-0.8 M{sub Sun }, we see a trend across the handful of galaxies with directly measured IMFs such that the power-law slopes become shallower (more bottom-light) with decreasing galactic velocity dispersion and metallicity. This trend is qualitatively consistent with results in elliptical galaxies inferred via indirect methods and is direct evidence for IMF variations with galactic environment.

  12. Detection of faint BLR components in the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221 and measure of the central BH mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Franca, Fabio; Onori, Francesca; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactive Nuclei (AGN) samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195/ erg s^-1) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM=1400-2300 km s^-1) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M_BH = 10^6.6+/-0.3 Msol, lambda_Edd=0.01-0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N_H<10^24 cm^-2) AGN.

  13. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  14. Faint and soft X-ray binaries in three dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Marina

    2007-10-01

    We propose to observe three nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companions of the Milky Way. These galaxies host old populations with little or no contamination of recent star formation, and appear to have a huge dark matter content. They are the ideal Rosetta stones to probe theories of X-ray binary formation, type Ia progenitors evolution, and dark matter halos.Recent observations of four other dSph with Chandra and XMM-Newton have revealed a large number of X-ray sources in the fields, effected by small column density of neutral hydrogen N(H).Using deep optical and UV images, archival HST and GALEX exposures, and later spectroscopic follow-up, we will be able to determine the nature of the sources and whether they belong to the galactic populations.

  15. Faint CO Line Wings in Four Star-forming (Ultra)luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Bolatto, Alberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s-1-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  16. The galaxy luminosity function in groups and clusters: the faint-end upturn and the connection to the field luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice; Mo, Houjun

    2016-07-01

    We characterize the luminosity functions of galaxies residing in z ˜ 0 groups and clusters over the broadest ranges of luminosity and mass reachable by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our measurements cover four orders of magnitude in luminosity, down to about Mr = -12 mag or L = 107 L⊙, and three orders of magnitude in halo mass, from 1012 to 1015 M⊙. We find a characteristic scale, Mr ˜ -18 mag or L ˜ 109 L⊙, below which the slope of the luminosity function becomes systematically steeper. This trend is present for all halo masses and originates mostly from red satellites. This ubiquitous faint-end upturn suggests that it is formation, rather than halo-specific environmental effect, that plays a major role in regulating the stellar masses of faint satellites. We show that the satellite luminosity functions can be described in a simple manner by a double Schechter function with amplitudes scaling with halo mass over the entire range of observables. Combining these conditional luminosity functions with the dark matter halo mass function, we accurately recover the entire field luminosity function over 10 visual magnitudes and reveal that satellite galaxies dominate the field luminosity function at magnitudes fainter than -17. We find that the luminosity functions of blue and red satellite galaxies show distinct shapes and we present estimates of the stellar mass fraction as a function of halo mass and galaxy type. Finally, using a simple model, we demonstrate that the abundances and the faint-end slopes of blue and red satellite galaxies can be interpreted in terms of their formation history, with two distinct modes separated by some characteristic time.

  17. A bag of tricks: Using proper motions of Galactic stars to identify the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Raimondo, G.; Brocato, E.; Bellini, A.; Libralato, M.; Testa, V.; Cantiello, M.; Musella, I.; Clementini, G.; Carini, R.; Marconi, M.; Piotto, G.; Ripepi, V.; Buonanno, R.; Sani, E.; Speziali, R.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Discovered in the last decade as overdensities of resolved stars, the ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) are among the least luminous, most dark-matter dominated, and most metal-poor galaxies known today. They appear as sparse, loose objects with high mass-to-light ratios. Hercules is the prototype of the UFD galaxies. To date, there are still no firm constraints on its total luminosity due to the difficulty of disentangling Hercules bona-fide stars from the severe Galactic field contamination. Aims: To better constrain Hercules properties, we aim at removing foreground and background contaminants in the galaxy field using the proper motions of the Milky Way stars and the colour-colour diagram. Methods: We have obtained images of Hercules in the rSloan , BBessel and Uspec bands with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and LBC-BIN mode capabilities. The rSloan new dataset combined with data from the LBT archive span a time baseline of about 5 yr, allowing us to measure proper motions of stars in the Hercules direction for the first time. The Uspec data along with existing LBT photometry allowed us to use colour-colour diagram to further remove the field contamination. Results: Thanks to a highly-accurate procedure to derive the rSloan -filter geometric distortion solution for the LBC-red, we were able to measure stellar relative proper motions to a precision of better than 5 mas yr-1 down to rSloan≃ 22 mag and disentangle a significant fraction (>90%) of Milky Way contaminants. We ended up with a sample of 528 sources distributed over a large portion of the galaxy body (~0.12 deg2). Of these sources, 171 turned out to be background galaxies and additional foreground stars from the analysis of the Uspec - BBessel vs. BBessel - rSloan colour-colour diagram. This leaves us with a sample of 357 likely members of the Hercules UFD. We compared the cleaned colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) with evolutionary models and synthetic CMDs, confirming the presence in Hercules of

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Superluminous supernovae in faint galaxies (McCrum+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrum, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Rest, A.; Smith, K.; Kotak, R.; Rodney, S. A.; Young, D. R.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Foley, R. J.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Scolnic, D.; Tonry, J. L.; Urata, Y.; Huang, K.; Pastorello, A.; Botticella, M. T.; Valenti, S.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Farrow, D. J.; Huber, M. E.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Bresolin, F.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2015-09-01

    From the period starting February 25th 2010 and ending July 9th 2011, 249 hostless transients or "orphans" were discovered in the PS1 Medium Deep fields. AN orphan is defined as an object that is >3.4" away from the centre of a catalogued galaxy or point source brighter than approximately 23.5m (in any of the gP1 rP1 iP1 filters that the transient was detected in). The PS1 observations are obtained through a set of five broadband filters, which we have designated as gP1, rP1, iP1, zP1, and yP1. Although the filter system for PS1 has much in common with that used in previous surveys, such as SDSS (Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A), there are important differences. The gP1 filter extends 20nm redward of gSDSS, paying the price of 5577Å emission for greater sensitivity and lower systematics for photometric redshifts, and the zP1 filter is cut off at 930nm, giving it a different response than the detector response which defined zSDSS. SDSS has no corresponding yP1 filter. Further information on the passband shapes is described in Stubbs et al. (2010ApJS..191..376S). The PS1 photometric system and its response is covered in detailed in Tonry et al. (2012ApJ...750...99T, Cat. J/ApJ/750/99). Photometry is in the "natural" PS1 system, m=-2.5log(flux)+m', with a single zeropoint adjustment m' made in each band to conform to the AB magnitude scale. (8 data files).

  19. First Results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low-mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F.; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H. G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group (LG), based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos (MADCASH) J074238+652501-dw lies ∼35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at D ≈ 3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has {M}g=-7.4+/- 0.4 and a half-light radius of 168 ± 70 pc, at the calculated distance of 3.39 ± 0.41 Mpc. The color–magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low-luminosity dwarfs in the LG. The lack of either detected HI gas ({M}{HI}/{L}V\\lt 0.69 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or GALEX NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos of Local Volume LMC analogs via resolved stellar populations. Models predict a total of ∼4–10 satellites at least as massive as MADCASH J074238+652501-dw around a host with the mass of NGC 2403, with 2–3 within our field of view, slightly more than the one such satellite observed in our footprint. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. First Results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low-mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F.; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H. G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group (LG), based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos (MADCASH) J074238+652501-dw lies ˜35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at D ≈ 3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has {M}g=-7.4+/- 0.4 and a half-light radius of 168 ± 70 pc, at the calculated distance of 3.39 ± 0.41 Mpc. The color–magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low-luminosity dwarfs in the LG. The lack of either detected HI gas ({M}{HI}/{L}V\\lt 0.69 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or GALEX NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos of Local Volume LMC analogs via resolved stellar populations. Models predict a total of ˜4–10 satellites at least as massive as MADCASH J074238+652501-dw around a host with the mass of NGC 2403, with 2–3 within our field of view, slightly more than the one such satellite observed in our footprint. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  1. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOOeTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

    2012-01-10

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Booetes I (Booe I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Booe I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Booe I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age ({approx}12.6 Gyr) with respect to Booe I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Booe I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  2. A Deep Search for Faint Galaxies Associated with Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers: A Case with Cold-accretion Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, Joseph N.; Tripp, Todd M.; Werk, Jessica K.; Howk, J. Christopher; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ford, Amanda Brady; Davé, Romeel

    2013-12-01

    Studies of QSO absorber-galaxy connections are often hindered by inadequate information on whether faint/dwarf galaxies are located near the QSO sight lines. To investigate the contribution of faint galaxies to QSO absorber populations, we are conducting a deep galaxy redshift survey near low-z C IV absorbers. Here we report a blindly detected C IV absorption system (z abs = 0.00348) in the spectrum of PG1148+549 that appears to be associated either with an edge-on dwarf galaxy with an obvious disk (UGC 6894, z gal = 0.00283) at an impact parameter of ρ = 190 kpc or with a very faint dwarf irregular galaxy at ρ = 23 kpc, which is closer to the sightline but has a larger redshift difference (z gal = 0.00107, i.e., δv = 724 km s-1). We consider various gas/galaxy associations, including infall and outflows. Based on current theoretical models, we conclude that the absorber is most likely tracing (1) the remnants of an outflow from a previous epoch, a so-called "ancient outflow", or (2) intergalactic gas accreting onto UGC 6894, "cold mode" accretion. The latter scenario is supported by H I synthesis imaging data that shows the rotation curve of the disk being codirectional with the velocity offset between UGC 6894 and the absorber, which is located almost directly along the major axis of the edge-on disk. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope operated at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also, based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the US, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona, on behalf of the Arizona University System; Instituto Nazionale do Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, and

  3. WFC3IR Imaging of UV-Faint z=6 Quasars: Star-Forming Host Galaxies of AGN in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    We propose to study the star-forming host galaxies of AGN at z 6 with WFC3/IR in F125W and F160W. Recently, far-infrared {FIR} continuum has been detected in five UV-faint {rest-frame m_1450>20.2} quasars at z 6, suggesting that they have star formation rates {SFRs} of 1000 MSun/yr, comparable to UV-bright z 6 quasars. Such SFRs imply a significant young, UV-bright stellar population. These host galaxies have yet to be seen in starlight, however, since light from the AGN still dominates the rest-frame UV emission.We successfully subtracted the point source in the UV-bright {m_1450=19.03} quasar J1148+5251 down to mu_J>24.4, mu_H>24.9 mag arcsec^-2, giving upper limits of m_1680>22.5, m_2160>23.0 mag for the host galaxy {Program 12332, PI Windhorst}. Uncertainties in the PSF model remain the dominant source of residuals. Since these uncertainties scale with brightness, low-contrast quasars with UV-faint point sources and UV-bright hosts are the best targets for this method.Using the observing and subtraction methods we developed, we propose to observe all 5 FIR-detected, UV-faint z 6 quasars with WFC3/IR in F125W and F160W. We request 5 orbits per quasar, for a total of 25 orbits. This program is beyond the capability of ground-based AO facilities, due to depth and PSF stability required. Observations of these host galaxies are critical to determine:{a} The existence of a luminous stellar component{b} Luminosity and color profiles, to constrain star formation histories{c} Morphologies and sizes, to look for mergers and hierarchical formation processes{d} Stellar mass, to understand formation and co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxy bulges

  4. Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-detected Lyman-Break Galaxies at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 behind Strong-lensing Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Lemaux, Brian C.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Hoag, Austin; Castellano, Marco; Amorín, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Merlin, Emiliano; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Schrabback, Tim; Treu, Tommaso; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; von der Linden, Anja; Knight, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ˜1.2-5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M1600 are between -21.2 and -18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 108M⊙ and 2.9 × 109M⊙. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at zLyα = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at zLyα = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  5. The galaxy UV luminosity function at z ≃ 2-4; new results on faint-end slope and the evolution of luminosity density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shaghayegh; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Mortlock, Alice

    2016-03-01

    We present a new, robust measurement of the evolving rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) galaxy luminosity function (LF) over the key redshift range from z ≃ 2 to z ≃ 4. Our results are based on the high dynamic range provided by combining the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), CANDELS/GOODS-South, and UltraVISTA/COSMOS surveys. We utilize the unparalleled multifrequency photometry available in this survey `wedding cake' to compile complete galaxy samples at z ≃ 2, 3, 4 via photometric redshifts (calibrated against the latest spectroscopy) rather than colour-colour selection, and to determine accurate rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes (M1500) from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Our new determinations of the UV LF extend from M1500 ≃ -22 (AB mag) down to M1500 = -14.5, -15.5 and -16 at z ≃ 2, 3 and 4, respectively (thus, reaching ≃ 3-4 mag fainter than previous blank-field studies at z ≃ 2,3). At z ≃ 2, 3, we find a much shallower faint-end slope (α = -1.32 ± 0.03) than reported in some previous studies (α ≃ -1.7), and demonstrate that this new measurement is robust. By z ≃ 4, the faint-end slope has steepened slightly, to α = -1.43 ± 0.04, and we show that these measurements are consistent with the overall evolutionary trend from z = 0 to 8. Finally, we find that while characteristic number density (φ*) drops from z ≃ 2 to z ≃ 4, characteristic luminosity (M*) brightens by ≃ 1 mag. This, combined with the new flatter faint-end slopes, has the consequence that UV luminosity density (and hence unobscured star formation density) peaks at z ≃ 2.5-3, when the Universe was ≃ 2.5 Gyr old.

  6. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Faint quenched galaxies I- Sample selection and evidence for environmental quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Masters, Karen L.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Law, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Thomas, Daniel; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freischlad, Gordon; Gaulme, Patrick; Grabowski, Katie; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Wake, David A.

    2016-08-01

    Using kinematic maps from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we reveal that the majority of low-mass quenched galaxies exhibit coherent rotation in their stellar kinematics. Our sample includes all 39 quenched low-mass galaxies observed in the first year of MaNGA. The galaxies are selected with Mr > -19.1, stellar masses 109 M⊙ < M⋆ < 5 × 109 M⊙, EWHα < 2 Å, and all have red colours (u - r) > 1.9. They lie on the size-magnitude and σ-luminosity relations for previously studied dwarf galaxies. Just six (15 ± 5.7 per cent) are found to have rotation speeds ve, rot < 15 km s-1 at ˜1 Re, and may be dominated by pressure support at all radii. Two galaxies in our sample have kinematically distinct cores in their stellar component, likely the result of accretion. Six contain ionised gas despite not hosting ongoing star formation, and this gas is typically kinematically misaligned from their stellar component. This is the first large-scale Integral Field Unit (IFU) study of low mass galaxies selected without bias against low-density environments. Nevertheless, we find the majority of these galaxies are within ˜1.5 Mpc of a bright neighbour (MK < -23; or M⋆ > 5 × 1010 M⊙), supporting the hypothesis that galaxy-galaxy or galaxy-group interactions quench star formation in low-mass galaxies. The local bright galaxy density for our sample is ρproj = 8.2 ± 2.0 Mpc-2, compared to ρproj = 2.1 ± 0.4 Mpc-2 for a star forming comparison sample, confirming that the quenched low mass galaxies are preferentially found in higher density environments.

  7. HOW TO MAKE AN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY: TIDAL STIRRING OF DISKY DWARFS WITH SHALLOW DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio E-mail: stelios@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2012-05-20

    In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) whose origin remains a puzzle in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW). Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a variety of inner density slopes {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -{alpha}} for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like ({alpha} = 0.2) to cuspy ({alpha} = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z {approx} 1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes ({rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -0.6}). The inferred slopes are in excellent agreement with those resulting from both the modeling of the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies and recent cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. Comparing the properties of observed UFDs with those of their simulated counterparts, we find remarkable similarities in terms of basic observational parameters. We conclude that tidal stirring of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of UFDs in the LG environment.

  8. The Detection of Ultra-faint Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster: A Probe of Dark Matter and Baryonic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Fassbender, R.; Fontana, A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.

    2015-11-01

    We have discovered 11 ultra-faint (r ≲ 22.1) low surface brightness (LSB, central surface brightness 23 ≲ μr ≲ 26) dwarf galaxy candidates in one deep Virgo field of just 576 arcmin2 obtained by the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope. Their association with the Virgo cluster is supported by their distinct position in the central surface brightness—total magnitude plane with respect to the background galaxies of similar total magnitude. They have typical absolute magnitudes and scale sizes, if at the distance of Virgo, in the range -13 ≲ Mr ≲ -9 and 250 ≲ rs ≲ 850 pc, respectively. Their colors are consistent with a gradually declining star formation history with a specific star formation rate of the order of 10-11 yr-1, i.e., 10 times lower than that of main sequence star-forming galaxies. They are older than the cluster formation age and appear to be regular in morphology. They represent the faintest extremes of the population of low luminosity LSB dwarfs that has recently been detected in wider surveys of the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the depth of our observations, we are able to extend the Virgo luminosity function down to Mr ˜ -9.3 (corresponding to total masses M ˜ 107 M⊙), finding an average faint-end slope α ≃ -1.4. This relatively steep slope puts interesting constraints on the nature of the dark matter and, in particular, on warm dark matter (WDM) often invoked to solve the overprediction of the dwarf number density by the standard cold dark matter scenario. We derive a lower limit on the WDM particle mass >1.5 keV.

  9. The UDF05 Follow-up of the HUDF: I. The Faint-End Slope of the Lyman-Break Galaxy Population at zeta approx. 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Stiavelli, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Bergeron, L. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Lucas, R. A.; Pavlovsky, C. M.; Trenti, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Dahlen, T.; Ferguson, H. C.; Gardner, J. P.; Lacey, C.; Mobasher, B.; Panagia, N.; Rix, H.-W.

    2007-01-01

    We present the UDF05 project, a HST Large Program of deep ACS (F606W, F775W, F850LP, and NICMOS (Fll0W, Fl60W) imaging of three fields, two of which coincide with the NICP1-4 NICMOS parallel observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). In this first paper we use the ACS data for the NICP12 field, as well as the original HUDF ACS data, to measure the UV Luminosity Function (LF) of z approximately 5 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) down to very faint levels. Specifically, based on a V - i, i - z selection criterion, we identify a sample of 101 and 133 candidate z approximately 5 galaxies down to z(sub 850) = 28.5 and 29.25 magnitudes in the NICP12 field and in the HUDF, respectively. Using an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations we derive corrections for observational biases and selection effects, and construct the rest-frame 1400 Angstroms LBG LF over the range M(sub 1400) = [-22.2, -17.1], i.e. down to approximately 0.04 L(sub *) at z = 5. We show that: (i) Different assumptions for the SED distribution of the LBG population, dust properties and intergalactic absorption result in a 25% variation in the number density of LBGs at z = 5 (ii) Under consistent assumptions for dust properties and intergalactic absorption, the HUDF is about 30% under-dense in z = 5 LBGs relative to the NICP12 field, a variation which is well explained by cosmic variance; (iii) The faint-end slope of the LF is independent of the specific assumptions for the input physical parameters, and has a value of alpha approximately -1.6, similar to the faint-end slope of the LF that has been measured for LBGs at z = 3 and z = 6. Our study therefore supports no variation in the faint-end of the LBG LF over the whole redshift range z = 3 to z = 6. The comparison with theoretical predictions suggests that (a,) the majority of the stars in the z = 5 LBG population are produced with a Top-Heavy IMF in merger-driven starbursts, and that (b) possibly, either the fraction of stellar mass produced in

  10. Ultra-faint ultraviolet galaxies at z ∼ 2 behind the lensing cluster A1689: The luminosity function, dust extinction, and star formation rate density

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto; Richard, Johan; Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Kewley, Lisa

    2014-01-10

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbits) filters. These images are used to identify z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break, in the same manner that galaxies are typically selected at z ≥ 3. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the lensing cluster, we detect galaxies 100× fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing all multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample in the range –19.5 < M {sub 1500} < –13 AB mag. Because the mass distribution of A1689 is well constrained, we are able to calculate the intrinsic sensitivity of the observations as a function of source plane position, allowing for accurate determinations of effective volume as a function of luminosity. We fit the faint-end slope of the luminosity function to be α = –1.74 ± 0.08, which is consistent with the values obtained for 2.5 < z < 6. Notably, there is no turnover in the luminosity function down to M {sub 1500} = –13 AB mag. We fit the UV spectral slopes with photometry from existing Hubble optical imaging. The observed trend of increasingly redder slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of (E(B – V)) = 0.15 mag. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z {sub ☉}) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z {sub ☉}), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived values for dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2 is 4.31{sub −0.60}{sup +0.68}×10{sup 26} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} Mpc{sup –3}, more than 70% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity range of our sample. Finally, we determine the global star formation rate density from UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 (assuming a constant dust

  11. HerMES: Current Cosmic Infrared Background Estimates Can Be Explained by Known Galaxies and Their Faint Companions at z < 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, M. P.; Moncelsi, L.; Quadri, R. F.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Duivenvoorden, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Franceschini, A.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Álvarez-Márquez, J.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Valtchanov, I.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Zemcov, M.

    2015-08-01

    We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies and their faint companions at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly available UltraVISTA catalog and maps at 250, 350, and 500 μm from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that uncataloged sources may bias stacked flux densities—particularly if the resolution of the image is poor—and intentionally smooth the images before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in {K}S˜ 23.4) sources that are physically associated, or correlated, with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 ± 0.78, 5.77 ± 0.43 and 2.32+/- 0.19 {{nWm}}-2 {{sr}}-1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm at 300 {arcsec} FWHM. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 ± 0.23, 1.07 ± 0.31, and 0.97 ± 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 μm, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/{M}⊙ )\\gt 8.5 can account for most of the measured total intensities and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z\\gt 4.

  12. THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF SPITZER 24 mum GALAXIES IN THE COSMIC EVOLUTION SURVEY FIELD. II. FAINT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE zCOSMOS-BRIGHT 10k CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Aussel, H.; Floc'h, E. Le; Frayer, D.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Coppa, G.; Bongiorno, A.

    2009-12-20

    We have used the zCOSMOS-bright 10k sample to identify 3244 Spitzer/MIPS 24 mum-selected galaxies with 0.06 mJy < S{sub 24{sub m}}u{sub m} approx< 0.50 mJy and I{sub AB} < 22.5, over 1.5 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, and studied different spectral properties, depending on redshift. At 0.2 < z < 0.3, we found that different reddening laws of common use in the literature explain the dust extinction properties of approx80% of our infrared (IR) sources, within the error bars. For up to 16% of objects, instead, the Halpha lambda6563/Hbeta lambda4861 ratios are too high for their IR/UV attenuations, which is probably a consequence of inhomogeneous dust distributions. In only a few of our galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.3, the IR emission could be mainly produced by dust heated by old rather than young stars. Besides, the line ratios of approx22% of our galaxies suggest that they might be star-formation/nuclear-activity composite systems. At 0.5 < z < 0.7, we estimated galaxy metallicities for 301 galaxies: at least 12% of them are securely below the upper-branch mass-metallicity trend, which is consistent with the local relation. Finally, we performed a combined analysis of the H{sub d}elta equivalent width versus D{sub n} (4000) diagram for 1722 faint and bright 24 mum galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.0, spanning two decades in mid-IR luminosity. We found that, while secondary bursts of star formation are necessary to explain the position of the most luminous IR galaxies in that diagram, quiescent, exponentially declining star formation histories can well reproduce the spectral properties of approx40% of the less luminous sources. Our results suggest a transition in the possible modes of star formation at total IR luminosities L{sub TIR} approx (3 +- 2) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}.

  13. ULTRA-FAINT DWARF GALAXIES AS A TEST OF EARLY ENRICHMENT AND METALLICITY-DEPENDENT STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-20

    The close relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to abundance of dust, which catalyzes formation of H{sub 2} and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study, we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H{sub 2}-based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption timescale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value star formation and enrichment accelerate, which leads to rapid increase in both stellar mass and metallicity of galaxies. We demonstrate this process both using a simple analytical model and full cosmological simulations. In contrast, the observed metallicity distributions of dwarf galaxies or stars within them are not bi-modal. We argue that this discrepancy points to substantial early stochastic pre-enrichment by Population III stars to levels Z {approx} 10{sup -2} Z{sub Sun} in dense, star-forming regions of early galaxies.

  14. Fainting (Syncope)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Fainting (Syncope) Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  15. The Spectroscopic Properties of Lyα-Emitters at z ˜2.7: Escaping Gas and Photons from Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Ryan F.; Steidel, Charles C.; Strom, Allison L.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2015-08-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of 318 faint ({R}˜ 27, L˜ 0.1{L}*), Lyα-emission-selected galaxies (LAEs) in regions centered on the positions of hyperluminous QSOs (HLQSOs) at 2.5\\lt z\\lt 3. A sample of 32 LAEs with rest-frame optical emission line spectra from Keck/Multi-Object Spectrometer For InfraRed Exploration (MOSFIRE) are used to interpret the LAE spectra in the context of their systemic redshifts. The fields are part of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey, which includes substantial ancillary multi-wavelength imaging from both the ground and space. From a quantitative analysis of the diverse Lyα spectral morphologies, including line widths, asymmetries, and multi-peaked profiles, we find that peak widths and separations are typically smaller than among samples of more luminous continuum-selected galaxies (Lyman-break galaxies and their analogs; LBGs) at similar redshifts. We find tentative evidence for an association between Lyα spectral morphology and external illumination by the nearby HLQSO. Using the MOSFIRE subsample, we find that the peak of the resolved (R ≈ 1300) Lyα line is shifted by +200 km s-1 with respect to systemic across a diverse set of galaxies including both LAEs and LBGs. We also find a small number of objects with significantly blueshifted Lyα emission, a potential indicator of accreting gas. The Lyα-to-Hα line ratios measured for the MOSFIRE subset suggest that the LAEs in this sample have Lyα escape fractions {f}{esc,{Ly}α } ≈ 30%, significantly higher than typical LBG samples. Using redshifts calibrated by our MOSFIRE sample, we construct composite LAE spectra, finding the first evidence for metal-enriched outflows in such intrinsically faint high-redshift galaxies. These outflows have smaller continuum covering fractions ({f}{{c}}≈ 0.3) and velocities ({v}{ave} ≈ 100-200 km s-1, {v}{max} ≈ 500 km s-1) than those associated with typical LBGs, suggesting that the gas covering fraction is a likely driver of

  16. ROSAT PSPC observations of two X-ray-faint early-type galaxies: NGC 4365 and NGC 4382

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT Positive Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the two early-type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4382. These galaxies are among those observed with Einstein to have the lowest X-ray to optical flux ratios of early-type galaxies. The PSCP data show that for radii r greater than 50 arcsec the radial distributions of the X-ray surface brightness are consistent with the optical distributions of King (1978). We also find that these galaxies have X-ray spectra significantly different from those observed in X-ray-bright ellipticals, with a relative excess of counts detected in the softest spectral channels. This confirms earlier Einstein results. The characteristics of the ROSAT PSPC do not allow us to discriminate between possible spectral models. If we adopt a two-component thermal model on the grounds of physical plausibility, we find that the spectral data can be fitted with a very soft optically thin component, with kT approximately 0.2 keV, and a hard component with kT greater than (1.0-1.5) keV. The hard component has a luminosity consistent with that expected from the integrated emission of a population of low mass-X-ray binaries in these galaxies; the nature of the very soft component is more speculative. Candidates include the coronal emission of late-type stars, supersoft X-ray sources, RS CVn, and perhaps a hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Alternatively, the spectal data may be fitted with a 0.6-1 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum (expontential plus Gaunt), and may suggest the presence of a totally new population of X-ray sources.

  17. THE FAINT STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE RED GALAXIES FROM STACKS OF MORE THAN 42,000 SDSS LRG IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tomer; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2011-04-20

    We study the properties of massive galaxies at an average redshift of z {approx} 0.34 through stacking more than 42,000 images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This is the largest data set ever used for such an analysis and it allows us to explore the outskirts of massive red galaxies at unprecedented physical scales. Our image stacks extend farther than 400 kpc, where the r-band profile surface brightness reaches 30 mag arcsec{sup -2}. This analysis confirms that the stellar bodies of LRGs follow a simple Sersic profile out to 100 kpc. At larger radii, the profiles deviate from the best-fit Sersic models and exhibit extra light in the r-, i-, and z-band stacks. This excess light can probably be attributed to unresolved intragroup or intracluster light or a change in the light profile itself. We further show that standard analyses of SDSS-depth images typically miss 20% of the total stellar light and underestimate the size of LRGs by 10% compared to our best-fit r-band Sersic model of n = 5.5 and r{sub e} = 13.1 kpc. If the excess light at r > 100 kpc is considered to be part of the galaxy, the best-fit r-band Sersic parameters are n = 5.8 and r{sub e} = 13.6 kpc. In addition, we study the radially dependent stack ellipticity and find an increase with radius from {epsilon} = 0.25 at r = 10 kpc to {epsilon} = 0.3 at r = 100 kpc. This provides support that the stellar light that we trace out to at least 100 kpc is physically associated with the galaxies themselves and may confirm that the halos of individual LRGs have higher ellipticities than their central parts. Lastly, we show that the broadband color gradients of the stacked images are flat beyond roughly 40 kpc, suggesting that the stellar populations do not vary significantly with radius in the outer parts of massive ellipticals.

  18. Ultra-faint Ultraviolet Galaxies at z ~ 2 behind the Lensing Cluster A1689: The Luminosity Function, Dust Extinction, and Star Formation Rate Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Richard, Johan; Stark, Daniel P.; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto; Rafelski, Marc; Robertson, Brant; Kewley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbits) filters. These images are used to identify z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break, in the same manner that galaxies are typically selected at z >= 3. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the lensing cluster, we detect galaxies 100× fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing all multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample in the range -19.5 < M 1500 < -13 AB mag. Because the mass distribution of A1689 is well constrained, we are able to calculate the intrinsic sensitivity of the observations as a function of source plane position, allowing for accurate determinations of effective volume as a function of luminosity. We fit the faint-end slope of the luminosity function to be α = -1.74 ± 0.08, which is consistent with the values obtained for 2.5 < z < 6. Notably, there is no turnover in the luminosity function down to M 1500 = -13 AB mag. We fit the UV spectral slopes with photometry from existing Hubble optical imaging. The observed trend of increasingly redder slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of langE(B - V)rang = 0.15 mag. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z ⊙) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z ⊙), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived values for dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z ~ 2 is 4.31^{+0.68}_{-0.60} \\times 10^{26} erg s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3, more than 70% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity range of our sample. Finally, we determine the global star formation rate density from UV-selected galaxies at z ~ 2 (assuming a constant dust extinction correction of 4.2 over all luminosities and a Kroupa initial

  19. Chemical compositions of six metal-poor stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Boötes I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, M. N.; Aoki, W.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) contain extremely metal-poor stars, and might represent the building blocks of low-metallicity components of the MW. Among them, the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy is of particular interest because of its exclusively old stellar population. Detailed chemical compositions of individual stars in this galaxy are a key to understanding formation and chemical evolution in the oldest galaxies in the Universe and their roles in building up the MW halo. Aims: Previous studies of the chemical abundances of Boötes I show discrepancies in elemental abundances between different authors, and thus a consistent picture of its chemical enrichment history has not yet been established. In the present work, we independently determine chemical compositions of six red giant stars in Boötes I, some of which overlap with those analyzed in the previous studies. Based on the derived abundances, we re-examine trends and scatters in elemental abundances and make comparisons with MW field halo stars and other dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the MW. Methods: High-resolution spectra of a sample of stars were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Abundances of 12 elements, including C, Na, α, Fe-peak, and neutron capture elements, were determined for the sample stars. The abundance results were compared to those in field MW halo stars previously obtained using an abundance analysis technique similar to the present study. Results: We confirm the low metallicity of Boo-094 ([Fe/H] = -3.4). Except for this star, the abundance ratios ([X/Fe]) of elements lighter than zinc are generally homogeneous with small scatter around the mean values in the metallicities spanned by the other five stars (-2.7 < [Fe/H] < -1.8). Specifically, all of the sample stars with [Fe/H] > -2.7 show no significant enhancement of carbon. The [Mg/Fe] and [Ca/Fe] ratios are almost constant with a

  20. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Measuring HI Luminosity-linewidth Profiles of Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, T. S.; Fisher, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    The neutral hydrogen (HI) luminosity-linewidth profile relationship is a valuable tool in radio astronomy. Among other things, it helps astronomers determine distances, rotation velocities, and hydrogen densities in distant galaxies. Data for over 500 galaxies had been taken in October, 1999 by J. R. Fisher using the Arecibo Radio Telescope. The data helps to support research completed with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and provide a comparison of luminosity-linewidth and supernovae Ia distance scales. During the summer, 2000 Research Experience for Teachers (RET), T. S. S. worked at the NRAO in Green Bank to reduce this HI data. In order to complete the task, a working knowledge of AIPS++ and Glish was acquired. Glish allows users easy access to all AIPS++ analysis routines and provides a means of writing customized applications by bundling together collections of commands into new functions. During the appointment, AIPS++ scripts were written that implement data correction factors, display data scans, and assist in making precise measurements. As a volunteer researcher, T.S.S. is continuing work on this project during the school year. In addition, selected high school students will assist in completing the data reduction for these galaxies. In any science education program whether it be elementary school or college, it is crucial that students be provided the opportunity to experience science rather than to simply be told about it. Science is a vehicle by which humans contribute to the understanding of the universe. Thanks to the RET experience, Oil City students will be going on a little "drive" this year. This poster will explore the astronomical journey taken by these students as well as the pedagogical destination.

  1. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 8 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR A DECLINING FRACTION OF EMISSION LINE SOURCES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 6 < z < 8

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan

    2012-01-10

    Using deep Keck spectroscopy of Lyman break galaxies selected from infrared imaging data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we present new evidence for a reversal in the redshift-dependent fraction of star-forming galaxies with detectable Lyman alpha (Ly{alpha}) emission in the redshift range 6.3 < z < 8.8. Our earlier surveys with the DEIMOS spectrograph demonstrated a significant increase with redshift in the fraction of line emitting galaxies over the interval 4 < z < 6, particularly for intrinsically faint systems which dominate the luminosity density. Using the longer wavelength sensitivities of Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and NIRSPEC, we have targeted 19 Lyman break galaxies selected using recent WFC3/IR data whose photometric redshifts are in the range 6.3 < z < 8.8 and which span a wide range of intrinsic luminosities. Our spectroscopic exposures typically reach a 5{sigma} sensitivity of <50 A for the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Ly{alpha} emission. Despite the high fraction of emitters seen only a few hundred million years later, we find only two convincing and one possible line emitter in our more distant sample. Combining with published data on a further seven sources obtained using FORS2 on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and assuming continuity in the trends found at lower redshift, we discuss the significance of this apparent reversal in the redshift-dependent Ly{alpha} fraction in the context of our range in continuum luminosity. Assuming all the targeted sources are at their photometric redshift and our assumptions about the Ly{alpha} EW distribution are correct, we would expect to find so few emitters in less than 1% of the realizations drawn from our lower redshift samples. Our new results provide further support for the suggestion that, at the redshifts now being probed spectroscopically, we are entering the era where the intergalactic medium is partially neutral. With the arrival of more

  2. LOWER-LUMINOSITY GALAXIES COULD REIONIZE THE UNIVERSE: VERY STEEP FAINT-END SLOPES TO THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z {>=} 5-8 FROM THE HUDF09 WFC3/IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwens, R. J.; Labbe, I.; Franx, M.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Magee, D.; Stiavelli, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Van Dokkum, P.

    2012-06-10

    The HUDF09 data are the deepest near-IR observations ever, reaching to 29.5 mag. Luminosity functions (LFs) from these new HUDF09 data for 132 z {approx} 7 and z {approx} 8 galaxies are combined with new LFs for z {approx} 5-6 galaxies and the earlier z {approx} 4 LF to reach to very faint limits (<0.05 L*{sub z=3}). The faint-end slopes {alpha} are steep: -1.79 {+-} 0.12 (z {approx} 5), -1.73 {+-} 0.20 (z {approx} 6), -2.01 {+-} 0.21 (z {approx} 7), and -1.91 {+-} 0.32 (z {approx} 8). Slopes {alpha} {approx}< -2 lead to formally divergent UV fluxes, though galaxies are not expected to form below {approx} - 10 AB mag. These results have important implications for reionization. The weighted mean slope at z {approx} 6-8 is -1.87 {+-} 0.13. For such steep slopes, and a faint-end limit of -10 AB mag, galaxies provide a very large UV ionizing photon flux. While current results show that galaxies can reionize the universe by z {approx} 6, matching the Thomson optical depths is more challenging. Extrapolating the current LF evolution to z > 8, taking {alpha} to be -1.87 {+-} 0.13 (the mean value at z {approx} 6-8), and adopting typical parameters, we derive Thomson optical depths of 0.061{sup +0.009}{sub -0.006}. However, this result will change if the faint-end slope {alpha} is not constant with redshift. We test this hypothesis and find a weak, though uncertain, trend to steeper slopes at earlier times (d{alpha}/dz {approx} -0.05 {+-} 0.04) that would increase the Thomson optical depths to 0.079{sup +0.063}{sub -0.017}, consistent with recent WMAP estimates ({tau} = 0.088 {+-} 0.015). It may thus not be necessary to resort to extreme assumptions about the escape fraction or clumping factor. Nevertheless, the uncertainties remain large. Deeper WFC3/IR+ACS observations can further constrain the UV ionizing flux from faint galaxies.

  3. A 21 Centimeter Absorber Identified with a Spiral Galaxy: Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph and Wide-Field Camera Observations of 3CR 196

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ross D.; Beaver, E. A.; Diplas, Athanassios; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1996-01-01

    We present imaging and spectroscopy of the quasar 3CR 196 (z(sub e) = 0.871), which has 21 cm and optical absorption at z(sub a) = 0.437. We observed the region of Ly alpha absorption in 3CR 196 at z(sub a) = 0.437 with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This region of the spectrum is complicated because of the presence of a Lyman limit and strong lines from a z(sub a) approx. z(sub e) system. We conclude that there is Ly alpha absorption with an H I column density greater than 2.7 x 10(exp 19) cm(exp -2) and most probably 1.5 x 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). Based on the existence of the high H I column density along both the optical and radio lines of sight, separated by more than 15 kpc, we conclude that the Ly alpha absorption must arise in a system comparable in size to the gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. A barred spiral galaxy, previously reported as a diffuse object in the recent work of Boisse and Boulade, can be seen near the quasar in an image taken at 0.1 resolution with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the HST. If this galaxy is at the absorption redshift, the luminosity is approximately L(sub *) and any H I disk should extend in front of the optical quasar and radio lobes of 3CR 196, giving rise to both the Ly alpha and 21 cm absorption. In the z(sub a) approx. z(sub e) system we detect Lyman lines and the Lyman limit, as well as high ion absorption lines of C III, N V, S VI, and O VI. This absorption probably only partially covers the emission-line region. The ionization parameter is approximately 0.1. Conditions in this region may be similar to those in broad absorption line QSOs.

  4. The Chandra Deep Survey of the Hubble Deep Field-North Area. II. Results from the Caltech Faint Field Galaxy Redshift Survey Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Barger, A. J.; Broos, P. S.; Cowie, L. L.; Townsley, L. K.; Bautz, M. W.; Burrows, D. N.; Chartas, G.; Feigelson, E. D.; Griffiths, R. E.; Lumb, D.; Nousek, J. A.; Ramsey, L. W.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    2001-06-01

    A deep X-ray survey of the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N) and its environs is performed using data collected by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Currently a 221.9 ks exposure is available, the deepest ever presented, and here we give results on X-ray sources located in the 8.6‧×8.7‧ area covered by the Caltech Faint Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (the ``Caltech area''). This area has (1) deep photometric coverage in several optical and near-infrared bands; (2) extensive coverage at radio, submillimeter, and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) some of the deepest and most complete spectroscopic coverage ever obtained. It is also where the X-ray data have the greatest sensitivity; the minimum detectable fluxes in the 0.5-2 keV (soft) and 2-8 keV (hard) bands are ~1.3×10-16 and ~6.5×10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively. More than ~80% of the extragalactic X-ray background in the hard band is resolved. The 82 Chandra sources detected in the Caltech area are correlated with more than 25 multiwavelength source catalogs, and the results of these correlations as well as spectroscopic follow-up results obtained with the Keck and Hobby-Eberly Telescopes are presented. All but nine of the Chandra sources are detected optically with R<~26.5. Redshifts are available for 39% of the Chandra sources, including 96% of the sources with R<23 the redshift range is 0.1-3.5, with most sources having z<1.5. Eight of the X-ray sources are located in the HDF-N itself, including two not previously reported. A population of X-ray faint, optically bright, nearby galaxies emerges at soft-band fluxes of <~3×10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1. Our multiwavelength correlations have set the tightest constraints to date on the X-ray emission properties of μJy radio sources, mid-infrared sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and very red (R-Ks>5.0) objects. A total of 16 of the 67 1.4 GHz μJy sources in the Caltech area are detected in the

  5. Modified dynamics predictions agree with observations of the Hiota kinematics in faint dwarf galaxies contrary to the conclusions of Lo, Sargent, and Young

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    1994-07-01

    Lo, Sargent, & Young (1993) have recently published an analysis of the H I kinematics of nine faint dwarf galaxies. Among other things, they conclude that the masses of these systems, as deduced by the modified dynamics (MOND) from the observed velocity dispersions, are systematically smaller than even the H I masses that are observed in these systems, by a factor of 10 or more. Such a state of things would speak strongly against MOND. We show here that the MOND mass estimator used by Lo et al. is smaller than the proper expression, by a factor of about 20. We derive the proper mass estimator as an exact virial-like relation between the three-dimensional root-mean-square (rms) velocity, (v2), and the total mass, M, of an arbitrary, self-gravitating system, made of light constituents, that is everywhere in the very low acceleration regime of MOND. This reads M = (9/4) ((v2) 2)/Ga0. (For a system that is not stationary, (v2) also involves an average over time.) We do this in the Bekenstein-Milgrom formulation of MOND as a modification of gravity. This relation has been known before for the special case of stationary, spherical system. We further generalize this relation to cases with constituent masses that are not small compared with that of the whole system. We discuss various applications of the M-v relation; inter alia, we derive an expression for the two-body force law in the large-distance limit. With the correct estimator the predictions of MOND are, by and large, in good agreement with the total observed masses (the observed gas mass plus a stellar mass corresponding to an M/L of order one solar unit).

  6. Are Ultra-faint Galaxies at z = 6-8 Responsible for Cosmic Reionization? Combined Constraints from the Hubble Frontier Fields Clusters and Parallels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Limousin, Marceau; Schaerer, Daniel; Jullo, Eric; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Frontier Fields to accurately measure the galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF) in the redshift range z ˜ 6-8. We combine observations in three lensing clusters, A2744, MACS 0416, and MACS 0717, and their associated parallel fields to select high-redshift dropout candidates. We use the latest lensing models to estimate the flux magnification and the effective survey volume in combination with completeness simulations performed in the source plane. We report the detection of 227 galaxy candidates at z = 6-7 and 25 candidates at z ˜ 8. While the total survey area is about 4 arcmin2 in each parallel field, it drops to about 0.6-1 arcmin2 in the cluster core fields because of the strong lensing. We compute the UV LF at z ˜ 7 using the combined galaxy sample and perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the best-fit Schechter parameters. We are able to reliably constrain the LF down to an absolute magnitude of MUV = -15.25, which corresponds to 0.005 L⋆. More importantly, we find that the faint-end slope remains steep down to this magnitude limit with α =-{2.04}-0.17+0.13. We find a characteristic magnitude of {M}\\star =-{20.89}-0.72+0.60 and log(ϕ⋆) = -{3.54}-0.45+0.48. Our results confirm the most recent results in deep blank fields but extend the LF measurements more than two magnitudes deeper. The UV LF at z ˜ 8 is not very well constrained below MUV = -18 owing to the small number statistics and incompleteness uncertainties. To assess the contribution of galaxies to cosmic reionization, we derive the UV luminosity density at z ˜ 7 by integrating the UV LF down to an observational limit of MUV = -15. We show that our determination of log(ρUV) = 26.2 ± 0.13 (erg s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3) can be sufficient to maintain reionization with an escape fraction of ionizing radiation of fesc = 10%-15%. Future Hubble Frontier Fields observations will certainly improve the constraints on the UV LF at

  7. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E. E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  8. First Results from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): First Simultaneous Detection of Lyα Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at z = 7.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; Christensen, L.; Hathi, N.; Pharo, J.; Joshi, B.; Yang, H.; Gronwall, C.; Cimatti, A.; Walsh, J.; O’Connell, R.; Straughn, A.; Ostlin, G.; Rothberg, B.; Livermore, R. C.; Hibon, P.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2016-08-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts are a valuable tool for studying cosmic dawn, therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyα emission and the Lyman break from a z=7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6σ ) in two observational position angles (PAs), with Lyα line flux of 1.06+/- 0.19× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than that in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations, implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyα measurements. A 4σ detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed, would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found. These observations from HST thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy for studying the epoch of reionization.

  9. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES. III. THE MEAN ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AT z {approx_equal} 4

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Tucker; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2012-05-20

    We present and discuss the mean rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum for a sample of 81 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected to be B-band dropouts at z {approx_equal} 4. The sample is mostly drawn from our ongoing Keck/DEIMOS survey in the GOODS fields and augmented with archival Very Large Telescope data. In general, we find similar spectroscopic trends to those found in earlier surveys of LBGs at z = 3. Specifically, low-ionization absorption lines which trace neutral outflowing gas are weaker in galaxies with stronger Ly{alpha} emission, bluer UV spectral slopes, lower stellar masses, lower UV luminosities, and smaller half-light radii. This is consistent with a physical picture whereby star formation drives outflows of neutral gas which scatter Ly{alpha} and produce strong low-ionization absorption lines, while increasing galaxy stellar mass, size, metallicity, and dust content. Typical galaxies are thus expected to have stronger Ly{alpha} emission and weaker low-ionization absorption at earlier times, and we indeed find somewhat weaker low-ionization absorption at higher redshifts. In conjunction with earlier results from our survey, we argue that the reduced low-ionization absorption is likely caused by lower covering fraction and/or velocity range of outflowing neutral gas at earlier epochs. Although low-ionization absorption decreases at higher redshift, fine-structure emission lines are stronger, suggesting a greater concentration of neutral gas at small galactocentric radius ({approx}< 5 kpc). Our continuing survey will enable us to extend these diagnostics more reliably to higher redshift and determine the implications for the escape fraction of ionizing photons which governs the role of early galaxies in cosmic reionization.

  10. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF 3 < z < 7 FAINT LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: THE IMPORTANCE OF NEBULAR EMISSION IN UNDERSTANDING THE SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant; Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard; McLure, Ross; Dunlop, James

    2013-02-15

    The physical properties inferred from the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z > 3 galaxies have been influential in shaping our understanding of early galaxy formation and the role galaxies may play in cosmic reionization. Of particular importance is the stellar mass density at early times, which represents the integral of earlier star formation. An important puzzle arising from the measurements so far reported is that the specific star formation rates (sSFRs) evolve far less rapidly than expected in most theoretical models. Yet the observations underpinning these results remain very uncertain, owing in part to the possible contamination of rest-optical broadband light from strong nebular emission lines. To quantify the contribution of nebular emission to broadband fluxes, we investigate the SEDs of 92 spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the redshift range 3.8 < z < 5.0 chosen because the H{alpha} line lies within the Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 {mu}m filter. We demonstrate that the 3.6 {mu}m flux is systematically in excess of that expected from stellar continuum alone, which we derive by fitting the SED with population synthesis models. No such excess is seen in a control sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies with 3.1 < z < 3.6 in which there is no nebular contamination in the IRAC filters. From the distribution of our 3.6 {mu}m flux excesses, we derive an H{alpha} equivalent width distribution and consider the implications for both the derived stellar masses and the sSFR evolution. The mean rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width we infer at 3.8 < z < 5.0 (270 A) indicates that nebular emission contributes at least 30% of the 3.6 {mu}m flux and, by implication, nebular emission is likely to have a much greater impact for galaxies with z {approx_equal} 6-7 where both warm IRAC filters are contaminated. Via our empirically derived equivalent width distribution, we correct the available stellar mass densities and show that the sSFR evolves more rapidly at z

  11. Fainting Starting Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pederiva, Federica; Barbi, Egidio; Zennaro, Floriana; Neri, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Complications such as mechanical accidents, infections, and thrombosis are commonly described in the presence of a central venous catheter. We present a case of a boy who had fainting episodes due to dislocation of a central venous catheter. PMID:25853719

  12. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  13. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  14. The Lyα properties of faint galaxies at z ∼ 2-3 with systemic redshifts and velocity dispersions from Keck-MOSFIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, Dawn K.; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Strom, Allison L.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Matthews, Keith; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S.; Kulas, Kristin R.; Law, David R.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Pettini, Max

    2014-11-01

    We study the Lyα profiles of 36 spectroscopically detected Lyα-emitters (LAEs) at z ∼ 2-3, using Keck MOSFIRE to measure systemic redshifts and velocity dispersions from rest-frame optical nebular emission lines. The sample has a median optical magnitude R=26.0, and ranges from R≃23 to R>27, corresponding to rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M {sub UV} ≅ –22 to M {sub UV} > –18.2. Dynamical masses range from M {sub dyn} < 1.3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} to M {sub dyn} = 6.8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with a median value of M {sub dyn} = 6.3 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. Thirty of the 36 Lyα emission lines are redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity with at least 1σ significance, and the velocity offset with respect to systemic Δv {sub Lyα} is correlated with the R-band magnitude, M {sub UV}, and the velocity dispersion measured from nebular emission lines with >3σ significance: brighter galaxies with larger velocity dispersions tend to have larger values of Δv {sub Lyα}. We also make use of a comparison sample of 122 UV-color-selected R<25.5 galaxies at z ∼ 2, all with Lyα emission and systemic redshifts measured from nebular emission lines. Using the combined LAE and comparison samples for a total of 158 individual galaxies, we find that Δv {sub Lyα} is anti-correlated with the Lyα equivalent width with 7σ significance. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which the Lyα profile is determined primarily by the properties of the gas near the systemic redshift; in such a scenario, the opacity to Lyα photons in lower mass galaxies may be reduced if large gaseous disks have not yet developed and if the gas is ionized by the harder spectrum of young, low metallicity stars.

  15. The Lyα Properties of Faint Galaxies at z ~ 2-3 with Systemic Redshifts and Velocity Dispersions from Keck-MOSFIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erb, Dawn K.; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Kulas, Kristin R.; Law, David R.; Strom, Allison L.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Pettini, Max; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Mace, Gregory; Matthews, Keith; McLean, Ian S.

    2014-11-01

    We study the Lyα profiles of 36 spectroscopically detected Lyα-emitters (LAEs) at z ~ 2-3, using Keck MOSFIRE to measure systemic redshifts and velocity dispersions from rest-frame optical nebular emission lines. The sample has a median optical magnitude R}=26.0, and ranges from R}≃ 23 to R}\\gt27, corresponding to rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M UV ~= -22 to M UV > -18.2. Dynamical masses range from M dyn < 1.3 × 108 M ⊙ to M dyn = 6.8 × 109 M ⊙, with a median value of M dyn = 6.3 × 108 M ⊙. Thirty of the 36 Lyα emission lines are redshifted with respect to the systemic velocity with at least 1σ significance, and the velocity offset with respect to systemic Δv Lyα is correlated with the R}-band magnitude, M UV, and the velocity dispersion measured from nebular emission lines with >3σ significance: brighter galaxies with larger velocity dispersions tend to have larger values of Δv Lyα. We also make use of a comparison sample of 122 UV-color-selected R}<25.5 galaxies at z ~ 2, all with Lyα emission and systemic redshifts measured from nebular emission lines. Using the combined LAE and comparison samples for a total of 158 individual galaxies, we find that Δv Lyα is anti-correlated with the Lyα equivalent width with 7σ significance. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which the Lyα profile is determined primarily by the properties of the gas near the systemic redshift; in such a scenario, the opacity to Lyα photons in lower mass galaxies may be reduced if large gaseous disks have not yet developed and if the gas is ionized by the harder spectrum of young, low metallicity stars. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  16. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  17. Contribution of the 1s2l3l' Dielectronic Recombination in Li-Like Ar to the Hypothesized Dark Matter Related Faint Feature in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Amy; Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Ajello, Marco; Gillaspy, John; Kilgore, Ethan; Ralchenko, Yuri; Takacs, Endre

    2016-05-01

    Driven by the recent detection of an unidentified emission line previously reported at 3.55-3.57 keV in a stacked spectrum of galaxy clusters, we investigate the resonant DR process in Li-like Ar as a possible source of or contributor to the emission line. We are particularly interested in the Li-like transition 1 s22l-1s2l3l', which produces a 3.62 keV photon near the unidentified line at 3.57 keV. The Electron Beam Ion Trap at NIST was used to produce and trap the highly-charged ions of argon. The energy of the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, set to a current of 60 mA, was incremented in steps of 15 eV to scan over all of the Li-like Ar DR resonances, including the resonance peak of interest. A solid-state germanium detector was used to take x-ray measurements perpendicular to the trap region. The DR cross section was measured and normalized to the well-known photoionization cross sections using radiative recombination peaks in the measured spectra. Our measurements are compared to the AtomDB emission lines used to fit the spectra containing the unidentified line, and conclusions are presented.

  18. HUBBLE'S SEARCH FOR FAINT FIELD STARS IN GALACTIC HALO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a randomly selected area of sky taken to search for faint red stars that might constitute dark matter in our Milky Way Galaxy. (Dark matter is material of an unknown type that makes up most of the mass of our galaxy). If the dark matter in our Galaxy was made of faint red stars -- as many scientists have previously conjectured -- then about 38 such stars should have been visible in this HST image. The simulated stars (diamond-shaped symbols), based on theoretical calculations, illustrate what scientists would have seen if the dark matter were locked-up in faint red stars. These surprising results rule out dim stars as an explanation for dark matter in our Galaxy. Right The unmodified HST image shows the region is actually so devoid of stars that far more distant background galaxies can easily be seen. The field is in the constellation Eridanus, far outside the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. This region was chosen to highlight stars in the galactic halo, where dark matter exists, and to avoid the contribution of faint stars in the plane of the Galaxy. Technical Information: The image was constructed from seven exposures totaling almost three hours of searching by HST. The field shown is about 1.5 arc-minutes across. The image was taken in near-infrared light (814 nm) with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Feb 8, 1994. This observation is part of the HST parallel observing program. Credit: J Bahcall, Institute for Advance Study, Princeton and NASA

  19. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterbos, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Andromeda galaxy is the closest SPIRAL GALAXY to the MILKY WAY, just visible to the naked eye on a dark night as a faint smudge of light in the constellation Andromeda. The earliest records of the Andromeda nebula, as it is still often referred to, date back to AD 964, to the `Book of the Fixed Stars' published by the Persian astronomer AL-SÛFI. The first European to officially note the Andro...

  20. PMAS - Faint Object 3D Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M. M.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.

    2002-01-01

    will describe PMAS (Potsdam Multiaperture Spectrophotometer) which was commissioned at the Calar Alto Observatory 3.5m Telescope on May 28-31, 2001. PMAS is a dedicated, highly efficient UV-visual integral field spectrograph which is optimized for the spectrophotometry of faint point sources, typically superimposed on a bright background. PMAS is ideally suited for the study of resolved stars in local group galaxies. I will present results of our preliminary work with MPFS at the Russian 6m Telescope in Selentchuk, involving the development of new 3D data reduction software, and observations of faint planetary nebulae in the bulge of M31 for the determination of individual chemical abundances of these objects. Using this data, it will be demonstrated that integral field spectroscopy provides superior techniques for background subtraction, avoiding the otherwise inevitable systematic errors of conventional slit spetroscopy. The results will be put in perspective of the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies with a new generation of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  1. Dipole moments and transition probabilities of the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u systems of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Dalgarno, A.

    1992-01-01

    Bonn-Oppenheimer-based ab initio calculations of dipole moments from the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u transitions of H2 have been conducted, to yield a tabulation of the dipole transition probabilities and Franck-Condon factors. These factors are given for transitions originating in the lowest vibrational level of the ground X 1Sigma(+) sub g state.

  2. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H2 d3{Pi}u excitation by elec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Shemansky, D. E.; Yoshii, J.; Johnson, P. V.; Malone, C. P.; Ajello, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron-impact excitation of H2 triplet states plays an imp role in the heating of outer planet upper thermospheres. The d3{Pi}u state is the third ungerade triplet state, and the d3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+ emission is the largest cascade channel for the a3{Sigma}g+ state. Accurate energies of the d3{Pi}u-(v, J) levels are calculated from an ab initio potential energy curve. Radiative lifetimes of the d3{Pi}u(v,J) levels are obtained by an accurate evaluation of the d3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+ transition probabilities. The emission yields are determined from experimental lifetimes and calculated radiative lifetimes and are further verified by comparing experimental and synthetic d3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+ spectra at 20eV impact energy. Spectral analysis revealed that multipolar components beyond the dipolar term are required to model the X1{Sigma}g+-d3{Pi}u excitation, and significant cascade excitation occurs at the d3{Pi}u (v=0,1) levels. Kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of H atoms produced via predissociation of the 3{Pi}u state and the d3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ cascade dissociative emission are obtained. Predissociation of the d3{Pi}u state produces H atoms with an average Ek of 2.3+/-0.4 eV/atom, while the Ekdistribution of the d3{Pi}u-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ channel is similar to that of the X1{Sigma}g+-a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ channel and produces H(1s) atoms with an average Ek of 1.15+/-0.05eV/atom. On average, each H2 excited to the d3{Pi}u state in an H2-dominated atmosphere deposits 3.3+/-0.4eV into the atmosphere, while each H2directly excited to the a3{Sigma}g+ state gives 2.2-2.3eV to the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the calculated a3{Sigma}g+-b3{Sigma}u+ continuum emission due to the X1{Sigma}g+-d3{Pi}u excitation is significantly different from that of direct a3{Sigma}g+ excitation. (2 data files).

  4. Starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared properties of star-forming galaxies, primarily as determined by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), are compared to X-ray, optical, and radio properties. Luminosity functions are reviewed and combined with those derived from optically discovered samples using 487 Markarian galaxies with redshifts and published IRAS 60 micron fluxes, and 1074 such galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey. It is found that the majority of infrared galaxies which could be detected are low luminosity sources already known from the optical samples, but non-infrared surveys have found only a very small fraction of the highest luminosity sources. Distributions of infrared to optical fluxes and available spectra indicate that the majority of IRAS-selected galaxies are starburst galaxies. Having a census of starburst galaxies and associated dust allow severl important global calculations. The source counts are predicted as a function of flux limits for both infrared and radio fluxes. These galaxies are found to be important radio sources at faint flux limits. Taking the integrated flux to z = 3 indicates that such galaxies are a significant component of the diffuse X-ray background, and could be the the dominant component depending on the nature of the X-ray spectra and source evolution.

  5. Accurate ab initio calculations which demonstrate a 3 Pi u ground state for Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.; Walch, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    The spectroscopic parameters and separations between the three low-lying X 3 Pi u, A 3 Sigma g -, and a 1 Sigma g + states of Al2 are studied as a function of both the one-particle and n-particle basis set. Approximate correlation treatments are calibrated against full Cl calculations correlating the six valence electrons in a double-zeta plus two d-function basis set. Since the CASSCF/MRCI 3 Pi u to 3 Sigma g - separation is in excellent agreement wtih the FCI value, the MRCI calculations were carried out in an extended (20s13p6d4f)/(6s5p3d2f) gaussian basis. Including a small correction for relativistic effects, the best estimate is that 3 Sigma g - state lies 174/cm above the 3 Pi u ground state. The 1 Sigma g + state lies at least 2000/cm higher in energy. At the CPF level, inclusion of 2s and 2p correlation has little effect on D sub e, reduces T sub e by only 26/cm, and shortens the bond lengths by about 0.02 a sub o. Further strong support for a 3 Pi u ground state comes from the experimental absorption spectra, since both observed transitions can be convincingly assigned as 3 Pi u yields 3 Pi g. The (2) 3 Pi g state is observed to be sensitive to the level of correlation treatment, and to have its minimum shifted to shorter rho values, such that the strongest experimental absorption peak probably corresponds to the 0 yields 2 transition.

  6. Kinematics of faint white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luyten, W J

    1978-10-01

    An analysis has been made for solar motion for 128 very faint white dwarfs of color class b or a. While about 40% of these stars may be high-velocity objects, it seems definitely indicated that the luminosity of all of them is considerably lower than that for the "normal" white dwarf of the same color. PMID:16592566

  7. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ∼1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  8. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R. J.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Angel, J. R. P.; Bartko, F.; Mccoy, J.; Ripp, L.; Bohlin, R.; Davidsen, A. F.; Ford, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) designed for use with The Space Telescope (ST), is currently preparing for instrument assembly, integration, alignment, and calibration. Nearly all optical and detector elements have been completed and calibrated, and selection of flight detectors and all but a few optical elements has been made. Calibration results for the flight detectors and optics are presented, and plans for forthcoming system calibration are briefly described.

  9. Perturbation-facilitated optical-optical double resonance studies of the 3(3)Pi and 4(3)Pi states of sodium-potassium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgus, Laurie L.

    Using the Doppler-free, perturbation-facilitated optical-optical double resonance technique, we have investigated the vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine structure of the NaK 33pi double minimum state and 43pi V-shaped potential. The double minimum and V-shaped character of these two potential wells arise from an avoided curve crossing. As a result, the NaK 33pi state exhibits strikingly different vibrational, rotational, fine, and hyperfine splittings in each region of the potential. In addition, high-lying ro-vibrational levels of the 3 3pi state, which are within 10 or 20 cm-1 of the nearest 43pi level with the same rotational quantum number J, and all levels of the 43pi state that lie below the NaK 33pi state dissociation limit experience significant non-adiabatic coupling effects and as a result are perturbed. In the first step of the excitation process, a single-mode cw dye laser is used to excite 2(A)1Sigma+(v A, J) ˜ 1(b)3piO=0 (vb, J) mixed singlet-triplet "window" levels from thermally populated ro-vibrational ground state levels, 1(X)1Sigma+(v X, J+/-1). A single-mode cw Ti:Sapphire laser is then used to excite further the NaK molecules to various 33pi 0(vpi, Jpi) [43pi0( v'P,J 'P )] ro-vibrational levels, which are detected by observing direct 3 3pi0 → 1(a)3Sigma+ [43pi0 → 1(a)3Sigma +] fluorescence in the green spectral region. From the 33piO=0 level energies, the inverse perturbation approximation method was used to construct a 3 3pi0 potential curve that reproduces the measured energies to ˜ 0.24 cm-1. One window level of the minor isotopomer 23Na41K was found and used to determine the absolute vibrational numbering of this state. In addition, two new 2(A)1Sigma +˜1(b)3piO=2 window levels were found and used to measure a few levels of the 33piO=2 and 43piO=2 states. The energy separations between ro-vibrational level O = 0 and O = 2 fine structure components were used to determine the NaK 33pi spin-orbit interaction constant and preliminary

  10. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids: drink plenty of fluids, especially in hot weather or during physical activity take frequent breaks and move around as much as possible when sitting or standing for long periods of time slowly breathe into a paper bag ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  11. Faintness

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. Unfortunately, most people lack the medical knowledge needed to make these decisions safely. FreeMD.com is powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of ...

  12. Fainting

    MedlinePlus

    ... severely dehydrated ) Standing up very suddenly from a lying position Less common but more serious reasons for ... avoid or change them. Get up from a lying or seated position slowly. If having blood drawn ...

  13. The luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; De Carvalho, R. R.; Zepf, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    We use counts of faint galaxies in the regions of compact groups to extend the study of the luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups to absolute magnitudes as faint as M(sub B) = -14.5 + 5 log h. We find a slope of the faint end of the luminosity function of approximately alpha = -0.8, with a formal uncertainty of 0.15. This slope is not significantly different from that found for galaxies in other environments. Our results do not support previous suggestions of a dramatic underabundance of intrinsically faint galaxies in compact groups, which were based on extrapolations from fits at brighter magnitudes. The normal faint-end slope of the luminosity function in compact groups is in agreement with previous evidence that most galaxies in compact groups have not been dramatically affected by recent merging.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BR photometry of galaxies in low density regions (Vennik+, 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennik, J.; Hopp, U.; Kovachev, B.; Kuhn, B.; Elsaesser, H.

    1996-03-01

    We perform detailed surface photometry, based on B- and/or R-band CCD images of 92 faint galaxies. They are a subsample of those galaxies which were studied by Hopp et al. (1994) in the direction of three nearby voids. We derive integral photometric parameters and radial surface brightness profiles and compare them to those of several faint galaxy samples, located in different environments, and of a bright field galaxy sample. According to the obtained photometric characteristics, our sample is a mixture of intrinsically bright and faint galaxies, about 60% of them belonging to the bright subsample (MB<-19.0). These bright ones show mean characteristics of typical Freeman's disks and are mainly located in the background of the observed voids. The faint subsample (MB>=-19.0) has parameters typical for the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies. There are a few well isolated galaxies both among the bright and faint subsamples. (4 data files).

  15. Measurement of the 1s2l3l’ Dielectronic Recombination Emission Line in Li-Like Ar and Its Contribution to the Faint X-Ray Feature Found in the Stacked Spectrum of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Amy Christina; Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Borovik, Alexander; Ajello, Marco; Gillaspy, John; Kilgore, Ethan; Ralchenko, Yuri; Takacs, Endre

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the recent detection of an unidentified emission line previously reported at 3.55-3.57 keV in a stacked spectrum of galaxy clusters, we investigated the resonant DR process in Li-like Ar as a possible source of, or contributor to, the emission line. The Li-like transition 1s22l-1s2l3l’ was suggested to produce a 3.62 keV photon [1] near the unidentified line at 3.57 keV and was the primary focus of our investigation. Apart from the mentioned transitions, we have found other features that can be possible contributors to the emission in this region. The Electron Beam Ion Trap at NIST was used to produce and trap the highly-charged ions of argon. The energy of the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam was incremented in steps of 15 eV to scan over all of the Li-like Ar DR resonances. A Johann-type crystal spectrometer and a solid-state germanium detector were used to take x-ray measurements perpendicular to the electron beam. The DR cross sections were measured and normalized to the well-known photoionization cross sections using radiative recombination peaks in the measured spectra. Corrections for different instrument and method related effects such as charge state balance, electron beam space charge, and charge exchange have been considered. Our high-resolution crystal spectra allowed the experimental separation of features that are less than 2 eV apart. We have used a collisional radiative model NOMAD [2] aided by atomic data calculations by FAC [3] to interpret our observations and account for the corrections and uncertainties. Experimental results were compared to the AtomDB theoretical emission lines used to fit the galaxy cluster spectra containing the unidentified 3.57 keV line. These data points can be added benchmarks in the database and used to accurately interpret spectra from current x-ray satellites, including Hitomi, Chandra, and XMM-Newton x-ray observatories.[1] Bulbul E. et al., 2014, ApJ, 789, 13[2] Ralchenko Yu. et al., 2014, JQSRT, 71

  16. The diazocarbene (CNN) molecule: characterization of the X 3Sigma- and A 3Pi electronic states.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F

    2004-05-22

    The ground (X (3)Sigma(-)) and first excited triplet (A (3)Pi) electronic states of diazocarbene (CNN) have been investigated systematically starting from the self-consistent-field theory and proceeding to the coupled cluster with single, double, and full triple excitations (CCSDT) method with a wide range of basis sets. While the linear X (3)Sigma(-) ground state of CNN has a real degenerate bending vibrational frequency, the A (3)Pi state of CNN is subject to the Renner-Teller effect and presents two distinct real vibrational frequencies along the bending coordinate. The bending vibrational frequencies of the A (3)Pi state were evaluated via the equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) techniques. The significant sensitivity to level of theory in predicting the ground-state geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and associated infrared intensities has been attributed to the fact that the reference wave function is strongly perturbed by the excitations of 1pi-->3pi followed by a spin flip. At the highest level of theory with the largest basis set, correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta (cc-pVQZ) CCSDT, the classical X-A splitting (T(e) value) was predicted to be 68.5 kcal/mol (2.97 eV, 24 000 cm(-1)) and the quantum mechanical splitting (T(0) value) to be 69.7 kcal/mol (3.02 eV, 24 400 cm(-1)), which are in excellent agreement with the experimental T(0) values, 67.5-68.2 kcal/mol (2.93-2.96 eV, 23 600-23 900 cm(-1)). With the EOM-CCSD method the Renner parameter (epsilon) and averaged bending vibrational frequency (omega(2)) for the A (3)Pi state were evaluated to be epsilon=-0.118 and omega(2)=615 cm(-1), respectively. They are in fair agreement with the experimental values of epsilon=-0.07 and nu(2)=525 cm(-1). PMID:15267965

  17. Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-faint Satellites of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, V.; Walker, M. G.; Evans, N. W.; Gilmore, G.; Irwin, M. J.; Just, D.; Koposov, S.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.; Watkins, L.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2010-03-01

    We report the discovery of two new Milky Way satellites in the neighboring constellations of Pisces and Pegasus identified in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Pisces II, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy lies at the distance of ~180 kpc, some 15° away from the recently detected Pisces I. Segue 3, an ultra-faint star cluster lies at the distance of 16 kpc. We use deep follow-up imaging obtained with the 4-m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to derive their structural parameters. Pisces II has a half-light radius of ~60 pc, while Segue 3 is 20 times smaller at only 3 pc.

  18. Deep infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Matthew; Houck, J. R.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1992-01-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of 17 infrared-bright emission-line galaxies near the north ecliptic pole are presented. Reddening-corrected line ratios forbidden O III 5007/H-beta, N II 6583/H-alpha, S II (6716 + 6731)/H-alpha, and O I 6300/H-alpha are used to discriminate between candidate energy generation mechanisms in each galaxy. These criteria have frequently been applied to optically selected samples of galaxies in the past, but this is the first time they have been applied to a set of faint flux-limited infrared-selected objects. The analysis indicates the sample contains seven starburst galaxies and three (AGN). However, seven galaxies in the present sample elude the classification scheme based on these line ratios. It is concluded that a two-component (starburst plus AGN) model for energy generation is inadequate for infrared galaxies.

  19. High resolution imaging of galaxy cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, P.; Stiavelli, M.; King, I. R.; Deharveng, J. M.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Surface photometry data obtained with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope in the cores of ten galaxies is presented. The major results are: (1) none of the galaxies show truly 'isothermal' cores, (2) galaxies with nuclear activity show very similar light profiles, (3) all objects show central mass densities above 10 exp 3 solar masses/cu pc3, and (4) four of the galaxies (M87, NGC 3862, NGC 4594, NGC 6251) show evidence for exceptional nuclear mass concentrations.

  20. Resonance Effective Theory Approach to {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{nu}{tau} Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Dumm, D.; Pich, A.; Portoles, J.

    2004-12-02

    The decays {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{nu}{tau} are analyzed in the framework of the resonance effective theory of QCD, We derive the effective chiral Lagrangian relevant for the evaluation of the hadronic axial-vector current, taking into account the constraints imposed by QCD on the high energy asymptotic behaviour. Then we fit the unknown parameters to the spectral function and branching ratio measured by ALEPH, showing that the theory is in good agreement with experimental data. A detailed description of the work sketched here can be found.

  1. A test of galaxy evolutionary models via angular sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Myungshin; Casertano, Stefano; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Tyson, J. Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between angular size, magnitude, and redshift of faint galaxies is explored as a potential tool to distinguish between galaxy evolutionary models. Different models, based on merging, mild luminosity evolution, and no evolution, lead to different predictions of the angular size distribution, redshift- size relation, and magnitude-size relation. The merging model predicts significantly smaller sizes for faint galaxies than the standard model, because of the requirement for more intrinsically small faint objects at high redshift. A dwarf-rich no-evolution model also predicts small sizes for faint galaxies. The mild luminosity evolution model predicts more luminous galaxies of large angular size at high redshift, as does a standard no-evolution model. Prefurbishment Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Medium Deep Survey observations of magnitudes and sizes of faint galaxies indicate an excess of small versus large faint galaxies, favoring the dwarf rich, no evolution model with respect to the merging model; the other two models are more discrepant with the data. While these results cannot yet rule out with certainty any of the proposed models, they demonstrate the potential of angular size to discriminate between models of galaxy evolution, especially with the high-resolution HST wide field/planetary camera-2 (WFPC2) data.

  2. Light mesons in QCD and unquenching effects from the 3PI effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard; Fischer, Christian S.; Heupel, Walter

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the impact of unquenching effects on QCD Green's functions, in the form of quark-loop contributions to both the gluon propagator and three-gluon vertex, in a three-loop inspired truncation of the three-particle irreducible (3PI) effective action. The fully coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark-gluon, ghost-gluon and three-gluon vertices, together with the quark propagator, are solved self-consistently; our only input are the ghost and gluon propagators themselves that are constrained by calculations within lattice QCD. We find that the two different unquenching effects have roughly equal, but opposite, impact on the quark-gluon vertex and quark propagator, with an overall negative impact on the latter. By taking further derivatives of the 3PI effective action, we construct the corresponding quark-antiquark kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for mesons. The leading component is gluon exchange between two fully dressed quark-gluon vertices, thus introducing for the first time an obvious scalar-scalar component to the binding. We gain access to time-like properties of bound states by analytically continuing the coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the complex plane. We observe that the vector axial-vector splitting is in accord with experiment and that the lightest quark-antiquark scalar meson is above 1 GeV in mass.

  3. Excitation of the a {sup 3{Pi}} state of CO by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ristic, M. M.; Poparic, G. B.; Belic, D. S.

    2011-04-15

    Electron impact excitation of the a {sup 3{Pi}} valence state of the carbon-monoxide molecule has been studied in the energy region from threshold to 10 eV. Excitation functions for spin forbidden transitions from the {nu}=0 level of the ground X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state of CO to the {nu}{sup '}=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 levels of the a {sup 3{Pi}} state are measured. A crossed beam double trochoidal electron spectrometer is used. Forward and backward scattered electrons from the {nu}{sup '}=0 excitation channel are separated by electron beam modulation and a time-of-flight detection technique. The present results are normalized to the ground state {sup 2{Pi}} resonance vibrational excitation cross sections and absolute values of the differential cross sections at the border angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. are determined. In this way the differential cross section measurements are completed in the full angular range from 0 deg. to 180 deg. The present results are compared to the existing literature data.

  4. Galaxy Messier 83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 83 was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer on June 7, 2003. Located 15 million light years from Earth and known as the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, Messier 83 displays significant amounts of ultraviolet emissions far from the optically bright portion of the galaxy. It is also known to have an extended hydrogen disc that appears to radiate a faint ultraviolet emission. The red stars in the foreground of the image are Milky Way stars.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission is led by the California Institute of Technology, which is also responsible for the science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., a division of Caltech, manages the mission and built the science instrument. The mission was developed under NASA's Explorers Program, managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The mission's international partners include South Korea and France.

  5. Do the enigmatic ``Infrared-Faint Radio Sources'' include pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Keith, Michael; Mao, Minnie; Champion, David

    2009-04-01

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) team have surveyed seven square degrees of sky at 1.4GHz. During processing some unexpected infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS sources) were discovered. The nature of these sources is not understood, but it is possible that some of these sources may be pulsars within our own galaxy. We propose to observe the IFRS sources with steep spectral indices using standard search techniques to determine whether or not they are pulsars. A pulsar detection would 1) remove a subset of the IFRS sources from the ATLAS sample so they would not need to be observed with large optical/IR telescopes to find their hosts and 2) be intrinsically interesting as the pulsar would be a millisecond pulsar and/or have an extreme spatial velocity.

  6. Four QSOs found in a survey of faint objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Tritton, K. P.

    1982-02-01

    Four quasars with redshifts z = 0.6185, 0.6267, 0.850, and 1.665 have been found in the central 33.4 arcmin square of the field at 22h.05, -18deg.91 surveyed by Savage and Bolton (1979) and Krug et al. (1980). The first two quasars are separated by 6.8 arcmin and may be associated with groups of faint galaxies. The separation is well within the 20 Mpc or larger dimensions suggested by Oort et al. (1981) for superclusters, and the velocity difference is not unusual if the velocity dispersion is near the upper end of the range of 300-600 km/s

  7. Search for tau- ---> 4pi- 3pi+ (pi0) nu/tau Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Antonian, R.; Kass, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Hast, C.; /SLAC

    2005-06-21

    A search for the decay of the {tau} lepton to seven charged pions and at most one {pi}{sup 0} was performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The analysis uses data recorded on and near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance between 1999 and 2003, a total of 124.3 fb{sup -1}. They observe 7 events with an expected background of 11.9 {+-} 2.2 events and calculate a preliminary upper limit of BR({tau}{sup -} {yields} 4{pi}{sup -} 3{pi}{sup +}({pi}{sup 0}){nu}{sub {tau}}) < 2.7 x 10{sup -7} at 90% CL. This is a significant improvement over the previous limit established by the CLEO Collaboration.

  8. Spitzer ultra faint survey program (surfs up). I. An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Cain, Benjamin; Hall, Nicholas; Lubin, Lori; Ryan, Russell; Casertano, Stefano; Lemaux, Brian C.; Schrabback, Tim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Allen, Steve; Von der Linden, Anja; Gladders, Mike; Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-04-20

    Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program is a joint Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Exploration Science program using 10 galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes to study z ≳ 7 galaxies at intrinsically lower luminosities, enabled by gravitational lensing, than blank field surveys of the same exposure time. Our main goal is to measure stellar masses and ages of these galaxies, which are the most likely sources of the ionizing photons that drive reionization. Accurate knowledge of the star formation density and star formation history at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies indeed reionized the universe. Determination of the stellar masses and ages requires measuring rest-frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe for sources at z ≳ 7, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. Our program consists of 550 hr of Spitzer/IRAC imaging covering 10 galaxy clusters with very well-known mass distributions, making them extremely precise cosmic telescopes. We combine our data with archival observations to obtain mosaics with ∼30 hr exposure time in both 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm in the central 4' × 4' field and ∼15 hr in the flanking fields. This results in 3σ sensitivity limits of ∼26.6 and ∼26.2 AB magnitudes for the central field in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands, respectively. To illustrate the survey strategy and characteristics we introduce the sample, present the details of the data reduction and demonstrate that these data are sufficient for in-depth studies of z ≳ 7 sources (using a z = 9.5 galaxy behind MACS J1149.5+2223 as an example). For the first cluster of the survey (the Bullet Cluster) we have released all high-level data mosaics and IRAC empirical point-spread function models. In the future we plan to release these data products for the entire survey.

  9. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Faint 1.4GHz radio sources in 2dFGRS (Chan+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, B. H. P.; Cram, L. E.; Sadler, E. M.; Killeen, N. E. B.; Jackson, C. A.; Mobasher, B.; Ekers, R. D.

    2005-02-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to search for faint radio sources in a ~3deg2 region of sky covered by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS, Cat. ). Over the region surveyed, the 1{sigma} noise level at 1.4GHz ranges from 20Jy to 1mJy. The survey region includes 365 2dFGRS galaxies, of which 316 have good-quality spectra (176 early-type galaxies or active galactic nuclei, and 140 star-forming galaxies). The fraction of 2dFGRS galaxies detected as radio sources in our survey rises from ~4% at a 3{sigma} detection limit of 0.3mJy to 12% at 75{mu}Jy, with roughly equal numbers of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) being detected. (2 data files).

  11. OPTOPUS spectroscopy of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.

    The spectra of selected H II regions in the center of the starburst galaxy NGC 1808 and of many faint galaxies surrounding the NGC 1808 were obtained simultaneously, using the Optopus fiber-optics spectrograph facility (described by Lund, 1986) at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. The preparation of Optopus plates (each of which employed more than 40 fibers), observations, and the procedures of data processing and Optopus calibration are described together with the problems caused by cosmic ray events. Preliminary results are included.

  12. Validating a dark galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, Michael

    2005-07-01

    VIRGOHI21 is an object detected in the Virgo Cluster HI survey of Davies et al {2004}, with a velocity width typical of a disc galaxy {220 km/s} but which does not appear to have an optical counterpart down to a surface brightness level of 27.5 B mag/sq. arcsec. Altogether, it is the best ever candidate for a Dark Galaxy. We propose to image this object with the ACS through the F814W filter for 9 orbits to see if this object contains a population of individually very faint stars which would be missed by ground-based telescopes.

  13. Direct excitation of the 'dark' b {sup 3{Pi}} state predicted by deperturbation analysis of the A {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}-b {sup 3{Pi}} complex in KCs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamanis, M.; Klincare, I.; Kruzins, A.; Nikolayeva, O.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2010-09-15

    The diode-laser-induced fluorescence spectra b {sup 3}{Pi}{sub {Omega}=0}{sup +}{yields}X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} originated from the rovibronic levels of the 'dark' triplet b {sup 3}{Pi}{sub {Omega}=0}{sup +} state of KCs dimers were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer with a resolution of 0.03 cm{sup -1}. Term values of 30 rovibronic levels (v{sub b0}*{element_of}[14,18];J{sup '}{element_of}[47,134]) below the minimum of perturbing A {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} state were determined with 0.003-0.01 cm{sup -1} uncertainty. The optimal excitation and detection lines for very weak spin-forbidden b {sup 3}{Pi}{sub {Omega}=0}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} transitions have been properly predicted in the framework of the coupled-channels deperturbation analysis recently performed for the singlet-triplet A {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}-b {sup 3}{Pi}{sub {Omega}=0,1,2}{sup +} complex [A. Kruzins et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 042509 (2010)]. The lowest observed triplet level has only 8.6% of singlet admixture.

  14. Faint detection of exoplanets in microlensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2014-06-20

    We propose a new approach to discovering faint microlensing signals below traditional thresholds, and for estimating the binary-lens mass ratio and the apparent separation from such signals. The events found will be helpful in accurately estimating the true distribution of planetary semimajor axes, which is an important goal of space microlensing surveys.

  15. Discovering Teenage Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Staring for the equivalent of every night for two weeks at the same little patch of sky with ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has found the extremely faint light from teenage galaxies billions of light years away. These galaxies, which the research team believes are the building blocks of normal galaxies like our Milky Way, had eluded detection for three decades, despite intensive searches. ESO PR Photo 52/07 ESO PR Photo 52/07 A 92-hour long spectrum Two-dimensional spectrum obtained in 92 hours of exposure time, showing the line emitter candidates. The quasar absorption lines are visible close to the centre of the image. The team, led by Martin Haehnelt of the University of Cambridge, UK, Michael Rauch and George Becker of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, USA, and Andy Bunker of the Anglo-Australian Observatory, reports their results in the 1 March 2008 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. "This is the first time that the sky has been searched to this depth and the unrivalled sensitivity of the picture taken with the VLT was key to succeeding," says Haehnelt. Experts have long speculated that galaxies like ours were created by the amalgamation of proto-galaxies early in the history of the Universe, but the light from these fragments was so faint that astronomers had struggled to prove they were there at all. Astronomers thought that the teenage galaxies must be out there because they were blocking part of the light from objects even further away in space. "Previous attempts have usually been frustrated by the difficulty of detecting extremely faint objects: the amount of time required even with an 8-metre class telescope like the VLT considerably exceeds typical observing time awards. We have thus exploited the periods of less good weather with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT, taking advantage of the service observing mode," says Becker. In service mode, ESO staff astronomers at Paranal are responsible for carrying

  16. THE VERY FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OVER COSMIC TIME: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE LOCAL GROUP FOSSIL RECORD

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-10-10

    We present a new technique to estimate the evolution of the very faint end of the UV luminosity function (LF) out to z ∼ 5. Measured star formation histories (SFHs) from the fossil record of Local Group (LG) galaxies are used to reconstruct the LF down to M {sub UV} ∼–5 at z ∼ 5 and M {sub UV} ∼–1.5 at z < 1. Such faint limits are well beyond the current observational limits and are likely to remain beyond the limits of next-generation facilities. The reconstructed LFs, when combined with direct measurements of the LFs at higher luminosity, are well-fit by a standard Schechter function with no evidence of a break to the faintest limits probed by this technique. The derived faint-end slope, α, steepens from ≈ – 1.2 at z < 1 to ≈ – 1.6 at 4 < z < 5. We test the effects of burstiness in the SFHs and find the recovered LFs to be only modestly affected. Incompleteness corrections for the faintest LG galaxies and the (unlikely) possibility of significant luminosity-dependent destruction of dwarf galaxies between high redshift and the present epoch are important uncertainties. These and other uncertainties can be mitigated with more detailed modeling and future observations. The reconstructed faint end LF from the fossil record can therefore be a powerful and complementary probe of the high-redshift faint galaxies believed to play a key role in the reionization of the universe.

  17. Diffractive pion production at COMPASS - First results on 3{pi} final states - neutral mode

    SciTech Connect

    Nerling, Frank

    2010-08-05

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN is designed for light hadron spectroscopy with emphasis on the detection of new states, in particular the search for exotic states and glue-balls. After a short pilot run in 2004 (190 GeV/c negative pion beam, lead target) showing significant production strength for an exotic J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} state at 1.66 GeV/c{sup 2}, we have collected data with a 190 GeV/c negative charged hadron beam on a proton (liquid hydrogen) and nuclear targets in 2008 and 2009. The spectrometer features good coverage by electromagnetic calorimetry, and our data provide excellent opportunity for simultaneous observation of new states in two different decay modes in the same experiment. The diffractively produced (3{pi}){sup -} system for example can be studied in both modes {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup -{pi}+{pi}-}p and {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup -{pi}0{pi}0}p. Charged and neutral mode rely on completely different parts of the spectrometer. Observing a new state in both modes provides important crosscheck. First results of a preliminary PWA performed on the 2008 data are presented.

  18. Surface photometry of galaxies in low density regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennik, J.; Hopp, U.; Kovachev, B.; Kuhn, B.; Elsaesser, H.

    1996-06-01

    We perform detailed surface photometry, based on B- and/or R-band CCD images of 92 faint galaxies. They are a subsample of those galaxies which were studied by Hopp et al. (1994) in the direction of three nearby voids. We derive integral photometric parameters and radial surface brightness profiles and compare them to those of several faint galaxy samples, located in different environments, and of a bright field galaxy sample. According to the obtained photometric characteristics, our sample is a mixture of intrinsically bright and faint galaxies, about 60% of them belonging to the bright subsample (M_B_<-19.0). These bright ones show mean characteristics of typical Freeman's disks and are mainly located in the background of the observed voids. The faint subsample (M_B_>=-19.0) has parameters typical for the low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies. There are a few well isolated galaxies both among the bright and faint subsamples. About 40% of studied galaxies reveal ellipticity and position angle variations along of the radius. The (B-R) colour indices of the observed galaxies span over a wide range of 0.5-1.8mag with a median value at 1.11 mag, rather blue. About 30% of the observed galaxies reveal radial colour gradients at a 5σ significance level. These galaxies show typically red centers and are getting bluer towards the periphery. The most isolated galaxies in our sample show relatively blue colours (B_T_-R_T_=~0.8). About 40% of the studied galaxies have surface brightness profiles which can be described by the model of single exponential disk. 38% of our galaxies have more complicated profiles and either can be approximated by two exponentials or show the presence of a small bulge. 20% of the observed galaxies have central light depression and outer irregularities - typical for some dwarf galaxies. These profile type frequencies are similar to those of faint field galaxy sample. The evolutionary history of both the isolated and clustered galaxies obviously

  19. BIG FISH, LITTLE FISH: TWO NEW ULTRA-FAINT SATELLITES OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Belokurov, V.; Walker, M. G.; Evans, N. W.; Gilmore, G.; Irwin, M. J.; Koposov, S.; Watkins, L.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Just, D.; Olszewski, E.; Mateo, M. E-mail: walker@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2010-03-20

    We report the discovery of two new Milky Way satellites in the neighboring constellations of Pisces and Pegasus identified in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Pisces II, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy lies at the distance of {approx}180 kpc, some 15 deg. away from the recently detected Pisces I. Segue 3, an ultra-faint star cluster lies at the distance of 16 kpc. We use deep follow-up imaging obtained with the 4-m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to derive their structural parameters. Pisces II has a half-light radius of {approx}60 pc, while Segue 3 is 20 times smaller at only 3 pc.

  20. Extreme Faint Flux Imaging with an EMCCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Lessard, Simon; Fortin, Charles-Anthony; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

    2009-08-01

    An EMCCD camera, designed from the ground up for extreme faint flux imaging, is presented. CCCP, the CCD Controller for Counting Photons, has been integrated with a CCD97 EMCCD from e2v technologies into a scientific camera at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Expérimentale (LAE), Université de Montréal. This new camera achieves subelectron readout noise and very low clock-induced charge (CIC) levels, which are mandatory for extreme faint flux imaging. It has been characterized in laboratory and used on the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope. The performance of the camera is discussed and experimental data with the first scientific data are presented.

  1. Spectrophotometry of faint comets: The asteroid approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degewij, J.

    1981-01-01

    Observing programs at optical (0.35-0.8 micron) and near-infrared (1.1-2.4 micron) wavelengths, directed at the acquisition of reflection spectra of faint and distant comets, are described. The ultimate goal is to obtain spectrophotometric measurements of comets for which a significant part of the light is expected to be reflected by the solid surface of the nucleus.

  2. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Boötes Field: VLBA Imaging and Optical Identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Taylor, G. B.; Rector, T. A.; Myers, S. T.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2005-09-01

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Boötes field. These 76 sources were selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5" resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3" at 1.4 GHz. Of these faint radio sources, 57 were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On Very Large Array (VLA) scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Of the faint radio sources, 30, or 39+9-7%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 σ~2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved, but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Three VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  3. STELLAR ARCHEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VII. HERCULES

    SciTech Connect

    Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it; and others

    2012-09-10

    We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes six fundamental-mode (ab-type) and three first-overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, (P{sub ab}) = 0.68 days ({sigma} = 0.03 days), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening, and distance to Hercules, for which we find [Fe/H] = -2.30 {+-} 0.15 dex, E(B - V) = 0.09 {+-} 0.02 mag, and (m - M){sub 0} = 20.6 {+-} 0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V {approx} 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' Multiplication-Sign 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular cluster M68.

  4. An edge-on galaxy model for Q 0957 + 561

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Hubbard, Eugene N.

    1986-01-01

    An edge-on disk galaxy would act as a lens to produce two images which are aligned. Such a model would explain the observed features of Q0957 + 561A, and B. The third image is expected to be very faint and so neat to center of the lensing galaxy as to be unobservable.

  5. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  6. On the origin of the faint-end of the red sequence in high-density environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    With the advent of the new generation wide-field cameras it became possible to survey in an unbiased mode galaxies spanning a variety of local densities, from the core of rich clusters, to compact and loose groups, down to filaments and voids. The sensitivity reached by these instruments allowed to extend the observation to dwarf galaxies, the most "fragile" objects in the universe. At the same time models and simulations have been tailored to quantify the different effects of the environment on the evolution of galaxies. Simulations, models, and observations consistently indicate that star-forming dwarf galaxies entering high-density environments for the first time can be rapidly stripped from their interstellar medium. The lack of gas quenches the activity of star formation, producing on timescales of 1 Gyr quiescent galaxies with spectro-photometric, chemical, structural, and kinematical properties similar to those observed in dwarf early-type galaxies inhabiting rich clusters and loose groups. Simulations and observations consistently identify ram pressure stripping as the major effect responsible for the quenching of the star-formation activity in rich clusters. Gravitational interactions (galaxy harassment) can also be important in groups or in clusters whenever galaxies have been members since early epochs. The observation of clusters at different redshifts combined with the present high infalling rate of galaxies onto clusters indicate that the quenching of the star-formation activity in dwarf systems and the formation of the faint end of the red sequence is a very recent phenomenon.

  7. Enhancement classification of galaxy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  8. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenkov, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2014-06-01

    We analysed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: At present, we cannot conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The `central surface brightness-thickness' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane are merely sophisticated versions of the Kormendy relation or of the self-relation involving the central surface brightness of a bulge/elliptical galaxy and the Sérsic index n. The Kormendy relation is a physical correlation presumably reflecting the difference in the origin of bright and faint ellipticals and bulges. We present arguments that involve creating artificial samples to prove our main idea.

  9. The Population of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Ed; Buckalew, Brent; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James; Gomez, Juan; Kaleida, Catherine; Lederer, Susan M.; Lee, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    The 6.5-m Magellan telescope 'Walter Baade' at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile has been used for spot surveys of the GEO orbital regime to study the population of optically faint GEO debris. The goal is to estimate the size of the population of GEO debris at sizes much smaller than can be studied with 1-meter class telescopes. Despite the small size of the field of view of the Magellan instrument (diameter 0.5-degree), a significant population of objects fainter than R = 19th magnitude have been found with angular rates consistent with circular orbits at GEO. We compare the size of this population with the numbers of GEO objects found at brighter magnitudes by smaller telescopes. The observed detections have a wide range in characteristics starting with those appearing as short uniform streaks. But there are a substantial number of detections with variations in brightness, flashers, during the 5-second exposure. The duration of each of these flashes can be extremely brief: sometimes less than half a second. This is characteristic of a rapidly tumbling object with a quite variable projected size times albedo. If the albedo is of the order of 0.2, then the largest projected size of these objects is around 10-cm. The data in this paper was collected over the last several years using Magellan's IMACS camera in f/2 mode. The analysis shows the brightness bins for the observed GEO population as well as the periodicity of the flashers. All objects presented are correlated with the catalog: the focus of the paper will be on the uncorrelated, optically faint, objects. The goal of this project is to better characterize the faint debris population in GEO that access to a 6.5-m optical telescope in a superb site can provide.

  10. Spectroscopic surveys of faint blue stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary; Boley, Forrest I.; Swanson, Steven R.; Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopy of 450 faint blue stars obtained with the spectrograph and intensified Reticon scanner on the 1.3 m telescope at the McGraw Hill Observatory located at Kitt Peak are examined. The study is limited to objects brighter than V = 17.0 in magnitude. It is found that the relative numbers of objects such as white dwarfs, QSOs and CVs in the Kisco survey (Noguchi et al. 1980) is similar to that in the survey of Green et al., (1986).

  11. The formation of Jupiter's faint rings

    PubMed

    Burns; Showalter; Hamilton; Nicholson; de Pater I; Ockert-Bell; Thomas

    1999-05-14

    Observations by the Galileo spacecraft and the Keck telescope showed that Jupiter's outermost (gossamer) ring is actually two rings circumscribed by the orbits of the small satellites Amalthea and Thebe. The gossamer rings' unique morphology-especially the rectangular end profiles at the satellite's orbit and the enhanced intensities along the top and bottom edges of the rings-can be explained by collisional ejecta lost from the inclined satellites. The ejecta evolves inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. This mechanism may also explain the origin of Jupiter's main ring and suggests that faint rings may accompany all small inner satellites of the other jovian planets. PMID:10325220

  12. Modulating the Light Switch by [superscript 3]MLCT-[superscript 3]pi pi* State Interconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Brigitte R.; Kraft, Brian J.; Hughes, Chris G.; Pink, Maren; Zaleski, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-20

    intercalation (K{sub b} = 3.3 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}). The origin of this light switch behavior involves two competing {sup 3}MLCT states similar to that of the extensively studied light switch molecule [Ru(phen){sub 2}dppz]{sup 2+}. The solvent- and temperature-dependence of the luminescence of 3 reveal that the extended ligand aromaticity lowers the energy of the {sup 3}{pi}{pi}* excited state into competition with the emitting {sup 3}MLCT state. Interconversion between these two states plays a significant role in the observed photophysics and is responsible for the dual emission in aqueous environments.

  13. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ≲ MB ≲ -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M⊙ yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  14. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  15. Reconstruction of SDSS Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Laura K.; Obric, M.; West, A. A.; Dalcanton, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present The SDSS Multiple Offspring Recombination Engine (SMORE), a newly developed code that automatically and interactively recombines galaxies fragmented by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Photo pipeline. The SDSS software was optimized for the faint-end of the brightness limit and tends to over-deblend galaxies with angular sizes over 2 arcmin, sometimes separating spiral arms and HII regions from their parent galaxies. This process can remove a large percentage of the flux from the galaxy and bias datasets due to incorrect photometry. SMORE automatically builds galaxies from the fragments ("children"). Decisions on which child to include are made on the basis of its g-r and r-i color (relative to the mean colors of the largest galaxy children), size, distance to the center of the galaxy, type (as assigned by SDSS Photo) and the position angle. If there are pieces for which a decision cannot be made and their relative flux is more than 5% of the total flux of the galaxy, the interactive SMORE gives a user option to manually choose which of those children should be included. Recombined galaxies are built on a clean background without foreground and background objects and new photometry is performed.

  16. Chemical Signatures in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Hill, Vanessa M.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical signatures in dwarf galaxies describe the examination of specific elemental abundance ratios to investigate the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies, particularly when compared with the variety of stellar populations in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can come from HII region emission lines, planetary nebulae, or supernova remnants, but mostly they come from stars. Since stars can live a very long time, for example, a 0.8 MSun star born at the time of the Big Bang would only now be ascending the red giant branch, and, if, for the most part, its quiescent main sequence lifetime had been uneventful, then it is possible that the surface chemistry of stars actually still resembles their natal chemistry. Detailed abundances of stars in dwarf galaxies can be used to reconstruct their chemical evolution, which we now find to be distinct from any other component of the Galaxy, questioning the assertion that dwarf galaxies like these built up the Galaxy. Potential solutions to reconciling dwarf galaxy abundances and Galaxy formation models include the timescale for significant merging and the possibility for uncovering different stellar populations in the new ultra-faint dwarfs.

  17. THE FAINT-END SLOPE OF THE REDSHIFT 5.7 Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Sawicki, Marcin

    2012-01-10

    Using new Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we examine the origin of the steep number counts of ultra-faint emission-line galaxies recently reported by Dressler et al. We confirm six Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs), three of which have significant asymmetric line profiles with prominent wings extending 300-400 km s{sup -1} redward of the peak emission. With these six LAEs, we revise our previous estimate of the number of faint LAEs in the Dressler et al. survey. Combining these data with the density of bright LAEs in the Cosmic Evolution Survey and Subaru Deep Field provides the best constraints to date on the redshift 5.7 LAE luminosity function (LF). Schechter function parameters, {phi}* = 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}, L* = 9.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, and {alpha} = -1.70, are estimated using a maximum likelihood technique with a model for slit-losses. To place this result in the context of the UV-selected galaxy population, we investigate how various parameterizations of the Ly{alpha} equivalent width distribution, along with the measured UV-continuum LF, affect shape and normalization of the Ly{alpha} LF. The nominal model, which uses z {approx} 6 equivalent widths from the literature, falls short of the observed space density of LAEs at the bright end, possibly indicating a need for higher equivalent widths. This parameterization of the equivalent width distribution implies that as many as 50% of our faintest LAEs should have M{sub UV} > -18.0, rendering them undetectable in even the deepest Hubble Space Telescope surveys at this redshift. Hence, ultra-deep emission-line surveys find some of the faintest galaxies ever observed at the end of the reionization epoch. Such faint galaxies likely enrich the intergalactic medium with metals and maintain its ionized state in the post-reionization era. Observations of these objects provide a glimpse of the building blocks of present-day galaxies at an early time.

  18. The Spiderweb Galaxy: A Forming Massive Cluster Galaxy at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George K.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Zirm, Andrew W.; Ford, Holland C.; Kurk, Jaron; Pentericci, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Postman, Marc; Rosati, Piero; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Venemans, Bram P.; Helder, Eveline

    2006-10-01

    We present a deep image of the radio galaxy MRC 1138-262 taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at a redshift of z=2.2. The galaxy is known to have properties of a cD galaxy progenitor and be surrounded by a 3 Mpc-sized structure, identified with a protocluster. The morphology shown on the new deep HST ACS image is reminiscent of a spider's web. More than 10 individual clumpy features are observed, apparently star-forming satellite galaxies in the process of merging with the progenitor of a dominant cluster galaxy 11 Gyr ago. There is an extended emission component, implying that star formation was occurring over a 50×40 kpc region at a rate of more than 100 Msolar yr-1. A striking feature of the newly named ``Spiderweb galaxy'' is the presence of several faint linear galaxies within the merging structure. The dense environments and fast galaxy motions at the centers of protoclusters may stimulate the formation of these structures, which dominate the faint resolved galaxy populations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The new image provides a unique testbed for simulations of forming dominant cluster galaxies.

  19. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  20. A Peculiar Faint Satellite in the Remote Outer Halo of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Martin, N. F.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Dotter, A.; McConnachie, A. W.; Ibata, R. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Sakari, C. M.; Tanvir, N. R.; Venn, K. A.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age >~ 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] lsim -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M)0 = 24.57 ± 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149^{+19}_{-8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r_h=26^{+4}_{-3} pc, integrated luminosity MV = -4.8 ± 0.5, and ellipticity \\epsilon =0.30^{+0.08}_{-0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of ~2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO 12515.

  1. A PECULIAR FAINT SATELLITE IN THE REMOTE OUTER HALO OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Dotter, A.; Huxor, A. P.; Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Sakari, C. M.; Venn, K. A.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2013-06-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age {approx}> 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] {approx}< -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 24.57 {+-} 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149{sup +19}{sub -8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r{sub h}=26{sup +4}{sub -3} pc, integrated luminosity M{sub V} = -4.8 {+-} 0.5, and ellipticity {epsilon}=0.30{sup +0.08}{sub -0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of {approx}2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity.

  2. Faint Radio Sources in the NOAO Bootes Field. VLBA Imaging And Optical Identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, J.M.; Taylor, Greg B.; Rector, T.A.; Myers, S.T.; Fassnacht, C.D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-06-13

    As a step toward investigating the parsec-scale properties of faint extragalactic radio sources, the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) was used at 5.0 GHz to obtain phase-referenced images of 76 sources in the NOAO Booetes field. These 76 sources were selected from the FIRST catalog to have peak flux densities above 10 mJy at 5'' resolution and deconvolved major diameters of less than 3'' at 1.4 GHz. Fifty-five of these faint radio sources were identified with accretion-powered radio galaxies and quasars brighter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band. On VLA scales at 1.4 GHz, a measure of the compactness of the faint sources (the ratio of the peak flux density from FIRST to the integrated flux density from the NVSS catalog) spans the full range of possibilities arising from source-resolution effects. Thirty of the faint radio sources, or 39{sub -7}{sup +9}%, were detected with the VLBA at 5.0 GHz with peak flux densities above 6 {sigma} {approx} 2 mJy at 2 mas resolution. The VLBA detections occur through the full range of compactness ratios. The stronger VLBA detections can themselves serve as phase-reference calibrators, boding well for opening up much of the radio sky to VLBA imaging. For the adopted cosmology, the VLBA resolution corresponds to 17 pc or finer. Most VLBA detections are unresolved or slightly resolved but one is diffuse and five show either double or core-jet structures; the properties of these latter six are discussed in detail. Eight VLBA detections are unidentified and fainter than 25.5 mag in the optical I band; their properties are highlighted because they likely mark optically-obscured active nuclei at high redshift.

  3. A Search For Optically Faint GEO Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, P.; Lederer, S.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Abercromby, K.; Silha, J.; Burkhardt, A.

    2011-09-01

    Existing optical surveys for debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) have been conducted with meter class telescopes, which have detection limits in the range of 18th-19th magnitude. We report on a new search for optically faint debris at GEO using the 6.5-m Magellan telescope ‘Walter Baade’ at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to go as faint as possible and characterize the brightness distribution of debris fainter than R = 20th magnitude, corresponding to a size smaller than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. We wish to compare the inferred size distribution for GEO debris with that for LEO debris. We describe preliminary results obtained during 9.4 hours of observing time during 25-27 March 2011. We used the IMACS f/2 instrument, which has a mosaic of 8 CCDs, and a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. This is the widest field of view of any instrument on either Magellan telescope. All observations were obtained through a Sloan r’ filter. The limiting magnitude for 5 second exposures is measured to be fainter tan R = 21. With this small field of view and the limited observing time, our objective was to search for optically faint objects from the Titan 3C Transtage (1968-081) fragmentation in 1992. Eight debris pieces and the parent rocket body are in the Space Surveillance Network public catalog. We successfully tracked two cataloged pieces of Titan debris (SSN # 25001 and 33519) with the 6.5-m telescope, followed by a survey for objects on similar orbits but with a spread in mean anomaly. To detect bright objects over a wider field of view (1.6x1.6 degrees), we observed the same field centers at the same time through a similar filter with the 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), located 100 km to the south of Magellan at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris research, and our initial results.

  4. A Search for Optically Faint GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; ilha, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Existing optical surveys for debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) have been conducted with meter class telescopes, which have detection limits in the range of 18th-19th magnitude. We report on a new search for optically faint debris at GEO using the 6.5-m Magellan 1 telescope Walter Baade at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to go as faint as possible and characterize the brightness distribution of debris fainter than R = 20th magnitude, corresponding to a size smaller than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. We wish to compare the inferred size distribution for GEO debris with that for LEO debris. We describe results obtained during 9.4 hours of observing time during 25-27 March 2011. We used the IMACS f/2 instrument, which has a mosaic of 8 CCDs, and a field of view of 30 arc-minutes in diameter. This is the widest field of view of any instrument on either Magellan telescope. All observations were obtained through a Sloan r filter. The limiting magnitude for 5 second exposures is estimated to be fainter than 22. With this small field of view and the limited observing time, our objective was to search for optically faint objects from the Titan 3C Transtage (1968-081) fragmentation in 1992. Eight debris pieces and the parent rocket body are in the Space Surveillance Network public catalog. We successfully tracked two cataloged pieces of Titan debris (SSN # 25001 and 33519) with the 6.5-m telescope, followed by a survey for objects on similar orbits but with a spread in mean anomaly. To detect bright objects over a wider field of view (1.6x1.6 degrees), we observed the same field centers at the same time through a similar filter with the 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), located 100 km to the south of Magellan at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We will describe our experiences using Magellan, a telescope never used previously for orbital debris research, and our initial results.

  5. HUBBLE SERVES UP A GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    What may first appear as a sunny side up egg is actually NASA Hubble Space Telescope's face-on snapshot of the small spiral galaxy NGC 7742. But NGC 7742 is not a run-of-the-mill spiral galaxy. In fact, this spiral is known to be a Seyfert 2 active galaxy, a type of galaxy that is probably powered by a black hole residing in its core. The core of NGC 7742 is the large yellow 'yolk' in the center of the image. The lumpy, thick ring around this core is an area of active starbirth. The ring is about 3,000 light-years from the core. Tightly wound spiral arms also are faintly visible. Surrounding the inner ring is a wispy band of material, which is probably the remains of a once very active stellar breeding ground. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  6. Fourier transform spectroscopy of the Swan (d(sup 3)pi(sub g) - a(sup 3)pi(sub u)) system of the jet-cooled C2 molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. V. V.; Bernath, P. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Swan (d(sup 3)pi(sub g) - a(sup 3)pi(sub u)) system of the C2 molecule was produced in a jet-cooled corona excited supersonic expansion of helium using diazoacetonitrile as a percursor molecule. This spectrum was recorded using the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer of the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. A total of nine bands with v prime = 0 to 3 and v prime prime = 0 to 4 in the range 16,570-22,760/cm were observed and rotationally analyzed. The C2 molecules in this source had a rotational temperature of only 90 K so that only the low-J lines were present in the spectrum. In some sense the low temperatures in the jet source simulate conditions in the interstellar medium. The Swan system of C2 was also produced in a composite wall hollow cathode made Al4C3/Cu, and the rotational structure of the 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 0-0, and 1-1 bands were analyzed. The data obtained from both these spectra were fitted together along with some recently published line positions. The rotational constants, lambda doubling parameters and the vibrational constants were estimated from this global fit. Our work on jet-cooled C2 follows similar work on the violet and red systems of CN. A summary of this CN work is also presented. also presented.

  7. Nuclear sources in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    In the local Universe most massive black holes at the centers of galaxies are not luminous quasars. Is this because (1) they are starved of gas, (2) they accrete without emitting radiation, (3) they refuse to eat, ejecting the incoming material, or (4) they are storing up matter in an accretion disk to feast later?With Chandra ACIS we have imaged a pilot sample of 6 nearby (D 30 Mpc) elliptical galaxies chosen to be especially quiescent based on the careful optical spectroscopy of Ho, measured black hole masses (Mbh > 10(7)Msol), and with existing X-ray upper limits (Lx 10(40)erg/s) implying far sub-Eddington accretion. In these galaxies we can measure, or limit, the diffuse hot interstellar medium, and so constrain the Bondi accretion rate.Faint X-ray emission is detected at or around the nucleus in each galaxy. The morphology of these weak X-ray sources is complex. The X-ray colors of the sources can be determined, and a moderate quality spectrum for one was obtained. We discuss these results against the possible explanations of black hole quiescence.On the other hand, a few percent of all galaxies shows evidence for nuclear activity and a brief review of the high energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei is given.

  8. Faint object 3D spectroscopy with PMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Martin M.; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas; Bohm, Petra

    2004-09-01

    PMAS is a fiber-coupled lens array type of integral field spectrograph, which was commissioned at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope in May 2001. The optical layout of the instrument was chosen such as to provide a large wavelength coverage, and good transmission from 0.35 to 1 μm. One of the major objectives of the PMAS development has been to perform 3D spectrophotometry, taking advantage of the contiguous array of spatial elements over the 2-dimensional field-of-view of the integral field unit. With science results obtained during the first two years of operation, we illustrate that 3D spectroscopy is an ideal tool for faint object spectrophotometry.

  9. Orbital objects detection algorithm using faint streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Oda, Hiroshi; Hanada, Toshiya

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes an algorithm to detect orbital objects that are small or moving at high apparent velocities from optical images by utilizing their faint streaks. In the conventional object-detection algorithm, a high signal-to-noise-ratio (e.g., 3 or more) is required, whereas in our proposed algorithm, the signals are summed along the streak direction to improve object-detection sensitivity. Lower signal-to-noise ratio objects were detected by applying the algorithm to a time series of images. The algorithm comprises the following steps: (1) image skewing, (2) image compression along the vertical axis, (3) detection and determination of streak position, (4) searching for object candidates using the time-series streak-position data, and (5) selecting the candidate with the best linearity and reliability. Our algorithm's ability to detect streaks with signals weaker than the background noise was confirmed using images from the Australia Remote Observatory.

  10. Observing Faint Companions Close to Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Progress in a number of technical areas is enabling imaging and interferometric observations at both smaller angular separations from bright stars and at deeper relative contrast levels. Here we discuss recent progress in several ongoing projects at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. First, extreme adaptive optics wavefront correction has recently enabled the use of very short (i.e., blue) wavelengths to resolve close binaries. Second, phase-based coronagraphy has recently allowed observations of faint companions to within nearly one diffraction beam width of bright stars. Finally, rotating interferometers that can observe inside the diffraction beam of single aperture telescopes are being developed to detect close-in companions and bright exozodiacal dust. This paper presents a very brief summary of the techniques involved, along with some illustrative results.

  11. Searching for Optically Faint GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Lederer, Susan M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Krisko, Paula; Silha, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We report on results from a search for optically faint debris (defined as R > 20th magnitude, or smaller than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175)) at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescope "Walter Baade" at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to characterize the brightness distribution of debris to the faintest limiting magnitude possible. Our data was obtained during 6 hours of observing time during the photometric nights of 26 and 27 March 2011 with the IMACS f/2 instrument, which has a field of view (fov) of 0.5 degrees in diameter. All observations were obtained through a Sloan r filter, and calibrated by observations of Landolt standard stars. Our primary objective was to search for optically faint objects from one of the few known fragmentations at GEO: the Titan 3C Transtage (1968-081) fragmentation in 1992. Eight debris pieces and the parent rocket body are in the Space Surveillance Network public catalog. We successfully tracked two cataloged pieces of Titan debris with the 6.5-m telescope, followed by a survey for unknown objects on similar orbits but with different mean anomalies. To establish the bright end of the debris population, calibrated observations were acquired on the same field centers, telescope rates, and time period with a similar filter on the 0.6-m MODEST (Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), located 100 km to the south of Magellan at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We will show the calibrated brightness distributions from both telescopes, and compare the observed brightness distributions with that predicted for various population models of debris of different sizes.

  12. THE SPIRAL GALAXY M100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An image of the grand design of spiral galaxy M100 obtained with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope resolves individual stars within the majestic spiral arms. (These stars typically appeared blurred together when viewed with ground-based telescopes.) Hubble has the ability to resolve individual stars in other galaxies and measure accurately the light from very faint stars. This makes space telescope invaluable for identifying a rare class of pulsating stars, called Cepheid Variable stars embedded within M100's spiral arms. Cepheids are reliable cosmic distance mileposts. The interval it takes for the Cepheid to complete one pulsation is a direct indication of the stars's intrinsic brightness. This value can be used to make a precise measurement of the galaxy's distance, which turns out to be 56 million light-years. M100 (100th object in the Messier catalog of non-stellar objects) is a majestic face-on spiral galaxy. It is a rotating system of gas and stars, similar to our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Hubble routinely can view M100 with a level of clarity and sensitivity previously possible only for the very few nearby galaxies that compose our 'Local Group.'' M100 is a member of the huge Virgo cluster of an estimated 2,500 galaxies. The galaxy can be seen by amateur astronomers as a faint, pinwheel-shaped object in the spring constellation Coma Berenices. Technical Information: The Hubble Space Telescope image was taken on December 31, 1993 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2). This color picture is a composite of several images taken in different colors of light. Blue corresponds to regions containing hot newborn stars. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science. Credit: J. Trauger, JPL and NASA

  13. Enhancement of galaxy images for improved classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, John; Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the classification accuracy of galaxy images is demonstrated to be improved by enhancing the galaxy images. Galaxy images often contain faint regions that are of similar intensity to stars and the image background, resulting in data loss during background subtraction and galaxy segmentation. Enhancement darkens these faint regions, enabling them to be distinguished from other objects in the image and the image background, relative to their original intensities. The heap transform is employed for the purpose of enhancement. Segmentation then produces a galaxy image which closely resembles the structure of the original galaxy image, and one that is suitable for further processing and classification. 6 Morphological feature descriptors are applied to the segmented images after a preprocessing stage and used to extract the galaxy image structure for use in training the classifier. The support vector machine learning algorithm performs training and validation of the original and enhanced data, and a comparison between the classification accuracy of each data set is included. Principal component analysis is used to compress the data sets for the purpose of classification visualization and a comparison between the reduced and original feature spaces. Future directions for this research include galaxy image enhancement by various methods, and classification performed with the use of a sparse dictionary. Both future directions are introduced.

  14. Faint Object Camera imaging and spectroscopy of NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenberg, A.; Catchpole, R. M.; Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Crane, P.; Deharveng, J. M.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    We describe ultraviolet and optical imaging and spectroscopy within the central few arcseconds of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, obtained with the Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. A narrowband image including (O III) lambda(5007) shows a bright nucleus centered on a complex biconical structure having apparent opening angle approximately 65 deg and axis at a position angle along 65 deg-245 deg; images in bands including Lyman-alpha and C IV lambda(1550) and in the optical continuum near 5500 A, show only the bright nucleus. In an off-nuclear optical long-slit spectrum we find a high and a low radial velocity component within the narrow emission lines. We identify the low-velocity component with the bright, extended, knotty structure within the cones, and the high-velocity component with more confined diffuse emission. Also present are strong continuum emission and broad Balmer emission line components, which we attribute to the extended point spread function arising from the intense nuclear emission. Adopting the geometry pointed out by Pedlar et al. (1993) to explain the observed misalignment of the radio jets and the main optical structure we model an ionizing radiation bicone, originating within a galactic disk, with apex at the active nucleus and axis centered on the extended radio jets. We confirm that through density bounding the gross spatial structure of the emission line region can be reproduced with a wide opening angle that includes the line of sight, consistent with the presence of a simple opaque torus allowing direct view of the nucleus. In particular, our modelling reproduces the observed decrease in position angle with distance from the nucleus, progressing initially from the direction of the extended radio jet, through our optical structure, and on to the extended narrow-line region. We explore the kinematics of the narrow-line low- and high-velocity components on the basis of our spectroscopy and adopted model structure.

  15. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  16. Dark and visible matter in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.

    1988-01-01

    Rotation-curve profiles are used to determine the dark-to-luminous mass ratio within the disk size for 43 spiral galaxies. It is noted that faint galaxies are halo-dominated and that bright galaxies are disk-dominated in the disk regions. The luminosity sequence is shown to be a dark-to-luminous sequence. By removing the dark-matter contribution from the velocity at the disk edge, the dispersion affecting the luminosity-kinematics relation is found to decrease in comparison with the conventional Tully-Fisher correlation.

  17. SELFI: an object-based, Bayesian method for faint emission line source detection in MUSE deep field data cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meillier, Céline; Chatelain, Florent; Michel, Olivier; Bacon, Roland; Piqueras, Laure; Bacher, Raphael; Ayasso, Hacheme

    2016-04-01

    We present SELFI, the Source Emission Line FInder, a new Bayesian method optimized for detection of faint galaxies in Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) deep fields. MUSE is the new panoramic integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) that has unique capabilities for spectroscopic investigation of the deep sky. It has provided data cubes with 324 million voxels over a single 1 arcmin2 field of view. To address the challenge of faint-galaxy detection in these large data cubes, we developed a new method that processes 3D data either for modeling or for estimation and extraction of source configurations. This object-based approach yields a natural sparse representation of the sources in massive data fields, such as MUSE data cubes. In the Bayesian framework, the parameters that describe the observed sources are considered random variables. The Bayesian model leads to a general and robust algorithm where the parameters are estimated in a fully data-driven way. This detection algorithm was applied to the MUSE observation of Hubble Deep Field-South. With 27 h total integration time, these observations provide a catalog of 189 sources of various categories and with secured redshift. The algorithm retrieved 91% of the galaxies with only 9% false detection. This method also allowed the discovery of three new Lyα emitters and one [OII] emitter, all without any Hubble Space Telescope counterpart. We analyzed the reasons for failure for some targets, and found that the most important limitation of the method is when faint sources are located in the vicinity of bright spatially resolved galaxies that cannot be approximated by the Sérsic elliptical profile. The software and its documentation are available on the MUSE science web service (muse-vlt.eu/science).

  18. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  19. The intrinsic shape of galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-09-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 galaxies, we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026} in the SDSS r band. We also find that the distribution of minor to major axis ratio has a mean value of 0.267 ± 0.009, slightly larger than previous estimates mainly due to the lower extinction used; the same affects the circularity of galactic discs, which are found to be less round in shape than in previous studies, with a mean ellipticity of 0.215 ± 0.013. For elliptical galaxies, we find that the minor to major axis ratio, with a mean value of 0.584 ± 0.006, is larger than previous estimations due to the removal of spiral interlopers present in samples with morphological information from photometric profiles. These interlopers are removed when selecting ellipticals using Galaxy Zoo data. We find that the intrinsic shapes of galaxies and their dust extinction vary with absolute magnitude, colour and physical size. We find that bright elliptical galaxies are more spherical than faint ones, a trend that is also present with galaxy size, and that there is no dependence of elliptical galaxy shape with colour. For spiral galaxies, we find that the reddest ones have higher dust extinction as expected, due to the fact that this reddening is mainly due to dust. We also find that the thickness of discs increases with luminosity and size, and that brighter, smaller and redder galaxies have less round discs.

  20. Stellar Archeology in the Galactic Halo with Ultra-faint Dwarfs. VII. Hercules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Clementini, Gisella; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Scowcroft, Victoria; Moretti, Maria Ida; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Greco, Claudia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Bersier, David; Catelan, Márcio; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Smith, Horace A.; Kinemuchi, Karen

    2012-09-01

    We present the first time-series study of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Hercules. Using a variety of telescope/instrument facilities we secured about 50 V and 80 B epochs. These data allowed us to detect and characterize 10 pulsating variable stars in Hercules. Our final sample includes six fundamental-mode (ab-type) and three first-overtone (c-type) RR Lyrae stars, and one Anomalous Cepheid. The average period of the ab-type RR Lyrae stars, langP abrang = 0.68 days (σ = 0.03 days), places Hercules in the Oosterhoff II group, as found for almost the totality of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies investigated so far for variability. The RR Lyrae stars were used to obtain independent estimates of the metallicity, reddening, and distance to Hercules, for which we find [Fe/H] = -2.30 ± 0.15 dex, E(B - V) = 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, and (m - M)0 = 20.6 ± 0.1 mag, in good agreement with the literature values. We have obtained a V, B - V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Hercules that reaches V ~ 25 mag and extends beyond the galaxy's half-light radius over a total area of 40' × 36'. The CMD and the RR Lyrae stars indicate the presence of a population as old and metal-poor as (at least) the Galactic globular cluster M68. Based on data collected at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope, Roche de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain, at the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope, La Silla, Chile, Proposal 079.D-0587, at the 2 m Liverpool Telescope, Roche de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain, and at the 2 m Faulkes Telescope North, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, USA.

  1. Is the faint young Sun paradox solved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, E. T.; Toon, O. B.

    2013-12-01

    How did the early Earth remain warm despite weak solar luminosity? The faint young Sun paradox has stubbornly resisted a self-consistent solution since it was first introduced by Sagan and Mullen [1] over four decades ago. However, recent revisions to expected paleo-ocean temperatures [2, 3] along with new results from three-dimensional climate models [4] may allow this long standing problem to be finally put to rest. Here we use a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research to study early climate. We find that resolving the faint young Sun paradox becomes less problematic when viewing a full representation of the climate system. For the late Archean climate (80% solar constant), relatively modest amounts of CO2 (≤0.02 bar) and CH4 (0.001 bar) yield surface temperatures equal to the present day with no other alterations to climate. Cooler climates with large ice caps but with temperate tropical regions can be supported with considerably smaller greenhouse gas burdens. The incorporation of systematic climate system elements expected for the Archean such as fewer cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) [5], reduced land albedos [5], and an increased atmospheric inventory of N2 [6], can provide a combined 10 to 20 K of additional surface warming given reasonable assumptions. With the inclusion of 0.001 bar of CH4, 2 PAL of N2, reduced land albedos, and reduced CCN, present day mean surface temperatures can be maintained for the earliest Archean (75% solar constant) with only ~0.01 bar of CO2. However, lower requirements for atmospheric CO2 may imply that photochemical hazes were frequent during the Archean. [1] Sagan, C., & Mullen, G. Science 177, 52 (1972) [2] Hren, M.T., Tice, M.M., & Chamberlin, C.P. Nature 462, 205 (2009) [3] Blake. R.E., Chang, S.J., & Lepland, A. Nature 464, 1029 (2010) [4] Wolf, E.T., & Toon, O.B. Astrobiology 13(7), 1 (2013) [5] Rosing, M.T., Bird, D.K., Sleep, N.H., & Bjerrum, C

  2. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  3. Spectral Indices of Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Hansung B.; Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Yun, Min Su

    2015-01-01

    The significant improvement in bandwidth and the resultant sensitivity offered by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) allows us to explore the faint radio source population. Through the study of the radio continuum we can explore the spectral indices of these radio sources. Robust radio spectral indices are needed for accurate k-corrections, for example in the study of the radio - far-infrared (FIR) correlation. We present an analysis of measuring spectral indices using two different approaches. In the first, we use the standard wideband imaging algorithm in the data reduction package CASA. In the second, we use a traditional approach of imaging narrower bandwidths to derive the spectral indices. For these, we simulated data to match the observing parameter space of the CHILES Con Pol survey (Hales et al. 2014). We investigate the accuracy and precision of spectral index measurements as a function of signal-to noise, and explore the requirements to reliably probe possible evolution of the radio-FIR correlation in CHILES Con Pol.

  4. Detection of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Lederer, S.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Abercromby, K.; Silha, J.; Burkhardt, A.

    2014-01-01

    There have been extensive optical surveys for debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) conducted with meter-class telescopes, such as those conducted with MODEST (the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope, a 0.6-m telescope located at Cerro Tololo in Chile), and the European Space Agency's 1.0-m space debris telescope (SDT) in the Canary Islands. These surveys have detection limits in the range of 18th or 19th magnitude, which corresponds to sizes larger than 10 cm assuming an albedo of 0.175. All of these surveys reveal a substantial population of objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude that are not in the public U.S. Satellite Catalog. To detect objects fainter than 20th magnitude (and presumably smaller than 10 cm) in the visible requires a larger telescope and excellent imaging conditions. This combination is available in Chile. NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office has begun collecting orbital debris observations with the 6.5-m (21.3-ft diameter) "Walter Baade" Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. The goal is to detect objects as faint as possible from a ground-based observatory and begin to understand the brightness distribution of GEO debris fainter than R = 20th magnitude.

  5. Local Group dwarf galaxies: nature and nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Scannapieco, Cecilia; White, Simon

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in a high-resolution, hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of a Milky Way sized halo and its environment. Our simulation includes gas cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, metal enrichment and ultraviolet heating. In total, 90 satellites and more than 400 isolated dwarf galaxies are formed in the simulation, allowing a systematic study of the internal and environmental processes that determine their evolution. We find that 95 per cent of satellite galaxies are gas free at z= 0, and identify three mechanisms for gas loss: supernova feedback, tidal stripping and photoevaporation due to re-ionization. Gas-rich satellite galaxies are only found with total masses above ˜5 × 109 M⊙. In contrast, for isolated dwarf galaxies, a total mass of ˜109 M⊙ constitutes a sharp transition; less massive galaxies are predominantly gas free at z= 0, more massive, isolated dwarf galaxies are often able to retain their gas. In general, we find that the total mass of a dwarf galaxy is the main factor which determines its star formation, metal enrichment and its gas content, but that stripping may explain the observed difference in gas content between field dwarf galaxies and satellites with total masses close to 109 M⊙. We also find that a morphological transformation via tidal stripping of infalling, luminous dwarf galaxies whose dark matter is less concentrated than their stars cannot explain the high total mass-to-light ratios of the faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  6. Modelling nova populations in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical modelling of the evolution of classical and recurrent novae plays an important role in studies of binary evolution, nucleosynthesis and accretion physics. However, from a theoretical perspective the observed statistical properties of novae remain poorly understood. In this paper, we have produced model populations of novae using a hybrid binary population synthesis approach for differing star formation histories (SFHs): a starburst case (elliptical-like galaxies), a constant star formation rate case (spiral-like galaxies) and a composite case (in line with the inferred SFH for M31). We found that the nova rate at 10 Gyr in an elliptical-like galaxy is ˜10-20 times smaller than a spiral-like galaxy with the same mass. The majority of novae in elliptical-like galaxies at the present epoch are characterized by low-mass white dwarfs (WDs), long decay times, relatively faint absolute magnitudes and long recurrence periods. In contrast, the majority of novae in spiral-like galaxies at 10 Gyr have massive WDs, short decay times, are relatively bright and have short recurrence periods. The mass-loss time distribution for novae in our M31-like galaxy is in agreement with observational data for Andromeda. However, it is possible that we underestimate the number of bright novae in our model. This may arise in part due to the present uncertainties in the appropriate bolometric correction for novae.

  7. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  8. Faint solar radio structures from decametric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.; Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Abranin, E. P.; Dorovsky, V. V.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Melnik, V. N.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: Decameter radio observations of the solar corona reveal the presence of numerous faint frequency drifting emissions, similar to “solar S bursts” which are reported in the literature. We present a statistical analysis of the characteristics of these emissions and propose a mechanism to excite the Langmuir waves thought to be at the origin of these emissions. Methods: The observations were performed between 1998 and 2002 with the Digital Spectro Polarimeter (DSP) receivers operated at the UTR-2 and Nançay decameter radio telescopes in the frequency range 15-30 MHz. Our theoretical explanation is based on Vlasov-Ampère simulations. Results: Based on the frequency drift rate, three populations of structures can be identified. The largest population presents an average negative frequency drift of -0.9 MHz s-1 and a lifetime up to 11 s (median value of 2.72 s). A second population shows a very small frequency drift of -0.1 MHz s-1 and a short lifetime of about 1 s. The third population presents an average positive frequency drift of +0.95 MHz s-1 and a lifetime of up to 3 s. Also, the frequency drift as a function of frequency is consistent with the former results, which present results in higher frequency range. No specific relationship was found between the occurrence of these emissions and the solar cycle or presence of flares. Assuming that these emissions are produced by “electron clouds” propagating the solar corona, we deduce electron velocities of about 3-5 times the electron thermal velocity. As previously shown, a localized, time-dependent modulation of the electron distribution function (heating) leads to low velocity electron clouds (consistent with observations), which, in turn, can generate Langmuir waves and electromagnetic signals by nonlinear processes.

  9. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldblatt, C.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 W m-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth having been at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduced the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a forcing of +25 W m-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 to +15 W m-2. For high clouds, the greenhouse effect dominates. It is possible to generate +50 W m-2 forcing from enhancing these, but this requires making them 3.5 times thicker and 14 K colder than the standard high cloud in our nominal set and expanding their coverage to 100% of the sky. Such changes are not credible. More plausible changes would generate no more than +15 W m-2 forcing. Thus neither fewer low clouds nor more high clouds can provide enough forcing to resolve the FYSP. Decreased surface albedo can contribute no more than +5 W m-2 forcing. Some models which have been applied to the FYSP do not include clouds at all. These overestimate the forcing due to increased CO2 by 20 to 25% when pCO2 is 0.01 to 0.1 bar.

  10. Astronomical capabilities of the Faint Object Spectrograph on Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of scientific observing programs planned with the Faint Object Spectrograph on Space Telescope are presented. An overview of the spectrograph design and operation is presented. The expected astronomical performance of the instrument is described in some detail.

  11. NASA Researches the 'FaINT' Side of Sonic Booms

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the latest in a continuing progression of NASA supersonics research projects aimed at reducing or mitigating the effect of sonic booms, the Farfield Investigation of No Boom Threshold, or FaINT,...

  12. FAINT END OF 1.3 mm NUMBER COUNTS REVEALED BY ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Ohta, Kouji; Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2013-06-01

    We present the faint end of number counts at 1.3 mm (238 GHz) obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Band 6 observations were carried out targeting 20 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.4 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. In the observations, we serendipitously detect 15 sources (≥3.8σ, S{sub 1.3} {sub mm} = 0.15-0.61 mJy) other than the targeted sources. We create number counts by using these ''sub-mJy sources'', which probe the faintest flux range among surveys at millimeter wavelengths. The number counts are consistent with (flux-scaled) number counts at 850 μm and 870 μm obtained with gravitational lensing clusters. The ALMA number counts agree well with model predictions, which suggest that these sub-mJy populations are more like ''normal'' star-forming galaxies than ''classical'' submillimeter galaxies with intense star-forming activity. In this flux range, ∼80% of the extragalactic background light at 1.3 mm is resolved into individual sources.

  13. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  14. IMAGE OF A DISTANT GALAXY CANDIDATE IN THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Small portion of the Hubble Deep Field image -- the deepest view of the universe taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Arrow points to a very faint galaxy that appears to be more distant than any known previously. Other galaxies in the image are at smaller distances. Credit: Ken Lanzetta and Amos Yahil (State University of New York at Stony Brook), and NASA

  15. The Impact of Sub-L* Galaxies on the IGM at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen; Pettini, Max; Stark, Dan; Schaye, Joop; Rakic, Olivera

    2011-08-01

    There is compelling evidence that galaxy-scale outflows may be a primary regulator of star formation in galaxies and chemical enrichment of the IGM. The increasing contribution of UV-faint (sub-L^ast) galaxies to the luminosity density at z⪆ 2 suggests that these uninvestigated faint galaxies may play a large role in the global effects of feedback and metal enrichment. We propose to take advantage of the unique capabilities of Keck-I/LRIS to spectroscopically target a sample of faint galaxies with luminosities that are 10× smaller than those probed in current outflow studies. We will use these data to measure redshifts that will then be cross-correlated with metal (CIV) absorption line systems along QSO sight-lines to determine the extent to which faint galaxies contribute to IGM enrichment. We will compare the correlation lengths and column densities of systems associated with galaxies over a large dynamic range in luminosity to investigate the relative efficiency of feedback as a function of luminosity and impact parameter. Ultimately, this investigation will shed critical light on the feedback processes that govern the baryonic evolution of galaxies over a wide range of luminosity.

  16. A New Faint Milky Way Satellite Discovered in the Pan-STARRS1 3π Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Bell, Eric F.; Sesar, Branimir; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Slater, Colin T.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus A.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lupton, Robert H.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    We present the discovery of a faint Milky Way satellite, Laevens 2/Triangulum II, found in the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System 3π imaging data and confirmed with follow-up wide-field photometry from the Large Binocular Cameras. The stellar system, with an absolute magnitude of MV = -1.8 ± 0.5, a heliocentric distance of 30-2+2 kpc, and a half-mass-radius of 34-8+9 pc, shows remarkable similarity to faint, nearby, small satellites such as Willman 1, Segue 1, Segue 2, and Boötes II. The discovery of Laevens 2/Triangulum II further populates the region of parameter space for which the boundary between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters becomes tenuous. Follow-up spectroscopy will ultimately determine the nature of this new satellite, whose spatial location hints at a possible connection with the complex Triangulum-Andromeda stellar structures. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  17. Observations of faint comets at McDonald Observatory: 1978-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, E. S.; Cochran, A. L.; Rybski, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Modern observational techniques, developed for spectroscopy and photometry of faint galaxies and quasars, successfully applied to faint comets on the 2.7 m telescope. The periodic comets Van Biesbrock, Ashbrook-Jackson, Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Tempel 2, Encke, Forbes, Brooks 2, Stephan-Oterma and the new comets Bradfield (19791), Bowell (1980b), Chernis-Petrauskas (1980k) were observed. The comets ranged in magnitude from 10th to 20th magnitude. For comets fainter than 19th magnitude, reflectance spectra at 100A resolution and area photometry were obtained. On comets of 17th or 18th magnitude, spectrometric scans (6A resolution) of the nucleus or inner coma region. On those comets which are brighter than 16th magnitude spatial spectrophotometric (6A resolution) studies of the inner and extended comae were done. An extensive spatial study of the comae of P/Encke and P/Stephen-Oterma, correlated with heliocentric distance is taking place. The observing process used is described and examples of the results obtained to date are discussed.

  18. Discovery of a New Photometric Sub-class of Faint and Fast Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Quimby, R.; Rau, A.

    2011-07-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of a sample of extragalactic novae discovered by the Palomar 60 inch telescope during a search for "Fast Transients In Nearest Galaxies" (P60-FasTING). Designed as a fast cadence (1 day) and deep (g < 21 mag) survey, P60-FasTING was particularly sensitive to short-lived and faint optical transients. The P60-FasTING nova sample includes 10 novae in M 31, 6 in M 81, 3 in M 82, 1 in NGC 2403, and 1 in NGC 891. This significantly expands the known sample of extragalactic novae beyond the Local Group, including the first discoveries in a starburst environment. Surprisingly, our photometry shows that this sample is quite inconsistent with the canonical maximum-magnitude-rate-of-decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae. Furthermore, the spectra of the P60-FasTING sample are indistinguishable from classical novae. We suggest that we have uncovered a sub-class of faint and fast classical novae in a new phase space in luminosity-timescale of optical transients. Thus, novae span two orders of magnitude in both luminosity and time. Perhaps the MMRD, which is characterized only by the white dwarf mass, was an oversimplification. Nova physics appears to be characterized by a relatively rich four-dimensional parameter space in white dwarf mass, temperature, composition, and accretion rate.

  19. THE DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-FAINT STAR CLUSTER IN THE CONSTELLATION OF URSA MINOR

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, R. R.; Geha, M.; Vargas, L. C.; Cote, P.; Stetson, P.; Santana, F. A.; Simon, J. D.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint globular cluster in the constellation of Ursa Minor, based on stellar photometry from the MegaCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find that this cluster, Munoz 1, is located at a distance of 45 {+-} 5 kpc and at a projected distance of only 45' from the center of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Using a maximum-likelihood technique we measure a half-light radius of 0.'5, or equivalently 7 pc, and an ellipticity consistent with being zero. We estimate its absolute magnitude to be M{sub V} -0.4 {+-} 0.9, which corresponds to L{sub V} = 120{sup +160}{sub -65} L{sub Sun} and we measure a heliocentric radial velocity of -137 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1} based on Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. This new satellite is separate from Ursa Minor by {approx}30 kpc and 110 km s{sup -1} suggesting the cluster is not obviously associated with the dSph, despite the very close angular separation. Based on its photometric properties and structural parameters we conclude that Munoz 1 is a new ultra-faint stellar cluster. Along with Segue 3 this is one of the faintest stellar clusters known to date.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A NEW PHOTOMETRIC SUB-CLASS OF FAINT AND FAST CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, E. O.; Quimby, R.; Cenko, S. B.; Rau, A.

    2011-07-10

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of a sample of extragalactic novae discovered by the Palomar 60 inch telescope during a search for 'Fast Transients In Nearest Galaxies' (P60-FasTING). Designed as a fast cadence (1 day) and deep (g < 21 mag) survey, P60-FasTING was particularly sensitive to short-lived and faint optical transients. The P60-FasTING nova sample includes 10 novae in M 31, 6 in M 81, 3 in M 82, 1 in NGC 2403, and 1 in NGC 891. This significantly expands the known sample of extragalactic novae beyond the Local Group, including the first discoveries in a starburst environment. Surprisingly, our photometry shows that this sample is quite inconsistent with the canonical maximum-magnitude-rate-of-decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae. Furthermore, the spectra of the P60-FasTING sample are indistinguishable from classical novae. We suggest that we have uncovered a sub-class of faint and fast classical novae in a new phase space in luminosity-timescale of optical transients. Thus, novae span two orders of magnitude in both luminosity and time. Perhaps the MMRD, which is characterized only by the white dwarf mass, was an oversimplification. Nova physics appears to be characterized by a relatively rich four-dimensional parameter space in white dwarf mass, temperature, composition, and accretion rate.

  1. Ab initio studies of low-lying 3Sigma(-), 3Pi, and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. I - Potential curves and dipole moment functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfield, Evelyn M.; Kirby, Kate P.

    1987-01-01

    Configuration interaction wave functions, potential energy curves, and dipole moment functions have been calculated for the four lowest 3Sigma(-) and the three lowest 3Pi states and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. The electronic wave functions were constructed to give a balanced description of valence-Rydberg interactions. Two repulsive states have been identified as important photodissociation pathways. Spectroscopic constants are presented for the bound states, and results are compared to other theoretical and experimental work. The possible predissociation of the A 3Pi state by the 1 5Sigma(-) state is discussed.

  2. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way.

    The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light.

    The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light.

    Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The

  3. A MINUET OF GALAXIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This troupe of four galaxies, known as Hickson Compact Group 87 (HCG 87), is performing an intricate dance orchestrated by the mutual gravitational forces acting between them. The dance is a slow, graceful minuet, occurring over a time span of hundreds of millions of years. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provides a striking improvement in resolution over previous ground-based imaging. In particular, this image reveals complex details in the dust lanes of the group's largest galaxy member (HCG 87a), which is actually disk-shaped, but tilted so that we see it nearly edge-on. Both 87a and its elliptically shaped nearest neighbor (87b) have active galactic nuclei which are believed to harbor black holes that are consuming gas. A third group member, the nearby spiral galaxy 87c, may be undergoing a burst of active star formation. Gas flows within galaxies can be intensified by the gravitational tidal forces between interacting galaxies. So interactions can provide fresh fuel for both active nuclei and starburst phenomena. These three galaxies are so close to each other that gravitational forces disrupt their structure and alter their evolution. From the analysis of its spectra, the small spiral near the center of the group could either be a fourth member or perhaps an unrelated background object. The HST image was made by combining images taken in four different color filters in order to create a three-color picture. Regions of active star formation are blue (hot stars) and also pinkish if hot hydrogen gas is present. The complex dark bands across the large edge-on disk galaxy are due to interstellar dust silhouetted against the galaxy's background starlight. A faint tidal bridge of stars can be seen between the edge-on and elliptical galaxies. HCG 87 was selected for Hubble imaging by members of the public who visited the Hubble Heritage website (http://heritage.stsci.edu) during the month of May and registered their votes

  4. Two New Ultra-Faint Star Clusters in the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2016-08-01

    Kim 1 & 2 are two new star clusters discovered in the Stromlo Missing Satellite Survey. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 19.8 +/- 0.9 kpc, features an extremely low total luminosity (M V = 0.3 +/- 0.5 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the large ellipticity (ɛ = 0.42 +/- 0.10) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that Kim 1 is an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. Kim 2 is a rare ultra-faint outer halo globular cluster located at a heliocentric distance of 104.7 +/- 4.1 kpc. The cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. Kim 2 is likely to follow an orbit confined to the peripheral region of the Galactic halo, and/or to have formed in a dwarf galaxy that was later accreted into the Galactic halo.

  5. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) early performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, Richard; Fitch, John

    1991-01-01

    The on-orbit performance of the HST + FOS instrument is described and illustrated with examples of initial scientific results. The effects of the spherical aberration from the misfiguring of the HST primary mirror upon isolated point sources and in complex fields such as the nuclei of galaxies are analyzed. Possible means for eliminating the effects of spherical aberration are studied. Concepts include using image enhancement software to extract maximum spatial and spectral information from the existing data as well as several options to repair or compensate for the HST's optical performance. In particular, it may be possible to install corrective optics into the HST which will eliminate the spherical aberration for the FOS and some of the other instruments. The more promising ideas and calculations of the expected improvements in performance are briefly described.

  6. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  7. Optical and X-ray profiles in the REXCESS sample of galaxy clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, John G.; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pierini, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Galaxy clusters' structure, dominated by dark matter, is traced by member galaxies in the optical and hot intracluster medium (ICM) in X-rays. We compare the radial distribution of these components and determine the mass-to-light ratio versus system mass relation. We use 14 clusters from the REXCESS sample which is representative of clusters detected in X-ray surveys. Photometric observations with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2 m Max-Planck-Gesellschaft/European Southern Observatory telescope are used to determine the number density profiles of the galaxy distribution out to r200. These are compared to electron density profiles of the ICM obtained using XMM-Newton, and dark matter profiles inferred from scaling relations and a Navarro-Frenk-White model. While red sequence galaxies trace the total matter profile, the blue galaxy distribution is much shallower. We see a deficit of faint galaxies in the central regions of massive and regular clusters, and strong suppression of bright and faint blue galaxies in the centres of cool-core clusters, attributable to ram pressure stripping of gas from blue galaxies in high-density regions of ICM and disruption of faint galaxies due to galaxy interactions. We find a mass-to-light ratio versus mass relation within r200 of (3.0 ± 0.4) × 10^2 h M_{⊙} L_{⊙}^{-1} at 1015 M⊙ with slope 0.16 ± 0.14, consistent with most previous results.

  8. The Chandra Deep Field North Survey. XV. Optically Bright, X-Ray-Faint Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bautz, M. W.; Conselice, C.; Garmire, G. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Wilson, G.

    2003-08-01

    We have analyzed optically bright, X-ray-faint [OBXF; i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-2] sources identified in an 178.9 arcmin2 area having high exposure (greater than 1500 ks) within the Chandra Deep Field North 2 Ms survey. We find 43 OBXF sources in this area, making up ~15% of the X-ray sources above a 0.5-2 keV flux of ~2.3×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1. We present spectroscopic identifications for 42 of the OBXF sources and optical spectra for 25, including five previously unpublished redshifts. Deep optical imaging data (either Hubble Space Telescope [HST] or ground-based) are presented for all the OBXF sources; we measure the optical morphologies of the 20 galaxies having HST imaging data. The OBXF population consists mainly of normal and starburst galaxies detected out to cosmologically significant distances (i.e., to a median redshift of z=0.297 and a full redshift range z=0.06-0.845). This is notable since these distances equate to look-back times of up to ~8 Gyr; we are thus provided with a window on the X-ray emission from galaxies at redshifts much closer to the cosmic star formation peak than was possible prior to the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray luminosity distribution of OBXF sources extends to higher luminosity than does that of ``normal'' galaxies, indicating that a significant fraction are likely dominated by low-luminosity active galactic nuclei or vigorous star formation. The lowest redshift galaxies (z~0.06-0.2) have very low X-ray-to-optical flux ratios [i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-3], which are consistent with those of normal galaxies in the local universe. By combining the detected X-ray counts, we find the average OBXF X-ray spectrum to be consistent with a Γ~2.0 power law. The 0.5-2 keV logN-logS for the OBXF galaxies is much steeper (α~-1.7) than for the general X-ray source population. Indeed, the number of OBXF sources has doubled between the 1 and 2 Ms surveys, rising sharply in numbers at faint fluxes. The extragalactic OBXF sources are found to

  9. Atomic orientation following predissociation of the C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} Rydberg state of molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, A. J.; Ritchie, G. A. D.

    2013-06-07

    (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOF-MS) has been used to detect both the O({sup 3}P) and O({sup 1}D) fragments produced as a result of predissociation of the C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} (v= 0) and (v= 1) Rydberg states of O{sub 2}, accessed via two-photon absorption from the ground X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup -} state. In particular, TOF profiles have been recorded at various fixed two-photon absorption wavelengths within the two bands, with circular polarized probe laser light used to probe the angular momentum orientation of these photofragments. All photofragments are found to display coherent orientation resulting from interference between two possible two-photon absorption pathways. The measured orientation is affected by rotational depolarization due to the long lifetime of the excited C state; once this effect is accounted for the orientation is found to be nearly constant over all dissociation wavelengths. The origin of the coherent orientation is attributed to two-photon absorption to different spin-orbit components of the C state.

  10. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    helium as "heavy elements". [2] By carefully splitting up the faint light coming from a galaxy into its component colours using powerful telescopes and spectrographs, astronomers can identify the fingerprints of different chemicals in remote galaxies, and measure the amounts of heavy elements present. With the SINFONI instrument on the VLT astronomers can go one better and get a separate spectrum for each part of an object. This allows them to make a map that shows the quantity of heavy elements present in different parts of a galaxy and also determine where in the galaxy star formation is occurring most vigorously. More information This research was presented in a paper, Gas accretion in distant galaxies as the origin of chemical abundance gradients, by Cresci et al., to appear in Nature on 14 October 2010. The team is composed of G. Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), F. Mannucci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy), R. Maiolino (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Italy), A. Marconi (Universitá di Firenze, Italy), A. Gnerucci (Universitá di Firenze, Italy) and L. Magrini (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Italy). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible

  11. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  12. Galaxy formation in warm dark matter cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Lamastra, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate for the first time the effects of a warm dark matter (WDM) power spectrum on the statistical properties of galaxies using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The WDM spectrum we adopt as a reference case is suppressed - compared to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) case - below a cut-off scale ≈1 Mpc corresponding (for thermal relic WDM particles) to a mass mX= 0.75 keV. This ensures consistency with present bounds provided by the microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and by the comparison of hydrodynamical N-body simulations with observed Lyman-α forest. We run our fiducial semi-analytic model with such a WDM spectrum to derive galaxy luminosity functions (in B, UV and K bands) and the stellar mass distributions over a wide range of cosmic epochs, to compare with recent observations and with the results in the CDM case. The predicted colour distribution of galaxies in the WDM model is also checked against the data. When compared with the standard CDM case, the luminosity and stellar mass distributions we obtain assuming a WDM spectrum are characterized by (i) flattening of the faint-end slope and (ii) sharpening of the cut-off at the bright end for z≲ 0.8. We discuss how the former result is directly related to the smaller number of low-mass haloes collapsing in the WDM scenario, while the latter is related to the smaller number of satellite galaxies accumulating in massive haloes at a low redshift, thus suppressing the accretion of small lumps on the central, massive galaxies. These results shows how adopting a WDM power spectrum may contribute to solving two major problems of CDM galaxy formation scenarios, namely, the excess of predicted faint (low-mass) galaxies at low and - most of all - high redshifts, and the excess of bright (massive) galaxies at low redshifts.

  13. Fourier-transform spectroscopy and coupled-channels deperturbation treatment of the A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}} complex of KCs

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzins, A.; Klincare, I.; Nikolayeva, O.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.

    2010-04-15

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}{yields}}X {sup 1{Sigma}+} spectra of the KCs molecule were recorded in a near infrared region by a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a resolution of 0.03 cm{sup -1}. Overall more than 200 collisionally enhanced LIF spectra were rotationally assigned to {sup 39}K{sup 133}Cs and {sup 41}K{sup 133}Cs isotopomers yielding more than 3400 rovibronic term values of the strongly mixed singlet A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and triplet b {sup 3{Pi}} states with the uncertainty of 0.003-0.01 cm{sup -1}. Experimental data massive starts from the lowest vibrational level v{sub A}=0 of the singlet and nonuniformly covers the energy range E is an element of [10 040,13 250] cm{sup -1} with rotational quantum numbers J{sup '} is an element of [7,225]. Besides the dominating regular A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub {Omega}=0} interactions, the weak local heterogeneous A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub {Omega}=1} perturbations have been discovered and analyzed. Coupled-channels deperturbation analysis of the experimental {sup 39}K{sup 133}Cs e-parity term values of the A {sup 1{Sigma}+}-b {sup 3{Pi}}{sub {Omega}=0,1,2} complex was accomplished in the framework of the phenomenological 4x4 Hamiltonian accounting implicitly for regular interactions with the remote {sup 1{Pi}} and {sup 3{Sigma}+} states. The diabatic potential energy curves of the A {sup 1{Sigma}+} and b {sup 3{Pi}} states, as well as relevant spin-orbit coupling matrix elements, were defined analytically with the expanded Morse oscillators model. The obtained parameters reproduce 95% of experimental data field of the {sup 39}K{sup 133}Cs isotopomer with a standard deviation of 0.004 cm{sup -1}, which is consistent with the uncertainty of the experiment. Reliability of the derived parameters was confirmed by a good agreement between the predicted and experimental term values of the {sup 41}K{sup 133}Cs isotopomer. The calculated relative intensity

  14. A Sneak Peek at the JWST Era: Observing Galaxies Below the Hubble Limit with Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, Rachael C.

    2016-01-01

    The installation of WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope pushed the frontier of high-redshift galaxy studies to only 500 Myr after the Big Bang. However, observations in this epoch remain challenging and are limited to the brightest galaxies; the fainter sources believed to be responsible for reionizing the Universe remain beyond the grasp of Hubble. With gravitational lensing, however, we can benefit from the magnification of faint sources, which brings them within reach of today's telescopes. The Hubble Frontier Fields program is a deep survey of strongly lensing clusters observed in the optical and near-infrared. Unfortunately, detecting highly magnified, intrinsically faint galaxies in these fields has proved challenging due to the bright foregound cluster galaxies and intracluster light. We have developed a technique using wavelet decomposition to overcome these difficulties and detect galaxies at z~7 with intrinsic UV magnitudes as faint as MUV = -13. We present this method and the resulting luminosity functions, which support a steep faint-end slope extending out to the observational limits. Our method has uncovered hundreds of galaxies at z > 6 fainter than any that have been seen before, providing our first insight into the small galaxy population during the epoch of reionization and a preview of the capabilities of JWST.

  15. Fossil groups in the Millennium simulation. From the brightest to the faintest galaxies during the past 8 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagusuku, María José; Díaz-Giménez, Eugenia; Zandivarez, Ariel

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the evolution of bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups. Methods: We used mock galaxies constructed based on the Millennium run simulation II. We identified fossil groups at redshift zero according to two different selection criteria, and then built reliable control samples of non-fossil groups that reproduce the fossil virial mass and assembly time distributions. The faint galaxies were defined as having r-band absolute magnitudes in the range [-16, -11]. We analysed the properties of the bright and faint galaxies in fossil and non-fossil groups during the past 8 Gyr. Results: We observed that the brightest galaxy in fossil groups is typically brighter and more massive than their counterparts in control groups. Fossil groups developed their large magnitude gap between the brightest galaxies around 3.5 Gyr ago. The brightest galaxy stellar masses of all groups show a notorious increment at that time. By analysing the behaviour of the magnitude gap between the first and the second, third, and fourth ranked galaxies, we found that at earlier times, fossil groups comprised two large brightest galaxies with similar magnitudes surrounded by much fainter galaxies, while in control groups these magnitude gaps were never as large as in fossils. At early times, fossil groups in the faint population were denser than non-fossil groups, then this trend reversed, and finally they became similar at the present day. The mean number of faint galaxies in non-fossil systems increases in an almost constant rate towards later times, while this number in fossil groups reaches a plateau at z ~ 0.6 that lasts ~2 Gyr, and then starts growing again more rapidly. Conclusions: The formation of fossil groups is defined at the very beginning of the groups according to their galaxy luminosity sampling, which could be determined by their merging rate at early times.

  16. Stellar Populations and Chemical Evolution of Late-Type Dwarf Galaxies (Invited Talk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, M.

    Some aspects of the chemical evolution of late-type dwarf galaxies are reviewed, together with their implications on three issues of cosmological relevance: similarity to primeval galaxies, derivation of the primordial helium abundance, contribution to the excess of faint blue galaxies. A more detailed approach to model their evolution is suggested. The importance of deriving the star formation history in these systems by studying their resolved stellar populations is emphasized.

  17. Unidentified IRAS sources: Ultrahigh luminosity galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Danielson, G. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optical imaging and spectroscopy measurements were obtained for six of the high galactic latitude infrared sources reported by Houck, et al. (1984) from the IRAS survey to have no obvious optical counterparts on the POSS prints. All are identified with visually faint galaxies that have total luminosities in the range 5 x 10 to the 11th power stellar luminosity to 5 x 10 to the 12th power stellar luminosity. This luminosity emerges virtually entirely in the infrared. The origin of the luminosity, which is one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, is not known at this time.

  18. Galaxy pairs in deep HST images: Evidence for evolution in the galaxy merger rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkey, Jordan M.; Keel, William C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Franklin, Barbara E.

    1994-01-01

    We use four deep serendipitous fields observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide-Field Camera to constrain the rate of galaxy merging between the current epoch and z approximately equals 0.7. Since most mergers occur between members of bound pairs, the merger rate is given to a good approximation by (half) the rate of disappearance of galaxies in pairs. An objective criterion for pair membership shows that 34% +/- 9% of our HST galaxies with I = 18-22 belong to pairs, compared to 7% locally. This means that about 13% of the galaxy population has disappeared due to merging in the cosmic epoch corresponding to this magnitude interval (or 0.1 approximately less than z approximately less than 0.7). Our pair fraction is a lower limit: correction for pair members falling below our detection threshold might raise the fraction to approximately 50%. Since we address only two-galaxy merging, these values do not include physical systems of higher multiplicity. Incorporating I-band field-galaxy redshift distributions, the pair fraction grows with redshift as alpha(1 + z)(exp 3.5 +/- 0.5) and the merger rate as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 0.5). This may have significant implications for the interpretation of galaxy counts (disappearance of faint blue galaxies), the cosmological evolution of faint radio sources and quasars (which evolve approximately as (1 + z)(exp 3), the similarity in the power law is necessary but not sufficient evidence for a causal relation), statistics of QSO companions, the galaxy content in distant clusters, and the merging history of a 'typical' galaxy.

  19. Satellite Galaxies of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    This beautiful 13 x 13 image (click for the full view!) holds more than meets the eye. Look closely at the small concentration of blue stars just to the left of center. This is Eridanus II, one of nine new ultra-faint galaxies discovered just last year aroundthe Milky Way. Detected as part of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and presented in a study led by Sergey E. Koposov (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge), these new galaxies add to a growing list of very dim satellites that orbit within the Milky Ways potential. Since their discovery, these DES satellites have been used to answer a number of astronomical questions. In particular, the large dark-matter fraction of these ultra-faint galaxies makes them excellent laboratories for testing models of dark matter in the universe. Check back with us on Wednesday to learn more about what Eridanus II has revealed about dark matter! And for more information on the nine DES-discovered ultra-faint satellites, check out the paper below.CitationSergey E. Koposov et al 2015 ApJ 805 130. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/130

  20. Radio Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters: Feedback, Merger Signatures, and Signposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Randall, Scott W.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Ashby, Matthew; Brodwin, Mark; Bulbul, Esra; Clarke, Tracy E.; Golden-Marx, Emmet; Johnson, Ryan; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Wing, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Extended, double-lobed radio sources are often located in rich galaxy clusters. I will present results of an optical and X-ray analysis of two nearby clusters with such radio sources - one of the clusters is relaxed (A2029) and one of the clusters is undergoing a merger (A98). Because of their association with clusters, extended radio sources can be used to locate clusters at a wide range of distances. The number of spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters with is very low compared to the number of well-studied low-redshift clusters. In the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) survey, we use bent, double-lobed radio sources as signposts to efficiently locate high-redshift clusters. Using a Spitzer Snapshot Survey of our sample of 653 bent, double-lobed radio sources (selected from the FIRST survey and with galaxy hosts too faint to be detected in the SDSS), we have the potential to identify approximately 400 new clusters and groups with redshifts. I will present results from the Spitzer observations regarding the efficiency of the method for finding new clusters. These newly identified clusters will be used to study galaxy formation and evolution, as well as the effect that feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) has on galaxies and their environments.

  1. Discovery of Faint Radio Structures over 50 Square Degrees Down to 3 arcmin Scales near the NGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Philipp P.; Kothes, R.; Salter, C. J.; Perillat, P.

    2006-12-01

    We present a deep, 8o diameter, 0.4 GHz radio image near the North Galactic Pole using a first time combination of the Arecibo 305-m telescope and the wide-angle interferometer at the DRAO. The uniquely complementary nature of these two instruments permits a distortion-free image sensitive to radiation on all scales from 8o down to that of an individual galaxy halo at the 100 Mpc distance of the Great Wall, all in a single pointing. Faint, previously unseen diffuse patches of distributed radio ``glow'' are detected, well above our detection limit, and on a range of angular scales. The emission could compete with CMB fluctuations as a CMB foreground at high multipole scales around 30GHz if its radio spectrum continues up to these GHz bands. This new faint radio emission appears to be a mix of foreground Galactic, and extragalactic ``glow’. The latter implies i.g. magnetic field strengths at or above 0.1 microgauss on Mpc scales in certain areas. A striking anticorrelation is also found between the diffuse radio glow and some regions of high optical galaxy surface density. This suggests that cosmological Large Scale Structure (LSS), normally defined by the baryonic (and/or dark) matter density, is not uniquely traced by the faint continuum radio glow. More likely, the radio glow is a proxy for IGM energy density, at least in the low redshift universe. Its detailed relation to the WHIM, and diffuse X-ray glow is unclear, and must await future, more sensitive detectors for these latter two IGM components. Support for this project is acknowledged from the DOE's LDRD program at LANL, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), and the National Science Foundation.

  2. Ghostly Halos in Dwarf Galaxies: a probe of star formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Ricotti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulations to characterize the size, stellar mass, and stellar mass surface density of extended stellar halos in dwarf galaxies as a function of dark matter halo mass. We expect that for galaxies smaller than a critical value, these ghostly halos will not exist because the smaller galactic subunits that build it up, do not form any stars. The detection of ghostly halos around isolated dwarf galaxies is a sensitive test of the efficiency of star formation in the first galaxies and of whether ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way are fossils of the first galaxies.

  3. The faint end of the 250 μm luminosity function at z < 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Norberg, P.; Bethermin, M.; Bourne, N.; Cooray, A.; Cowley, W.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Farrah, D.; Lacey, C.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S.; Oliver, S.; Viero, M.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We aim to study the 250 μm luminosity function (LF) down to much fainter luminosities than achieved by previous efforts. Methods: We developed a modified stacking method to reconstruct the 250 μm LF using optically selected galaxies from the SDSS survey and Herschel maps of the GAMA equatorial fields and Stripe 82. Our stacking method not only recovers the mean 250 μm luminosities of galaxies that are too faint to be individually detected, but also their underlying distribution functions. Results: We find very good agreement with previous measurements in the overlapping luminosity range. More importantly, we are able to derive the LF down to much fainter luminosities (~ 25 times fainter) than achieved by previous studies. We find strong positive luminosity evolution L*250(z)∝(1+z)4.89±1.07 and moderate negative density evolution Φ*250(z)∝(1+z)-1.02±0.54 over the redshift range 0.02

  4. SEGUE 2: THE LEAST MASSIVE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G.; Geha, Marla

    2013-06-10

    Segue 2, discovered by Belokurov et al., is a galaxy with a luminosity of only 900 L{sub Sun }. We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of 25 members of Segue 2-a threefold increase in spectroscopic sample size. The velocity dispersion is too small to be measured with our data. The upper limit with 90% (95%) confidence is {sigma}{sub v} < 2.2 (2.6) km s{sup -1}, the most stringent limit for any galaxy. The corresponding limit on the mass within the three-dimensional half-light radius (46 pc) is M{sub 1/2} < 1.5 (2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. Segue 2 is the least massive galaxy known. We identify Segue 2 as a galaxy rather than a star cluster based on the wide dispersion in [Fe/H] (from -2.85 to -1.33) among the member stars. The stars' [{alpha}/Fe] ratios decline with increasing [Fe/H], indicating that Segue 2 retained Type Ia supernova ejecta despite its presently small mass and that star formation lasted for at least 100 Myr. The mean metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = -2.22 {+-} 0.13 (about the same as the Ursa Minor galaxy, 330 times more luminous than Segue 2), is higher than expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation defined by more luminous dwarf galaxy satellites of the Milky Way. Segue 2 may be the barest remnant of a tidally stripped, Ursa Minor-sized galaxy. If so, it is the best example of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that came to be ultra-faint through tidal stripping. Alternatively, Segue 2 could have been born in a very low mass dark matter subhalo (v{sub max} < 10 km s{sup -1}), below the atomic hydrogen cooling limit.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to Constraining Dwarf Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, J. M.; Ferguson, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    We use a Bayesian - maximum likelihood analysis of the Hubble Deep Field to constrain the epoch of dwarf galaxy formation. Late formation of dwarf galaxies arises as a natural consequence of proposed solutions to the "over-cooling" problem in hierarchical structure formation. Although dwarf-sized halos are among the first objects to collapse out of a cold dark matter dominated universe, photo-ionization from the inter-galactic UV background and stellar feedback at early epochs may suppress or delay significant star formation in dwarf galaxies until redshifts ~ 1. Such late-forming dwarf galaxies may make up a portion of the population of the faint blue galaxies observed at intermediate redshifts. Previous attempts to understand the nature of the faint blue galaxy population have fit the binned number counts, luminosity functions, color and size distributions and compared the results to a handful of possible scenarios. Our approach sums the likelihood of observing each object in the HDF catalog given a dwarf galaxy formation scenario and computes the total likelihood of the given dwarf formation scenario. The parameters of the input model are then varied, and the model with the maximum total likelihood is determined. This technique does not bin the data in any way, tests a wide range of input model parameters, and allows us to quantify the goodness-of-fit and constraints on dwarf galaxy evolution.

  6. Galaxy Evolution over the Last Eight Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guangtun; Blanton, M. R.; Hogg, D. W.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Coil, A. L.; Cool, R. J.; Moustakas, J.; Wong, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study galaxy evolution over the last eight billion years with large, deep galaxy surveys, PRIMUS, SDSS and DEEP2. Galaxies have changed dramatically over this period of time. The global star formation rate has declined by roughly an order-of-magnitude. Red galaxies have grown substantially in number and mass. Blue galaxies have faded and grown redder as their star formation rate dropped. I demonstrate these evolutionary features with new results from these surveys. I also introduce PRIMUS, the largest faint galaxy survey to date. We have measured 140,000 robust redshifts to the depths of i (AB) 23 up to z 1, covering 9.1 square degrees of the sky. I show that with the existing deep multi-wavelength imaging in PRIMUS fields we are able to study the evolution in greater detail and investigate proposed physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution.

  7. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  8. The dark side of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Smail, Ian

    2002-12-15

    I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely luminous, but very dusty and very distant, galaxies in the submillimetre (submm) waveband. Almost all the light emitted by the stars in these galaxies is absorbed by interstellar dust (which is produced by the same stars) and re-radiated in the far-infrared. This leaves little to be detected at optical wavelengths and results in most of these galaxies being effectively invisible in even the deepest optical images obtainable with the Hubble space telescope. Yet this population contributes most of the light emitted by galaxies at wavelengths of lambda > or approximately equal 100 microm over the lifetime of the Universe. Together with other observations, this suggests that perhaps up to half of all the stars seen in galaxies today were formed in very dusty regions in the early Universe. Hence, studying the galaxies detected in the submm wavebands is critical for developing and testing models of galaxy formation and evolution. Individually, these luminous submm galaxies are forming stars a thousand times faster than our Galaxy is at the present-day, sufficiently fast to form all the stars in the most luminous galaxy in the local Universe within a short period, up to ca. 0.1-1 Gyr. Detailed study of a handful of examples of this population confirm these estimates and unequivocally identify the bulk of this submm-selected population with dusty, star-burst galaxies in the very distant Universe. The extreme faintness of this population in the optical and near-infrared wavebands, resulting from their obscuration by dust, means that our understanding of the detailed nature of these galaxies is only slowly growing. I give a brief summary of the properties of these highly obscured systems and describe the wide range of facilities currently being developed that will greatly aid in their study. PMID:12626261

  9. 1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular dark pieces of grass up through the middle of the picture indicating posts making up the pier. Photograph made from park service cherry picker. - Dyea Dock & Association (Ruins), Skagway, Skagway, AK

  10. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    SciTech Connect

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Jauzac, Mathilde; Schaerer, Daniel; Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald

    2015-02-10

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M {sub UV} ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M{sub UV}{sup ⋆}=−20.90{sub −0.73}{sup +0.90} mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01{sub −0.28}{sup +0.20}, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L {sup *}. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L {sup *}. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization.

  11. Evolution of faint radio sources in the VIDEO-XMM3 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, K.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    It has been speculated that low-luminosity radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) have the potential to serve as an important source of AGN feedback, and may be responsible for suppressing star formation activity in massive elliptical galaxies at late times. As such the cosmic evolution of these sources is vitally important to understand the significance of such AGN feedback processes and their influence on the global star formation history of the Universe. In this paper, we present a new investigation of the evolution of faint radio sources out to z ˜ 2.5. We combine a 1 square degree Very Large Array radio survey, complete to a depth of 100 μJy, with accurate 10 band photometric redshifts from the following surveys: Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Deep Extragalactic Observations and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The results indicate that the radio population experiences mild positive evolution out to z ˜ 1.2 increasing their space density by a factor of ˜3, consistent with results of several previous studies. Beyond z = 1.2, there is evidence of a slowing down of this evolution. Star-forming galaxies drive the more rapid evolution at low redshifts, z < 1.2, while more slowly evolving AGN populations dominate at higher redshifts resulting in a decline in the evolution of the radio luminosity function at z > 1.2. The evolution is best fitted by pure luminosity evolution with star-forming galaxies evolving as (1 + z)2.47 ± 0.12 and AGN as (1 + z)1.18 ± 0.21.

  12. Scalar mesons in the decays {eta}' {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}' {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-}

    SciTech Connect

    Likhoded, A. K. Luchinsky, A. V. Samoylenko, V. D.

    2010-10-15

    The decays {eta} {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0} and {eta} {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-} are considered within the isobar model. It is shown that, in order to explain the branching ratio and the shape of the Dalitz plot for the decay {eta}' {sup {yields}}3{pi}{sup 0}, it is sufficient to take into account the contributions of the {sigma} and a{sub 0} mesons. The inclusion of the {sigma} meson is necessary for reproducing the shape of the distribution over the Dalitz plot. The branching ratio for the decay {eta}' {sup {yields} {pi}0{pi}+{pi}-} is obtained. The predictions for the distributions over the Dalitz plot for this decay are presented. These predictions depend strongly on model parameters.

  13. Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, K. A.

    Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.

  14. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  15. High resolution spectroscopy and channel-coupling treatment of the A 1Sigma+-b 3[Pi] complex of NaRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Zaitsevskii, A.; Pazyuk, E. A.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Chen, Hongmin; Qi, Jianbing; Wang, Henry; Stwalley, William C.

    2002-11-01

    The paper presents the study of the fully mixed A 1Sigma+-b 3Pi complex of the NaRb molecule based on high-resolution sub-Doppler spectroscopy and intensity measurements, ab initio relativistic calculations of energies, transition moments and spin-orbit interactions, as well as an inverted channel-coupling approach (ICCA) deperturbation analysis. A two-laser V-type pump-probe excitation scheme was employed to obtain A[left arrow]X transition frequencies to 16 A-state vibrational levels from v=6 to v=21 with J from 8 to 23. Additionally, relative intensities in laser-induced A[right arrow]X fluorescence spectra have been recorded, including progressions with all observable transitions to the ground state vibronic levels, the latter yielding unambiguous v assignment of the A-state levels observed. All experimental rovibronic term values and all measured intensity distributions were embedded in a direct simultaneous weighted nonlinear fitting in the framework of an elaborated ICCA allowing us to obtain deperturbed relativistic diabatic potentials of the interacting A 1Sigma+ and b 3Pi states. To make this possible, ab initio structure calculations of the spin-orbit singlet-triplet coupling parameter, the spin-orbit splitting of the b 3Pi state, the transition dipole moments, and the electronic energy differences for internuclear distance 3.0-7.0 A have been performed using second order many-body multipartitioning perturbation theory. The developed ICCA is proved to be appropriate for deperturbation analysis of strongly coupled electronic states provided that accurate nonadiabatic matrix elements are known. This allows unambiguous assignment of the vibrational levels of the b 3Pi0 state, which is not directly observed.

  16. New Constraints on the Faint End of the UV Luminosity Function at z ~ 7-8 Using the Gravitational Lensing of the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster A2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jauzac, Mathilde; Schaerer, Daniel; Clement, Benjamin; Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ~ 7 and eight candidates at z ~ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin2 in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ~ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M UV ~ -15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M\\star UV = -20.90+0.90-0.73 mag and a faint-end slope α =-2.01+0.20-0.28, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L sstarf. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ~ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L sstarf. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 13495, 11386, 13389, and 11689. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS

  17. FAINT NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET/FAR-ULTRAVIOLET STANDARDS FROM SWIFT/UVOT, GALEX, AND SDSS PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Brown, Peter E-mail: hoversten@astro.psu.ed E-mail: brown@astro.psu.ed

    2010-12-10

    At present, the precision of deep ultraviolet photometry is somewhat limited by the dearth of faint ultraviolet standard stars. In an effort to improve this situation, we present a uniform catalog of 11 new faint (u {approx} 17) ultraviolet standard stars. High-precision photometry of these stars has been taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Galaxy Evolution Explorer archives and combined with new data from the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope to provide precise photometric measures extending from the near-infrared to the far-ultraviolet. These stars were chosen because they are known to be hot (20, 000 < T{sub eff} < 50, 000 K) DA white dwarfs with published Sloan spectra that should be photometrically stable. This careful selection allows us to compare the combined photometry and Sloan spectroscopy to models of pure hydrogen atmospheres to both constrain the underlying properties of the white dwarfs and test the ability of white dwarf models to predict the photometric measures. We find that the photometry provides good constraints on white dwarf temperatures, which demonstrates the ability of Swift/UVOT to investigate the properties of hot luminous stars. We further find that the models reproduce the photometric measures in all 11 passbands to within their systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our photometry, we find the standard stars to be photometrically stable. This success indicates that the models can be used to calibrate additional filters to our standard system, permitting easier comparison of photometry from heterogeneous sources. The largest source of uncertainty in the model fitting is the uncertainty in the foreground reddening curve, a problem that is especially acute in the UV.

  18. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  19. The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    (farther out than those seen in this image) are populated with baby stars. X-ray observations of the heart of Messier 83 have shown that its centre is a hive of vigorous star formation, held deep within a cloud of superheated gas, with temperatures of 7 million degrees Celsius. Messier 83 is also one of the most prolific producers of supernovae, that is, exploding stars: this is one of the two galaxies, which had 6 supernovae in the past 100 years. One of these, SN 1957D was observable for 30 years! The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is a specialised astronomical camera attached to the 2.2-metre Max-Planck Society/ESO telescope, sited at the La Silla observatory in Chile. Located nearly 2400 m above sea level, atop the mountains of the Atacama Desert, ESO's La Silla enjoys some of the clearest and darkest skies on the whole planet, making the site ideally suited for studying the farthest depths of the Universe. To make this image, the WFI stared at M83 for roughly 100 minutes through a series of specialist filters, allowing the faint detail of the galaxy to reveal itself. The brighter stars in the foreground are stars in our own galaxy, whilst behind M83 the darkness is peppered with the faint smudges of distant galaxies.

  20. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  1. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  2. Encounters of spherical galaxies. I - Galaxy models with one stellar population. II - Galaxy models with two stellar populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, P.; Silk, J.

    1976-01-01

    Close encounters between two spherical galaxies of equal size and consisting of only one stellar population are calculated using models of elliptical galaxies constructed according to King's (1966) method. The mass loss and the change in internal energy are computed under the assumption that the stars do not change their velocity or density distributions during the encounters. The results for a specific case are compared with the calculations of Gallagher and Ostriker (1972), who employed the observed brightness distribution and the derived density distribution of the E1 galaxy NGC 3379. For models with one stellar population, the results suggest that the radius of a galactic halo would have to be at least 200 kpc for appreciable mass loss to occur over the history of a galaxy in a rich cluster. The calculations are then extended to include a halo population characterized by a high central velocity dispersion. In this case, it is found that the halo population of sufficiently large galaxies can be dispersed without appreciably affecting the main population. It is suggested that the missing mass of many clusters of galaxies may be located in an intergalactic sea of faint stars making up an envelope for the centrally located gE galaxies.

  3. The stellar populations of massive galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.

    2013-07-01

    I present a brief review of the stellar population properties of massive galaxies, focusing on early-type galaxies in particular, with emphasis on recent results from the ATLAS3D Survey. I discuss the occurence of young stellar ages, cold gas, and ongoing star formation in early-type galaxies, the presence of which gives important clues to the evolutionary path of these galaxies. Consideration of empirical star formation histories gives a meaningful picture of galaxy stellar population properties, and allows accurate comparison of mass estimates from populations and dynamics. This has recently provided strong evidence of a non-universal IMF, as supported by other recent evidences. Spatially-resolved studies of stellar populations are also crucial to connect distinct components within galaxies to spatial structures seen in other wavelengths or parameters. Stellar populations in the faint outer envelopes of early-type galaxies are a formidable frontier for observers, but promise to put constraints on the ratio of accreted stellar mass versus that formed `in situ' - a key feature of recent galaxy formation models. Galaxy environment appears to play a key role in controlling the stellar population properties of low mass galaxies. Simulations remind us, however, that current day galaxies are the product of a complex assembly and environment history, which gives rise to the trends we see. This has strong implications for our interpretation of environmental trends.

  4. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 19 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014B. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  5. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 12 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014A. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  6. Deep galaxy count predictions in the radio, infrared, and X-ray spectral bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treyer, Marie-Agnes; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The existence of a dominant population of strongly evolving starburst sources at moderate redshift is a plausible explanation for the excess number of faint blue galaxies detected in deep sky surveys. Multiwavelength observations at faint magnitudes would allow the existence of such a population to be confirmed. We use observed luminosity correlations and physical properties of known starburst galaxies to predict their contribution to the deep radio, infrared, and X-ray counts, as well as to the diffuse extragalactic background radiation in these various spectral bands.

  7. Supernovae without host galaxies?. Hypervelocity stars in foreign galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinn, P.-C.; Grunden, P.; Bomans, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Context. Harvesting the SAI supernova catalog, the most complete list of supernovae (SNe) currently available, we search for SNe that apparently do not occur within a distinct host galaxy but lie a great distance (several arcmin) apart from the host galaxy given in the catalog or even show no sign of an identifiable galaxy in their direct vicinity. Aims: We attempt to distinguish between two possible explanations of this host-lessness of a fraction of reported SNe, namely (i) that a host galaxy is too faint (of too low surface brightness) to be detected within the limits of currently available surveys (presumably a low surface brightness galaxy) or (ii) the progenitor of the SN is a hypervelocity star (HVS) that exploded kiloparsecs away from its host galaxy. Methods: We use deep imaging to test the first explanation. If no galaxy is identified within our detection limit of ~27 mag arcsec-2, which is the central surface brightness of the faintest known LSB galaxy so far, we discard this explanation and propose that the SN, after several other checks, had a hypervelocity star progenitor. We focus on observations for which this is the case and give lower limits to the actual space velocities of the progenitors, making them the first hypervelocity stars known in galaxies other than our own Milky Way. Results: Analyzing a selected subsample of five host-less SNe, we find one, SN 2006bx in UGC 5434, is a possible hypervelocity progenitor category with a high probability, exhibiting a projected velocity of ~800 km s-1. SN 1969L in NGC 1058 is most likely an example of a very extended star-forming disk visible only in the far-UV, but not in the optical wavebands. Therefore, this SN is clearly due to in situ star formation. This mechanism may also apply to two other SNe that we investigated (SN 1970L and SN 1997C), but this cannot be determined with certainty. Another SN, SN 2005 nc which is associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB 050525), is a special case that is not

  8. Photometric Properties of Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T.

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using optical photometry. We select these poor clusters as luminous, extended X-ray sources identified with poor galaxy systems in the EMSS catalogue of clusters of galaxies. The clusters are at moderate redshifts (0.08galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of their color--magnitude relations and accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo Cluster. The fraction of blue galaxies is similar to those of low-redshift richness 0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The luminosity functions (LFs) of the individual clusters are not significantly different from each other. Using these, we construct composite LFs in B, V , and R bands (to MV=-18). The faint-end of these LFs are flat, like the V-band LF of other (e.g., MKW/AWM) poor clusters, but steeper than the field LF in the R-band. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts.

  9. The Hunt for Missing Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Theories of galaxy formation and evolution predict that there should be significantly more dwarf galaxies than have been observed. Are our theories wrong? Or are dwarf galaxies just difficult to detect? Recent results from a survey of a galaxy cluster 62 million light-years away suggest there may be lots of undiscovered dwarf galaxies hiding throughout the universe!Hiding in FaintnessThe missing dwarf problem has had hints of a resolution with the recent discovery of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters. UDGs have low masses and large radii, resulting in a very low surface brightness that makes them extremely difficult to detect. If many dwarfs are UDGs, this could well explain why weve been missing them!But the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters are similar in that theyre both very massive. Are there UDGs in other galaxy clusters as well? To answer this question, an international team of scientists is running the Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS), a survey searching for faint dwarf galaxies in the central 30 square degrees of the Fornax galaxy cluster.The NGFS uses near-UV and optical observations from the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile. The survey is still underway, but in a recent publication led by Roberto P. Muoz (Institute of Astrophysics at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile), the team has released an overview of the first results from only the central 3 square degrees of the NGFS field.Surprising DetectionGalaxy radii vs. their absolute i-band magnitudes, for the dwarfs found in NGFS as well as other stellar systems in the nearby universe. The NGFS dwarfs are similar to the ultra-diffuse dwarfs found in the Virgo and Coma clusters, but are several orders of magnitude fainter. [Muoz et al. 2015]In just this small central field, the team has found an astounding 284 low-surface-brightness dwarf galaxy candidates 158 of them previously undetected. At the bright end of this sample are dwarf

  10. A CCD survey for faint high-latitude carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Paul J.; Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Cook, Kem H.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a wide-area CCD survey to search for faint high-latitude carbon (FHLC) stars. Carbon giants provide excellent probes of the structure and kinematics of the outer Galactic halo. We use two-color photometric selection with large-format CCDs to cover 52 sq deg of sky to a depth of about V = 18. Of 94 faint C star candidates from our own CCD survey, one highly ranked V = 17 candidate was found to have a strong carbon and CN bands. We estimate that, to a depth of V = 18, the surface density of FHLC stars is 0.02 deg(exp -2). An updated FHLC sample is used to constrain halo kinematic and structural parameters. Although larger samples are needed, the effective radius of FHLC giants, assuming a de Vancouleurs law distribution, is larger than that for Galactic globular clusters.

  11. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2

  12. Can waterbelt climates resolve the faint young Sun paradox?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, E. T.; Toon, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    Ancient sediments indicate that liquid water and primitive life were ubiquitous on the Archean Earth despite the faint young Sun. However, energy balance and radiative-convective models require improbably high greenhouse gas abundances to obtain non-glacial climates, violating constraints from geochemical data. A self-consistent solution to the faint young Sun paradox has remained elusive. Here we use the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 3 with thermodynamic ocean and sea ice components to simulate the climate circa 2.8 billion years ago. To maintain present day surface temperatures, 0.06 bar of CO2 in a 1 bar atmosphere is required to compensate for a 20 percent reduction in the solar constant. However, waterbelt climates having stable low latitude sea ice margins can be maintained with as little as 500 ppm of CO2 and no additional trace greenhouse species. With 5000 ppm of CO2 nearly 60 percent of the planet remains free from ice. The early Earth is resistant to hard snowball glaciations instead favoring waterbelt climates. The coexistence of a faint young Sun and a weak greenhouse does not exclude the presence of liquid water at the Archean surface.

  13. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, H.K.C.; Hsieh, B.C.; Lin, Huan; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst. Observ.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  14. Binary Aggregations in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: The Evolution of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menci, N.; Cavaliere, A.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Poli, F.

    2002-08-01

    We develop a semianalytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation with an improved treatment of the evolution of galaxies inside dark matter halos. We take into account not only dynamical friction processes building up the central dominant galaxy but also binary aggregations of satellite galaxies inside a common halo. These deplete small to intermediate mass objects, affecting the slope of the luminosity function at its faint end, with significant observable consequences. We model the effect of two-body aggregations using the kinetic Smoluchowski equation. This flattens the mass function by an amount that depends on the histories of the host halos as they grow by hierarchical clustering. The description of gas cooling, star formation and evolution, and supernova feedback follows the standard prescriptions widely used in semianalytic modeling. We find that binary aggregations are effective in depleting the number of small/intermediate mass galaxies over the redshift range 1faint end. At z~0 the flattening occurs for -20faint end for MB>-16. We compare our predicted luminosity functions with those obtained from deep multicolor surveys in the Hubble Deep Field-North, Hubble Deep Field-South, and New Technology Telescope Deep Field in the rest-frame B and UV bands for the redshift ranges 01 and even more at z~3 by the effect of the binary aggregations. The predictions from our dynamical model are discussed and compared with the effects of complementary processes (additional starburst recipes, alternative sources of feedback, different mass distribution of the dark matter halos) that may conspire in affecting the shape of the luminosity function.

  15. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  16. Stellar halos around Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, Alan W.

    2016-08-01

    The Local Group is now home to 102 known galaxies and candidates, with many new faint galaxies continuing to be discovered. The total stellar mass range spanned by this population covers a factor of close to a billion, from the faintest systems with stellar masses of order a few thousand to the Milky Way and Andromeda, with stellar masses of order 1011 M ⊙. Here, I discuss the evidence for stellar halos surrounding Local Group galaxies spanning from dwarf scales (with the case of the Andromeda II dwarf spheroidal), though to intermediate mass systems (M33) and finishing with M31. Evidence of extended stellar populations and merging is seen across the luminosity function, indicating that the processes that lead to halo formation are common at all mass scales.

  17. Galaxy Evolution Science in the LSST Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson Ferguson, Henry

    2015-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is under construction in Chile. At the start of the next decade, it will embark on a 10-year survey of the southern sky, with rapid public release of the data. The immense data set will vastly expand our ability to find faint galaxies and study low-surface-brightness features in and around galaxies. It will enable studies of the multi-dimensional relationship between different galaxy propoerties, and ehance our ability to study the effects of environment and the evolution of those effects with lookback time. At the same time, other facilities like JWST, ALMA, and SKA and will expand our reach in the infrared and radio. This talk will outline some of the planning and challenges for LSST in the context of overall planning for the next decade.

  18. Dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster - II. Spectroscopic and photometric fundamental planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkchi, E.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Carter, D.; Mobasher, B.

    2012-03-01

    We present a study of the Fundamental Plane (FP) for a sample of 71 dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster in the magnitude range -21 < MI < -15. Taking advantage of the high-resolution DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II for measuring the internal velocity dispersion of galaxies and high-resolution imaging of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS, which allows an accurate surface brightness modelling, we extend the FP of galaxies to luminosities of ˜1 mag fainter than all the previous studies of the FP in the Coma cluster. We find that the scatter about the FP depends on the faint-end luminosity cut-off, such that the scatter increases for fainter galaxies. The residual from the FP correlates with the galaxy colour, with bluer galaxies showing larger residuals from the FP. We find M/L ∝ M-0.15±0.22 in the F814W band, indicating that in faint dwarf ellipticals, the M/L ratio is insensitive to the mass. We find that less massive dwarf ellipticals are bluer than their brighter counterparts, possibly indicating ongoing star formation activity. Although tidal encounters and harassment can play a part in removing stars and dark matter from the galaxy, we believe that the dominant effect will be the stellar wind associated with the star formation, which will remove material from the galaxy, resulting in larger M/L ratios. We attribute the deviation of a number of faint blue dwarfs from the FP of brighter ellipticals to this effect. We also study other scaling relations involving galaxy photometric properties including the Photometric Plane. We show that compared to the FP, the scatter about the Photometric Plane is smaller at the faint end.

  19. Tracking star formation in dwarf cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Cody Millard

    The evolution of galaxies in dense environments can be affected by close encounters with neighboring galaxies and interactions with the intracluster medium (ICM). Dwarf galaxies may be especially susceptible to these effects due to their low mass. The goal of my dissertation research is to look for signs of star formation in cluster dwarf galaxies by measuring and comparing the r- and u-band luminosity functions of 15 low redshift Abell galaxy clusters using archival data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). Luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions are measured in four cluster-centric annuli from stacked cluster data. To account for differences in cluster optical richness, each cluster is scaled according to r200, where r200 is the radius of a sphere, centered on the cluster, whose average density is 200 times the critical density of the universe. The outer region of the cluster sample shows an increase in the faint-end slope of the u-band luminosity function relative to the r-band, indicating star formation in dwarf galaxies. The blue fraction for dwarf galaxies steadily rises with increasing cluster-centric radii. The change in the blue fraction of giant galaxies also increases, but at a lower rate. Additionally, the inner regions of clusters ranging from 0.185 < z < 0.7 from the "Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH)" are used to generate blue- and red-band luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions. Comparisons of the inner region of the CLASH and CFHT clusters show an increase in the blue fraction of dwarf galaxies with redshift that is not present in giant galaxies.

  20. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-01

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe. PMID:26156371

  1. Particle-based ablation model for faint meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokan, E.; Campbell-Brown, M.

    2014-07-01

    Modeling the ablation of meteoroids as they enter the atmosphere is a way of determining their physical structure and elemental composition. This can provide insight into the structure of parent bodies when combined with an orbit computed from observations. The Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory (CAMO) is a source of new, high-resolution observations of faint meteors [1]. These faint objects tend to have pre-atmospheric masses around 10^{-5} kg, corresponding to a radius of 1 mm. A wide-field camera with a 28° field of view provides guidance to a high-resolution camera that tracks meteors in flight with 1.5° field of view. Meteors are recorded with a scale of 4 m per pixel at a range of 135 km, at 110 frames per second, allowing us to investigate detailed meteor morphology. This serves as an important new constraint for ablation models, in addition to meteor brightness (lightcurves) and meteoroid deceleration. High-resolution observations of faint meteors have revealed that contemporary ablation models are not able to predict meteor morphology, even while matching the observed lightcurve and meteoroid deceleration [2]. This implies that other physical processes, in addition to fragmentation, must be considered for faint meteor ablation. We present a new, particle-based approach to modeling the ablation of small meteoroids. In this model, we simulate the collisions between atmospheric particles and the meteoroid to determine the rate of evaporation and deceleration. Subsequent collisions simulated between evaporated meteoroid particles and ambient atmospheric particles then produce light that would be observed by high-resolution cameras. Preliminary results show simultaneous agreement with meteor morphology, lightcurves, and decelerations recorded with CAMO. A sample comparison of simulated and observed meteor morphology is given in the attached figure. Several meteoroids are well-represented as solid, stony bodies, but some require modeling as a dustball [3

  2. The Hunt for Dwarf Galaxies' Ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies are typically very faint, and are therefore hard to find. Given that, what are our chances of finding their distant ancestors, located billions of light-years away? A recent study aims to find out.Ancient CounterpartsDwarf galaxies are a hot topic right now, especially as we discover more and more of them nearby. Besides being great places to investigate a variety of astrophysical processes, local group dwarf galaxies are also representative of the most common type of galaxy in the universe. For many of these dwarf galaxies, their low masses and typically old stellar populations suggest that most of their stars were formed early in the universes history, and further star formation was suppressed when the universe was reionized at redshifts of z ~ 610. If this is true, most dwarf galaxies are essentially fossils: theyve evolved little since that point.To test this theory, wed like to find counterparts to our local group dwarf galaxies at these higher redshifts of z = 6 or 7. But dwarf galaxies, since they dont exhibit lots of active star formation, have very low surface brightnesses making them very difficult to detect. What are the chances that current or future telescope sensitivities will allow us to detect these? Thats the question Anna Patej and Abraham Loeb, two theorists at Harvard University, have addressed in a recent study.Entering a New RegimeThe surface brightness vs. size for 73 local dwarf galaxies scaled back to redshifts of z=6 (top) and z=7 (bottom). So far weve been able to observe high-redshift galaxies within the boxed region of the parameter space. JWST will open the shaded region of the parameter space, which includes some of the dwarf galaxies. [Patej Loeb 2015]Starting from observational data for 87 Local-Group dwarf galaxies, Patej and Loeb used a stellar population synthesis code to evolve the galaxies backward in time to redshifts of z = 6 and 7. Next, they narrowed this sample to only those dwarfs for which most star

  3. Exploring Optically Compact Dwarf Galaxies for Kinematic Structures and Extended HI Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Most, Hans; Cannon, J. M.; Salzer, J. J.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    We present Very Large Array H I spectral line and optical imaging of eight optically compact (optical radii <1 kpc), star-forming dwarf galaxies. These galaxies were chosen because of their optically compact stellar distributions, faint blue magnitudes, ongoing star formation, and relative proximity. The sample includes ADBS 113845+2008, which was found to have an HI halo that extends nearly 40 optical scale lengths from the stellar body (Cannon et al. 2009). Using this larger sample, we are working to discern if the "giant gas disk" dwarf galaxy is common or rare. We are also exploring the kinematics and dark matter contents of each of the sample galaxies.

  4. Hot Gas and AGN Feedback in Galaxies and Nearby Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Bogdan, Akos; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph; Churazov, Eugene

    2013-07-01

    Massive galaxies harbor a supermassive black hole at their centers. At high redshifts, these galaxies experienced a very active quasar phase, when, as their black holes grew by accretion, they produced enormous amounts of energy. At the present epoch, these black holes still undergo occasional outbursts, although the mode of their energy release is primarily mechanical rather than radiative. The energy from these outbursts can reheat the cooling gas in the galaxy cores and maintain the red and dead nature of the early-type galaxies. These outbursts also can have dramatic effects on the galaxy-scale hot coronae found in the more massive galaxies. We describe research in three areas related to the hot gas around galaxies and their supermassive black holes. First we present examples of galaxies with AGN outbursts that have been studied in detail. Second, we show that X-ray emitting low-luminosity AGN are present in 80% of the galaxies studied. Third, we discuss the first examples of extensive hot gas and dark matter halos in optically faint galaxies.

  5. Environmental Density vs. Colour Indices of the Low Redshifts Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrycheva, D. V.; Melnyk, O. V.; Vavilova, I. B.; Elyiv, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have used 3D Voronoi tessellation to determine the environmental density of galaxies from a sample of the SDSS DR9 survey (0.02 < z < 0.1 and mr < 17.7). The sample was divided into two groups: bright central galaxies with Mr < -20.7 (N ~ 120000) and faint satellite galaxies with Mr > -20.7 (N~140000). We characterized the environmental density of the galaxies by the inverse volume of a Voronoi cell. We confirmed a tendency for an evolutionary decrease in the relative number of early galaxy types (with quenched star formation) with increasing redshift. It was also shown that the higher the density of environment near a central galaxy, it is more likely that the central galaxy has an early morphological type. The fraction of early types among the central galaxies is higher (78%) that among the sample of satellite galaxies (26%). In addition, the higher fraction of the central early-type galaxies in the sample, the higher their share in the denser environments.

  6. CEPHEID VARIABLE STAR IN GALAXY M100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a region of the galaxy M100 shows a class of pulsating star called a Cepheid Variable. Though rare, these stars are reliable distance indicators to galaxies. Based on the Hubble observation, the distance to M100 has been measured accurately as 56 million light-years (+/- 6 million light-years), making it the farthest object where intergalactic distances have been determined precisely. Hubble's high resolution pinpoints a Cepheid, which is located in a starbirth region in one of the galaxy's spiral arms (bottom frame). The top three frames were taken on (from left to right) May 9, May 4, May 31, and they reveal that the star (in center of each box) changes brightness. Cepheids go through these changes rhythmically over a few weeks. The interval it takes for the Cepheid to complete one pulsation is a direct indication of the stars's intrinsic brightness. This value can be used to make a precise measurement of the galaxy's distance. Only Hubble Space Telescope has the required sensitivity and resolution to detect these 'cosmic milepost' type stars out to great distances from Earth, according to astronomers. Typically, Cepheids in a crowded region of a distant galaxy are too faint and the resolution too poor, as seen from ground-based telescopes, to be detected clearly. Hubble was used to make twelve one-hour exposures, timed carefully in a two-month observing window, to discover 20 Cepheid variable stars in the M100 galaxy. Though M100 is the most distant galaxy in which Cepheid variables have been discovered, HST must find Cepheids in even more distant galaxies before accurate distances can be used to calculate a definitive size and age for the universe. Technical Information: The Hubble Space Telescope image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2). This black and white picture was taken at visible light wavelengths. Target Information: M100 (100th object in the Messier catalog of non-stellar objects) is a

  7. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.

    PubMed

    Perets, H B; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P A; Arnett, D; Kagan, D; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Fox, D B; Leonard, D C; Moon, D-S; Sand, D J; Soderberg, A M; Anderson, J P; James, P A; Foley, R J; Ganeshalingam, M; Ofek, E O; Bildsten, L; Nelemans, G; Shen, K J; Weinberg, N N; Metzger, B D; Piro, A L; Quataert, E; Kiewe, M; Poznanski, D

    2010-05-20

    Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated with young stellar populations. In contrast, the thermonuclear detonation of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, whose mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, is thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are observed in both young and old stellar environments. Here we report a faint type Ib supernova, SN 2005E, in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The 'old' environment near the supernova location, and the very low derived ejected mass ( approximately 0.3 solar masses), argue strongly against a core-collapse origin. Spectroscopic observations and analysis reveal high ejecta velocities, dominated by helium-burning products, probably excluding this as a subluminous or a regular type Ia supernova. We conclude that it arises from a low-mass, old progenitor, likely to have been a helium-accreting white dwarf in a binary. The ejecta contain more calcium than observed in other types of supernovae and probably large amounts of radioactive (44)Ti. PMID:20485429

  8. FAINT FUZZY STAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 1023 AS REMNANTS OF MERGED STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruens, R. C.; Kroupa, P.; Fellhauer, M. E-mail: pavel@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2009-09-10

    In the lenticular galaxy NGC 1023 a third population of globular clusters (GCs), called faint fuzzies (FFs), was discovered next to the blue and red GC populations by Larsen and Brodie. While these FFs have colors comparable to the red population, the new population is fainter, larger (R{sub eff}>7 pc) and, most importantly, shows clear signs of corotation with the galactic disk of NGC 1023. We present N-body simulations verifying the hypothesis that these disk-associated FFs are related to the young massive cluster complexes (CCs) observed by Bastian et al. in M51, who discovered a mass-radius relation for these CCs. Our models have an initial configuration based on the observations from M51 and are placed on various orbits in a galactic potential derived for NGC 1023. All computations end up with a stable object containing 10%-60% of the initial CC mass after an integration time of 5 Gyr. A conversion to visual magnitudes demonstrates that the resulting objects cover exactly the observed range for FFs. Moreover, the simulated objects show projected half-mass radii between 3.6 and 13.4 pc, in good agreement with the observed FF sizes. We conclude that objects like the young massive CCs in M51 are likely progenitors of the FFs observed in NGC 1023.

  9. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Sutherland, Ralph

    2015-01-30

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M{sub vir}∼10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems.

  10. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, H. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Arnett, D.; Kagan, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, D. B.; Leonard, D. C.; Moon, D.-S.; Sand, D. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Anderson, J. P.; James, P. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Ofek, E. O.; Bildsten, L.; Nelemans, G.; Shen, K. J.; Weinberg, N. N.; Metzger, B. D.; Piro, A. L.; Quataert, E.; Kiewe, M.; Poznanski, D.

    2010-05-01

    Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated with young stellar populations. In contrast, the thermonuclear detonation of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, whose mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, is thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are observed in both young and old stellar environments. Here we report a faint type Ib supernova, SN 2005E, in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The `old' environment near the supernova location, and the very low derived ejected mass (~0.3 solar masses), argue strongly against a core-collapse origin. Spectroscopic observations and analysis reveal high ejecta velocities, dominated by helium-burning products, probably excluding this as a subluminous or a regular type Ia supernova. We conclude that it arises from a low-mass, old progenitor, likely to have been a helium-accreting white dwarf in a binary. The ejecta contain more calcium than observed in other types of supernovae and probably large amounts of radioactive 44Ti.

  11. Faint Object Camera observations of M87 - The jet and nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenberg, A.; Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Crane, P.; Deharveng, J. M.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.; Kamperman, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    UV and optical images of the central region and jet of the nearby elliptical galaxy M87 have been obtained with about 0.1 arcsec resolution in several spectral bands with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the HST, including polarization images. Deconvolution enhances the contrast of the complex structure and filamentary patterns in the jet already evident in the aberrated images. Morphologically there is close similarity between the FOC images of the extended jet and the best 2-cm radio maps obtained at similar resolution, and the magnetic field vectors from the UV and radio polarimetric data also correspond well. We observe structure in the inner jet within a few tenths arcsec of the nucleus which also has been well studied at radio wavelengths. Our UV and optical photometry of regions along the jet shows little variation in spectral index from the value 1.0 between markedly different regions and no trend to a steepening spectrum with distance along the jet.

  12. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2009-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  13. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2010-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  14. ALMA constraints on the faint millimetre source number counts and their contribution to the cosmic infrared background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Maiolino, R.; De Zotti, G.; Negrello, M.; Marconi, A.; Bothwell, M. S.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Fontana, A.; Gallerani, S.; Jones, G.; Ohta, K.; Ota, K.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.; Sheth, K.; Vallini, L.; Vanzella, E.; Wagg, J.; Williams, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    We have analysed 18 ALMA continuum maps in Bands 6 and 7, with rms down to 7.8 μJy, to derive differential number counts down to 60 μJy and 100 μJy at λ = 1.3 mm and λ = 1.1 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the non-detection of faint sources in the deepest ALMA field enabled us to set tight upper limits on the number counts down to 30 μJy. This is a factor of four deeper than the currently most stringent upper limit. The area covered by the combined fields is 9.5 × 10-4 deg2 at 1.1 mm and 6.6 × 10-4 deg2 at 1.3 mm. With respect to previous works, we improved the source extraction method by requiring that the dimension of the detected sources be consistent with the beam size. This method enabled us to remove spurious detections that have plagued the purity of the catalogues in previous studies. We detected 50 faint sources (at fluxes <1 mJy) with signal-to-noise (S/N) >3.5 down to 60 μJy, hence improving the statistics by a factor of four relative to previous studies. The inferred differential number counts are dN/ d(Log10S) = 1 × 105 deg2 at a 1.1 mm flux Sλ = 1.1 mm = 130 μJy, and dN/ d(Log10S) = 1.1 × 105 deg2 at a 1.3 mm flux Sλ = 1.3 mm = 60 μJy. At the faintest flux limits probed by our data, i.e. 30 μJy and 40 μJy, we obtain upper limits on the differential number counts of dN/ d(Log10S) < 7 × 105 deg2 and dN/ d(Log10S) < 3 × 105 deg2, respectively. Determining the fraction of cosmic infrared background (CIB) resolved by the ALMA observations was hampered by the large uncertainties plaguing the CIB measurements (a factor of four in flux). However, our results provide a new lower limit to CIB intensity of 17.2 Jy deg-2 at 1.1 mm and of 12.9 Jy deg-2 at 1.3 mm. Moreover, the flattening of the integrated number counts at faint fluxes strongly suggests that we are probably close to the CIB intensity. Our data imply that galaxies with star formation rate (SFR) < 40 M⊙/yr certainly contribute less than 50% to the CIB (and probably a much lower

  15. Galaxy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courteau, Stéphane; Cappellari, Michele; de Jong, Roelof S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Hoekstra, Henk; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, Gary A.; Maraston, Claudia; Treu, Tommaso; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.

  16. Faint AGNs at z > 4 in the CANDELS GOODS-S field: looking for contributors to the reionization of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.; Dickinson, M.; Kocevski, D.; Castellano, M.; Cristiani, S.; Ferguson, H.; Finkelstein, S.; Grogin, N.; Hathi, N.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Newman, J. A.; Salvato, M.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Establishing the number of faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 4-6 is crucial to understanding their cosmological importance as main contributors to the reionization of the Universe. Aims: In order to derive the AGN contribution to the cosmological ionizing emissivity we have selected faint AGN candidates at z> 4 in the CANDELS GOODS-South field, which is one of the deepest fields with extensive multiwavelength coverage from Chandra, HST, Spitzer, and various ground-based telescopes. Methods: We have adopted a relatively novel criterion. As a first step, high redshift galaxies are selected in the NIR H band down to very faint levels (H ≤ 27) using reliable photometric redshifts. At z> 4 this corresponds to a selection criterion based on the galaxy rest-frame UV flux. AGN candidates are then picked up from this parent sample if they show X-ray fluxes above a threshold of FX ˜ 1.5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 (0.5-2 keV), corresponding to a probability of spurious detections of 2 × 10-4 in the deep X-ray 4 Ms Chandra image. Results: We have found 22 AGN candidates at z> 4 and we have derived the first estimate of the UV luminosity function in the redshift interval 4 galaxies. The faint end of the derived luminosity function is about two to four magnitudes fainter at z ˜ 4-6 than that derived from previous UV surveys. We estimated ionizing emissivities and hydrogen photoionization rates in the same redshift interval under reasonable assumptions and after discussion of possible caveats, the most important being the large uncertainties involved in the estimate of photometric redshift for sources with featureless, almost power-law SEDs and/or low average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the AGN host galaxies. Both effects could, in principle, significantly reduce the estimated average volume densities and/or ionizing emissivities, especially at the highest

  17. Observing Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are key probes of both dark matter and galaxy formation. They are the smallest, oldest, most dark matter-dominated, and least chemically enriched stellar systems currently known. However, despite two decades of major computational, theoretical, and observational advances in this field, we are still working toward a complete understanding of star and galaxy formation at the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. In the last year, large sky surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and Pan-STARRS have made an unprecedented series of discoveries, nearly doubling the population of Milky Way satellite galaxies that was known at the start of 2015. This increase in the number of nearby dwarfs may significantly improve the sensitivity of searches for dark matter annihilation radiation. Many of these new dwarfs are likely to have originated as satellites of the Magellanic Clouds, providing a unique opportunity to study the effect of galactic environment on the formation of the faintest dwarfs. I will provide an overview of recent discoveries and how they fit in to the previously known population of nearby dwarf galaxies, highlighting a few of the most interesting objects from the perspective of dark matter and stellar nucleosynthesis.

  18. THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stiavelli, Massimo; Trenti, Michele

    2010-06-20

    We study the clustering properties of the first galaxies formed in the universe. We find that, due to chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium by isolated Population III stars formed in mini-halos at redshift z {approx_gt} 30, the (chronologically) first galaxies are composed of metal-poor Population II stars and are highly clustered on small scales. In contrast, chemically pristine galaxies in halos with mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} may form at z < 20 in relatively underdense regions of the universe. This occurs once self-enrichment by Population III in mini-halos is quenched by the buildup of an H{sub 2} photodissociating radiative background in the Lyman-Werner bands. We find that these chemically pristine galaxies are spatially uncorrelated. Thus, we expect that deep fields with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may detect clusters of chemically enriched galaxies but individual chemically pristine objects. We predict that metal-free galaxies at 10 {approx}< z {approx}< 15 have surface densities of about 80 arcmin{sup -2} and per unit redshift but most of them will be too faint even for JWST. However, the predicted density makes these objects interesting targets for searches behind lensing clusters.

  19. Photometric Properties of Poor Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using multi-color optical photometry obtained at the Vainu Bappu Telescope, India. The clusters, selected from the EMSS Catalog, are at moderate redshifts (0.08 < z < 0.25), of equivalent Abell richness R=0, and appear to be dynamically young. The early-type galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of the color-magnitude relations and the accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo cluster. The blue galaxy fractions are similar to those of R=0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The composite luminosity functions (LFs) in B, V, and R bands are flat at the faint end, similar to the V-band LF derived by Yamagata & Maehara for other (MKW/AWM) poor clusters but steeper than the R-band field LF derived by Lin et al. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts. The brightest galaxies of three of these poor clusters appear to be luminous ellipticals with no incontrovertible signatures of a halo. It is likely that they were formed from multiple mergers early in the history of the clusters.

  20. The brighter galaxies reionized the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos; Bower, Richard; Crain, Robert; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen in the Universe was (re)ionized between redshifts z ≈ 10 and z ≈ 6. The nature of the sources of the ionizing radiation is hotly debated, with faint galaxies below current detection limits regarded as prime candidates. Here, we consider a scenario in which ionizing photons escape through channels punctured in the interstellar medium by outflows powered by starbursts. We take account of the observation that strong outflows occur only when the star formation density is sufficiently high, and estimate the galaxy-averaged escape fraction as a function of redshift and luminosity from the resolved star formation surface densities in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We find that the fraction of ionizing photons that escape from galaxies increases rapidly with redshift, reaching values of 5-20 per cent at z > 6, with the brighter galaxies having higher escape fractions. Combining the dependence of escape fraction on luminosity and redshift with the observed luminosity function, we demonstrate that galaxies emit enough ionizing photons to match the existing constraints on reionization while also matching the observed ultraviolet-background post-reionization. Our findings suggest that galaxies above the current Hubble Space Telescope detection limit emit half of the ionizing radiation required to reionize the Universe.

  1. Choirs H I galaxy groups: The metallicity of dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Bekki, Kenji; Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C.; Kilborn, Virginia

    2014-02-10

    We present a recalibration of the luminosity-metallicity relation for gas-rich, star-forming dwarfs to magnitudes as faint as M{sub R} ∼ –13. We use the Dopita et al. metallicity calibrations to calibrate the relation for all the data in this analysis. In metallicity-luminosity space, we find two subpopulations within a sample of high-confidence Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR8 star-forming galaxies: 52% are metal-rich giants and 48% are metal-medium galaxies. Metal-rich dwarfs classified as tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the literature are typically of metallicity 12 + log(O/H) = 8.70 ± 0.05, while SDSS dwarfs fainter than M{sub R} = –16 have a mean metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.28 ± 0.10, regardless of their luminosity, indicating that there is an approximate floor to the metallicity of low-luminosity galaxies. Our hydrodynamical simulations predict that TDGs should have metallicities elevated above the normal luminosity-metallicity relation. Metallicity can therefore be a useful diagnostic for identifying TDG candidate populations in the absence of tidal tails. At magnitudes brighter than M{sub R} ∼ –16, our sample of 53 star-forming galaxies in 9 H I gas-rich groups is consistent with the normal relation defined by the SDSS sample. At fainter magnitudes, there is an increase in dispersion of the metallicity of our sample, suggestive of a wide range of H I content and environment. In our sample, we identify three (16% of dwarfs) strong TDG candidates (12 + log(O/H) > 8.6) and four (21%) very metal-poor dwarfs (12 + log(O/H) < 8.0), which are likely gas-rich dwarfs with recently ignited star formation.

  2. Andromeda Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is a Galaxy Evolution Explorer observation of the large galaxy in Andromeda, Messier 31. The Andromeda galaxy is the most massive in the local group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own. The image is a mosaic of 10 separate Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken in September, 2003. The color image (with near ultraviolet shown by red and far ultraviolet shown by blue) shows blue regions of young, hot, high mass stars tracing out the spiral arms where star formation is occurring, and the central orange-white 'bulge' of old, cooler stars formed long ago. The star forming arms of Messier 31 are unusual in being quite circular rather than the usual spiral shape. Several companion galaxies can also be seen. These include Messier 32, a dwarf elliptical galaxy directly below the central bulge and just outside the spiral arms, and Messier 110 (M110), which is above and to the right of the center. M110 has an unusual far ultraviolet bright core in an otherwise 'red,' old star halo. Many other regions of star formation can be seen far outside the main body of the galaxy.

  3. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Coma Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secker, Jeff

    1995-12-01

    I have analyzed deep R- and B-band CCD images of the central ~ 700 arcmin(2) of the Coma cluster (Abell 1656, v = 7000 km/s, richness-class 2), using a statistically rigorous and automated method for the detection, photometry and classification of faint objects on digital images. The dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies are confined to a well-defined sequence in the color range given by 0.7 <= (B-R) <= 1.9 mag; within this interval and complete to R = 22.5 mag, there are 2535 dE candidates in the cluster core, and 694 objects on the associated control field (2.57x less area). I detected a significant metallicity gradient in the radial distribution of dE galaxies, which goes as Z ~ R(-0.32) outwards from the cluster center at NGC 4874. As well, there is a strong color-luminosity correlation, in the sense that more luminous dE galaxies are redder in the mean. These observations are consistent with a model in which the intracluster gas exerted a confinement pressure (greatest near the cluster core), impeding the outflow of supernovae-driven metal-rich gas from the young dE galaxies. The spatial distribution of faint dEs is well fit by a standard King model with a core radius R_c = 18.7 arcmin ( =~ 0.44 Mpc), significantly larger than found for the brightest dEs and giant cluster galaxies, and consistent with tidal disruption of faint dEs in the dense cluster core. The composite luminosity function for Coma galaxies was modeled as the sum of a log-normal distribution for the giant galaxies and a Schechter function for the dE galaxies. Decomposing the galaxy luminosity function in this manner, I found that the early-type dwarf-to-giant ratio (EDGR) for the Coma cluster core is identical with that of the Virgo cluster. I proposed that the presence of substructure is an important factor in determining the cluster's EDGR, since during the merger of two or more richness-class 1 galaxy clusters, the total number of dwarf and giant galaxies will be conserved. Thus, this low EDGR

  4. Ultradiffuse galaxies: the high-spin tail of the abundant dwarf galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorisco, N. C.; Loeb, A.

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of an abundant population of faint, low surface brightness (SB) galaxies, which appear to be numerous and ubiquitous in nearby galaxy clusters, including the Virgo, Coma and Fornax clusters. With median stellar masses of dwarf galaxies, these ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) have unexpectedly large sizes, corresponding to a mean SB of 24 ≲ <μe>r mag-1 arcsec2 ≲ 27 within the effective radius. We show that the UDG population represents the tail of galaxies formed in dwarf-sized haloes with higher-than-average angular momentum. By adopting the standard model of disc formation - in which the size of galaxies is set by the spin of the halo - we recover both the abundance of UDGs as a function of the host cluster mass and the distribution of sizes within the UDG population. According to this model, UDGs are not failed L* galaxies, but genuine dwarfs, and their low SB is not uniquely connected to the harsh cluster environment. We therefore expect a correspondingly abundant population of UDGs in the field, with possibly different morphologies and colours.

  5. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/Hα, [SII]/Hα with galactic height.

  6. Distribution of Faint Atomic Gas in Hickson Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Yun, Min Su; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun; Braatz, James A.

    2015-10-01

    We present 21 cm H i observations of four Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with evidence for a substantial intragroup medium using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). By mapping H i emission in a region of 25‧ × 25‧ (140–650 kpc) surrounding each HCG, these observations provide better estimates of H i masses. In particular, we detected 65% more H i than that detected in the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) imaging of HCG 92. We also identify whether the diffuse gas has the same spatial distribution as the high surface brightness (HSB) H i features detected in the VLA maps of these groups by comparing the H i strengths between the observed and modeled masses based on VLA maps. We found that the H i observed with the GBT has a similar spatial distribution to the HSB structures in HCG 31 and HCG 68. Conversely, the observed H i distributions in HCG 44 and HCG 92 were extended and showed significant offsets from the modeled masses. Most of the faint gas in HCG 44 lies to the northeast–southwest region and in HCG 92 lies in the northwest region of their respective groups. The spatial and dynamical similarities between the total (faint+HSB) and the HSB H i indicate that the faint gas is of tidal origin. We found that the gas will survive ionization by the cosmic UV background and the escaping ionizing photons from the star-forming regions and stay primarily neutral for at least 500 Myr.

  7. Stellar Ultraviolet Rocket Research Program. [faint object spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A 1/4 meter ultraviolet spectrometer, developed to measure the ultraviolet flux from several standard type stars was flown successfully on Aerobee rockets. The ultraviolet flux from alpha Lyr, eta U Ma, zeta Oph, delta Ori, alpha CMa, beta CMa, and alpha Leo were measured. These values agreed with the OAO data obtained by Code in the 1200 to 3400 A region to + or - 9%. The design and calibration of a faint object spectrometer for observing stars and nebula with a 3 A resolution and a 3% accuracy in a 60 second observation are discussed.

  8. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Mason, Keith O.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    CCD time-resolved photometry in V, B, and near-IR for 17 faint cataclysmic variables (CVs) is presented and analyzed. The data are obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Perkins reflector, Lowell Observatory, and the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos from April-June 1989. The degree of variability and periodicities for the CVs are examined. It is observed that the variability of most of the stars is consistent with CV class behavior. Orbital periods for five CVs are determined, and three potential eclipsing systems are detected.

  9. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. D.; Keith, M.; Hobbs, G.; Norris, R. P.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50 per cent duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  10. The Faint Object Camera for the Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomae, K.-P.; Schmidt, G.

    1981-05-01

    The Faint Object Camera (FOC), one of the four axial scientific instruments located at the focal plane of the NASA Space Telescope, is described. The FOC has overall dimensions of approximately 0.9 x 0.9 x 2.2 cu m, a total weight of about 322 kg, and an average power consumption per orbit of less than 150 W. The FOC is made up of two complete and independent camera systems, each with its dedicated three mirrors optical relay and photon detector device operating in a wavelength range of 1200 A to 7000 A.

  11. Galaxy NGC 1850

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/25 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old.

    A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas.

    Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light.

    NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu. More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore

  12. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  13. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution of Abell 2256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootaninia, Zahra

    2015-05-01

    This thesis presents a study of the radio luminosity function and the evolution of galaxies in the Abell 2256 cluster (z=0.058, richness class 2). Using the NED database and VLA deep data with an rms sensitivity of 18 mu Jy.beam--1, we identified 257 optical galaxies as members of A2256, of which 83 are radio galaxies. Since A2256 is undergoing a cluster-cluster merger, it is a good candidate to study the radio activity of galaxies in the cluster. We calculated the Univariate and Bivariate radio luminosity functions for A2256, and compared the results to studies on other clusters. We also used the SDSS parameter fracDev to roughly classify galaxies as spirals and ellipticals, and investigated the distribution and structure of galaxies in the cluster. We found that most of the radio galaxies in A2256 are faint, and are distributed towards the outskirts of the cluster. On the other hand, almost all very bright radio galaxies are ellipticals which are located at the center of the cluster. We also found there is an excess in the number of radio spiral galaxies in A2256 compared to the number of radio ellipticals, counting down to a radio luminosity of log(luminosity)=20.135 W/Hz..

  14. An algorithm to build mock galaxy catalogues using MICE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Gaztañaga, E.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.

    2015-02-01

    We present a method to build mock galaxy catalogues starting from a halo catalogue that uses halo occupation distribution (HOD) recipes as well as the subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) technique. Combining both prescriptions we are able to push the absolute magnitude of the resulting catalogue to fainter luminosities than using just the SHAM technique and can interpret our results in terms of the HOD modelling. We optimize the method by populating with galaxies friends-of-friends dark matter haloes extracted from the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai dark matter simulations and comparing them to observational constraints. Our resulting mock galaxy catalogues manage to reproduce the observed local galaxy luminosity function and the colour-magnitude distribution as observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also reproduce the observed galaxy clustering properties as a function of luminosity and colour. In order to achieve that, the algorithm also includes scatter in the halo mass-galaxy luminosity relation derived from direct SHAM and a modified Navarro-Frenk-White mass density profile to place satellite galaxies in their host dark matter haloes. Improving on general usage of the HOD that fits the clustering for given magnitude limited samples, our catalogues are constructed to fit observations at all luminosities considered and therefore for any luminosity subsample. Overall, our algorithm is an economic procedure of obtaining galaxy mock catalogues down to faint magnitudes that are necessary to understand and interpret galaxy surveys.

  15. MAXI/GSC detection of the historically brightest flares from the Sy2 galaxy NGC 2992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, H.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sugawara, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-06-01

    At 10:02 UT on 2016 June 2, the MAXI/GSC nova-alert system (Negoro et al. 2016, PASJ, 68, SP1, A1) triggered on faint X-ray enhancement positionally consistent with a nearby Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992.

  16. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color–color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  17. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color–color slope significance S ∼ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}∼ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ∼ 1.75σ and {cc}∼ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ∼ 1.59σ and {cc}∼ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  18. Discovery of rare double-lobe radio galaxies hosted in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sievers, Jonathan; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Hilton, Matt; Beelen, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    Double-lobe radio galaxies in the local Universe have traditionally been found to be hosted in elliptical or lenticular galaxies. We report the discovery of four spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies (J0836+0532, J1159+5820, J1352+3126, and J1649+2635) that are discovered by cross-matching a large sample of 187 005 spiral galaxies from SDSS DR7 (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7) to the full catalogues of FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) and NVSS (NRAO VLA Sky Survey). J0836+0532 is reported for the first time. The host galaxies are forming stars at an average rate of 1.7-10 M⊙ yr-1 and possess supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with masses of a few times 108 M⊙. Their radio morphologies are similar to Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies with total projected linear sizes ranging from 86 to 420 kpc, but their total 1.4-GHz radio luminosities are only in the range 1024-1025 W Hz-1. We propose that the formation of spiral-host double-lobe radio galaxies can be attributed to more than one factor, such as the occurrence of strong interactions, mergers, and the presence of unusually massive SMBHs, such that the spiral structures are not destroyed. Only one of our sources (J1649+2635) is found in a cluster environment, indicating that processes other than accretion through cooling flows e.g. galaxy-galaxy mergers or interactions could be plausible scenarios for triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei activity in spiral galaxies.

  19. High-resolution spectra of distant compact narrow emission line galaxies: Progrenitors of spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, David C.; Guzman, Rafael; Faber, S. M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Kron, Richard G.; Takamiya, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Emission-line velocity widths have been determined for 17 faint (B approximately 20-23) very blue, compact galaxies whose redshifts range from z = 0.095 to 0.66. The spectra have a resolution of 8 Km/s and were taken with the HIRES echelle spectrograph of the Keck 10 m telescope. The galaxies are luminous with all but two within 1 mag of M(sub B) approximately -21. Yet they exhibit narrow velocity widths between sigma = 28-157 km/s, more consistent with typical values of extreme star-forming galaxies than with those of nearby spiral galaxies of similar luminosity. In particular, objects with sigma is less than or equal to 65 km/s follow the same correlations between sigma and both blue and H beta luminosities as those of nearby H II galaxies. These results strengthen the identification of H II glaxies as thier local counterparts. The blue colors and strong emission lines suggest these compact galaxies are undergoing a recent, strong burst of star formation. Like those which characterize some H II galaxies, this burst could be a nuclear star-forming event within a much larger, older stellar population. If the burst is instead a major episode in the total star-forming history, these distant galaxies could fade enough to match the low luminosities and surface brightnesses typical of nearby spheroidals like NGC 185 or NGC 205. Together with evidence for recent star formation, exponential light profiles, and subsolar metallicities, the postfading correlations between luminosity and velocity width and bewtween luminosity and surface brightness suggest that among the low-sigma galaxies, we may be witnessing, in situ, the progenitors of today's spheroidal galaxies.

  20. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    ; Numerical simulation of the dwarf companions of giant galaxies A. Nelson and P. Williams; Delayed galaxies C. Struck, M. Hancock, B. Smith, P. Appleton, V. Charmandaris and M. Giroux; Probe of dark galaxies via disturbed/lopsided isolated galaxies I. Karachentsev, V. Karachentseva, W. Huchtmeier, D. Makarov and S. Kaisin; Star formation thresholds J. Schaye; Scaling relations of dwarf galaxies without supernova-driven winds K. Tassis, A. Kravtsov and N. Gnedin; Star formation in massive low surface brightness galaxies K. O'Neil; Linking clustering properties and the evolution of low surface brightness galaxies D. Bomans and S. Rosenbaum; Too small to form a galaxy: how the UV background determines the baryon fraction M. Hoeft, G. Yepes and S. Gottlober; Star formation in damped Lyman selected galaxies L. Christensen; Dark-matter content of early-type galaxies with planetary nebulae N. Napolitano et al.; Hunting for ghosts: low surface brightnesses from pixels R. Scaramella and S. Sabatini; Baryonic properties of the darkest galaxies E. Grebel; The dwarf low surface brightness population in different environments of the local universe S. Sabatini, J. Davies, S. Roberts and R. Scaramella; Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies J. Klimentowski et al.; Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A Group L. Makarova and D. Makarov; A flat faint end of the Fornax cluster galaxy luminosity function S. Mieske, M. Hilker, L. Infante and C. Mendes de Oliveira; Can massive dark halos destroy the discs of dwarf galaxies? B. Fuchs and O. Esquivel; 'Dark galaxies' and local very metal-poor gas-rich galaxies: possible interrelations S. Pustilnik; Morphology and environment of dwarf galaxies in the local universe H. Ann; Arecibo survey of HI emission from disk galaxies at redshift z 0.2 B. Catinella, M. Haynes, J. Gardner, A. Connolly and R. Giovanelli; AGES observations of

  1. NIFTE: The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, James J.; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eisenhardt, Peter B.; Hacking, Perry B.; Schember, Helene R.

    1994-01-01

    The high sensitivity of large format InSb arrays can be used to obtain deep images of the sky at 3-5 micrometers. In this spectral range cool or highly redshifted objects (e.g. brown dwarfs and protogalaxies) which are not visible at shorter wavelengths may be observed. Sensitivity at these wavelengths in ground-based observations is severly limited by the thermal flux from the telescope and from the earth's atmosphere. The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment (NIFTE), a 50 cm cooled rocket-borne telescope combined with large format, high performance InSb arrays, can reach a limiting flux less than 1 micro-Jy(1-sigma) over a large field-of-view in a single flight. In comparison, the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) will require days of observation to reach a sensitivity more than one order of magnitude worse over a similar area of the sky. The deep 3-5 micrometer images obtained by the rocket-borne telescope will assist in determining the nature of faint red objects detected by ground-based telescopes at 2 micrometers, and by ISO at wavelengths longer than 5 micrometers.

  2. Faint Blue Objects in the Hubble Deep Field North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, M.; von Hippel, T.; Mendez, R. A.; Winget, D. E.

    2005-07-01

    Using the deepest and finest resolution images of the Universe acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope and a similar image taken 7 years later for the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we have derived proper motions for the point sources in the Hubble Deep Field-North. Two faint blue objects, HDF2234 and HDF3072, are found to display significant proper motions, 10.0 ± 2.5 and 15.5 ± 3.8 mas yr-1. Photometric distances and tangential velocities for these stars are consistent with disk white dwarfs located at ≈500 pc. At least one of these two objects now appears spectroscopically to be a white dwarf (Kilic et al., in preparation). The faint blue objects analyzed by Ibata et al. (1999) and Mendez & Minniti (2000) do not show any significant proper motion; they are not halo white dwarfs and they do not contribute to the Galactic dark matter. These objects are likely to be distant AGN.

  3. ONLY THE LONELY: H I IMAGING OF VOID GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kreckel, K.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Platen, E.; Van de Weygaert, R.; Van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; Yip, C.-W.; Kovac, K.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2011-01-15

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the H I imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in H I in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. H I masses range from 3.5 x 10{sup 8} to 3.8 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of fore- and background control samples of galaxies while still resolving individual galaxy kinematics and detecting faint companions in H I. This small sample makes up a surprisingly interesting collection of perturbed and interacting galaxies, all with small stellar disks. Four galaxies have significantly perturbed H I disks, five have previously unidentified companions at distances ranging from 50 to 200 kpc, two are in interacting systems, and one was found to have a polar H I disk. Our initial findings suggest void galaxies are a gas-rich, dynamic population which present evidence of ongoing gas accretion, major and minor interactions, and filamentary alignment despite the surrounding underdense environment.

  4. Only the Lonely: H I Imaging of Void Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, K.; Platen, E.; Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Kovač, K.; Yip, C.-W.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, as well as provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We have completed a pilot survey for the H I imaging aspects of a new Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), imaging 15 void galaxies in H I in local (d < 100 Mpc) voids. H I masses range from 3.5 × 108 to 3.8 × 109 M sun, with one nondetection with an upper limit of 2.1 × 108 M sun. Our galaxies were selected using a structural and geometric technique to produce a sample that is purely environmentally selected and uniformly represents the void galaxy population. In addition, we use a powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope that allows us to probe a large volume around each targeted galaxy, simultaneously providing an environmentally constrained sample of fore- and background control samples of galaxies while still resolving individual galaxy kinematics and detecting faint companions in H I. This small sample makes up a surprisingly interesting collection of perturbed and interacting galaxies, all with small stellar disks. Four galaxies have significantly perturbed H I disks, five have previously unidentified companions at distances ranging from 50 to 200 kpc, two are in interacting systems, and one was found to have a polar H I disk. Our initial findings suggest void galaxies are a gas-rich, dynamic population which present evidence of ongoing gas accretion, major and minor interactions, and filamentary alignment despite the surrounding underdense environment.

  5. Effects of Galaxy collisions on the structure and evolution of Galaxy clusters. I. Mass and luminosity functions and background light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.E.

    1983-05-15

    The role of galaxy collisions in controlling the form of the galaxy mass and luminosity functions and in creating a diffuse background light is investigated by means of a direct computer simulation. Galaxy collisions are treated in a realistic manner, including both galaxy mergers and tidal encounters. A large number of theoretical studies of a galaxy collisions were consulted to formulate the basic input physics of collision cross sections. Despite this large number of studies, there remains considerable uncertainty in the effects of a collision on a galaxy due mainly to our lack of knowledge of the orbital distribution of matter in galaxies. To improve this situation, some methods of semiempirical calibration are suggested: for example, a survey of background light in clusters of different richness and morphological classes. If real galaxies are represented by galaxy models where the bulk of the matter is on radial, rather than circular, orbits, then tidal collisions are more damaging and there are a number of interesting effects: Repeated tidal encounters lead to galaxy mass and luminosity functions which are largely independent of model parameters and the initial galaxy mass function. It appears unlikely that the form of the average present-day luminosity function characteristic of both field and cluster galaxies is due to collisions, but certain observed deviations from the average found by Heiligman and Turner and by Dressler may be a signature of collisions, in particular a flat faint-end slope. The amount of luminous matter stripped from the galaxies in the simulations agrees with the amount of diffuse background light seen in the Coma Cluster.

  6. Variable Stars in a Distant Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) view of the magnificent spiral galaxy NGC 4603, the most distant galaxy in which a special class of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables have been found. It is associated with the Centaurus cluster, one of the most massive assemblages of galaxies in the nearby universe. The Local Group of galaxies, of which the Milky Way is a member, is moving in the direction of Centaurus at a speed of more than a million miles an hour under the influence of the gravitational pull of the matter in that direction. Clusters of young bright blue stars highlight the galaxy's spiral arms. In contrast, red giant stars in the process of dying are also found. Only the very brightest stars in NGC 4603 can be seen individually, even with the unmatched ability of the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain detailed images of distant objects. Much of the diffuse glow comes from fainter stars that cannot be individually distinguished by Hubble. The reddish filaments are regions where clouds of dust obscure blue light from the stars behind them. This galaxy was observed by a team affiliated with the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. Because NGC 4603 is much farther away than the other galaxies studied with Hubble by the Key Project team, 108 million light-years, its stars appear very faint from the Earth, and so accurately measuring their brightness, as is required for distinguishing the characteristic variations of Cepheids, is extremely difficult. Determining the distance to the galaxy required an unprecedented statistical analysis based on extensive computer simulations.

  7. Les galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  8. Planetary nebulae in galaxies beyond the Local Group.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. C.; Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Hui, X.

    Planetary nebulae can be used to estimate the distances to galaxies and to measure stellar dynamics in faint halos. The authors discuss surveys which have netted a total of 665 candidate planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Cen A), NGC 5102, NGC 3031 (M81), NGC 3115, three galaxies in the Leo Group (NGC 3379, NGC 3384, NGC 3377), NGC 5866, and finally, in NGC 4486 (M87). The highly consistent distances derived from the brightnesses of the jth nebula and the median nebula in different fields in the same galaxy and from different galaxies in the same group lend strong support to the suggestion that planetaries are an accurate standard candle in old stellar populations. Comparison of theoretical luminosity functions to be observed PNLFs shows that there is a very small dispersion in the central star masses.

  9. Dwarf galaxies in the coma cluster: Star formation properties and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Derek M.

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters are unique laboratories for studying the impact of environment on galaxy evolution. This intermediate region links the low-density field environment and the dense core of the cluster, and is thought to host recently accreted galaxies whose star formation is being quenched by external processes associated with the cluster. In this dissertation, we measure the star formation properties of galaxies at the infall region of the nearby rich cluster of galaxies, Coma. We rely primarily on Ultraviolet (UV) data owing to its sensitivity to recent star formation and we place more emphasis on the properties of dwarf galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are good tracers of external processes in clusters but their evolution is poorly constrained as they are intrinsically faint and hence more challenging to detect. We make use of deep GALEX far-UV and near-UV observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster. This area of the cluster has supporting photometric coverage at optical and IR wavelengths in addition to optical spectroscopic data that includes deep redshift coverage of dwarf galaxies in Coma. Our GALEX observations were the deepest exposures taken for a local galaxy cluster. The depth of these images required alternative data analysis techniques to overcome systematic effects that limit the default GALEX pipeline analysis. Specifically, we used a deblending method that improved detection efficiency by a factor of ˜2 and allowed reliable photometry a few magnitudes deeper than the pipeline catalog. We performed deep measurements of the total UV galaxy counts in our field that were used to measure the source confusion limit for crowded GALEX fields. The star formation properties of Coma members were studied for galaxies that span from starbursts to passive galaxies. Star-forming galaxies in Coma tend to have lower specific star formation rates, on average, as compared to field galaxies. We show that the majority of these galaxies are likely

  10. DWARF GALAXIES AND THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2013-02-01

    We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of Galaxies to identify a mechanism that enables the removal of baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops a network of filaments and pancakes. This moving web of gas and dark matter drifts and sweeps a large volume, overtaking many halos in the process. The dark matter content of these halos is unaffected but their gas can be efficiently removed by ram pressure. The loss of gas is especially pronounced in low-mass halos due to their lower binding energy and has a dramatic effect on the star formation history of affected systems. This 'cosmic web stripping' may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in {Lambda}CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. Although our results are based on a single high-resolution simulation, it is likely that the hydrodynamical interaction of dwarf galaxies with the cosmic web is a crucial ingredient so far missing from galaxy formation models.

  11. Modeling abundances in star forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    Heavy elements are produced from various types of supernovae (and AGB stars). I first show that elemental abundances of extremely metal-poor stars are consistent not with pair-instability supernovae but with faint supernovae. Then I introduce subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions. These "minor" supernovae are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. With "major" chemical enrichment sources, I show cosmic chemical enrichment in our cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is also included with a new model for the formation of black holes motivated by the first star formation. AGN-driven outflows transport metals into the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium. Nonetheless, the metallicity changes of galaxies are negligible, and the mass-metallicity relations, which are mainly generated by supernova feedback at the first star burst, are preserved. Within galaxies, metallicity radial gradients are produced, which can be affected by AGN feedback but are more sensitive to the merging histories. We find a weak correlation between the gradients and galaxy mass, which is consistent with available observations. These simulations also provide predictions of supernova/hypernova/GRB rates and the properties of their host galaxies.

  12. Constraints on Feedback in the Local Universe: The Relation Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Sravani; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi Alison

    2016-01-01

    We address the relation between star formation and AGN activity in a sample of 231 nearby (0.0002 < z < 0.0358) early type galaxies by carrying out a multi-wavelength study using archival observations in the UV, IR and radio. Our results indicate that early type galaxies in the current epoch are rarely powerful AGNs, with P < 1022 WHz-1 for a majority of the galaxies. Only massive galaxies are capable of hosting powerful radio sources while less massive galaxies are hosts to lower radio power sources. Evidence of ongoing star formation is seen in approximately 7% of the sample. The SFR of these galaxies is less than 0.1 M⊙yr-1. They also tend to be radio faint (P < 1022 WHz-1). There is a nearly equal fraction of star forming galaxies in radio faint (P < 1022 WHz-1) and radio bright galaxies (P ≥ 1022 WHz-1) suggesting that both star formation and radio mode feedback are constrained to be very low in our sample. We notice that our galaxy sample and the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) follow similar trends in radio power versus SFR. This may be produced if both radio power and SFR are related to stellar mass.

  13. Constraints on Feedback in the Local Universe: The Relation between Star Formation and AGN Activity in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Sravani; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Whitmore, Samantha; Ahmed, Rabeea; Pierce, Katherine; Leary, Sara

    2016-02-01

    We address the relation between star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 231 nearby (0.0002 < z < 0.0358) early-type galaxies by carrying out a multi-wavelength study using archival observations in the UV, IR, and radio. Our results indicate that early-type galaxies in the current epoch are rarely powerful AGNs, with P\\lt {10}22 {{WHz}}-1 for a majority of the galaxies. Only massive galaxies are capable of hosting powerful radio sources while less massive galaxies are hosts to lower radio power sources. Evidence of ongoing star formation is seen in approximately 7% of the sample. The star formation rate (SFR) of these galaxies is less than 0.1 M⊙ yr-1. They also tend to be radio faint (P\\lt {10}22 {{WHz}}-1). There is a nearly equal fraction of star-forming galaxies in radio faint (P\\lt {10}22 {{WHz}}-1) and radio bright galaxies (P≥slant {10}22 {{WHz}}-1) suggesting that both star formation and radio mode feedback are constrained to be very low in our sample. We notice that our galaxy sample and the Brightest Cluster Galaxies follow similar trends in radio power versus SFR. This may be produced if both radio power and SFR are related to stellar mass.

  14. Dying radio galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Parma, P.; Mack, K.-H.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Fanti, R.; Govoni, F.; Tarchi, A.; Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We present a study of five "dying" nearby (z ≤ 0.2) radio galaxies belonging to both the WENSS minisurvey and the B2 bright catalogs WNB1734+6407, WNB1829+6911, WNB1851+5707, B2 0120+33, and B2 1610+29. Methods: These sources have been selected on the basis of their extremely steep broad-band radio spectra, which strongly indicates that either these objects belong to the rare class of dying radio galaxies or we are observing "fossil" radio plasma remaining from a previous instance of nuclear activity. We derive the relative duration of the dying phase from the fit of a synchrotron radiative model to the radio spectra of the sources. Results: The modeling of the integrated spectra and the deep spectral index images obtained with the VLA confirmed that in these sources the central engine has ceased to be active for a significant fraction of their lifetime, although their extended lobes have not yet completely faded away. We found that WNB1851+5707 is in reality composed of two distinct dying galaxies, which appear blended together as a single source in the WENSS. In the cases of WNB1829+6911 and B2 0120+33, the fossil radio lobes are seen in conjunction with a currently active core. A very faint core is also detected in a MERLIN image of WNB1851+5707a, one of the two dying sources composing WNB1851+5707. We found that all sources in our sample are located (at least in projection) at the center of an X-ray emitting cluster. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the duration of the dying phase for a radio source in a cluster can be significantly higher than that of a radio galaxy in the field, although no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the small number statistics involved. The simplest interpretation of the tendency for dying galaxies to be found in clusters is that the low-frequency radio emission from the fading radio lobes lasts longer if their expansion is somewhat reduced or even stopped. Another possibility is that the occurrence of dying

  15. Profiling the HER3/PI3K Pathway in Breast Tumors Using Proximity-Directed Assays Identifies Correlations between Protein Complexes and Phosphoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ali; Badal, Youssouf; Nguyen, Xuan-Thao; Miller, Johanna; Chenna, Ahmed; Tahir, Hasan; Newton, Alicia; Parry, Gordon; Williams, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of patients for targeted antineoplastic therapies requires accurate measurement of therapeutic targets and associated signaling complexes. HER3 signaling through heterodimerization is an important growth-promoting mechanism in several tumor types and may be a principal resistance mechanism by which EGFR and HER2 expressing tumors elude targeted therapies. Current methods that can study these interactions are inadequate for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples. Methodology and Principal Findings Herein, we describe a panel of proximity-directed assays capable of measuring protein-interactions and phosphorylation in FFPE samples in the HER3/PI3K/Akt pathway and examine the capability of these assays to inform on the functional state of the pathway. We used FFPE breast cancer cell line and tumor models for this study. In breast cancer cell lines we observe both ligand-dependent and independent activation of the pathway and strong correlations between measured activation of key analytes. When selected cell lines are treated with HER2 inhibitors, we not only observe the expected molecular effects based on mechanism of action knowledge, but also novel effects of HER2 inhibition on key targets in the HER receptor pathway. Significantly, in a xenograft model of delayed tumor fixation, HER3 phosphorylation is unstable, while alternate measures of pathway activation, such as formation of the HER3PI3K complex is preserved. Measurements in breast tumor samples showed correlations between HER3 phosphorylation and receptor interactions, obviating the need to use phosphorylation as a surrogate for HER3 activation. Significance This assay system is capable of quantitatively measuring therapeutically relevant responses and enables molecular profiling of receptor networks in both preclinical and tumor models. PMID:21297994

  16. A Hero’s Dark Horse: Discovery of an Ultra-faint Milky Way Satellite in Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwon; Jerjen, Helmut; Mackey, Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.; Milone, Antonino P.

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy in the constellation of Pegasus. The concentration of stars was detected by applying our overdensity detection algorithm to the SDSS-DR 10 and confirmed with deeper photometry from the Dark Energy Camera at the 4 m Blanco telescope. Fitting model isochrones indicates that this object, Pegasus III, features an old and metal-poor stellar population ([Fe/H] ˜ -2.1) at a heliocentric distance of 205 ± 20 kpc. The new stellar system has an estimated half-light radius of {{r}h}=78-24+30 pc and a total luminosity of {{M}V}˜ -4.1+/- 0.5 that places it into the domain of dwarf galaxies on the size-luminosity plane. Pegasus III is spatially close to the MW satellite Pisces II. It is possible that the two might be physically associated, similar to the Leo IV and Leo V pair. Pegasus III is also well aligned with the Vast Polar Structure, which suggests a possible physical association.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION RATE, SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, AND THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FOR HIGH STELLAR MASS AND LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Song Jun; Chen Yiqing; Jiang Peng; Ding Yingping

    2012-07-10

    Using two volume-limited main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8), we explore the environmental dependence of the star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for high stellar mass (HSM) and low stellar mass (LSM) galaxies. It is found that the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous HSM galaxies and faint LSM ones remains very strong: galaxies in the lowest density regime preferentially have higher SFR and SSFR than galaxies in the densest regime, while the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous LSM galaxies is substantially reduced. Our result also shows that the fraction of AGNs in HSM galaxies decreases as a function of density, while the one in LSM galaxies depends very little on local density. In the faint LSM galaxy sample, the SFR and SSFR of galaxies strongly decrease with increasing density, but the fraction of AGNs depends very little on local density. Such a result can rule out that AGNs are fueled by the cold gas in the disk component of galaxies that is also driving the star formation of those galaxies.

  18. GIANT GALAXIES, DWARFS, AND DEBRIS SURVEY. I. DWARF GALAXIES AND TIDAL FEATURES AROUND NGC 7331

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, Johannes; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Gallagher, John S. III

    2012-12-01

    The Giant GAlaxies, Dwarfs, and Debris Survey (GGADDS) concentrates on the nearby universe to study how galaxies have interacted in groups of different morphology, density, and richness. In these groups, we select the dominant spiral galaxy and search its surroundings for dwarf galaxies and tidal interactions. This paper presents the first results from deep wide-field imaging of NGC 7331, where we detect only four low-luminosity candidate dwarf companions and a stellar stream that may be evidence of a past tidal interaction. The dwarf galaxy candidates have surface brightnesses of {mu}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 23-25 mag arcsec{sup -2} with (g - r){sub 0} colors of 0.57-0.75 mag in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey filter system, consistent with their being dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. A faint stellar stream structure on the western edge of NGC 7331 has {mu}{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 27 mag arcsec{sup -2} and a relatively blue color of (g - r){sub 0} = 0.15 mag. If it is tidal debris, then this stream could have formed from a rare type of interaction between NGC 7331 and a dwarf irregular or transition-type dwarf galaxy. We compare the structure and local environments of NGC 7331 to those of other nearby giant spirals in small galaxy groups. NGC 7331 has a much lower ({approx}2%) stellar mass in the form of early-type satellites than found for M31 and lacks the presence of nearby companions like luminous dwarf elliptical galaxies or the Magellanic Clouds. However, our detection of a few dSph candidates suggests that it is not deficient in low-luminosity satellites.

  19. Calibration and operation of the Faint Object Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R.; Beaver, E.; Burbidge, E.; Hier, R.; Allen, R.; Angel, R.; Bartko, F.; Bohlin, R.; Ford, H.; Davidson, A.

    1984-01-01

    The design and basic performance characteristics of the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS), one of five instruments built for use on the Space Telescope observatory, is summarized briefly. The results of the recently completed instrument-level calibration are presented with special emphasis on issues affecting plans for FOS astronomical observations. Examples include such fundamental characteristics as: limiting magnitudes (system sensitivity and noise figures), spectral coverage and resolution, scattered light properties, and instrumental polarization and modulation efficiencies. Also gated toward intended users, a rather detailed description of FOS operating modes is given. The discussion begins with the difficulties anticipated during target acquisition and their hoped-for resolution. Both the 'normal' spectroscopic operating modes of the FOS and its 'exotic' features (e.g. spectropolarimetric, time-tagged, and time-resolved modes) are presented. The paper concludes with an overview of the activities to assure proper alignment and operation of the FOS within the entire Space Telescope system (orbital and ground-based).

  20. Very faint X-ray binaries with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2016-06-01

    A population of very faint X-ray binaries has been discovered in the last years thanks to the improvement in sensitivity and resolution of the new generations of X-ray missions. These systems show anomalously low luminosities, below 10^{36} ergs/sec, challenging our understanding of accretion physics and binary evolution models, and thereby opening new windows for both observational and theoretical work on accretion onto compact objects. XMM-Newton is playing a crucial role in the study of this dim family of objects thanks to its incomparable spectral capabilities at low luminosities. I will review the state-of-the-art of the field and present our XMM results in both black hole and neutron star objects. Finally, I will discuss the possibilities that the new generation of X-ray telescopes offer for this research line.

  1. A sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Bernardo; Giommi, Paolo; Turriziani, Sara

    2015-12-01

    We aim here to provide a complete sample of faint (fr ≳ 1 mJy, fx ≳ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1) blazars and blazar candidates serendipitously discovered in deep Swift images centered on Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By stacking all available images, we obtain exposures ranging from 104 to more than a million seconds. Since GRBs are thought to explode randomly across the sky, this set of deep fields can be considered as an unbiased survey of ≈ 12 square degrees of extragalactic sky, with sensitivities reaching a few 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. We then derive the x-ray Log N Log S and show that, considering that our sample may be contaminated by sources other than blazars, we are in agreement with previous estimations based on data and simulations.

  2. The faint young sun-climate paradox - Continental influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Schatten, K. H.

    1982-01-01

    We examine the various mechanisms which have been proposed to compensate for the climatic effects of a 30% increase in the solar luminosity over the past 4 1/2 billion years. Although atmospheric greenhouse effects have received most attention, other mechanisms may have played a role of comparable importance. In particular, we note that the development of continents during the past 2 1/2 billion years could have had a significant secular effect on the atmosphere-ocean heat transport system. As a result, past climates may have been less susceptible to complete freeze-over. A simple energy balance model is used to demonstrate the magnitude of this effect. Because the CO2 greenhouse effect is not the only means of compensating for solar evolution, the faint-young-sun problem should not be used to infer past levels of atmospheric CO2.

  3. Morphology and astrometry of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Randall, Kate; Mao, Minnie; Hales, Christopher

    2008-10-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, are an unexpected class of object discovered in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, ATLAS. They are compact 1.4GHz radio sources with no visible counterparts in co-located (relatively shallow) Spitzer infrared and optical images. We have detected two of these objects with VLBI, indicating the presence of an AGN. These observations and our ATLAS data indicate that IFRS are extended on scales of arcseconds, and we wish to image their morphologies to obtain clues about their nature. These observations will also help us to select optical counterparts from very deep, and hence crowded, optical images which we have proposed. With these data in hand, we will be able to compare IFRS to known object types and to apply for spectroscopy to obtain their redshifts.

  4. Mass influx obtained from LLLTV observations of faint meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Clifton, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    Since the advent of low light level television (LLLTV) systems, it has been recognized that such devices offer the ability to observe meteors as faint as 10th magnitude which allows the extension of optical meteor data to masses as small as 0.0001 grams. The Space Sciences Lab at Marshall Space Flight Center has been actively engaged in such observations using image orthicons and intensified SEC vidicons. The results of these observations are presented along with an interpretation in terms of mass-flux. This interpretation includes the development of a relationship between peak luminosity of a meteor and mass, velocity, and zenith angle that was derived from single body meteor theory and compares favorably with results obtained from the Artificial Program. Also included in the mass flux interpretation is an analysis of the observation response of a LLLTV system to fixed and moving point sources.

  5. Galaxy evolution in the environment of ABCG 209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; La Barbera, F.; Massarotti, M.; Busarello, G.; Girardi, M.

    2004-10-01

    We examine the environmental effects on the photometric properties of galaxies for the rich galaxy cluster ABCG 209 at z=0.209. We use archive CFHT optical imaging of a 42×28 arcmin2 field centred on the cluster to produce a galaxy sample complete to B=25.0 and R=24.5. Both the composite and red sequence galaxy luminosity functions are found to be dependent on the local galaxy surface density, their faint-end slopes becoming shallower with increasing density. We explain this as a combination of the morphology-density relation, and dwarf galaxies being cannibalised and/or disrupted by the cD galaxy and the ICM in the cluster core. The B-R colour of the red sequence itself appears 0.02 mag redder for the highest-density regions, indicative of their stellar populations being marginally (<5%) older or (<20%) more metal-rich. This may be due to the galaxies themselves forming earliest in the rarest overdensities marked by rich clusters, or their star-formation being suppressed earliest by the ICM.

  6. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Simon

    2015-03-01

    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  7. Galaxy NGC 1512

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A rainbow of colors is captured in the center of a magnificent barred spiral galaxy, as witnessed by the three cameras of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The color-composite image of the galaxy NGC 1512 was created from seven images taken with the JPL-designed and built Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2), along with the Faint Object Camera and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer. Hubble's unique vantage point high above the atmosphere allows astronomers to see objects over a broad range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared and to detect differences in the regions around newly born stars.

    The new image is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/16 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The image reveals a stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters in the center of NGC 1512. Located 30 million light-years away in the southern constellation of Horologium, NGC 1512 is a neighbor of our Milky Way galaxy.

    With the Hubble data, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest, most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. Results will appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. The team includes Dr. Dan Maoz, Tel-Aviv University, Israel and Columbia University, New York, N.Y.; Dr. Aaron J. Barth, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.; Dr. Luis C. Ho, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; Dr. Amiel Sternberg, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; and Dr. Alexei V. Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc., for NASA under contract with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international

  8. Using Data Mining to Find Bent-Double Radio Galaxies in the FIRST Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath,C; Cantu-Paz,E; Fodor,I; Tang,N A

    2001-06-22

    In this paper, the authors describe the use of data mining techniques to search for radio-emitting galaxies with a bent-double morphology. In the past, astronomers from the FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) survey identified these galaxies through visual inspection. This was not only subjective but also tedious as the on-going survey now covers 8000 square degrees, with each square degree containing about 90 galaxies. In this paper, they describe how data mining can be used to automate the identification of these galaxies. They discuss the challenges faced in defining meaningful features that represent the shape of a galaxy and their experiences with ensembles of decision trees for the classification of bent-double galaxies.

  9. ISOCAM 15 Micron Search for Distant Infrared Galaxies Lensed by Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvainis, Richard; Antonucci, Robert; Helou, George

    1999-08-01

    In a search for lensed infrared galaxies, ISOCAM images have been obtained toward the rich clusters Abell 2218 and Abell 2219 at 15 mum. Nine galaxies (four in Abell 2218 and five in Abell 2219) were detected with flux levels in the range 530-1100 muJy. Three of the galaxies detected in Abell 2218 have previously known redshifts; of these one is a foreground galaxy, and the other two are lensed background galaxies at z=0.474 and z=1.032. One of the objects detected in the field of Abell 2219 is a faint, optically red, extreme infrared-dominated galaxy with a probable redshift of 1.048.

  10. A Study of the Stellar Population in Selected SO Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M.; Danks, A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this program was to observe at least two SO galaxies with abnormal colors in the blue and clear optical signatures of dust and gas. The galaxies NGC 2217 and NGC 1808 were observed at least in one of the IUE cameras (1200-200 and 2000-3200 A) during the 13th episode, using the 4 US1 shifts assigned to this program. The galaxy NGC 2217 had been found to be part of a subgroup of SO galaxies with external gas rotating in retrograde motion with respect to the stars. This galaxy is a face-on object with indications of large amount of gas, quite rare for a SO galaxy. We observed this object on three different occasions with IUE at different positions of the large aperture (spacecraft roll angle) with respect to the nuclear region. These exposures allowed us to take full advantage of the spatial resolution of IUE by mapping nuclear and bulge region of this galaxy. We found that the data point to a marginally earlier stellar population toward the central region. The UV light as a whole is dominated by a late-type stellar population of principally G and K stars. The almost face-on view of this galaxy appears optically thick to UV light. It is conceivable that in analogy to out own Galaxy, the stellar populations weakly detected in NGC 2217, are mostly halo and late-type stars in the center with an increasing contribution of dust and early stellar populations (so far undetected) as we move outward along the faint spiral arms. This result is contrary to our initial expectation, since the counterrotating gas does not appear to be enhancing star formation in this galaxy. Even more interesting were the observations of NGC 1808; galaxy which has been classified, with a handful of other objects, both as a starburst and Seyfert galaxy. Attachment: 'The White-Dwarf Companions of 56 Persei and HR 3643.'

  11. Properties of an H I-selected galaxy sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szomoru, Arpad; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Knapen, Johan H.; Weinberg, David H.; Fruchter, Andrew S.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a sample of galaxies identified in a 21cm, H I-line survey of selected areas in the Perseus-Pisces supercluster and its foreground void. Twelve fields were observed in the supercluster, five of them (target fields) centered on optically bright galaxies, and the other seven (blank fields) selected to contain no bright galaxies within 45 min. of their centers. We detected nine previously uncatalogued, gas-rich galaxies, six of them in the target fields. We also detected H I from seven previously catalogued galaxies in these fields. Observations in the void covered the same volume as the 12 supercluster fields at the same H I-mass sensitivity, but no objects were detected. Combining out H I data with optical broadband and H alpha imaging, we conclude that the properties of H I-selected galaxies do not differ substantially from those of late-type galaxies found in optical surveys. In particular, the galaxies in our sample do not appear to be unusually faint for their H I mass, or for their circular velocity. We find tentative evidence for a connection between optical surface brightness and degree of isolation, in the sense that low surface brightness galaxies tend to be more isolated. The previously catalogued, optically bright galaxies in our survey volume dominate the total H I mass density and cross section; the uncatalogued galaxies contribute only approximately 19 percent of the mass and approximately 12 percent of the cross section. Thus, existing estimates of the density and cross section of neutral hydrogen, most of which are based on optically selected galaxy samples, are probably accurate. Such estimates can be used to compare the nearby universe to the high-redshift universe probed by quasar absorption lines.

  12. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  13. Old Galaxies in the Young Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    may be more massive than a million million Suns. Presently, more than half of the stars in the Universe are located in massive spheroidal galaxies. One of the main open questions of modern astrophysics and cosmology is how and when galaxies formed and evolved starting from the primordial gas that filled the early Universe. In the most popular current theory, galaxies in the local Universe are the result of a relatively slow process where small and less massive galaxies merge to gradually build up bigger and more massive galaxies. In this scenario, dubbed "hierarchical merging", the young Universe was populated by small galaxies with little mass, whereas the present Universe contains large, old and massive galaxies - the very last to form in the final stage of a slow assembling process. If this scenario were true, then one should not be able to find massive elliptical galaxies in the young universe. Or, in other words, due to the finite speed of light, there should be no such massive galaxies very far from us. And indeed, until now no old elliptical galaxy was known beyond a radio-galaxy at redshift 1.55 [3] that was discovered almost ten years ago. The K20 survey ESO PR Photo 21a/04 ESO PR Photo 21a/04 Part of the K20 Field, centred on the z=1.9 galaxy (ACS/HST) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 424 pix - 45k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 847 pix - 712k] [Hires - JPEG: 1334 x 1413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 21a/04 shows a small region in the K20 field surveyed by the astronomers. This region is centred on the newly discovered z=1.9 redshift galaxy. The image is based on frames acquired by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope in the framework of the GOODS Public HST Treasury Program (P.I. M. Giavalisco, STScI, Baltimore, USA). They show the real colours of the galaxies. The four old massive spheroidal galaxies discovered in this survey appear very red compared to the other faint galaxies. (Image courtesy of Piero Rosati and Bob Fosbury, ESO Garching

  14. A spectroscopic search for faint secondaries in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Putte, D.; Smith, Robert Connon; Hawkins, N. A.; Martin, J. S.

    2003-06-01

    The secondary in cataclysmic variables (CVs) is usually detected by cross-correlation of the CV spectrum with that of a K or M dwarf template, to produce a radial velocity curve. Although this method has demonstrated its power, it has its limits in the case of noisy spectra, such as are found when the secondary is faint. A method of coadding spectra, called skew mapping, has been proposed in the past. Gradually, examples of its application are being published; none the less, so far no journal article has described the technique in detail. To answer this need, this paper explores in detail the capabilities of skew mapping when determining the amplitude of the radial velocity for faint secondaries. It demonstrates the power of the method over techniques that are more conventional, when the signal-to-noise ratio is poor. The paper suggests an approach to assessing the quality of results. This leads in the case of the investigated objects to a first tier of results, where we find K2= 127 +/- 23 km s-1 for SY Cnc, K2= 144 +/- 18 km s-1 for RW Sex and K2= 262 +/- 14 km s-1 for UX UMa. These we believe to be the first direct determinations of K2 for these objects. Furthermore, we also obtain K2= 263 +/- 30 km s-1 for RW Tri, close to a skew mapping result obtained elsewhere. In the first three cases, we use these results to derive the mass of the white dwarf companion. A second tier of results includes UU Aqr, EX Hya and LX Ser, for which we propose more tentative values of K2. Clear failures of the method are also discussed (EF Eri, VV Pup and SW Sex).

  15. The Red Halos of Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, E.; Bergvall, N.; Flynn, C.; Caldwell, B.; Östlin, G.; Micheva, G.

    2008-10-01

    Deep optical/near-IR surface photometry of galaxies outside the Local Group have revealed the existence of faint and very red halos around objects as diverse as spirals and blue compact galaxies. The colors of these structures are much too extreme to be reconciled with resolved stellar populations like those seen in the halos of the Milky Way or M 31, and alternative explanations like dust reddening, high metallicities or nebular emission are also disfavored. A stellar population obeying an extremely bottom-heavy initial mass function, similar to that recently reported for the LMC field population, is on the other hand consistent with all available data. Because of its high mass-to-light ratio, such a population would effectively behave as baryonic dark matter and could account for some of the baryons still missing from local inventories. Here, we report on a number of recent developments in this field.

  16. Ring Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennefeld, M.; Materne, J.

    1980-09-01

    Among the 338 exotic, intriguing and/or fascinating objects contained in Arp's catalogue of peculiar galaxies, two, Arp 146 and 147, are calling special attention as a presumably separate class of objects displaying closed rings with almost empty interior. It is difficult to find out when, historically speaking, attention was called first to this type of object as a peculiar class, but certainly ga1axies with rings were widely found and recognized in the early sixties, ul}der others by Vorontsov-Velyaminov (1960), Sandage (1961) in the Hubble Atlas or de Vaucouleurs (1964) in the first reference catalogue of ga1axies. The most recent estimates by Arp and Madore (1977) from a search on about 200 Schmidt plates covering 7,000 square degrees give 3.6 per cent of ring galaxies among 2,784 peculiar galaxies found. However, despite the mythological perfection associated with a circle, some ordering is necessary before trying to understand the nature of such objects. This is particularly true because a large fraction of those galaxies with rings are probably normal spiral galaxies of type RS or S(r) as defined by de Vaucouleurs, where the spiral arms are simply "closing the circle". A good example of such "ordinary" galaxy is NGC 3081 in the Hubble Atlas .

  17. Freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint: adaptationist perspectives on the acute stress response spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2004-09-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response to an inescapable threat. The article suggests that faintness evolved in response to middle paleolithic intra-group and inter-group violence (of con-specifics) rather than as a pan-mammalian defense response, as is presently assumed. Based on recent literature, freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint provides a more complete description of the human acute stress response sequence than current descriptions. Faintness, one of three primary physiological reactions involved in BIITS phobia, is extremely rare in other phobias. Since heritability estimates are higher for faintness than for fears or phobias, the author suggests that trait-faintness may be a useful complement to trait-anxiety as an endophenotype in research on the human fear circuitry. Some implications for the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as well as for clinical, health services, and transcriptomic research are briefly discussed. PMID:15337864

  18. Exploring the spectral properties of faint hard X-ray sources with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Cappi, M.; Bassani, L.; Fiore, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Stephen, J. B.

    2002-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of 41 hard X-ray sources detected serendipitously with high significance (>5sigma in the 2-10 keV band) in seven EPIC performance/verification phase observations. The large collecting area of EPIC allows us to explore the spectral properties of these faint hard X-ray sources with 2 < F2-10 < 80 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 even though the length of the exposures are modest ( ~ 20 ks). Optical identifications are available for 21 sources of our sample. Using a simple power law plus Galactic absorption model we find an average value of the photon index Gamma ~ 1.6-1.7, broadly consistent with recent measurements made at similar fluxes with ASCA and with Chandra stacked spectral analyses. We find that 31 out of 41 sources are well fitted by this simple model and only eight sources require absorption in excess of the Galactic value. Interestingly enough, one third of these absorbed sources are broad line objects, though with moderate column densities. Two sources in the sample are X-ray bright optically quiet galaxies and show flat X-ray spectra. Comparing our observational results with those expected from standard synthesis models of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) we find a fraction of unabsorbed to absorbed sources larger than predicted by theoretical models at our completeness limit of F2-10 ~ 5 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The results presented here illustrate well how wide-angle surveys performed with EPIC on board XMM-Newton allow population studies of interesting and unusual sources to be made as well as enabling constraints to be placed on some input parameters for synthesis models of the CXB.

  19. The distant red galaxy neighbour population of 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornancini, C.; García Lambas, D.

    We study the Distant Red Galaxy (DRG, J-Ks > 2.3) neighbour population of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. We perform a similar analysis for optically obscured AGNs (i.e. with a limiting magnitude I > 24) detected in the mid-infrared (24 microns) with the Spitzer Space Telescope and a mean redshift z~2.2 in the Flamingos Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX). We present results on the cross-correlation function of DRGs around QSOs and optically faint mid-infrared sources. The corresponding correlation length obtained for the QSO sample targets is r_0=5.4+/-1.6 Mpc. For the optically obscured galaxy sample we find r_0=8.9+/-1.4 Mpc. These results indicate that optically faint obscured sources are located in denser environment of evolved red galaxies compare to QSOs.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ultraviolet Excess Galaxies (Mitchell+ 1982)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Brotzman, L. E.; Warnock, A.; Usher, P. D.

    2015-05-01

    The catalog contains a list of 412 faint galaxies selected for their apparent ultraviolet excess. The galaxies were selected from a 3-color (UBV) plate taken with the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope. The 14-inch-square plates cover an area of 30 square degrees centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. The catalog includes running numbers, coordinates, color codes, magnitude codes, morphologies, diameters, and notes. The catalogued galaxies were selected by eye from the Palomar Schmidt 3-color (UBV) plate PS24771, centered on Kapteyn Selexted Area 28 and taken by Usher under conditions of good seeing and transparency. (1 data file).

  1. Cluster of galaxies & Cosmology - X-ray analysis of fossil group RXJ1720.1+2360

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada, Monica

    2012-09-01

    We present the results on the X-ray analysis of fossil group of galaxies RXJ1720.1+2360. Fossil Groups are systems associated to extended emission in X-rays with one single central elliptical galaxy surrounded by very faint companions. This unusual lack of bright galaxies in the group is presumably due to galactic cannibalism. In this study we present for the first time the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of RXJ1720.1+2360. This work is part of a systematic study to determine the X-ray properties of fossil groups.

  2. THE [O III] NEBULA OF THE MERGER REMNANT NGC 7252: A LIKELY FAINT IONIZATION ECHO

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, Francois; Kelson, Daniel D.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Seitzer, Patrick; Walth, Gregory L.

    2013-08-20

    We present images and spectra of a {approx}10 kpc-sized emission-line nebulosity discovered in the prototypical merger remnant NGC 7252 and dubbed the ''[O III] nebula'' because of its dominant [O III] {lambda}5007 line. This nebula seems to yield the first sign of episodic active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity still occurring in the remnant, {approx}220 Myr after the coalescence of two gas-rich galaxies. Its location and kinematics suggest it belongs to a stream of tidal-tail gas falling back into the remnant. Its integrated [O III] {lambda}5007 luminosity is 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}, and its spectrum features some high-excitation lines, including He II {lambda}4686. In diagnostic line-ratio diagrams, the nebula lies in the domain of Seyfert galaxies, suggesting that it is photoionized by a source with a power-law spectrum. Yet, a search for AGN activity in NGC 7252 from X-rays to radio wavelengths yields no detection, with the most stringent upper limit set by X-ray observations. The upper luminosity limit of L{sub 2-10{sub keV,0}}<5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} estimated for the nucleus is {approx}10{sup 3} times lower than the minimum ionizing luminosity of {approx}> 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} necessary to excite the nebula. This large discrepancy suggests that the nebula is a faint ionization echo excited by a mildly active nucleus that has declined by {approx}3 orders of magnitude over the past 20,000-200,000 yr. In many ways this nebula resembles the prototypical ''Hanny's Voorwerp'' near IC 2497, but its size is 3 Multiplication-Sign smaller and its [O III] luminosity {approx}100 Multiplication-Sign lower. We propose that it be classified as an extended emission-line region (EELR). The [O III] nebula is then the lowest-luminosity ionization echo and EELR discovered so far, indicative of recent, probably sputtering AGN activity of Seyfert-like intensity in NGC 7252.

  3. The properties of fossil groups of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigenthaler, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Numerical simulations as well as optical and X-ray observations over the last few years have shown that poor groups of galaxies can evolve to what is called a fossil group. Dynamical friction as the driving process leads to the coalescence of individual galaxies in ordinary poor groups leaving behind nothing more than a central, massive elliptical galaxy supposed to contain the merger history of the whole group. Due to merging timescales for less-massive galaxies and gas cooling timescales of the X-ray intragroup medium exceeding a Hubble time, a surrounding faint-galaxy population having survived this galactic cannibalism as well as an extended X-ray halo similar to that found in ordinary groups, is expected. Recent studies suggest that fossil groups are very abundant and could be the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. However, only a few objects are known to the literature. This article aims to summarize the results of observational fossil group research over the last few years and presents ongoing work by the authors. Complementary to previous research, the SDSS and RASS surveys have been cross-correlated to identify new fossil structures yielding 34 newly detected fossil group candidates. Observations with ISIS at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma have been carried out to study the stellar populations of the central ellipticals of 6 fossil groups. In addition multi-object spectroscopy with VLTs VIMOS has been performed to study the shape of the OLF of one fossil system.

  4. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN THE FAINTEST GALAXIES: THE CARBON AND IRON ABUNDANCE SPREADS IN THE BOOeTES I DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard; Belokurov, V.; Zucker, Daniel B.; Frebel, Anna; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2010-11-10

    We present an AAOmega spectroscopic study of red giants in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Booetes I (M{sub V} {approx} -6) and the Segue 1 system (M{sub V} {approx} -1.5), either an extremely low luminosity dwarf galaxy or an unusually extended globular cluster. Both Booetes I and Segue 1 have significant abundance dispersions in iron and carbon. Booetes I has a mean abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.55 {+-} 0.11 with an [Fe/H] dispersion of {sigma} = 0.37 {+-} 0.08, and abundance spreads of {Delta}[Fe/H] = 1.7 and {Delta}[C/H] = 1.5. Segue 1 has a mean of [Fe/H] = -2.7 {+-} 0.4 with [Fe/H] dispersion of {sigma} = 0.7 {+-} 0.3, and abundances spreads of {Delta}[Fe/H] = 1.6 and {Delta}[C/H] = 1.2. Moreover, Segue 1 has a radial-velocity member at four half-light radii that is extremely metal-poor and carbon-rich, with [Fe/H] = -3.5, and [C/Fe] = +2.3. Modulo an unlikely non-member contamination, the [Fe/H] abundance dispersion confirms Segue 1 as the least-luminous ultra-faint dwarf galaxy known. For [Fe/H] < -3.0, stars in the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites exhibit a dependence of [C/Fe] on [Fe/H] similar to that in Galactic field halo stars. Thus, chemical evolution proceeded similarly in the formation sites of the Galaxy's extremely metal-poor halo stars and in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We confirm the correlation between (decreasing) luminosity and both (decreasing) mean metallicity and (increasing) abundance dispersion in the Milky Way dwarf galaxies at least as faint as M{sub V} = -5. The very low mean iron abundances and the high carbon and iron abundance dispersions in Segue 1 and Booetes I are consistent with highly inhomogeneous chemical evolution starting in near zero-abundance gas. These ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are apparently surviving examples of the very first bound systems.

  5. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-05-10

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H {sub F160W} imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H {approx} 28 mag arcsec{sup -2}. We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r{sub e} = 0.42 {+-} 0.14 kpc in the observed H {sub F160W} band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor {approx}10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  6. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \\pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \\pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  7. Deep multicolor surveys of the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szokoly, Gyula Pal

    1999-10-01

    I present various surveys that benefit from the tremendous improvements in observational astronomy in recent years and I develop new techniques to analyze data obtained in these new generation of surveys. In participation of upcoming, very deep near-infrared galaxy surveys, I constructed a survey aimed at determining the near-infrared luminosity function of galaxies. The evolutionary effects are much weaker at the red end of the atmospheric window ranging from the near- ultraviolet to about 2.2 μ m than in the optical and UV bands, as the infrared light coming from a galaxy is dominated by the old stellar population, while optical luminosity is strongly affected by the star formation history of galaxies. Measuring the luminosity function of galaxies is essential to interpret future surveys. Utilizing my deep, large area, multi-color optical galaxy survey, I studied the structure evolution of the Universe on cosmologically relevant scales. The multicolor nature of the survey (B, V, R and I bands) made it possible to estimate the radial distance to a very large number of galaxies very efficiently. Using these photometric redshifts, one can reduce the effects of galaxy evolution by analyzing galaxies at roughly the same redshift (lookback time). Due to the large area (about 1.5 square degrees) and very faint limiting magnitude (I = 23.8), structure evolution can be studied with a very high precision. I also propose a new object detection technique to replace traditional methods that use a single band or an arbitrarily co-added image. Our new technique uses all available bands of a survey and provides a nearly optimal way to take advantage of all the information available. We demonstrate the strength of this technique using the Hubble Deep Field, where we show that we can extend the detection limit significantly. We also show that this method can identify a significant number of objects that traditional techniques usually can not detect. Finally I propose a new

  8. HUBBLE UNVEILS A GALAXY IN LIVING COLOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this view of the center of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, NASA Hubble Space Telescope's broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. The colors (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both 'dusty' and 'clean' regions of the galaxy. This color-composite image was created from seven images taken with three different Hubble cameras: the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light-years away, relatively 'nearby' as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70,000 light-years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy. The galaxy's core is unique for its stunning 2,400 light-year-wide circle of infant star clusters, called a 'circumnuclear' starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments. Taking advantage of Hubble's sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However, the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring. 'The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon,' says Dan Maoz, who headed the

  9. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  10. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Elson, Ed C.; Ott, Juërgen; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  11. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  12. Serendipitous discovery of the faint solar twin Inti 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarza, Jhon Yana; Meléndez, Jorge; Cohen, Judith G.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Solar twins are increasingly the subject of many studies owing to their wide range of applications from testing stellar evolution models to the calibration of fundamental observables; these stars are also of interest because high precision abundances could be achieved that are key to investigating the chemical anomalies imprinted by planet formation. Furthermore, the advent of photometric surveys with large telescopes motivates the identification of faint solar twins in order to set the zero point of fundamental calibrations. Aims: We intend to perform a detailed line-by-line differential analysis to verify whether 2MASS J23263267-0239363 (designated here as Inti 1) is indeed a solar twin. Methods: We determine the atmospheric parameters and differential abundances using high-resolution (R ≈ 50 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 110-240 per pixel) Keck/HIRES spectra for our solar twin candidate, the previously known solar twin HD 45184, and the Sun (using reflected light from the asteroid Vesta). Results: For the bright solar twin HD 45184, we found Teff = 5864 ± 9 K, log g = 4.45 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.11 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.04 ± 0.01 dex, which are in good agreement with previous works. Our abundances are in excellent agreement with a recent high-precision work, with an element-to-element scatter of only 0.01 dex. The star Inti 1 has atmospheric parameters Teff = 5837 ± 11 K, log g = 4.42 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.04 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.01 dex that are higher than solar. The age and mass of the solar twin HD 45184 (3 Gyr and 1.05 M⊙) and the faint solar twin Inti 1 (4 Gyr and 1.04 M⊙) were estimated using isochrones. The differential analysis shows that HD 45184 presents an abundance pattern that is similar to typical nearby solar twins; this means this star has an enhanced refractory relative to volatile elements, while Inti 1 has an abundance pattern closer to solar, albeit somewhat enhanced in refractories. The abundance

  13. Serendipitous discovery of the faint solar twin Inti 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarza, Jhon Yana; Meléndez, Jorge; Cohen, Judith G.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Solar twins are increasingly the subject of many studies owing to their wide range of applications from testing stellar evolution models to the calibration of fundamental observables; these stars are also of interest because high precision abundances could be achieved that are key to investigating the chemical anomalies imprinted by planet formation. Furthermore, the advent of photometric surveys with large telescopes motivates the identification of faint solar twins in order to set the zero point of fundamental calibrations. Aims: We intend to perform a detailed line-by-line differential analysis to verify whether 2MASS J23263267-0239363 (designated here as Inti 1) is indeed a solar twin. Methods: We determine the atmospheric parameters and differential abundances using high-resolution (R ≈ 50 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 110-240 per pixel) Keck/HIRES spectra for our solar twin candidate, the previously known solar twin HD 45184, and the Sun (using reflected light from the asteroid Vesta). Results: For the bright solar twin HD 45184, we found Teff = 5864 ± 9 K, log g = 4.45 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.11 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.04 ± 0.01 dex, which are in good agreement with previous works. Our abundances are in excellent agreement with a recent high-precision work, with an element-to-element scatter of only 0.01 dex. The star Inti 1 has atmospheric parameters Teff = 5837 ± 11 K, log g = 4.42 ± 0.03 dex, vt = 1.04 ± 0.02 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.01 dex that are higher than solar. The age and mass of the solar twin HD 45184 (3 Gyr and 1.05 M⊙) and the faint solar twin Inti 1 (4 Gyr and 1.04 M⊙) were estimated using isochrones. The differential analysis shows that HD 45184 presents an abundance pattern that is similar to typical nearby solar twins; this means this star has an enhanced refractory relative to volatile elements, while Inti 1 has an abundance pattern closer to solar, albeit somewhat enhanced in refractories. The abundance

  14. A very faint core-collapse supernova in M85.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, A; Della Valle, M; Smartt, S J; Zampieri, L; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Mazzali, P A; Patat, F; Spiro, S; Turatto, M; Valenti, S

    2007-10-18

    An anomalous transient in the early Hubble-type (S0) galaxy Messier 85 (M85) in the Virgo cluster was discovered by Kulkarni et al. on 7 January 2006 that had very low luminosity (peak absolute R-band magnitude M(R) of about -12) that was constant over more than 80 days, red colour and narrow spectral lines, which seem inconsistent with those observed in any known class of transient events. Kulkarni et al. suggest an exotic stellar merger as the possible origin. An alternative explanation is that the transient in M85 was a type II-plateau supernova of extremely low luminosity, exploding in a lenticular galaxy with residual star-forming activity. This intriguing transient might be the faintest supernova that has ever been discovered. PMID:17943088

  15. Faint COSMOS AGNs at z∼3.3. I. Black Hole Properties and Constraints on Early Black Hole Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenbrot, B.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. Megan; Schawinski, K.; Marchesi, S.; Elvis, M.; Rosario, D. J.; Suh, H.; Mejia-Restrepo, J. E.; Simmons, B. D.; Faisst, A. L.; Onodera, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present new Keck/MOSFIRE K-band spectroscopy for a sample of 14 faint, X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. The data cover the spectral region surrounding the broad Balmer emission lines, which enables the estimation of black hole masses ({M}{BH}) and accretion rates (in terms of L/{L}{Edd}). We focus on 10 AGNs at z ≃ 3.3, where we observe the Hβ spectral region, while for the other four z ≃ 2.4 sources we use the {{H}}α broad emission line. Compared with previous detailed studies of unobscured AGNs at these high redshifts, our sources are fainter by an order of magnitude, corresponding to number densities of order ∼10‑6–10‑5 {{Mpc}}-3. The lower AGN luminosities also allow for a robust identification of the host galaxy emission, necessary to obtain reliable intrinsic AGN luminosities, BH masses and accretion rates. We find the AGNs in our sample to be powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with a typical mass of {M}{BH}≃ 5× {10}8 {M}ȯ —significantly lower than the higher-luminosity, rarer quasars reported in earlier studies. The accretion rates are in the range L/{L}{Edd} ∼ 0.1–0.4, with an evident lack of sources with lower L/{L}{Edd} (and higher {M}{BH}), as found in several studies of faint AGNs at intermediate redshifts. Based on the early growth expected for the SMBHs in our sample, we argue that a significant population of faint z ∼ 5‑6 AGNs, with {M}{BH}∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ , should be detectable in the deepest X-ray surveys available, but this is not observed. We discuss several possible explanations for the apparent absence of such a population, concluding that the most probable scenario involves an evolution in source obscuration and/or radiative efficiencies.

  16. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  17. Galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.

    1984-11-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies. (ESA)

  18. It is not easy being green: the evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-08-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z = 0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well, with a focus on z < 2. The median u-r of star-forming (`blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 mag from z = 2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z = 1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z = 1, which is mostly filled in by z = 0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the `green valley'. We find the time-scale of transition to be independent of quenching mechanism, i.e. whether a galaxy is a satellite or hosting an AGN. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescently star-forming, quenching and rejuvenating galaxies) and quantify the fraction of galaxies that follow each track.

  19. It's not easy being green: The evolution of galaxy colour in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-05-01

    We examine the evolution of intrinsic u-r colours of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which has been shown to reproduce the observed redshift z = 0.1 colour-magnitude distribution well, with a focus on z < 2. The median u-r of star-forming (`blue cloud') galaxies reddens by 1 magnitude from z = 2 to 0 at fixed stellar mass, as their specific star formation rates decrease with time. A red sequence starts to build-up around z = 1, due to the quenching of low-mass satellite galaxies at the faint end, and due to the quenching of more massive central galaxies by their active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the bright end. This leaves a dearth of intermediate-mass red sequence galaxies at z = 1, which is mostly filled in by z = 0. We quantify the time-scales of colour transition finding that most galaxies spend less than 2 Gyr in the `green valley'. We find the timescale of transition to be independent of quenching mechanism, i.e. whether a galaxy is a satellite or hosting an AGN. On examining the trajectories of galaxies in a colour-stellar mass diagram, we identify three characteristic tracks that galaxies follow (quiescently star-forming, quenching and rejuvenating galaxies) and quantify the fraction of galaxies that follow each track.

  20. Selecting background galaxies in weak-lensing analysis of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, I.; Radovich, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Mazzotta, P.; Grado, A.; Giocoli, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to select the faint, background galaxies used to derive the mass of galaxy clusters by weak lensing. The method is based on the simultaneous analysis of the shear signal, that should be consistent with zero for the foreground, unlensed galaxies, and of the colours of the galaxies: photometric data from the COSMic evOlution Survey are used to train the colour selection. In order to validate this methodology, we test it against a set of state-of-the-art image simulations of mock galaxy clusters in different redshift [0.23-0.45] and mass [0.5-1.55 × 1015 M⊙] ranges, mimicking medium-deep multicolour imaging observations [e.g. Subaru, Large Binocular Telescope]. The performance of our method in terms of contamination by unlensed sources is comparable to a selection based on photometric redshifts, which however requires a good spectral coverage and is thus much more observationally demanding. The application of our method to simulations gives an average ratio between estimated and true masses of ˜0.98 ± 0.09. As a further test, we finally apply our method to real data, and compare our results with other weak-lensing mass estimates in the literature: for this purpose, we choose the cluster Abell 2219 (z = 0.228), for which multiband (BVRi) data are publicly available.

  1. A Curious Pair of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope has taken the best image ever of a strange and chaotic duo of interwoven galaxies. The images also contain some surprises -- interlopers both far and near. ESO PR Photo 11a/09 A Curious Pair of Galaxies ESO PR Video 11a/09 Arp 261 zoom in ESO PR Video 11b/09 Pan over Arp 261 Sometimes objects in the sky that appear strange, or different from normal, have a story to tell and prove scientifically very rewarding. This was the idea behind Halton Arp's catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies that appeared in the 1960s. One of the oddballs listed there is Arp 261, which has now been imaged in more detail than ever before using the FORS2 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. The image proves to contain several surprises. Arp 261 lies about 70 million light-years distant in the constellation of Libra, the Scales. Its chaotic and very unusual structure is created by the interaction of two galaxies that are engaged in a slow motion, but highly disruptive close encounter. Although individual stars are very unlikely to collide in such an event, the huge clouds of gas and dust certainly do crash into each other at high speed, leading to the formation of bright new clusters of very hot stars that are clearly seen in the picture. The paths of the existing stars in the galaxies are also dramatically disrupted, creating the faint swirls extending to the upper left and lower right of the image. Both interacting galaxies were probably dwarfs not unlike the Magellanic Clouds orbiting our own galaxy. The images used to create this picture were not actually taken to study the interacting galaxies at all, but to investigate the properties of the inconspicuous object just to the right of the brightest part of Arp 261 and close to the centre of the image. This is an unusual exploding star, called SN 1995N, that is thought to be the result of the final collapse of a massive star at the end of its life, a so-called core collapse supernova. SN 1995N is unusual because

  2. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  3. Utraviolet Light Source in an Old Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite resolution has allowed astronomers to resolve, for the first time, hot blue stars deep inside an elliptical galaxy. The swarm of nearly 8,000 blue stars resembles a blizzard of snowflakes near the core (lower right) of the neighboring galaxy M32, located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Hubble confirms that the ultraviolet light comes from a population of extremely hot helium-burning stars at a late stage in their lives. Unlike the Sun, which burns hydrogen into helium, these old stars exhausted their central hydrogen long ago, and now burn helium into heavier elements. The observations, taken in October 1998, were made with the camera mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in ultraviolet light. The STIS field of view is only a small portion of the entire galaxy, which is 20 times wider on the sky. For reference, the full moon is 70 times wider than the STIS field-of-view. Thirty years ago, the first ultraviolet observations of elliptical galaxies showed that they were surprisingly bright when viewed in ultraviolet light. Before those pioneering UV observations, old groups of stars were assumed to be relatively cool and thus extremely faint in the ultraviolet. Over the years since the initial discovery of this unexpected ultraviolet light, indirect evidence has accumulated that it originates in a population of old, but hot, helium-burning stars. Now Hubble provides the first direct visual evidence.

  4. HII regions in dwarf irregular galaxies of the local group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Paul; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    1990-01-01

    Deep, narrowband H alpha Charge Coupled Device (CCD) surveys of HII regions were carried out in several dwarf irregular galaxies in and near the local group. Data are now complete for these galaxies: NGC 6822, GR 8, IC 10, IC 1613, Sextans A, Sextans B, and Sag Irr. Observations are complete for DDO 47, 53, 167, 168 and 187. Details of some of the results for the surveys completed so far are discussed. For NGC 6822, CCD survey at H alpha resulted in the detection of 145 HII regions in the local group irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Most of them are newly detected, faint surface-brightness objects. Positions, maps and dimensions are being published elsewhere. For GR 8, a deep narrowband H alpha imaging of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy GR 8 revealed a total of 32 HII regions. Positions, H alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects were determined. The H alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, except for size of sample effects. Most HII regions detected are at the very low luminosity end of the general luminosity function. For IC 10, a deep CCD narrowband H alpha imaging of the local group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10 revealed a total of 144 HII regions. Positions, H alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects were determined. The H alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies.

  5. Optical signatures of high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.; Charlot, Stephane

    1994-01-01

    We combine an N-body and gasdynamic simulation of structure formation with an updated population synthesis code to explore the expected optical characteristics of a high-redshift cluster of galaxies. We examine a poor (2 keV) cluster formed in a biased, cold dark matter cosmology and employ simple, but plausible, threshold criteria to convert gas into stars. At z = 2, the forming cluster appears as a linear chain of very blue (g-r approximately equals 0) galaxies, with 15 objects brighter than r = 25 within a 1 square arcmin field of view. After 2 Gyr of evolution, the cluster viewed at z = 1 displays both freshly infalling blue galaxies and red galaxies robbed of recent accretion by interaction with the hot intracluster medium. The range in G-R colors is approximately 3 mag at z = 1, with the reddest objects lying at sites of highest galaxy density. We suggest that red, high-redshift galaxies lie in the cores of forming clusters and that their existence indicates the presence of a hot intracluster medium at redshifts z approximately equals 2. The simulated cluster viewed at z = 2 has several characteristics similar to the collection of faint, blue objects identified by Dressler et al. in a deep Hubble Space Telescope observation. The similarities provide some support for the interpretation of this collection as a high-redshift cluster of galaxies.

  6. Suppression of dwarf galaxy formation by cosmic reionization.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-05-18

    A large number of faint galaxies, born less than a billion years after the Big Bang, have recently been discovered. Fluctuations in the distribution of these galaxies contributed to a scatter in the ionization fraction of cosmic hydrogen on scales of tens of megaparsecs, as observed along the lines of sight to the earliest known quasars. Theoretical simulations predict that the formation of dwarf galaxies should have been suppressed after cosmic hydrogen was reionized, leading to a drop in the cosmic star-formation rate. Here we report evidence for this suppression. We show that the post-reionization galaxies that produced most of the ionizing radiation at a redshift z approximately 5.5 must have had a mass in excess of approximately 10(10.9 +/- 0.5) solar masses (M(o)) or else the aforementioned scatter would have been smaller than observed. This limiting mass is two orders of magnitude larger than the galaxy mass that is thought to have dominated the reionization of cosmic hydrogen (approximately 10(8) M(o)). We predict that future surveys with space-based infrared telescopes will detect a population of smaller galaxies that reionized the Universe at an earlier time, before the epoch of dwarf galaxy suppression. PMID:16710415

  7. Exploring high-z galaxies with the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullieuszik, M.; Falomo, R.; Greggio, L.; Uslenghi, M.; Fantinel, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present simulated observations of galaxies at z = 2 and z = 3 to probe the capabilities of next-generation telescopes (E-ELT and JWST) to measure the structural and photometrical properties of high-redshift galaxies. We carry out an extensive set of simulations of high-redshift galaxies adopting the specifications of the E-ELT first light instrument MICADO. The main parameters (sizes, Sersic index, and magnitudes) of the galaxies are measured using GALFIT and the accuracy of the determinations is assessed by comparing the input values to the measurements from many runs with different statistical noise. We also address the effects on the accuracy of the measurements of possible spatial variation of the point spread function (PSF) in the field. We find that from 3h exposure E-ELT near-infrared (IR) images of galaxies at z ~ 2 and z ~ 3 it will be possible to measure the size, total magnitude, and galaxy morphology with an accuracy of 2-5% for objects as faint as H ~ 25 and half-light size of 0.2 arcsec. The effective radius of compact, early-type galaxies is also recovered with ~5% accuracy, provided that their half-light size exceeds 20 mas. These results are compared with those expected from simulated observations obtained with NIRCam on board the JWST.

  8. Extended LY alpha -absorbing Halos around Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris; Pettini, Max

    1996-06-01

    In order to establish the Lyα absorption cross section of present-day galaxies, we have identified 38 galaxies with z = 0-0.08 that lie within 40-500 h^-1^ kpc of the line of sight to a QSO observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Including three galaxies in the field of 3C 273 investigated by previous authors, we find that nine of 41 galaxies have associated Lyα absorption. If the identified Lyα absorption systems are genuinely associated with the galaxies, then the covering factor of gas around galaxies remains roughly constant at ~40% between 100 and 300 h^-1^ kpc. Beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc, the incidence of absorption drops sharply. We conclude that (1) nearby galaxies do not possess Lyα-absorbing halos beyond 300 h^-1^ kpc in radius and (2) the covering factor of present-day galaxies between 50 and 300 h^-1^ kpc is 44% at an equivalent width limit of W >= 0.3 A. For the nine galaxies with associated Lyα absorption lines, differences in the galaxies systemic velocities and the velocity of the absorption line, {DELTA}v, range over +/- 300 km s^-1^, consistent with the distribution found at redshifts > 0.1 by Lanzetta et al. and Le Brun, Bergeron, & Boisse. Values of {DELTA}v spanning several hundred km s^-1^ are probably real for some of the QSO-galaxy pairs, however, and do not simply arise from errors in measuring cz_gal_ or cz_abs_. This suggests that the absorbing clouds are kinematically tied to the galaxy disks and that the distribution of {DELTA}v may arise because of the effects of galaxy inclination. We find no evidence for a correlation between Lyα equivalent width and galaxy line-of-sight separation, which weakens the argument that the identified galaxies are directly associated with the Lyα lines. Also, we find that absorption does not arise only from bright galaxies, since there are several examples in which low-luminosity galaxies apparently cause absorption. Yet we show that the absorbing halos around

  9. Helium shells and faint emission lines from slitless flash spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Cyril; Koutchmy, Serge

    2013-05-01

    At the time of the two last solar total eclipses of August 1st, 2008 in Siberia and July 11th, 2010 in French Polynesia, high frame rate CCD flash spectra were obtained. These eclipses occurred in quiet Sun period and after. The slitless flash spectra show two helium shells, in the weak Paschen α 4686 Å line of the ionized helium HeII and in the neutral helium HeI line at 4713 Å. The extensions of these helium shells are typically 3 Mm. In prominences, the extension of the interface with the corona is much more extended. The observations and analysis of these lines can properly be done only in eclipse conditions, when the intensity threshold reaches the coronal level, and the parasitic scattered light is virtually zero. Under the layers of 1 Mm above the limb, many faint low FIP lines were also seen in emission. These emission lines are superposed on the continuum containing absorption lines. The solar limb can be defined using the weak continuum appearing between the emission lines at the time of the second and third contact. The variations of the singly ionized iron line, the HeI and HeII lines and the continuum intensity are analyzed. The intensity ratio of ionized to neutral helium is studied for evaluating the ionization rate in low layers up to 2 Mm and also around a prominence.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Cycling, Climate, Impacts, and the Faint Young Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Sleep, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence for relatively mild climates on ancient Earth and Mars has been a puzzle in light of the faint early sun. The geologic evidence, although far from conclusive, would appear to indicate that the surfaces of both planets were, if anything, warmer ca. 3-4 Ga than they are now. The astrophysical argument that the sun ought to have brightened approx. 30% since it reached the main sequence is hard to refute. There results a paradox between the icehouse we expect and the greenhouse we think we see. The usual fix has been to posit massive CO2 atmospheres, although reduced gases (e.g., NH3 or CH4 ) have had their partisans. Evidence against siderite in paleosols dated 2.2-2.75 Ga sets a rough upper limit of 30 PAL (present atmospheric levels) on pCO2 at that time. This is an order of magnitude short of what is needed to defeat the fainter sun. We present here an independent argument against high pCO2 on early Earth that applies not only to the Archean but yet more forcefully to the Hadean era. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Luminosity Function of Faint Globular Clusters in M87

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Christopher Z.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Baltz, Edward A.; Silk, Joseph; /Oxford U.

    2006-07-14

    We present the luminosity function to very faint magnitudes for the globular clusters in M87, based on a 30 orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 imaging program. The very deep images and corresponding improved false source rejection allow us to probe the mass function further beyond the turnover than has been done before. We compare our luminosity function to those that have been observed in the past, and confirm the similarity of the turnover luminosity between M87 and the Milky Way. We also find with high statistical significance that the M87 luminosity function is broader than that of the Milky Way. We discuss how determining the mass function of the cluster system to low masses can constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of globular cluster systems. Our mass function is consistent with the dependence of mass loss on the initial cluster mass given by classical evaporation, and somewhat inconsistent with newer proposals that have a shallower mass dependence. In addition, the rate of mass loss is consistent with standard evaporation models, and not with the much higher rates proposed by some recent studies of very young cluster systems. We also find that the mass-size relation has very little slope, indicating that there is almost no increase in the size of a cluster with increasing mass.

  12. Helium shells and faint emission lines from slitless flash spectra

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, Cyril; Koutchmy, Serge

    2013-01-01

    At the time of the two last solar total eclipses of August 1st, 2008 in Siberia and July 11th, 2010 in French Polynesia, high frame rate CCD flash spectra were obtained. These eclipses occurred in quiet Sun period and after. The slitless flash spectra show two helium shells, in the weak Paschen α 4686 Å line of the ionized helium HeII and in the neutral helium HeI line at 4713 Å. The extensions of these helium shells are typically 3 Mm. In prominences, the extension of the interface with the corona is much more extended. The observations and analysis of these lines can properly be done only in eclipse conditions, when the intensity threshold reaches the coronal level, and the parasitic scattered light is virtually zero. Under the layers of 1 Mm above the limb, many faint low FIP lines were also seen in emission. These emission lines are superposed on the continuum containing absorption lines. The solar limb can be defined using the weak continuum appearing between the emission lines at the time of the second and third contact. The variations of the singly ionized iron line, the HeI and HeII lines and the continuum intensity are analyzed. The intensity ratio of ionized to neutral helium is studied for evaluating the ionization rate in low layers up to 2 Mm and also around a prominence. PMID:25685435

  13. No climate paradox under the faint early Sun.

    PubMed

    Rosing, Minik T; Bird, Dennis K; Sleep, Norman H; Bjerrum, Christian J

    2010-04-01

    Environmental niches in which life first emerged and later evolved on the Earth have undergone dramatic changes in response to evolving tectonic/geochemical cycles and to biologic interventions, as well as increases in the Sun's luminosity of about 25 to 30 per cent over the Earth's history. It has been inferred that the greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO(2) and/or CH(4) compensated for the lower solar luminosity and dictated an Archaean climate in which liquid water was stable in the hydrosphere. Here we demonstrate, however, that the mineralogy of Archaean sediments, particularly the ubiquitous presence of mixed-valence Fe(II-III) oxides (magnetite) in banded iron formations is inconsistent with such high concentrations of greenhouse gases and the metabolic constraints of extant methanogens. Prompted by this, and the absence of geologic evidence for very high greenhouse-gas concentrations, we hypothesize that a lower albedo on the Earth, owing to considerably less continental area and to the lack of biologically induced cloud condensation nuclei, made an important contribution to moderating surface temperature in the Archaean eon. Our model calculations suggest that the lower albedo of the early Earth provided environmental conditions above the freezing point of water, thus alleviating the need for extreme greenhouse-gas concentrations to satisfy the faint early Sun paradox. PMID:20360739

  14. Helium shells and faint emission lines from slitless flash spectra.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Cyril; Koutchmy, Serge

    2013-05-01

    At the time of the two last solar total eclipses of August 1st, 2008 in Siberia and July 11th, 2010 in French Polynesia, high frame rate CCD flash spectra were obtained. These eclipses occurred in quiet Sun period and after. The slitless flash spectra show two helium shells, in the weak Paschen α 4686 Å line of the ionized helium HeII and in the neutral helium HeI line at 4713 Å. The extensions of these helium shells are typically 3 Mm. In prominences, the extension of the interface with the corona is much more extended. The observations and analysis of these lines can properly be done only in eclipse conditions, when the intensity threshold reaches the coronal level, and the parasitic scattered light is virtually zero. Under the layers of 1 Mm above the limb, many faint low FIP lines were also seen in emission. These emission lines are superposed on the continuum containing absorption lines. The solar limb can be defined using the weak continuum appearing between the emission lines at the time of the second and third contact. The variations of the singly ionized iron line, the HeI and HeII lines and the continuum intensity are analyzed. The intensity ratio of ionized to neutral helium is studied for evaluating the ionization rate in low layers up to 2 Mm and also around a prominence. PMID:25685435

  15. Evidence for Evolution in the Galaxy Merger Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Barbara E.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Burkey, Jordan M.; Keel, William C.

    1993-12-01

    We use a set of four deep Cycle 1+2 fields with the HST Wide-Field Camera to constrain the rate of galaxy merging between the current epoch and approximately z=0.7. These fields were selected around weak radio sources not in rich or poor clusters so as to not bias these studies. Since most mergers occur between members of bound pairs, the merger rate is given by (half) the rate of disappearance of galaxy pairs. Using an objective criterion for pair membership, we find that more than 34% of galaxies in the magnitude range I=18-22 mag belong to pairs, while careful study of nearby comparison samples shows that only 7% of local galaxies belong to pairs. Hence, about 13% of the galaxy population has disappeared to merging in the cosmic epoch corresponding to this magnitude interval (or 0.1<= z<=0.7). This pair fraction is a lower limit, since correction for pairs in which one member falls below our detection threshold would raise the fraction of pair members with I=18---22 mag to about 50%. (we do not include physical system of higher multiplicity in these values). Hence, the number of galaxy pairs has dropped significantly between z ~ 0.7 and the current epoch. When using the best available I-band field galaxy redshift distributions, the HST pair-fraction grows with redshift as ~ (1+z)(3.0-3.5) , quite consistent with the expected evolution in the merger-rate from the decrease in comoving volume (~ (1+z)(3) ). This result has very significant implications for the interpretation of the ground-based galaxy counts (it explains the disappearance of faint blue galaxies), the cosmological evolution of faint radio sources and quasars (explains why these should indeed evolve as ~ (1+z)(3) ), the statistics of QSO companions, the galaxy content in distant clusters, and the merging history of a ``typical" galaxy. This work was supported by STScI grants GO-2405.*-87A and GO-3545.*-91A (to WCK and RAW) and in part through EPSCoR grant EHR-9108761 (to WCK).

  16. The Faint Counterparts of MAMBO Millimeter Sources near the New Technology Telescope Deep Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannerbauer, H.; Lehnert, M. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Genzel, R.; Menten, K. M.

    2004-05-01

    We discuss identifications for 18 sources from our Max-Planck-Millimeter-Bolometer (MAMBO) 1.2 mm survey of the region surrounding the NTT Deep Field. We have obtained accurate positions from Very Large Array 1.4 GHz interferometry, and in a few cases IRAM millimeter interferometry, and have also made deep BVRIzJK imaging at ESO. We find thirteen 1.2 mm sources associated with optical/near-infrared objects in the magnitude range K=19.0-22.5, while five are blank fields at K>22. We argue from a comparison of optical/near-infrared photometric redshifts and radio/millimeter redshift estimates that two of the 13 optical/near-infrared objects are likely foreground objects distinct from the dust sources, one of them possibly lensing the millimeter source. The median redshift of the radio-identified millimeter sources is ~2.6 from the radio/millimeter estimator, and the median optical/near-infrared photometric redshifts for the objects with counterparts is ~2.1. This suggests that those radio-identified millimeter sources without optical/near-infrared counterparts tend to lie at higher redshifts than those with optical/near-infrared counterparts. Compared to published identifications of objects from 850 μm surveys of similar depth, the median K and I magnitudes of our counterparts are roughly 2 mag fainter, and the dispersion of I-K colors is less. Real differences in the median redshifts, residual misidentifications with bright objects, cosmic variance, and small-number statistics are likely to contribute to this significant difference, which also affects redshift measurement strategies. Some of the counterparts are red in J-K (>~20%), but the contribution of such millimeter objects to the recently studied population of near-infrared-selected (Js-Ks>2.3) high-redshift galaxies is only of order a few percent. The recovery rate of MAMBO sources by preselection of optically faint radio sources is relatively low (~25%), in contrast to some claims of a higher rate for

  17. Evolving Neural Networks for the Classification of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2002-01-23

    The FIRST survey (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) is scheduled to cover 10,000 square degrees of the northern and southern galactic caps. Until recently, astronomers classified radio-emitting galaxies through a visual inspection of FIRST images. Besides being subjective, prone to error and tedious, this manual approach is becoming infeasible: upon completion, FIRST will include almost a million galaxies. This paper describes the application of six methods of evolving neural networks (NNs) with genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify bent-double galaxies. The objective is to demonstrate that GAs can successfully address some common problems in the application of NNs to classification problems, such as training the networks, choosing appropriate network topologies, and selecting relevant features. The results indicate that most of the methods perform equally well on our data, but the feature selection method gives superior results.

  18. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  19. Submillimeter Follow-Up of WISE-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam; Weiner, Benjamin; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approx.1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 microns, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60 C120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) Stellar Luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  20. Submillimeter Follow-up of Wise-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approximately 1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at zeta = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 micrometers. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (zeta greater than 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 micrometers, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) solar luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  1. High-Redshift Galaxy Surveys and the Reionization of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    Star-forming galaxies in the early universe provide us with perhaps the most natural way of explaining the reionization of the universe. Current observational results are sufficiently comprehensive, as to allow us to approximately calculate how the ionizing radiation from galaxies varies as a function of cosmic time. Important uncertainties in modeling reionization by galaxies revolve around the escape fraction and its luminosity and redshift dependence, a possible truncation of the galaxy luminosity function at the faint end, and an evolution in the production efficiency of Lyman-continuum photons with cosmic time. Despite these uncertainties, plausible choices for these parameters naturally predict a cosmic ionizing emissivity at z ˜ 6-10 whose evolution and overall normalization is in excellent agreement with that derived from current observational constraints. This strongly suggests that galaxies provide the necessary photons to reionize the universe.

  2. EXPLORING THE z = 3-4 MASSIVE GALAXY POPULATION WITH ZFOURGE: THE PREVALENCE OF DUSTY AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, Lee R.; Rees, Glen; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Persson, S. Eric; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Allen, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the redshift z > 3 galaxy population relies largely on samples selected using the popular ''dropout'' technique, typically consisting of UV-bright galaxies with blue colors and prominent Lyman breaks. As it is currently unknown if these galaxies are representative of the massive galaxy population, we here use the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution (ZFOURGE) survey to create a stellar mass-limited sample at z = 3-4. Uniquely, ZFOURGE uses deep near-infrared medium-bandwidth filters to derive accurate photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. The mass-complete sample consists of 57 galaxies with log M >10.6, reaching below M {sup *} at z = 3-4. On average, the massive z = 3-4 galaxies are extremely faint in the observed optical with median R{sub tot}{sup AB}=27.48±0.41 (rest-frame M {sub 1700} = –18.05 ± 0.37). They lie far below the UV luminosity-stellar mass relation for Lyman break galaxies and are about ∼100 × fainter at the same mass. The massive galaxies are red (R – K {sub s} {sub AB} = 3.9 ± 0.2; rest-frame UV-slope β = –0.2 ± 0.3) likely from dust or old stellar ages. We classify the galaxy spectral energy distributions by their rest-frame U–V and V–J colors and find a diverse population: 46{sub −6−17}{sup +6+10}% of the massive galaxies are quiescent, 40{sub −6−5}{sup +6+7}% are dusty star-forming galaxies, and only 14{sub −3−4}{sup +3+10}% resemble luminous blue star-forming Lyman break galaxies. This study clearly demonstrates an inherent diversity among massive galaxies at higher redshift than previously known. Furthermore, we uncover a reservoir of dusty star-forming galaxies with 4 × lower specific star-formation rates compared to submillimeter-selected starbursts at z > 3. With 5 × higher numbers, the dusty galaxies may represent a more typical mode of star formation compared to submillimeter-bright starbursts.

  3. Extragalatic zoo. I. [New galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schorn, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of various types of extragalactic objects are described. Consideration is given to cD galaxies, D galaxies, N galaxies, Markarian galaxies, liners, starburst galaxies, and megamasers. Emphasis is also placed on the isolated extragalatic H I region; the isolated extragalatic H II region; primeval galaxies or photogalaxies; peculiar galaxies; Arp galaxies; interacting galaxies; ring galaxies; and polar-ring galaxies. Diagrams of these objects are provided.

  4. The Superwind Galaxy NGC 4666

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    The galaxy NGC 4666 takes pride of place at the centre of this new image, made in visible light with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. NGC 4666 is a remarkable galaxy with very vigorous star formation and an unusual "superwind" of out-flowing gas. It had previously been observed in X-rays by the ESA XMM-Newton space telescope, and the image presented here was taken to allow further study of other objects detected in the earlier X-ray observations. The prominent galaxy NGC 4666 in the centre of the picture is a starburst galaxy, about 80 million light-years from Earth, in which particularly intense star formation is taking place. The starburst is thought to be caused by gravitational interactions between NGC 4666 and its neighbouring galaxies, including NGC 4668, visible to the lower left. These interactions often spark vigorous star-formation in the galaxies involved. A combination of supernova explosions and strong winds from massive stars in the starburst region drives a vast flow of gas from the galaxy into space - a so-called "superwind". The superwind is huge in scale, coming from the bright central region of the galaxy and extending for tens of thousands of light-years. As the superwind gas is very hot it emits radiation mostly as X-rays and in the radio part of the spectrum and cannot be seen in visible light images such as the one presented here. This image was made as part of a follow-up to observations made with the ESA XMM-Newton space telescope in X-rays. NGC 4666 was the target of the original XMM-Newton observations, but thanks to the telescope's wide field-of-view many other X-ray sources were also seen in the background. One such serendipitous detection is a faint galaxy cluster seen close to the bottom edge of the image, right of centre. This cluster is much further away from us than NGC 4666, at a distance of about three billion light-years. In order to fully understand the nature of

  5. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  6. ACCESS: NIR luminosity function and stellar mass function of galaxies in the Shapley supercluster environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merluzzi, P.; Mercurio, A.; Haines, C. P.; Smith, R. J.; Busarello, G.; Lucey, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    We present the near-infrared luminosity and stellar mass functions (SMFs) of galaxies in the core of the Shapley supercluster at z = 0.048, based on new K-band observations carried out at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope with the Wide Field Infrared Camera in conjunction with B- and R-band photometry from the Shapley Optical Survey, and including a subsample (~650 galaxies) of spectroscopically confirmed supercluster members. These data sets allow us to investigate the supercluster galaxy population down to M*K + 6 and . For the overall 3deg2 field, the K-band luminosity function (LF) is described by a Schechter function with M*K = -24.96 +/- 0.10 and α = -1.42 +/- 0.03, a significantly steeper faint-end slope than that observed in field regions. We investigate the effect of environment by deriving the LF in three regions selected according to the local galaxy density and observe a significant (2σ) increase in the faint-end slope going from high-density (α = -1.33) to low-density (α = -1.49) environments, while a faint-end upturn at MK > -21 becomes increasingly apparent in the lower density regions. The galaxy SMF is fitted well by a Schechter function with and α = -1.20 +/- 0.02. The SMF of supercluster galaxies is also characterized by an excess of massive galaxies that are associated with the brightest cluster galaxies. While the value of depends on the environment, increasing by 0.2dex from low- to high-density regions, the slope of the galaxy SMF does not vary with the environment. By comparing our findings with cosmological simulations, we conclude that the environmental dependences of the LF are not primarily due to variations in the merging histories, but to processes which are not treated in the semi-analytical models, such as tidal stripping or harassment. In field regions, the SMF shows a sharp upturn below , close to our mass limit, suggesting that the upturns seen in our K-band LFs, but not in the SMF, are due to this dwarf population. The

  7. Extragalactic archeology with the GHOSTS Survey. I. Age-resolved disk structure of nearby low-mass galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streich, David; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Minchev, Ivan; Monachesi, Antonela; Radburn-Smith, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We study the individual evolution histories of three nearby low-mass edge-on galaxies (IC 5052, NGC 4244, and NGC 5023). Methods: Using resolved stellar populations, we constructed star count density maps for populations of different ages and analyzed the change of structural parameters with stellar age within each galaxy. Results: We do not detect a separate thick disk in any of the three galaxies, even though our observations cover a wider range in equivalent surface brightness than any integrated light study. While scale heights increase with age, each population can be well described by a single disk. Two of the galaxies contain a very weak additional component, which we identify as the faint halo. The mass of these faint halos is lower than 1% of the mass of the disk. The three galaxies show low vertical heating rates, which are much lower than the heating rate of the Milky Way. This indicates that heating agents, such as giant molecular clouds and spiral structure, are weak in low-mass galaxies. All populations in the three galaxies exhibit no or only little flaring. While this finding is consistent with previous integrated light studies, it poses strong constraints on galaxy simulations, where strong flaring is often found as a result of interactions or radial migration.

  8. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined.

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE IONIZING EFFICIENCY OF THE FIRST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Finlator, Kristian; Trenti, Michele

    2012-11-10

    Observations of the Ly{alpha} forest and of high-redshift galaxies at z {approx} 6-10 imply that there were just enough photons to maintain the universe in an ionized state at z {approx} 5-6, indicating a 'photon-starved' end to reionization. The ionizing emissivity must have been larger at earlier times in order to yield the extended reionization history implied by the electron scattering optical depth constraint from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Here we address the possibility that a faint population of galaxies with host halo masses of {approx}10{sup 8-9} M{sub Sun} dominated the ionizing photon budget at redshifts z {approx}> 9, due to their much higher escape fractions. Such faint, early galaxies, would not have formed in ionized regions due to suppression by heating from the UV background, and would therefore not contribute to the ionizing background at z {approx}< 6, after reionization is complete. Our model matches: (1) the low escape fractions observed for high-redshift galaxies, (2) the WMAP constraint of {tau}{sub es} {approx} 0.09, (3) the low values for the UVB at z < 6, and (4) the observed star formation rate density inferred from Lyman break galaxies. A top-heavy initial mass function from Pop III stars is not required in this scenario. We compare our model to recent ones in the literature that were forced to introduce an escape fraction that increases strongly toward high redshift and show that a similar evolution occurs naturally if low-mass galaxies possess high escape fractions.

  10. Constraints on the Ionizing Efficiency of the First Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Finlator, Kristian; Trenti, Michele

    2012-11-01

    Observations of the Lyα forest and of high-redshift galaxies at z ~ 6-10 imply that there were just enough photons to maintain the universe in an ionized state at z ~ 5-6, indicating a "photon-starved" end to reionization. The ionizing emissivity must have been larger at earlier times in order to yield the extended reionization history implied by the electron scattering optical depth constraint from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Here we address the possibility that a faint population of galaxies with host halo masses of ~108-9 M ⊙ dominated the ionizing photon budget at redshifts z >~ 9, due to their much higher escape fractions. Such faint, early galaxies, would not have formed in ionized regions due to suppression by heating from the UV background, and would therefore not contribute to the ionizing background at z <~ 6, after reionization is complete. Our model matches: (1) the low escape fractions observed for high-redshift galaxies, (2) the WMAP constraint of τes ~ 0.09, (3) the low values for the UVB at z < 6, and (4) the observed star formation rate density inferred from Lyman break galaxies. A top-heavy initial mass function from Pop III stars is not required in this scenario. We compare our model to recent ones in the literature that were forced to introduce an escape fraction that increases strongly toward high redshift and show that a similar evolution occurs naturally if low-mass galaxies possess high escape fractions.

  11. Discovery of New Faint Radio Emission on 8° to 3' Scales in the Coma Field, and Some Galactic and Extragalactic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, P. P.; Kothes, R.; Salter, C. J.; Perillat, P.

    2007-04-01

    We present a deep, 8° diameter, 0.4 GHz radio image using a first-time combination of the NAIC Arecibo 305 m telescope in Puerto Rico and the wide-angle interferometer at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory at Penticton, Canada. Our observations are centered on the Coma Cluster of galaxies in the ``Great Wall'' of galaxies near the north Galactic pole. The complementary nature of these two instruments enables us to produce a distortion-free image that is sensitive to radiation on scales from 8° down to that of an individual galaxy halo at the 100 Mpc distance of the Great Wall. Newly revealed patches of distributed radio ``glow'' are seen well above the detection limit. One prominent such area coincides with groupings of radio galaxies near the Coma Cluster and indicates intergalactic magnetic fields in the range 0.2-0.4 μG on scales of up to ~4 Mpc. Other patches of diffuse emission, not previously explored at these high latitudes on arcminute scales, probably consist of Galactic ``cirrus.'' A striking anticorrelation is found between low-level diffuse radio glow and some regions of enhanced optical galaxy surface density, suggesting that cosmological large-scale structure, normally defined by the baryonic (or dark) matter density, is not uniquely traced by faint continuum radio glow. Rather, intergalactic diffuse synchrotron radiation may be a proxy for IGM cosmic-ray and magnetic energy density, rather than matter density. The diffuse, arcminute-level structures over a large region of sky are potentially important pathfinders to CMB foreground radiation on high multipole scales.

  12. Faint Object Spectrograph Instrument Handbook v. 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, C. D.; et al.

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook describes The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and its use for Cycle 6 of the Hubble Space Telescope General Observer program. Many presentations have been updated from previous versions, especially those pertaining to target acquisition, brightness limits, and in- strumental sensitivities needed for exposure and S/N calculations. This Handbook draws upon dis- cussions from earlier versions of the Handbook, notably the Version 1.0 FOS Instrument Handbook (Ford 1985), the Supplement to the Version 1.0 Instrument Handbook (Hartig 1989), and the Version 5.0 Handbook (Kinney, 1994). Only the current document should be used for Cy- cle 6. The detectors are described in detail by Harms et al (1979) and Harms (1982). This version of the FOS Instrument Handbook is for the post-COSTAR refurbished tele- scope. The change in focal length introduced by the addition of COSTAR affects the aperture sizes as projected on the sky. However, the pre-COSTAR aperture designations used in the Remote Pro- posal Submission System, version 2 (RPS2) and in the Project Data Base (PDB) have not been changed. Apertures are referred to throughout this document by their size followed in parentheses by their RPS2 exposure level designation (in Courier typeface). Indeed, all RPS2 desig- nations, which are used for proposal preparation, will be denoted in Courier typeface in this Hand- book. For example, the largest circular aperture is referred to as the 0.9'' (1.0) aperture, while the smallest paired apertures are referred to as the 0.09'' paired (0.1-PAIR)apertures.

  13. Astrometric Follow-Up of Faint Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, T. (Technical Monitor); Spahr, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The observing program at Mt. Hopkins using the 48" reflector and funded by the Near- Earth Object Observation Program continues to excel. As in the past, all requested observing time was granted. Minor improvements continue to be made. For example, the telescope is set up to track and non-sidereal rates. This allows the user to track on the target object, rather than relying exclusively on the shift- and-stack technique. Other improvements made by the staff include automatic focus routines, automatic seeing-measurement routines, and improvement in dome seeing and mirror stabilization. The net result is better focus, better seeing, and the ability to expose longer in order to acquire the faintest and most important objects. During the proposal period, this program ranked again very high worldwide in terms of faint Near Earth Objects observed. During this latest proposal cycle, fewer objects were observed than previous cycles, but this was due to the strict targeting of only the faintest observable objects. The follow-up programs of observatory codes 926 (led by P. Holvorcem) and 291 (led by Dr. B. McMillan) have greatly increased their capacity, and as a result less bright objects are in urgent need of follow-up than in years past. Even with this new object selection and additional competition, code 696 still ranked second to code 291 in terms of objects observed fainter than V = 20. Minimal scripting is now in place to allow the telescope to run autonomously for 30-45 minutes at a time.

  14. The accelerated build-up of the red sequence in high-redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerulo, P.; Couch, W. J.; Lidman, C.; Demarco, R.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Barrientos, L. F.; Muñoz, R. P.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.8 < z < 1.5 taken from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). The comparison with the low-redshift (0.04 < z < 0.08) sample of the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) and other literature results shows that the slope and intrinsic scatter of the cluster red sequence have undergone little evolution since z = 1.5. We find that the luminous-to-faint ratio and the slope of the faint end of the luminosity distribution of the HCS red sequence are consistent with those measured in WINGS, implying that there is no deficit of red galaxies at magnitudes fainter than M_V^{ast } at high redshifts. We find that the most massive HCS clusters host a population of bright red sequence galaxies at MV < -22.0 mag, which are not observed in low-mass clusters. Interestingly, we also note the presence of a population of very bright (MV < -23.0 mag) and massive (log (M*/M⊙) > 11.5) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than z = 0.8. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range 0.8 < zphot < 1.5 shows that the red sequence in clusters is more developed at the faint end, suggesting that halo mass plays an important role in setting the time-scales for the build-up of the red sequence.

  15. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 53W044 - An S0 radio galaxy at z = 0.311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, William C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    1993-01-01

    Images of the Wide Field Camera (WFC) and Faint-Object Camera (FOC) of the radio galaxy 53W044 are presented. The WFC images are used to examine the structure of the galaxy, and show evidence for a significant disk, on the basis of which 53W044 is classified as an S0. This radio galaxy is near the maximum radio power associated with sources in S0 host galaxies. The FOC image is combined with ground-based spectroscopy to study 53W044's stellar population, which appears normal for an E/S0 galaxy of modest luminosity. No evidence is found for a significant contribution from a nuclear blue-continuum source, and the stellar population is old with a continuum level at 2100 A, consistent with what is seen in nearby radio galaxies.

  16. The Fossils of the First Galaxies in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovill, Mia Sauda

    We argue that, at least a fraction of the newly discovered population of ultra-faint dwarfs in the Local Group constitute the fossil relics of a once ubiquitous population of dwarf galaxies formed before reionization with maximum circular velocities, vmax < 20 km s -1, where vmax ˜ M 1/3. To follow the evolution and distribution of the fossils of the first galaxies on Local Volume, 5 - 10 Mpc, scales, we have developed a new method for generating initial conditions for ΛCDM N-body simulations which provides the necessary dynamic range. The initial distribution of particles represents the position, velocity and mass distribution of the dark and luminous ha- los extracted from pre-reionization simulations. We find that ultra-faint dwarfs have properties compatible with well preserved fossils of the first galaxies and are able to reproduce the observed luminosity-metallicity relation. However, because the brightest pre-reionization dwarfs form preferentially in overdense regions, they have merged into non-fossil halos with vmax > 20-30 km s-1. Hence, we find a luminosity threshold of true-fossils of 106 Lsolar, casting doubts on the classification of some classical dSphs as fossils. We also argue that the ultra-faints at R < 50 kpc, have had their stellar properties significantly modified by tides, and that a large population of fossils remains undetected due to log(Sigma V) < -1.4. Next, we show that fossils of the first galaxies have galactocentric distributions and cumulative luminosity func- tions consistent with observations. We predict there are ˜ 300 luminous satellites orbiting within Rvir of the Milky Way, ˜ 50-70% of which are fossils. Despite our multidimensional agreement at low luminosities, our primordial model produces an overabundance of bright dwarf satellites (LV > 105 Lsolar), with this "bright satellite problem" most evident in the outer parts of the Milky Way. We estimate that, although relatively bright (LV > 105 Lsolar), these ghostly

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Joseph Benoi T.

    1997-06-01

    striking change in the shape distribution near MB = -20. Bright ellipticals have a narrow range of apparent shapes, centered around E2, while faint ellipticals exhibit a much broader shape distribution. The faint-galaxy data are consistent with the axisymmetric hypothesis, while the bright-galaxy data can only be explained via a triaxial shape distribution.

  18. RECONSTRUCTING THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS FROM KNOWN GALAXY POPULATIONS USING MULTIBAND MEASUREMENTS OF LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Helgason, Kari; Ricotti, Massimo; Kashlinsky, Alexander

    2012-06-20

    We model fluctuations in the cosmic infrared background (CIB) arising from known galaxy populations using 233 measured UV, optical, and near-IR luminosity functions (LFs) from a variety of surveys spanning a wide range of redshifts. We compare best-fit Schechter parameters across the literature and find clear indication of evolution with redshift. Providing fitting formulae for the multi-band evolution of the LFs out to z {approx} 5, we calculate the total emission redshifted into the near-IR bands in the observer frame and recover the observed optical and near-IR galaxy counts to good accuracy. Our empirical approach, in conjunction with a halo model describing the clustering of galaxies, allows us to compute the fluctuations of the unresolved CIB and compare the models to current measurements. We find that fluctuations from known galaxy populations are unable to account for the large-scale CIB clustering signal seen by Spitzer/IRAC and AKARI/IRC and continue to diverge out to larger angular scales. This holds true even if the LFs are extrapolated out to faint magnitudes with a steep faint-end slope all the way to z = 8. We also show that removing resolved sources to progressively fainter magnitude limits isolates CIB fluctuations to increasingly higher redshifts. Our empirical approach suggests that known galaxy populations are not responsible for the bulk of the fluctuation signal seen in the measurements and favors a very faint population of highly clustered sources.

  19. M dwarfs, microlensing, and the mass budget of the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Flynn, Chris; Gould, Andrew; Kirhakos, Sofia

    1994-01-01

    We show that faint red stars do not contribute significantly to the mass budget of the Galaxy or to microlensing statistics. Our results are obtained by analyzing two long exposures of a high-latitude field taken with the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the newly repaired Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Stars are easily distinguished from galaxies essentially to the limiting magnitudes of the images. We find five stars with 2.0 less than V - I less than 3.0 and I less than 25.3 and no stars with V - I greater than 3.0. Therefore, main-sequence stars with M(sub I) greater than 10 that are above the hydrogen-burning limit in the dark halo or the spheroid contribute less than 6% of the unseen matter. Faint red disk stars, M-dwarfs, contribute at most 15% to the mass of the disk. We parameterize the faint end of the cumulative distribution of stars, Phi, as a function of luminosity L(sub V), d Phi/d ln L(sub V) proportional to L(sub V exp -gamma). For spheroid stars, gamma less than 0.32 over the range 6 less than M(sub V) less than 17, with 98% confidence. The disk luminosity function falls, gamma less than 0, for 15 approximately less than M(sub V) approximately less than 19. Faint red stars in the disk or thick disk, and stars with M(sub V) less than 16 in the spheroid contribute tau less than 10(exp -8) to the optical depth to microlensing toward the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  20. Shaping galaxy evolution with galaxy structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5galaxies from quiescent galaxies. Our method indicates that the inner stellar mass is the most correlated parameter of quenching, implying that the process that quenches galaxies must also buildup their inner structure. Second, we explore the relationship between galactic bars and their host galaxies with Galaxy Zoo 2 at z˜0. The correlations of bar properties and galaxy properties are consistent with simulations of bar formation and evolution, indicating that bars affect their host galaxies. Finally, we investigate whether bars can drive supermassive black hole growth with data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble at 0.2galaxies to a matched sample of inactive, control galaxies shows that there is no statistically significant excess of bars in active hosts. Our result shows that bars are not the primary fueling mechanism of supermassive black hole

  1. Submillimeter Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Universe was a more exciting place at moderate to high redshifts z˜3, after reionization took place, but before the present day galaxy properties were firmly established. From a wide variety of directions, we are gaining insight into the Universe at these epochs. Less gas was sequestered into stars and had been ejected into the interstellar medium as weakly emitting, slowly cooling debris, because a significant amount of star formation and supermassive blackhole growth in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) was still to occur. Furthermore, the processes that shape today’s galaxies were at work, and can be seen in real time with the appropriate tools. The most active regions of galaxies at these redshifts are deeply obscured at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths by an opaque interstellar medium (ISM) that absorbs most of their radiation, and then re-emits at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths. This emission provides us with a very powerful probe of the regions within galaxies where the most intense activity takes place; both their total energy output, and from spectroscopy, about the physics and chemistry of the atomic and molecular gas that fuels, hides and surrounds these regions. This information is unique, but not complete: radio, mid- and near-IR, optical and X-ray observations each provide unique complementary views. Nevertheless, probing the obscured Universe, with the Atacama Large (Sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Herschel Space Observatory, Wide Field