Some Observations on the Identification and Interpretation of the 3PL IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Azevedo, Caio Lucidius Naberezny
2009-01-01
The paper by Maris, G., & Bechger, T. (2009) entitled, "On the Interpreting the Model Parameters for the Three Parameter Logistic Model," addressed two important questions concerning the three parameter logistic (3PL) item response theory (IRT) model (and in a broader sense, concerning all IRT models). The first one is related to the model…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monahan, Patrick O.; Ankenmann, Robert D.
2010-01-01
When the matching score is either less than perfectly reliable or not a sufficient statistic for determining latent proficiency in data conforming to item response theory (IRT) models, Type I error (TIE) inflation may occur for the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure or any differential item functioning (DIF) procedure that matches on summed-item…
Standard Error Estimation of 3PL IRT True Score Equating with an MCMC Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yuming; Schulz, E. Matthew; Yu, Lei
2008-01-01
A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a bootstrap method were compared in the estimation of standard errors of item response theory (IRT) true score equating. Three test form relationships were examined: parallel, tau-equivalent, and congeneric. Data were simulated based on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests of the Iowa Tests of…
The Exploration of the Relationship between Guessing and Latent Ability in IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gao, Song
2011-01-01
This study explored the relationship between successful guessing and latent ability in IRT models. A new IRT model was developed with a guessing function integrating probability of guessing an item correctly with the examinee's ability and the item parameters. The conventional 3PL IRT model was compared with the new 2PL-Guessing model on…
3PL: A Useful Model with a Mild Estimation Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Partchev, Ivailo
2009-01-01
This author has always felt a bit uneasy about the three parameter logistic (3PL) model because it seems about as prone to discovering guessing when guessing does not take place, as the Rasch model is reluctant to admit that guessing might ever take place at all. However, the author has attributed this to the prior "magic" employed when estimating…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Boeck, Paul
2008-01-01
It is common practice in IRT to consider items as fixed and persons as random. Both, continuous and categorical person parameters are most often random variables, whereas for items only continuous parameters are used and they are commonly of the fixed type, although exceptions occur. It is shown in the present article that random item parameters…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Michael; Sharairi, Sid; Yamazaki, Kenji; Signatur, Diane; Swift, David; Frey, Sharon
2008-01-01
The present study compared item and ability invariance as well as model-data fit between the one-parameter (1PL) and three-parameter (3PL) Item Response Theory (IRT) models utilizing real data across five grades; second through sixth as well as simulated data at second, fourth and sixth grade. At each grade, the 1PL and 3PL IRT models were run…
Is There Need for the 3PL Model? Guess What?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias
2009-01-01
If questioned about their beliefs, psychometricians in one camp would argue the firm conviction that the Rasch model is mathematically elegant and intuitive as well as plausible for practitioners, pointing out the advantages of a simple model that "counts" every item in the same way. Psychometricians of another camp would argue that the three…
IRT Model Selection Methods for Dichotomous Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Taehoon; Cohen, Allan S.
2007-01-01
Fit of the model to the data is important if the benefits of item response theory (IRT) are to be obtained. In this study, the authors compared model selection results using the likelihood ratio test, two information-based criteria, and two Bayesian methods. An example illustrated the potential for inconsistency in model selection depending on…
Understanding Parameter Invariance in Unidimensional IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupp, Andre A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2006-01-01
One theoretical feature that makes item response theory (IRT) models those of choice for many psychometric data analysts is parameter invariance, the equality of item and examinee parameters from different examinee populations or measurement conditions. In this article, using the well-known fact that item and examinee parameters are identical only…
Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2014-01-01
Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…
New Method of Calibrating IRT Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Hai; Tang, K. Linda
This discussion of new methods for calibrating item response theory (IRT) models looks into new optimization procedures, such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to improve on the use of the Newton-Raphson procedure. The advantages of using a global optimization procedure like GA is that this kind of procedure is not easily affected by local optima and…
An Investigation of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chon, Kyong Hee
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate procedures for assessing model fit of IRT models for mixed format data. In this study, various IRT model combinations were fitted to data containing both dichotomous and polytomous item responses, and the suitability of the chosen model mixtures was evaluated based on a number of model fit procedures.…
Bayesian Estimation of the Logistic Positive Exponent IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bolfarine, Heleno; Bazan, Jorge Luis
2010-01-01
A Bayesian inference approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is developed for the logistic positive exponent (LPE) model proposed by Samejima and for a new skewed Logistic Item Response Theory (IRT) model, named Reflection LPE model. Both models lead to asymmetric item characteristic curves (ICC) and can be appropriate because a symmetric…
On the Bayesian Nonparametric Generalization of IRT-Type Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Alejandro; Rolin, Jean-Marie; Mouchart, Michel
2011-01-01
We study the identification and consistency of Bayesian semiparametric IRT-type models, where the uncertainty on the abilities' distribution is modeled using a prior distribution on the space of probability measures. We show that for the semiparametric Rasch Poisson counts model, simple restrictions ensure the identification of a general…
A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.
2010-01-01
In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…
Bias Coefficients for Lack of Invariance in Unidimensional IRT Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupp, Andre A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
The feature that makes item response theory (IRT) models the models of choice for many psychometric data analysts is parameter invariance, the equality of item and examinee parameters from different populations. Using the well-known fact that item and examinee parameters are identical only up to a set of linear transformations specific to the…
Bayesian IRT Guessing Models for Partial Guessing Behaviors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cao, Jing; Stokes, S. Lynne
2008-01-01
According to the recent Nation's Report Card, 12th-graders failed to produce gains on the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) despite earning better grades on average. One possible explanation is that 12th-graders were not motivated taking the NAEP, which is a low-stakes test. We develop three Bayesian IRT mixture models to…
Bayesian Estimation of Multi-Unidimensional Graded Response IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuo, Tzu-Chun
2015-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) has gained an increasing popularity in large-scale educational and psychological testing situations because of its theoretical advantages over classical test theory. Unidimensional graded response models (GRMs) are useful when polytomous response items are designed to measure a unified latent trait. They are limited in…
Local Dependence Diagnostics in IRT Modeling of Binary Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yang; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto
2013-01-01
Local dependence (LD) for binary IRT models can be diagnosed using Chen and Thissen's bivariate X[superscript 2] statistic and the score test statistics proposed by Glas and Suarez-Falcon, and Liu and Thissen. Alternatively, LD can be assessed using general purpose statistics such as bivariate residuals or Maydeu-Olivares and Joe's M[subscript r]…
A Comparison of Exposure Control Procedures in CATs Using the 3PL Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leroux, Audrey J.; Lopez, Myriam; Hembry, Ian; Dodd, Barbara G.
2013-01-01
This study compares the progressive-restricted standard error (PR-SE) exposure control procedure to three commonly used procedures in computerized adaptive testing, the randomesque, Sympson-Hetter (SH), and no exposure control methods. The performance of these four procedures is evaluated using the three-parameter logistic model under the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, N. Scott; Omar, Md Hafidz
Previous research has shown that testlet structures often violate important assumptions of dichotomous item response theory (D-IRT) models, applied to item-level scores, that can in turn affect the results of many measurement applications. In this situation, polytomous IRT (P-IRT) models, applied to testlet-level scores, have been used as an…
IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul
2006-01-01
An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…
A Componential IRT Model for Guilt.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smits, Dirk J. M.; De Boeck, Paul
2003-01-01
Studied the process structure of guilt with an adaptation of the Model with Internal Restrictions on Item Difficulty (R. Butter and others, 1998) administered to 270 high school students. Findings show that this kind of modeling is appropriate to investigate the structure of other emotions. (SLD)
Stochastic Ordering of the Latent Trait by the Sum Score Under Various Polytomous IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Ark, L. Andries
2005-01-01
The sum score is often used to order respondents on the latent trait measured by the test. Therefore, it is desirable that under the chosen model the sum score stochastically orders the latent trait. It is known that unlike dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering. It is unknown,…
Performance of the Generalized S-X[Superscript 2] Item Fit Index for Polytomous IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Taehoon; Chen, Troy T.
2008-01-01
Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] item fit index has performed better than traditional item fit statistics such as Yen' s Q[subscript 1] and McKinley and Mill' s G[superscript 2] for dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. This study extends the utility of S-X[superscript 2] to polytomous IRT models, including the generalized partial…
Application of an IRT Polytomous Model for Measuring Health Related Quality of Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tejada, Antonio J. Rojas; Rojas, Oscar M. Lozano
2005-01-01
Background: The Item Response Theory (IRT) has advantages for measuring Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) as opposed to the Classical Tests Theory (CTT). Objectives: To present the results of the application of a polytomous model based on IRT, specifically, the Rating Scale Model (RSM), to measure HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30. Methods: 103…
Comparing Accuracy of Parameter Estimation Using IRT Models in the Presence of Guessing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fu, Qiong
2010-01-01
This research investigated how the accuracy of person ability and item difficulty parameter estimation varied across five IRT models with respect to the presence of guessing, targeting, and varied combinations of sample sizes and test lengths. The data were simulated with 50 replications under each of the 18 combined conditions. Five IRT models…
Comment on 3PL IRT Adjustment for Guessing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiu, Ting-Wei; Camilli, Gregory
2013-01-01
Guessing behavior is an issue discussed widely with regard to multiple choice tests. Its primary effect is on number-correct scores for examinees at lower levels of proficiency. This is a systematic error or bias, which increases observed test scores. Guessing also can inflate random error variance. Correction or adjustment for guessing formulas…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gu, Fei; Skorupski, William P.; Hoyle, Larry; Kingston, Neal M.
2011-01-01
Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT) is a nonparametric procedure that estimates the latent trait using splines, and no distributional assumption about the latent trait is required. For item parameters of the two-parameter logistic (2-PL), three-parameter logistic (3-PL), and polytomous IRT models, RC-IRT can provide more accurate estimates…
IRT Model Misspecification and Measurement of Growth in Vertical Scaling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bolt, Daniel M.; Deng, Sien; Lee, Sora
2014-01-01
Functional form misfit is frequently a concern in item response theory (IRT), although the practical implications of misfit are often difficult to evaluate. In this article, we illustrate how seemingly negligible amounts of functional form misfit, when systematic, can be associated with significant distortions of the score metric in vertical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhu, Xiaoshu
2013-01-01
The current study introduced a general modeling framework, multilevel mixture IRT (MMIRT) which detects and describes characteristics of population heterogeneity, while accommodating the hierarchical data structure. In addition to introducing both continuous and discrete approaches to MMIRT, the main focus of the current study was to distinguish…
A Nonparametric Approach for Assessing Goodness-of-Fit of IRT Models in a Mixed Format Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.
2015-01-01
Investigating the fit of a parametric model plays a vital role in validating an item response theory (IRT) model. An area that has received little attention is the assessment of multiple IRT models used in a mixed-format test. The present study extends the nonparametric approach, proposed by Douglas and Cohen (2001), to assess model fit of three…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.; Chico, Eliseo
2007-01-01
A theoretical advantage of item response theory (IRT) models is that trait estimates based on these models provide more test information than any other type of test score. It is still unclear, however, whether using IRT trait estimates improves external validity results in comparison with the results that can be obtained by using simple raw…
The Performance of IRT Model Selection Methods with Mixed-Format Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.
2012-01-01
When tests consist of multiple-choice and constructed-response items, researchers are confronted with the question of which item response theory (IRT) model combination will appropriately represent the data collected from these mixed-format tests. This simulation study examined the performance of six model selection criteria, including the…
An Extension of Least Squares Estimation of IRT Linking Coefficients for the Graded Response Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon
2010-01-01
The three types (generalized, unweighted, and weighted) of least squares methods, proposed by Ogasawara, for estimating item response theory (IRT) linking coefficients under dichotomous models are extended to the graded response model. A simulation study was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the extended formulas, and a real data study was…
A Unified Nonparametric IRT Model for "d"-Dimensional Psychological Test Data ("d"-Isop)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheiblechner, Hartmann
2007-01-01
The (univariate) isotonic psychometric (ISOP) model (Scheiblechner, 1995) is a nonparametric IRT model for dichotomous and polytomous (rating scale) psychological test data. A weak subject independence axiom W1 postulates that the subjects are ordered in the same way except for ties (i.e., similarly or isotonically) by all items of a psychological…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Magis, David
2015-01-01
The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating…
Examining the Bifactor IRT Model for Vertical Scaling in K-12 Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koepfler, James R.
2012-01-01
Over the past decade, educational policy trends have shifted to a focus on examining students' growth from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). One way states can track students' growth is with a vertical scale. Presently, every state that uses a vertical scale bases the scale on a unidimensional IRT model. These models make a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M.
2010-01-01
We present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups of countries have different measurement operations, while…
Comparing Three Estimation Methods for the Three-Parameter Logistic IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamsal, Sunil
2015-01-01
Different estimation procedures have been developed for the unidimensional three-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. These techniques include the marginal maximum likelihood estimation, the fully Bayesian estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and the Metropolis-Hastings Robbin-Monro estimation. With each…
An Extension of IRT-Based Equating to the Dichotomous Testlet Response Theory Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tao, Wei; Cao, Yi
2016-01-01
Current procedures for equating number-correct scores using traditional item response theory (IRT) methods assume local independence. However, when tests are constructed using testlets, one concern is the violation of the local item independence assumption. The testlet response theory (TRT) model is one way to accommodate local item dependence.…
A Systematic Comparison between Classical Optimal Scaling and the Two-Parameter IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warrens, Matthijs J.; de Gruijter, Dato N. M.; Heiser, Willem J.
2007-01-01
In this article, the relationship between two alternative methods for the analysis of multivariate categorical data is systematically explored. It is shown that the person score of the first dimension of classical optimal scaling correlates strongly with the latent variable for the two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. Next, under the…
Examining the Effectiveness of Test Accommodation Using DIF and a Mixture IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Kingston, Neal
2012-01-01
This study examined the validity of test accommodation in third-eighth graders using differential item functioning (DIF) and mixture IRT models. Two data sets were used for these analyses. With the first data set (N = 51,591) we examined whether item type (i.e., story, explanation, straightforward) or item features were associated with item…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, Louis; Ali, Usama S.; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce
2011-01-01
This study investigated the relative model-data fit of an ideal point item response theory (IRT) model (the generalized graded unfolding model [GGUM]) and dominance IRT models (e.g., the two-parameter logistic model [2PLM] and Samejima's graded response model [GRM]) to simulated dichotomous and polytomous data generated from each of these models.…
Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Carol M.
2008-01-01
In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…
A GPU-Based Gibbs Sampler for a Unidimensional IRT Model
Welling, William S.; Zhu, Michelle M.
2014-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) is a popular approach used for addressing large-scale statistical problems in psychometrics as well as in other fields. The fully Bayesian approach for estimating IRT models is usually memory and computationally expensive due to the large number of iterations. This limits the use of the procedure in many applications. In an effort to overcome such restraint, previous studies focused on utilizing the message passing interface (MPI) in a distributed memory-based Linux cluster to achieve certain speedups. However, given the high data dependencies in a single Markov chain for IRT models, the communication overhead rapidly grows as the number of cluster nodes increases. This makes it difficult to further improve the performance under such a parallel framework. This study aims to tackle the problem using massive core-based graphic processing units (GPU), which is practical, cost-effective, and convenient in actual applications. The performance comparisons among serial CPU, MPI, and compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programs demonstrate that the CUDA GPU approach has many advantages over the CPU-based approach and therefore is preferred. PMID:27355058
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Park, Dong-Gun
1988-01-01
The consequences of using item response theory (IRT) item bias detecting procedures with multidimensional IRT item data are examined. Limitations in procedures for detecting item bias are discussed. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Song, Tian
2010-01-01
This study investigates the effect of fitting a unidimensional IRT model to multidimensional data in content-balanced computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Unconstrained CAT with the maximum information item selection method is chosen as the baseline, and the performances of three content balancing procedures, the constrained CAT (CCAT), the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Jean-Paul
2016-01-01
Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated measures is introduced which is designed to address…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rijmen, Frank
2009-01-01
Maximum marginal likelihood estimation of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models has been hampered by the calculation of the multidimensional integral over the ability distribution. However, the researcher often has a specific hypothesis about the conditional (in)dependence relations among the latent variables. Exploiting these…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paek, Insu; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Cai, Li; Chi, Eunlim
2014-01-01
Typically a longitudinal growth modeling based on item response theory (IRT) requires repeated measures data from a single group with the same test design. If operational or item exposure problems are present, the same test may not be employed to collect data for longitudinal analyses and tests at multiple time points are constructed with unique…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lewis, Charles
2015-01-01
Loglinear smoothing (LLS) estimates the latent trait distribution while making fewer assumptions about its form and maintaining parsimony, thus leading to more precise item response theory (IRT) item parameter estimates than standard marginal maximum likelihood (MML). This article provides the expectation-maximization algorithm for MML estimation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moustaki, Irini; Joreskog, Karl G.; Mavridis, Dimitris
2004-01-01
We consider a general type of model for analyzing ordinal variables with covariate effects and 2 approaches for analyzing data for such models, the item response theory (IRT) approach and the PRELIS-LISREL (PLA) approach. We compare these 2 approaches on the basis of 2 examples, 1 involving only covariate effects directly on the ordinal variables…
Partially Observed Mixtures of IRT Models: An Extension of the Generalized Partial-Credit Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Von Davier, Matthias; Yamamoto, Kentaro
2004-01-01
The generalized partial-credit model (GPCM) is used frequently in educational testing and in large-scale assessments for analyzing polytomous data. Special cases of the generalized partial-credit model are the partial-credit model--or Rasch model for ordinal data--and the two parameter logistic (2PL) model. This article extends the GPCM to the…
IRT Item Parameters and the Reliability and Validity of Pretest, Posttest, and Gain Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
May, Kim; Jackson, Tameika S.
2005-01-01
The effect of different combinations of item response theory (IRT) item parameters (item difficulty, item discrimination, and the guessing probability) on the reliability and construct validity (correlation with the latent trait being measured) of pretest, posttest, and gain scores was analytically examined using the 3-parameter logistic (3PL)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Taehoon; Chen, Troy T.
2007-01-01
Orlando and Thissen (2000, 2003) proposed an item-fit index, S-X[superscript 2], for dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, which has performed better than traditional item-fit statistics such as Yen's (1981) Q[subscript 1] and McKinley and Mill's (1985) G[superscript 2]. This study extends the utility of S-X[superscript 2] to polytomous…
Infrared Thermometer (IRT) Handbook
VR Morris
2006-10-30
The Infrared Thermometer (IRT) is a ground-based radiation pyrometer that provides measurements of the equivalent blackbody brightness temperature of the scene in its field of view. The downwelling version has a narrow field of view for measuring sky temperature and for detecting clouds. The upwelling version has a wide field of view for measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface.
IRT Model Fit Evaluation from Theory to Practice: Progress and Some Unanswered Questions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott
2013-01-01
In this commentary, the authors congratulate Professor Alberto Maydeu-Olivares on his article [EJ1023617: "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models, Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," this issue] as it provides a much needed overview on the mathematical underpinnings of the theory behind the…
A Class of Multidimensional IRT Models for Testing Unidimensionality and Clustering Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartolucci, Francesco
2007-01-01
We illustrate a class of multidimensional item response theory models in which the items are allowed to have different discriminating power and the latent traits are represented through a vector having a discrete distribution. We also show how the hypothesis of unidimensionality may be tested against a specific bidimensional alternative by using a…
An Application of Item Response Time: The Effort-Moderated IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.; Kong, Xiaojing
2005-01-01
The validity of inferences based on achievement test scores is dependent on the amount of effort that examinees put forth while taking the test. With low-stakes tests, for which this problem is particularly prevalent, there is a consequent need for psychometric models that can take into account different levels of examinee effort. This article…
An Application of Item Response Time: The Effort-Moderated IRT Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.
2006-01-01
The validity of inferences based on achievement test scores is dependent on the amount of effort that examinees put forth while taking the test. With low-stakes tests, for which this problem is particularly prevalent, there is a consequent need for psychometric models that can take into account differing levels of examinee effort. This article…
On the Use of IRT Models with Judgmental Standard Setting Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Michael T.
1987-01-01
The use of item response theory models for analyzing the results of judgmental standard setting studies (the Angoff technique) for establishing minimum pass levels is discussed. A comparison of three methods indicates the traditional approach may not be best. A procedure based on generalizability theory is suggested. (GDC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on two estimators of ability with logistic item response theory models: the Bayesian modal (BM) estimator and the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator. For the BM estimator, Jeffreys' prior distribution is considered, and the corresponding estimator is referred to as the Jeffreys modal (JM) estimator. It is established that under…
Combining IRT and SEM: A Hybrid Model for Fitting Responses and Response Certainties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Demestre, Josep
2013-01-01
This article proposes a model-based procedure, intended for personality measures, for exploiting the auxiliary information provided by the certainty with which individuals answer every item (response certainty). This information is used to (a) obtain more accurate estimates of individual trait levels, and (b) provide a more detailed assessment of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinharay, Sandip
2015-01-01
The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the ability parameter of an item response theory model with known item parameters was proved to be asymptotically normally distributed under a set of regularity conditions for tests involving dichotomous items and a unidimensional ability parameter (Klauer, 1990; Lord, 1983). This article first considers…
Equating with Miditests Using IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzpatrick, Joseph; Skorupski, William P.
2016-01-01
The equating performance of two internal anchor test structures--miditests and minitests--is studied for four IRT equating methods using simulated data. Originally proposed by Sinharay and Holland, miditests are anchors that have the same mean difficulty as the overall test but less variance in item difficulties. Four popular IRT equating methods…
Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim
1992-02-01
The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.
A Combined IRT and SEM Approach for Individual-Level Assessment in Test-Retest Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.
2015-01-01
The standard two-wave multiple-indicator model (2WMIM) commonly used to analyze test-retest data provides information at both the group and item level. Furthermore, when applied to binary and graded item responses, it is related to well-known item response theory (IRT) models. In this article the IRT-2WMIM relations are used to obtain additional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
2016-01-01
In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maydeu-Olivares, Albert
2005-01-01
Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…
IRT-Estimated Reliability for Tests Containing Mixed Item Formats
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shu, Lianghua; Schwarz, Richard D.
2014-01-01
As a global measure of precision, item response theory (IRT) estimated reliability is derived for four coefficients (Cronbach's a, Feldt-Raju, stratified a, and marginal reliability). Models with different underlying assumptions concerning test-part similarity are discussed. A detailed computational example is presented for the targeted…
Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Robert, Stéphanie; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Curie, Cathy; Friml, Jìrí; Vert, Grégory
2011-08-01
Plants take up iron from the soil using the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) high-affinity iron transporter at the root surface. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the levels of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of essential but toxic iron. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana IRT1 leads to constitutive IRT1 protein accumulation, metal overload, and oxidative stress. IRT1 is unexpectedly found in trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of root hair cells, and its levels and localization are unaffected by iron nutrition. Using pharmacological approaches, we show that IRT1 cycles to the plasma membrane to perform iron and metal uptake at the cell surface and is sent to the vacuole for proper turnover. We also prove that IRT1 is monoubiquitinated on several cytosol-exposed residues in vivo and that mutation of two putative monoubiquitination target residues in IRT1 triggers stabilization at the plasma membrane and leads to extreme lethality. Together, these data suggest a model in which monoubiquitin-dependent internalization/sorting and turnover keep the plasma membrane pool of IRT1 low to ensure proper iron uptake and to prevent metal toxicity. More generally, our work demonstrates the existence of monoubiquitin-dependent trafficking to lytic vacuoles in plants and points to proteasome-independent turnover of plasma membrane proteins.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis high-affinity iron importer, IrtA, contains an FAD-binding domain.
Ryndak, Michelle B; Wang, Shuishu; Smith, Issar; Rodriguez, G Marcela
2010-02-01
Iron is an essential nutrient not freely available to microorganisms infecting mammals. To overcome iron deficiency, bacteria have evolved various strategies including the synthesis and secretion of high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The siderophores produced and secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, exomycobactins, compete for iron with host iron-binding proteins and, together with the iron-regulated ABC transporter IrtAB, are required for the survival of M. tuberculosis in iron deficient conditions and for normal replication in macrophages and in mice. This study further characterizes the role of IrtAB in M. tuberculosis iron acquisition. Our results demonstrate a role for IrtAB in iron import and show that the amino terminus domain of IrtA is a flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain essential for iron acquisition. These results suggest a model in which the amino terminus of IrtA functions to couple iron transport and assimilation.
IRTS observation of zodiacal light and emission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsumoto, T.; Murakami, H.; Onaka, T.; Ootsubo, T.; Roellig, T. L.; Chan, K. -W.; Noda, M.
1998-01-01
We present the infrared spectrum of the zodiacal light and emission obtained by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) and Mid-Infrared Spectrometer (MIRS) onboard the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The wavelength coverages and spectral resolutions are 1.4-4.0 microns and 0.12 microns for the NIRS, and 4.5-11.7 microns and 0.23-0.36 microns for the MIRS respectively. Both instruments have the same beam size of 8 arcminutes square. The IRTS observations were made for 1995 March 29 - April 26. Here we present the data of two days, April 19 and April 20.
The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.
1994-01-01
The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.
A Comparison of IRT Linking Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Won-Chan; Ban, Jae-Chun
2010-01-01
Various applications of item response theory often require linking to achieve a common scale for item parameter estimates obtained from different groups. This article used a simulation to examine the relative performance of four different item response theory (IRT) linking procedures in a random groups equating design: concurrent calibration with…
Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rijmen, Frank
2010-01-01
Testlet effects can be taken into account by incorporating specific dimensions in addition to the general dimension into the item response theory model. Three such multidimensional models are described: the bi-factor model, the testlet model, and a second-order model. It is shown how the second-order model is formally equivalent to the testlet…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Shun-Wen; Hanson, Bradley A.; Harris, Deborah J.
The requirement of large sample sizes for calibrating items based on item response theory (IRT) models is not easily met in many practical pretesting situations. Although classical item statistics could be estimated with much smaller samples, the values may not be comparable across different groups of examinees. This study extended the authors'…
Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David
2006-01-01
Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…
Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun
2011-01-01
This study investigated two major approaches in testing measurement invariance for ordinal measures: multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and item response theory (IRT). Unlike the ordinary linear factor analysis, MCCFA can appropriately model the ordered-categorical measures with a threshold structure. A simulation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun
2013-01-01
We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…
Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.
2012-01-01
It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…
A New IRT-Based Small Sample DIF Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tang, Huixing
This paper describes an item response theory (IRT) based method of differential item functioning (DIF) detection that involves neither separate calibration nor ability grouping. IRT is used to generate residual scores, scores free of the effects of person or group ability and item difficulty. Analysis of variance is then used to test the group…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serra, Catarina; Simões, Nuno; Tadeu, António
2015-05-01
This paper compares experimental and heat transfer modeling results for thermography applications in building elements. Over the years most building envelope inspections using infrared thermography (IRT) have been focused on qualitative analysis using mostly passive thermography techniques. However, increased need for the monitorization and assessment of the energy performance and thermal behavior of buildings, along with ongoing structural safety concerns, has raised interest in quantitative studies and active IRT applications in buildings. Numerous other fields have benefited from developments in defect detection studies and from countless non-destructive testing applications. Pulse phase thermography, in which phase images are studied (instead of temperature images) using a long heating pulse have been proposed to be the most effective for Civil Engineering applications. However, the particular characteristics of building elements and materials, along with the complex nature of heat transfer phenomena, demand specific experimental procedures and processing techniques. In this paper, analytical solutions to simulate heat transfer in the frequency domain in multi-layered media are used to compute thermal wave phase results. These are compared to experimental IRT phase analysis results of experiments performed on test specimens simulating building elements with embedded defects. Crucial test parameters such as test duration and defect characteristics are changed and their influence is studied. In this way, this paper contributes to the understanding of building envelope thermal patterns using active IRT in defect detection studies and to the definition of test parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black, Ryan A.; Butler, Stephen F.
2012-01-01
Although Rasch models have been shown to be a sound methodological approach to develop and validate measures of psychological constructs for more than 50 years, they remain underutilized in psychology and other social sciences. Until recently, one reason for this underutilization was the lack of syntactically simple procedures to fit Rasch and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Alexander; Thorsmolle, Verner; Artyukhin, Sergey; Yang, Jun; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Blumberg, Girsh
2014-03-01
IrTe2 presents a layered compound with a triangular lattice. It is known to exhibit a first order structural phase transition at approximately 260 K which is of a first order, corresponding to a formation of a superstructure with a period of five unit cells. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy we have studied the temperature dependence of 14 observed Raman allowed phononic modes. These phonons couple strongly to this transition and one additional first order transition at approximately 170 K. In the high-temperature phase only 3 modes are observed, while below approximately 280 K all 14 modes become visible. Below approximately 170 K only 11 modes are observed. Our results shed light on the possible mechanism driving the transitions. ACL, VKT and GB acknowledge support by NSF DMR-1104884.
Multidimensional IRT Models for Composite Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yen, Shu Jing; Walker, Leah
2007-01-01
Tests of English Language Proficiency are often designed such that each section of the test measures a single latent ability. For instance an English Proficiency Assessment might consist of sections measuring Speaking, Listening, and Reading ability. However, Overall English Proficiency and composite abilities are naturally multidimensional. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J., Ed.
Four discussions of test construction based on item response theory (IRT) are presented. The first discussion, "Test Design as Model Building in Mathematical Programming" (T. J. J. M. Theunissen), presents test design as a decision process under certainty. A natural way of modeling this process leads to mathematical programming. General models of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foley, Brett Patrick
2010-01-01
The 3PL model is a flexible and widely used tool in assessment. However, it suffers from limitations due to its need for large sample sizes. This study introduces and evaluates the efficacy of a new sample size augmentation technique called Duplicate, Erase, and Replace (DupER) Augmentation through a simulation study. Data are augmented using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.; Pallero, Rafael; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina
2013-01-01
The present study has two main interests. First, some pending issues about the psychometric properties of the CTAC (an anxiety questionnaire for blind and visually-impaired people) are assessed using item response theory (IRT). Second, the linear model is compared to the graded response model (GRM) in terms of measurement precision, sensitivity…
Integrated Ray Tracing (IRT) simulation of SCOTS measurement of GMT fast steering mirror surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Ji Nyeong; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Graves, Logan; Su, Peng; Huang, Run; Kim, Dae Wook
2015-09-01
The Software Configurable Optical Testing System (SCOTS) is one of the newest testing methods for large mirror surfaces. The Integrated Ray Tracing (IRT) technique can be applicable to the SCOTS simulation by performing non-sequential ray tracing from the screen to the camera detector in the real scale. Therefore, the radiometry of distorted pattern images are numerically estimated by the IRT simulation module. In this study, we construct an IRT SCOTS simulation model for the Fast Steering Mirror Prototype (FSMP) surface of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMT FSMP is an off-axis ellipsoidal concave mirror that is 1064 mm in diameter and has PV 3.1 mm in aspheric departure. The surface error requirement is less than 20 nm rms. The screen is modeled as an array of 1366 by 768 screen pixels of 0.227 mm in pitch size. The screen is considered as a Lambertian scattering surface. The screen and the camera are positioned around 4390 mm away from the mirror and separated by around 132 mm from each other. The light source are scanning lines and sinusoidal patterns generated by 616,050 rays per one screen pixel. Of the initially generated rays, 0.22 % are received by the camera's detector and contribute to form distorted pattern images. These images are converted to the slope and height maps of the mirror surface. The final result for the height difference between input surface and reconstructed surface was 14.14 nm rms. Additionally, the simulated mirror pattern image was compared with the real SCOTS test for the GMT FSMP. This study shows applicability of using the IRT model to SCOTS simulation with nanometer level numerical accuracy.
Small helium-cooled infrared telescope experiment for Spacelab-2 (IRT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fazio, Giovanni G.
1990-01-01
The Infrared Telescope (IRT) experiment, flown on Spacelab-2, was used to make infrared measurements between 2 and 120 microns. The objectives were multidisciplinary in nature with astrophysical goals of mapping the diffuse cosmic emission and extended infrared sources and technical goals of measuring the induced Shuttle environment, studying properties of superfluid helium in space, and testing various infrared telescope system designs. Astrophysically, new data were obtained on the structure of the Galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths. A summary of the large scale diffuse near-infrared observations of the Galaxy by the IRT is presented, as well as a summary of the preliminary results obtained from this data on the structure of the galactic disk and bulge. The importance of combining CO and near-infrared maps of similar resolution to determine a 3-D model of galactic extinction is demonstrated. The IRT data are used, in conjunction with a proposed galactic model, to make preliminary measurements of the global scale parameters of the Galaxy. During the mission substantial amounts of data were obtained concerning the induced Shuttle environment. An experiment was also performed to measure spacecraft glow in the IR.
The low temperature Fermi surface of IrTe2 probed by quantum oscillations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Samuel; Coldea, Amalia; Watson, Matthew; Narayanan, Arjun; McCollam, Alix; Kasahara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Takuya; Watanabe, Daiki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuju; Schoonmaker, Robert
2014-03-01
The transition metal dichalcogenide IrTe2 undergoes a structural transition at 280K; doping on the Ir site suppresses this transition and induces superconductivity with Tc of about 3K. The nature of the structural transition is possibly driven by charge disproportionation and the effect this has on the electronic structure of the superconducting state is not fully understood. We report a low temperature investigation of the Fermi surface of IrTe2 from quantum oscillations, using torque measurements performed in magnetic fields up to 33T and temperatures down to 0.3K. The observed extremal areas of the Fermi surface likely correspond to frequencies of a reconstructed Fermi surface, with light effective masses below 0.8me. The angular dependence of these frequencies across multiple crystals of IrTe2 suggests these materials are prone to domain formation upon cooling. We compare our measured Fermi surface with those predicted by electronic structure calculations, based upon the existing structural models, for both above and below the structural transition. This work was supported by EPSRC (UK) and partly by EuroMagnet (EU contract number 228043).
Electronic signatures of dimerization in IrTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Jixia; Wu, Weida; Oh, Yoon Seok; Cheong, S.-W.; Yang, J. J.
2014-03-01
Recently, the mysterious phase transition around Tc ~ 260 K in IrTe2 has been intensively studied. A structural supermodulation with q =1/5 was identified below Tc. A variety of microscopic mechanisms have been proposed to account for this transition, including charge-density wave due to Fermi surface nesting, Te p-orbital driven structure instability, anionic depolymerization, ionic dimerization, and so on. However, there has not been an unified picture on the nature of this transition. To address this issue, we have performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS) experiments on IrTe2 and IrTe2-xSex. Our STM data clearly shows a strong bias dependence in both topography and local density of states (STS) maps. High resolution spectroscopic data further confirms the stripe-like electronic states modulation, which provides insight to the ionic dimerization revealed by X-ray diffraction.
A Unified Approach to IRT Scale Linking and Scale Transformations. Research Report. RR-04-09
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; von Davier, Alina A.
2004-01-01
This paper examines item response theory (IRT) scale transformations and IRT scale linking methods used in the Non-Equivalent Groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design to equate two tests, X and Y. It proposes a unifying approach to the commonly used IRT linking methods: mean-mean, mean-var linking, concurrent calibration, Stocking and Lord and…
IRT Differential Item Functioning: An Examination of Ability Scale Purifications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautenschlager, Gary J.; And Others
1994-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) methods used to determine the accuracy of item classification as biased or unbiased were studied. Results from simulations show that the iterative linking and ability scale purification method can be more effective than iterative linking alone primarily by reducing false negatives.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; González B., Jorge; von Davier, Alina A.
2013-01-01
Local equating (LE) is based on Lord's criterion of equity. It defines a family of true transformations that aim at the ideal of equitable equating. van der Linden (this issue) offers a detailed discussion of common issues in observed-score equating relative to this local approach. By assuming an underlying item response theory model, one of…
Inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases with different substitutions at position 244.
Bret, L; Chaibi, E B; Chanal-Claris, C; Sirot, D; Labia, R; Sirot, J
1997-01-01
A novel inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamase was detected in an Escherichia coli isolate resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and susceptible to cephalothin. The substrate and inhibitor profiles of this beta-lactamase were similar to those of IRT-1 and IRT-2. The novel IRT's bla gene was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed the amino acid replacement Arg for His-244 of the TEM-1 sequence. Substitutions for Arg-244 have been reported in three TEM-1 mutants: IRT-1 (which corresponds to TEM-31) (Cys), IRT-2/TEM-30 (Ser), and TEM-41 (Thr). We designated this novel beta-lactamase, which corresponds to TEM-51, IRT-15. PMID:9371365
Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong
2016-07-01
Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two dimensional materials.
IRTs of the ABCs: Children's Letter Name Acquisition
Piasta, Shayne B.; Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Francis, David J.
2015-01-01
We examined the developmental sequence of letter name knowledge acquisition by children from 2 to five years of age. Data from 2 samples representing diverse regions, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds (ns = 1074 & 500) were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning techniques. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter name knowledge represented a unidimensional skill; IRT results yielded significant differences between letters in both difficulty and discrimination. Results also indicated an approximate developmental sequence in letter name learning for the simplest and most challenging to learn letters -- but with no clear sequence between these extremes. Findings also suggested that children were most likely to first learn their first initial. We discuss implications for assessment and instruction. PMID:22710016
Extending LMS to Support IRT-Based Assessment Test Calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fotaris, Panagiotis; Mastoras, Theodoros; Mavridis, Ioannis; Manitsaris, Athanasios
Developing unambiguous and challenging assessment material for measuring educational attainment is a time-consuming, labor-intensive process. As a result Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) tools are becoming widely adopted in academic environments in an effort to improve the assessment quality and deliver reliable results of examinee performance. This paper introduces a methodological and architectural framework which embeds a CAA tool in a Learning Management System (LMS) so as to assist test developers in refining items to constitute assessment tests. An Item Response Theory (IRT) based analysis is applied to a dynamic assessment profile provided by the LMS. Test developers define a set of validity rules for the statistical indices given by the IRT analysis. By applying those rules, the LMS can detect items with various discrepancies which are then flagged for review of their content. Repeatedly executing the aforementioned procedure can improve the overall efficiency of the testing process.
Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2.
Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong
2016-07-13
Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature, but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two-dimensional materials. PMID:27221583
IRTs of the ABCs: children's letter name acquisition.
Phillips, Beth M; Piasta, Shayne B; Anthony, Jason L; Lonigan, Christopher J; Francis, David J
2012-08-01
We examined the developmental sequence of letter name knowledge acquisition by children from 2 to five years of age. Data from 2 samples representing diverse regions, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds (ns = 1074 and 500) were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning techniques. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter name knowledge represented a unidimensional skill; IRT results yielded significant differences between letters in both difficulty and discrimination. Results also indicated an approximate developmental sequence in letter name learning for the simplest and most challenging to learn letters--but with no clear sequence between these extremes. Findings also suggested that children were most likely to first learn their first initial. We discuss implications for assessment and instruction.
Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) Force Measurement System (FMS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Paul W.
2012-01-01
An Electronics Engineer at the Glenn Research Center (GRC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide technical support for an evaluation of the existing force measurement system (FMS) at the GRC's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the intent of developing conceptual designs to improve the tunnel's force measurement capability in order to better meet test customer needs. This report contains the outcome of the NESC technical review.
The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce
2010-01-01
The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glas, Cees A. W.
2009-01-01
This author states that, while the article by Gunter Maris and Timo Bechger ("On Interpreting the Model Parameters for the Three Parameter Logistic Model," this issue) is highly interesting, the interest is not so much in the practical implications, but rather in the issue of the meaning and role of statistical models in psychometrics and…
Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.
This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…
Reanalysis of the Near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light Based on the IRTS Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, T.; Kim, M. G.; Pyo, J.; Tsumura, K.
2015-07-01
We reanalyze data of the near-infrared background taken by IRTS using up-to-date observational results of zodiacal light (ZL), integrated star light, and diffuse Galactic light. We confirm the existence of residual isotropic emission, which is slightly lower but almost the same as previously reported. At wavelengths longer than 2 μm, the result is fairly consistent with the recent observation with AKARI. We also perform the same analysis using a different ZL model by Wright and detect residual isotropic emission that is slightly lower than that based on the original Kelsall model. Both models show residual isotropic emission that is significantly brighter than the integrated light of galaxies.
REANALYSIS OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT BASED ON THE IRTS OBSERVATIONS
Matsumoto, T.; Kim, M. G.; Pyo, J.; Tsumura, K.
2015-07-01
We reanalyze data of the near-infrared background taken by IRTS using up-to-date observational results of zodiacal light (ZL), integrated star light, and diffuse Galactic light. We confirm the existence of residual isotropic emission, which is slightly lower but almost the same as previously reported. At wavelengths longer than 2 μm, the result is fairly consistent with the recent observation with AKARI. We also perform the same analysis using a different ZL model by Wright and detect residual isotropic emission that is slightly lower than that based on the original Kelsall model. Both models show residual isotropic emission that is significantly brighter than the integrated light of galaxies.
IRT Scale Linking Methods for Mixed-Format Tests. ACT Research Report Series 2004-5
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon; Lee, Won-Chan
2004-01-01
Under item response theory (IRT), obtaining a common proficiency scale is required in many applications. Four IRT linking methods, including the mean/mean, mean/sigma, Haebara, and Stocking-Lord methods, have been developed and widely used to estimate linking coefficients (slope and intercept) for a linear transformation from one scale to…
IRT wireless interface for automatic irrigation scheduling of a center pivot system
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Infrared thermometers (IRTs) have been widely used in agricultural research as a method to measure canopy temperatures, an indicator of crop water stress. Although IRTs have proven to be reliable within the critical range for plant stress, they would be cumbersome for the grower to set up, maintain,...
Practical Issues in Estimating Classification Accuracy and Consistency with R Package cacIRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lathrop, Quinn N.
2015-01-01
There are two main lines of research in estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) under Item Response Theory (IRT). The R package cacIRT provides computer implementations of both approaches in an accessible and unified framework. Even with available implementations, there remains decisions a researcher faces when…
Investigation of IRT-Based Equating Methods in the Presence of Outlier Common Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hu, Huiqin; Rogers, W. Todd; Vukmirovic, Zarko
2008-01-01
Common items with inconsistent b-parameter estimates may have a serious impact on item response theory (IRT)--based equating results. To find a better way to deal with the outlier common items with inconsistent b-parameters, the current study investigated the comparability of 10 variations of four IRT-based equating methods (i.e., concurrent…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bejarano, Rafael; Hackenberg, Timothy D.
2007-01-01
Two experiments with pigeons investigated the effects of contingencies between interresponse times (IRTs) and the transitions between the components of 2- and 4-component chained schedules (Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The probability of component transitions varied directly with the most recent (Lag 0) IRT in some experimental conditions…
The Relationship between CTT and IRT Approaches in Analyzing Item Characteristics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai
2013-01-01
Most of the tests and inventories used by counseling psychologists have been developed using CTT; IRT derives from what is called latent trait theory. A number of important differences exist between CTT- versus IRT-based approaches to both test development and evaluation, as well as the process of scoring the response profiles of individual…
Analyzing Psychopathology Items: A Case for Nonparametric Item Response Theory Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meijer, Rob R.; Baneke, Joost J.
2004-01-01
The authors discuss the applicability of nonparametric item response theory (IRT) models to the construction and psychometric analysis of personality and psychopathology scales, and they contrast these models with parametric IRT models. They describe the fit of nonparametric IRT to the Depression content scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic…
Item Response Modeling with BILOG-MG and MULTILOG for Windows
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupp, Andre A.
2003-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data. IRT models are used frequently in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment, and test equating. This article reviews two of the most popular software packages for IRT model estimation, BILOG-MG (Zimowski, Muraki, Mislevy, &…
An Introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Models for Speech-Language Pathologists
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn
2011-01-01
Purpose: To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed…
Internal disruptions and RHF in IR-T1 tokamak
Ghoranneviss, M.; Masnavi, M.; Khademian, A.
1996-12-31
Sawtooth oscillations are observed on IR-T1 Tokamak during low ql discharge with a disruption time of about 30--60 {micro}s. The q = 1 singular surface occurs at radius 3--3.5 cm and inverted Sawtooth from chords outside this radius. The superimposed (m = 1) oscillation with a frequency of about 19 kHz {approx} 25 kHz, according to the tokamak discharges parameters, preceding the Sawtooth oscillation. One major effect the Sawtooth oscillation is to flatten the temperature and density profiles approximately out to a mixing radius rm = {radical}2 rs,. Furthermore, by applying RHFs (L = 2 and L = 3), the Sawtooth behavior is modified. The magnitude of the weak RHFs used in the experiments did not exceed 1% of Bp. Results showed that the weak RHFs magnetic perturbation would change the MHD instabilities and the Sawtooth behavior, as well as plasma, confinement.
Investigation on F/M material aspects of IRT-Sofia NCT channel.
Mitev, M; Belousov, S; Ilieva, K
2014-06-01
The filter/moderator area of IRT-Sofia BNCT channel was investigated in this study in order to find a higher radiation resistant material as a suitable substitution for the Teflon(®). Two options - Al2O3 and graphite - were investigated. The results show, that both graphite and the Al2O3 can be successfully used as a filter/moderator material at IRT-Sofia. Initial evaluation of the in-phantom performance of the IRT-Sofia BNCT channel was made and merits similar to the best existing ones were found. PMID:24359789
A new network of faint calibration stars from the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) on the IRTS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freund, Minoru M.; Matsuura, Mikako; Murakami, Hiroshi; Cohen, Martin; Noda, Manabu; Matsuura, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio
1997-01-01
The point source extraction and calibration of the near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) onboard the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is described. About 7 percent of the sky was observed during a one month mission in the range of 1.4 micrometers to 4 micrometers. The accuracy of the spectral shape and absolute values of calibration stars provided by the NIRS/IRTS were validated.
Huang, Danqiong; Dai, Wenhao
2015-08-15
Two iron-regulated transporter (IRT) genes were cloned from the iron chlorosis resistant (PtG) and susceptible (PtY) Populus tremula 'Erecta' lines. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed no significant difference between PtG and PtY. The predicted proteins contain a conserved ZIP domain with 8 transmembrane (TM) regions. A ZIP signature sequence was found in the fourth TM domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PtIRT1 was clustered with tomato and tobacco IRT genes that are highly responsible to iron deficiency. The PtIRT3 gene was clustered with the AtIRT3 gene that was related to zinc and iron transport in plants. Tissue specific expression indicated that PtIRT1 only expressed in the root, while PtIRT3 constitutively expressed in all tested tissues. Under iron deficiency, the expression of PtIRT1 was dramatically increased and a significantly higher transcript level was detected in PtG than in PtY. Iron deficiency also enhanced the expression of PtIRT3 in PtG. On the other hand, zinc deficiency down-regulated the expression of PtIRT1 and PtIRT3 in both PtG and PtY. Zinc accumulated significantly under iron-deficient conditions, whereas the zinc deficiency showed no significant effect on iron accumulation. A yeast complementation test revealed that the PtIRT1 and PtIRT3 genes could restore the iron uptake ability under the iron uptake-deficiency condition. The results will help understand the mechanisms of iron deficiency response in poplar trees and other woody species.
Solana, Jordi; Romero, Rafael
2009-01-01
Planarian flatworms have an impressive regenerative power. Although their embryonic development is still poorly studied and is highly derived it still displays some simple characteristics. We have identified SpolvlgA, a Schmidtea polychroa homolog of the DDX3/PL10 DEAD-box RNA helicase DjvlgA from the planarian species Dugesia japonica. This gene has been previously described as being expressed in planarian adult stem cells (neoblasts), as well as the germ line. Here we present the expression pattern of SpolvlgA in developing embryos of S. polychroa and show that it is expressed from the first cleavage rounds in blastomere cells and blastomere-derived embryonic cells. These cells are undifferentiated cells that engage in a massive wave of differentiation during stage 5 of development. SpolvlgA expression highlights this wave of differentiation, where nearly all previous structures are substituted by blastomere-derived embryonic cells. In late stages of development SpolvlgA is expressed in most proliferating and differentiating cells. Thus, SpolvlgA is a gene expressed in planarian embryos from the first stages of development and a good marker for the zygote-derived cell lineage in these embryos. Expression in adult worms is also monitored and is found in the planarian germ line, where it is showed to be expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids. PMID:19159016
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Culpepper, Steven Andrew
2013-01-01
A classic topic in the fields of psychometrics and measurement has been the impact of the number of scale categories on test score reliability. This study builds on previous research by further articulating the relationship between item response theory (IRT) and classical test theory (CTT). Equations are presented for comparing the reliability and…
Farzaneh, S; Chaibi, E B; Peduzzi, J; Barthelemy, M; Labia, R; Blazquez, J; Baquero, F
1996-01-01
The substitution of a methionine for an isoleucine at position 69 (Met69Ile), which causes inhibitor resistance to TEM-type beta-lactamases (IRT-3 and IRT-I69), altered the positions of the Asn-170 and Glu-166 side chains as well as the position of the catalytic water molecule. A novel hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl of Thr-182 and the carbonyl of Glu-64 was expected to be responsible for the increase in the catalytic activity of the IST-T182 and IRT-3 enzymes compared with those of TEM-1 and IRT-169, respectively. PMID:8891161
Lemozy, J; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Huc, C; Labia, R; Dabernat, H; Sirot, J
1995-01-01
Two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, TP 01 and TP 02, presented resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and were fully susceptible to cephalothin. These strains produced two beta-lactamases, SHV-1 and a TEM enzyme with a pI of 5.2. The previously described changes Arg-244-->Cys and Arg-244-->Ser in IRT-1 and IRT-2 (A. Belaaouaj, C. Lapoumeroulie, M. M. Caniça, G. Vedel, P. Nevot, R. Krishnamoorthy, and G. Paul, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 120:75-80, 1994) were found in TEM enzymes from the TP 01 and TP 02 strains, respectively. This is the first report of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) in species other than Escherichia coli from the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:8585751
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon; Feldt, Leonard S.
2010-01-01
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the mathematical characteristics of the test reliability coefficient rho[subscript XX'] as a function of item response theory (IRT) parameters and present the lower and upper bounds of the coefficient. Another purpose is to examine relative performances of the IRT reliability statistics and two…
Optical evidence for bonding-antibonding splitting in IrTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazumdar, D.; Haule, K.; Yang, J. J.; Pascut, G. L.; Holinsworth, B. S.; O'Neal, K. R.; Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Musfeldt, J. L.
2015-01-01
We combined optical spectroscopy with first principles calculations to reveal the electronic signatures of Ir dimer formation in the q =(1 /5 ,0 ,1 /5 ) high resistivity phase of IrTe2. Our measurements uncover two interband transitions into the unoccupied dx y antibonding orbital, one from mixed iridium/tellurium bands, the other from the dx y bonding orbital of the dimerized Ir centers. The bonding-antibonding splitting demonstrates that iridium, not tellurium, plays the dominant role in stabilizing the low temperature phase of IrTe2 through localized bonding orbital formation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony
2011-01-01
A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…
Post-Hoc IRT Equating of Previously Administered English Tests for Comparison of Test Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saida, Chisato; Hattori, Tamaki
2008-01-01
Despite growing concerns about declining scholastic abilities of Japanese students throughout Japan prior to the implementation of the revised Courses of Study in 2002, little empirical evidence was available at that time to support this perceived decline in academic performance. This research describes post-hoc IRT equating of previously…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Park, Dong-Gun
The effects of variations in degree of range restriction and different subgroup sample sizes on the validity of several item bias detection procedures based on Item Response Theory (IRT) were investigated in a simulation study. The degree of range restriction for each of two subpopulations was varied by cutting the specified subpopulation ability…
Improving IRT Item Bias Detection with Iterative Linking and Ability Scale Purification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Dong-Gun; Lautenschlager, Gary J.
1990-01-01
The effectiveness of two iterative methods of item response theory (IRT) item bias detection was examined in a simulation study. A modified form of the iterative item parameter linking method of F. Drasgow and an adaptation of the test purification procedure of F. M. Lord were compared. (SLD)
Exploring the Meaning of Motivation across Cultures: IRT Analyses of the Goal Instability Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Casillas, Alex; Schulz, E. Matthew; Robbins, Steven B.; Santos, Paulo Jorge; Lee, Richard M.
2006-01-01
The present study uses item response theory (IRT) to establish comparability between the English and Portuguese versions of the Goal Instability Scale (GIS), a measure of generalized motivation. A total of 2,848 American and 679 Portuguese high school students were administered their respective language versions of the GIS. Results showed only…
The Effect of Year-to-Year Rater Variation on IRT Linking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg
2005-01-01
Year-to-year rater variation may result in constructed response (CR) parameter changes, making CR items inappropriate to use in anchor sets for linking or equating. This study demonstrates how rater severity affected the writing and reading scores. Rater adjustments were made to statewide results using an item response theory (IRT) methodology…
Expected Values and Reliability of Number-Right Scores for IRT Calibrated Items.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
This paper provides analytic evaluations of expected (marginal) true-score measures for binary items given their item response theory (IRT) calibration. Under the assumption of normal trait distributions, marginalized true scores, error variance, true score variance, and reliability for norm-referenced and criterion-references interpretations are…
A Comparison of IRT Proficiency Estimation Methods under Adaptive Multistage Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook
2015-01-01
This inquiry is an investigation of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators' accuracy under multistage testing (MST). We chose a two-stage MST design that includes four modules (one at Stage 1, three at Stage 2) and three difficulty paths (low, middle, high). We assembled various two-stage MST panels (i.e., forms) by manipulating two…
Adjusting for Year to Year Rater Variation in IRT Linking--An Empirical Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg
2005-01-01
The main purpose of this study was to illustrate a polytomous IRT-based linking procedure that adjusts for rater variations. Test scores from two administrations of a statewide reading assessment were used. An anchor set of Year 1 students' constructed responses were rescored by Year 2 raters. To adjust for year-to-year rater variation in IRT…
ResidPlots-2: Computer Software for IRT Graphical Residual Analyses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Tie; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.
2009-01-01
This article discusses the ResidPlots-2, a computer software that provides a powerful tool for IRT graphical residual analyses. ResidPlots-2 consists of two components: a component for computing residual statistics and another component for communicating with users and for plotting the residual graphs. The features of the ResidPlots-2 software are…
Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…
The Robustness of IRT-Based Vertical Scaling Methods to Violation of Unidimensionality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Liqun
2013-01-01
In recent years, many states have adopted Item Response Theory (IRT) based vertically scaled tests due to their compelling features in a growth-based accountability context. However, selection of a practical and effective calibration/scaling method and proper understanding of issues with possible multidimensionality in the test data is critical to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ackerman, Terry A.
Concern has been expressed over the item response theory (IRT) assumption that a person's ability can be estimated in a unidimensional latent space. To examine whether or not the response to an item requires only a single latent ability, unidimensional ability estimates were compared for data generated from the multidimensional item response…
A Simulation Study on the Performance of Four Multidimensional IRT Scale Linking Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wei, Youhua
2008-01-01
Scale linking is the process of developing the connection between scales of two or more sets of parameter estimates obtained from separate test calibrations. It is the prerequisite for many applications of IRT, such as test equating and differential item functioning analysis. Unidimensional scale linking methods have been studied and applied…
Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito
2011-01-01
The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…
A Note on the Item Information Function of the Four-Parameter Logistic Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Magis, David
2013-01-01
This article focuses on four-parameter logistic (4PL) model as an extension of the usual three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with an upper asymptote possibly different from 1. For a given item with fixed item parameters, Lord derived the value of the latent ability level that maximizes the item information function under the 3PL model. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reise, Steven; Moore, Tyler; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto
2011-01-01
Reise, Cook, and Moore proposed a "comparison modeling" approach to assess the distortion in item parameter estimates when a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model is imposed on multidimensional data. Central to their approach is the comparison of item slope parameter estimates from a unidimensional IRT model (a restricted model), with…
New tests of the common calibration context for ISO, IRTS, and MSX
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, Martin
1997-01-01
The work carried out in order to test, verify and validate the accuracy of the calibration spectra provided to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), to the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and to the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) for external calibration support of instruments, is reviewed. The techniques, used to vindicate the accuracy of the absolute spectra, are discussed. The work planned for comparing far infrared spectra of Mars and some of the bright stellar calibrators with long wavelength spectrometer data are summarized.
Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David
2010-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.
Goodness of Model-Data Fit and Invariant Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhard, George, Jr.; Perkins, Aminah
2013-01-01
In this commentary, Englehard and Perkins remark that Maydeu-Olivares has presented a framework for evaluating the goodness of model-data fit for item response theory (IRT) models and correctly points out that overall goodness-of-fit evaluations of IRT models and data are not generally explored within most applications in educational and…
Cross-Classification Multilevel Logistic Models in Psychometrics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van den Noortgate, Wim; De Boeck, Paul; Meulders, Michel
2003-01-01
In IRT models, responses are explained on the basis of person and item effects. Person effects are usually defined as a random sample from a population distribution. Regular IRT models therefore can be formulated as multilevel models, including a within-person part and a between-person part. In a similar way, the effects of the items can be…
Estimating the Nominal Response Model under Nonnormal Conditions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Reise, Steven Paul
2014-01-01
The nominal response model (NRM), a much understudied polytomous item response theory (IRT) model, provides researchers the unique opportunity to evaluate within-item category distinctions. Polytomous IRT models, such as the NRM, are frequently applied to psychological assessments representing constructs that are unlikely to be normally…
An Aggregate IRT Procedure for Exploratory Factor Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camilli, Gregory; Fox, Jean-Paul
2015-01-01
An aggregation strategy is proposed to potentially address practical limitation related to computing resources for two-level multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models with large data sets. The aggregate model is derived by integration of the normal ogive model, and an adaptation of the stochastic approximation expectation maximization…
An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.
2015-01-01
Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sgammato, Adrienne N.
2009-01-01
This study examined the applicability of a relatively new unidimensional, unfolding item response theory (IRT) model called the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM; Roberts, Donoghue, & Laughlin, 2000). A total of four scaling methods were applied. Two commonly used cumulative IRT models for polytomous data, the Partial Credit Model and the…
Invariance Properties for General Diagnostic Classification Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bradshaw, Laine P.; Madison, Matthew J.
2016-01-01
In item response theory (IRT), the invariance property states that item parameter estimates are independent of the examinee sample, and examinee ability estimates are independent of the test items. While this property has long been established and understood by the measurement community for IRT models, the same cannot be said for diagnostic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Haiyan
2013-01-01
General diagnostic models (GDMs) and Bayesian networks are mathematical frameworks that cover a wide variety of psychometric models. Both extend latent class models, and while GDMs also extend item response theory (IRT) models, Bayesian networks can be parameterized using discretized IRT. The purpose of this study is to examine similarities and…
Comparing the Fit of Item Response Theory and Factor Analysis Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Cai, Li; Hernandez, Adolfo
2011-01-01
Linear factor analysis (FA) models can be reliably tested using test statistics based on residual covariances. We show that the same statistics can be used to reliably test the fit of item response theory (IRT) models for ordinal data (under some conditions). Hence, the fit of an FA model and of an IRT model to the same data set can now be…
Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chalmers, R. Philip
2015-01-01
A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…
Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yuanfeng; Zhu, Liying; Guo, Jinjie; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei
2015-01-01
Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP), is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize. PMID:26317616
Zhang, Peng; Tan, Song; Berry, James O; Li, Peng; Ren, Na; Li, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei-Bing; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping
2014-11-07
Malus xiaojinensis iron-regulated transporter 1 (Mx IRT1) is a highly effective inducible iron transporter in the iron efficient plant Malus xiaojinensis. As a multi-pass integral plasma membrane (PM) protein, Mx IRT1 is predicted to consist of eight transmembrane domains, with a putative N-terminal signal peptide (SP) of 1-29 amino acids. To explore the role of the putative SP, constructs expressing Mx IRT1 (with an intact SP) and Mx DsIRT1 (with a deleted SP) were prepared for expression in Arabidopsis and in yeast. Mx IRT1 could rescue the iron-deficiency phenotype of an Arabidopsis irt1 mutant, and complement the iron-limited growth defect of the yeast mutant DEY 1453 (fet3fet4). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis indicated that a chimeric Mx IRT1-eGFP (enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) construct was translocated into the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) for the PM sorting pathway. In contrast, the SP-deleted Mx DsIRT1 could not rescue either of the mutant phenotypes, nor direct transport of the GFP signal into the ER. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis indicated that the SP was not cleaved from the mature protein following transport into the ER. Taken together, data presented here provides strong evidence that an uncleaved SP determines ER-targeting of Mx IRT1 during the initial sorting stage, thereby enabling the subsequent transport and integration of this protein into the PM for its crucial role in iron uptake.
ASCAL: A Microcomputer Program for Estimating Logistic IRT Item Parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vale, C. David; Gialluca, Kathleen A.
ASCAL is a microcomputer-based program for calibrating items according to the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory. It uses a modified multivariate Newton-Raphson procedure for estimating item parameters. This study evaluated this procedure using Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques. The current version of ASCAL was then compared to…
The Effect of Differential Motivation on IRT Linking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mittelhaëuser, Marie-Anne; Béguin, Anton A.; Sijtsma, Klaas
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of a pretest design. The study also investigated…
Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian
2012-11-15
Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:23021314
Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian
2012-11-15
Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.
How Often Is the Misfit of Item Response Theory Models Practically Significant?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.
2014-01-01
Standard 3.9 of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing ([, 1999]) demands evidence of model fit when item response theory (IRT) models are employed to data from tests. Hambleton and Han ([Hambleton, R. K., 2005]) and Sinharay ([Sinharay, S., 2005]) recommended the assessment of practical significance of misfit of IRT models, but…
Maximin Calibration Designs for the Nominal Response Model: An Empirical Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.
2004-01-01
The problem of finding optimal calibration designs for dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models has been extensively studied in the literature. In this study, this problem will be extended to polytomous IRT models. Focus is given to items described by the nominal response model (NRM). The optimizations objective is to minimize the generalized…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk
2008-01-01
Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…
An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.
Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A
2015-06-01
This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.
Baker, Mei W.; Groose, Molly; Hoffman, Gary; Rock, Michael; Levy, Hara; Farrell, Philip M.
2011-01-01
Background There has been great variation and uncertainty about how many and what CFTR mutations to include in cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening algorithms, and very little research on this topic using large populations of newborns. Methods We reviewed Wisconsin screening results for 1994–2008 to identify an ideal panel. Results Upon analyzing approximately 1 million screening results, we found it optimal to use a 23 CFTR mutation panel as a second tier when an immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT)/DNA algorithm was applied for CF screening. This panel in association with a 96th percentile IRT cutoff gave a sensitivity of 97.3%, but restricting the DNA tier to F508del was associated with 90% (P<.0001). Conclusions Although CFTR panel selection has been challenging, our data show that a 23 mutation method optimizes sensitivity and is practically advantageous. The IRT cutoff value, however, is actually more critical than DNA in determining CF newborn screening sensitivity. PMID:21388895
Pedas, Pai; Ytting, Cecilie K.; Fuglsang, Anja T.; Jahn, Thomas P.; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren
2008-01-01
Manganese (Mn) deficiency is an important plant nutritional disorder in many parts of the world. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes differ considerably in their ability to grow in soils with low Mn2+ availability. Differential genotypic Mn efficiency can be attributed to differences in Mn2+ uptake kinetics in the low nanomolar concentration range. However, the molecular basis for these differences has not yet been clarified. We present here the identification and characterization of the first barley gene encoding a plasma membrane-localized metal transport protein able to transport Mn2+. The gene is designated HvIRT1 (for IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1) because it belongs to the ZIP gene family and has a high similarity to rice (Oryza sativa) OsIRT1. A novel yeast uptake assay based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of 31 different metal and metalloid ions showed that the HvIRT1 protein, in addition to Mn2+, also transported Fe2+/Fe3+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. Both Mn and iron deficiency induced an up-regulation of HvIRT1 in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency, but the expression levels in all cases were highest (up to 40%) in the Mn-efficient genotype. The higher expression of HvIRT1 correlated with an increased Mn2+ uptake rate. We conclude that HvIRT1 is an important component controlling Mn2+ uptake in barley roots and contributes to genotypic differences in Mn2+ uptake kinetics. PMID:18614714
Study of Plasma Interaction with Titanium Coated Ferritic Steel in IR-T1 Tokamak
Ghoranneviss, M.; Talebitaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; Nikmohamadi, A.; Milani, M.; Salem, M. K.; Sari, A. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Shokouhi, A.; Khorshid, P.; Saboohi, S.
2008-04-07
Studies of plasma interaction with titanium coated ferritic steel is performed on IR-T1 tokamak. Titanium coating is one of the candidates for the plasma facing materials in a tokomak. Titaniumization is carried out by a sputtering method. Some of the samples were baked (3 hours at 460 deg. C) before sputtering. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses before and after discharge in r/a = l .04 carried out. The samples (with distinctive titanium layers) were placed at different depths inside the vacuum vessel of the IR-T1 tokamak in the SOL region. A comparison of the titanium coated steel with bare ferritic steel exposed to plasma tokamak and glow discharges is made in this research. Depth of impurity penetration and retention, and the surface roughness are measured by using surface analysis methods. Rutherford backscattering method is used to measure the content of nitrogen, oxygen and titanium, before and after discharges. The result is shown a change in roughness with respect to position of samples.
Study of Plasma Interaction with Titanium Coated Ferritic Steel in IR-T1 Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghoranneviss, M.; Khorshid, P.; Saboohi, S.; Talebitaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; Nikmohamadi, A.; Milani, M.; Salem, M. K.; Sari, A. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Shokouhi, A.
2008-04-01
Studies of plasma interaction with titanium coated ferritic steel is performed on IR-T1 tokamak. Titanium coating is one of the candidates for the plasma facing materials in a tokomak. Titaniumization is carried out by a sputtering method. Some of the samples were baked (3 hours at 460 °C) before sputtering. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses before and after discharge in r/a = l .04 carried out. The samples (with distinctive titanium layers) were placed at different depths inside the vacuum vessel of the IR-T1 tokamak in the SOL region. A comparison of the titanium coated steel with bare ferritic steel exposed to plasma tokamak and glow discharges is made in this research. Depth of impurity penetration and retention, and the surface roughness are measured by using surface analysis methods. Rutherford backscattering method is used to measure the content of nitrogen, oxygen and titanium, before and after discharges. The result is shown a change in roughness with respect to position of samples.
Visualizing anisotropic propagation of stripe domain walls in staircaselike transitions of IrTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauerer, Tobias; Vogt, Matthias; Hsu, Pin-Jui; Pascut, Gheorghe Lucian; Haule, Kristjan; Kiryukhin, Valery; Yang, Junjie; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Wu, Weida; Bode, Matthias
2016-07-01
We present a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the domain evolution across two first-order phase transitions of stripe modulations in IrTe2 that occur at TC≈275 K and TS≈180 K, respectively. Phase coexistence of the hexagonal (1 ×1 ) structure and the (5 ×1 ) stripe modulation is observed at TC, while various (p ×1 ) modulations (p =3 n +2 with 2 ≤n ∈N ) are observed below TS. Using STM atomic resolution, we observe anisotropic propagation of domain boundaries along different directions, indicating significantly different kinetic energy barriers. These results are consistently explained by a theoretical analysis of the energy barrier for domain wall propagation as obtained by density functional theory. Individual switching processes observed by STM indicate that the wide temperature range of the transition from the (5 ×1 ) stripes to the (6 ×1 ) -ordered ground state is probably caused by the numerically limited subset of switching processes that are allowed between a given initial and the final state. The observations on IrTe2 are discussed in terms of a "harmless staircase" with a finite number of first-order transitions between commensurate phases and within a "dynamical freezing" scenario.
Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan
2016-01-01
This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability. PMID:26941699
Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan
2016-01-01
This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim; Yoo, Hanwook Henry
2015-01-01
The purpose of this inquiry was to investigate the effectiveness of item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimators in terms of estimation bias and error under multistage testing (MST). We chose a 2-stage MST design in which 1 adaptation to the examinees' ability levels takes place. It includes 4 modules (1 at Stage 1, 3 at Stage 2) and 3 paths…
A Structural Model-Based Optimal Person-Fit Procedure for Identifying Faking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina
2013-01-01
This article proposes a two-stage procedure aimed at identifying faking in personality tests. The procedure, which can be considered as an extension and refinement of previous item response theory (IRT)-based proposals, combines the information provided by a structural equation model (SEM) in the first stage with that provided by an IRT-based…
Barberon, Marie; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Kolb, Cornelia; Isono, Erika; Zelazny, Enric; Vert, Grégory
2014-06-01
In plants, the controlled absorption of soil nutrients by root epidermal cells is critical for growth and development. IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the main root transporter taking up iron from the soil and is also the main entry route in plants for potentially toxic metals such as manganese, zinc, cobalt, and cadmium. Previous work demonstrated that the IRT1 protein localizes to early endosomes/trans-Golgi network (EE/TGN) and is constitutively endocytosed through a monoubiquitin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Here, we show that the availability of secondary non-iron metal substrates of IRT1 (Zn, Mn, and Co) controls the localization of IRT1 between the outer polar domain of the plasma membrane and EE/TGN in root epidermal cells. We also identify FYVE1, a phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding protein recruited to late endosomes, as an important regulator of IRT1-dependent metal transport and metal homeostasis in plants. FYVE1 controls IRT1 recycling to the plasma membrane and impacts the polar delivery of this transporter to the outer plasma membrane domain. This work establishes a functional link between the dynamics and the lateral polarity of IRT1 and the transport of its substrates, and identifies a molecular mechanism driving polar localization of a cell surface protein in plants.
K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov
2009-03-01
The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.
Designing a Sine-Coil for Measurement of Plasma Displacements in IR-T1 Tokamak
Khorshid, Pejman; Razavi, M.; Molaii, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; TalebiTaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; NikMohammadi, A.
2008-04-07
A method for the measurement of the plasma position in the IR-T1 tokamak in toroidal coordinates is developed. A sine-coil, which is a Rogowski coil with a variable wiring density is designed and fabricated for this purpose. An analytic solution of the Biot-Savart law, which is used to calculate magnetic fields created by toroidal plasma current, is presented. Results of calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained in no-plasma shots with a toroidal current-carrying coil positioned inside the vessel to simulate the plasma movements. The results are shown a good linear behavior of plasma position measurements. The error is less than 2.5% and it is compared with other methods of measurements of the plasma position. This method will be used in the feedback position control system and tests of feedback controller parameters are ongoing.
Utility of a very high IRT/No mutation referral category in cystic fibrosis newborn screening.
Kay, Denise M; Langfelder-Schwind, Elinor; DeCelie-Germana, Joan; Sharp, Jack K; Maloney, Breanne; Tavakoli, Norma P; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A; Krein, Lea M; Caggana, Michele; Kier, Catherine
2015-08-01
Newborn screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) began in New York in October, 2002 using immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT)/DNA methodology. Infants with at least one CFTR mutation or very high IRT and no mutations (VHIRT) are referred for sweat testing. In a preliminary analysis, we noted a very low positive predictive value (PPV) and preponderance of Hispanic infants in the group of infants with CF referred for VHIRT, which led to a decision to revise, but not eliminate, the VHIRT category. Automatic referral for specimens with VHIRT collected on the day of birth was eliminated, and the VHIRT threshold was raised from 0.2% to 0.1%. In this report, we describe outcomes from VHIRT referrals among 2.4 million infants screened between March 2003 and February 2013. Following the algorithm change, referrals decreased by 37.8% overall (annual mean 1,485 vs. 923), and the VHIRT PPV improved (0.6-1.0%). The number of infants diagnosed has remained consistent at 1 in 4,400 births. The proportion of Black/Hispanic/Asian/Other infants with confirmed CF, CFTR-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS), or possible CF/CRMS was 21.3% in infants with 1-2 mutations, but 75.8% in the VHIRT group. In conclusion, although the PPV among VHIRT referrals remains low, had this category never been implemented, 24 infants with confirmed CF, and 9 infants with CRMS or possible CF/CRMS, most of whom were Hispanic, would have been missed over the 10 years. Information from this study may be helpful in assessing the need for the VHIRT category and algorithm changes in other screening programs.
Fan, Shi Kai; Fang, Xian Zhi; Guan, Mei Yan; Ye, Yi Quan; Lin, Xian Yong; Du, Shao Ting; Jin, Chong Wei
2014-01-01
Cadmium (Cd) contamination of agricultural soils is an increasingly serious problem. Measures need to be developed to minimize Cd entering the human food chain from contaminated soils. We report here that, under Cd exposure condition, application with low doses of (0.1–0.5 μM) abscisic acid (ABA) clearly inhibited Cd uptake by roots and decreased Cd level in Arabidopsis wild-type plants (Col-0). Expression of IRT1 in roots was also strongly inhibited by ABA treatment. Decrease in Cd uptake and the inhibition of IRT1 expression were clearly lesser pronounced in an ABA-insensitive double mutant snrk2.2/2.3 than in the Col-0 in response to ABA application. The ABA-decreased Cd uptake was found to correlate with the ABA-inhibited IRT1 expression in the roots of Col-0 plants fed two different levels of iron. Furthermore, the Cd uptake of irt1 mutants was barely affected by ABA application. These results indicated that inhibition of IRT1 expression is involved in the decrease of Cd uptake in response to exogenous ABA application. Interestingly, ABA application increased the iron level in both Col-0 plants and irt1 mutants, suggesting that ABA-increased Fe acquisition does not depend on the IRT1 function, but on the contrary, the ABA-mediated inhibition of IRT1 expression may be due to the elevation of iron level in plants. From our results, we concluded that ABA application might increase iron acquisition, followed by the decrease in Cd uptake by inhibition of IRT1 activity. Thus, for crop production in Cd contaminated soils, developing techniques based on ABA application potentially is a promising approach for reducing Cd accumulation in edible organs in plants. PMID:25566293
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li
2014-01-01
In Ramsay curve item response theory (RC-IRT) modeling, the shape of the latent trait distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters. In its original implementation, RC-IRT is estimated via Bock and Aitkin's EM algorithm, which yields maximum marginal likelihood estimates. This method, however, does not produce the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson Koenig, Judith; Roberts, James S.
2007-01-01
Methods for linking item response theory (IRT) parameters are developed for attitude questionnaire responses calibrated with the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM). One class of IRT linking methods derives the linking coefficients by comparing characteristic curves, and three of these methods---test characteristic curve (TCC), item…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finch, Holmes; Edwards, Julianne M.
2016-01-01
Standard approaches for estimating item response theory (IRT) model parameters generally work under the assumption that the latent trait being measured by a set of items follows the normal distribution. Estimation of IRT parameters in the presence of nonnormal latent traits has been shown to generate biased person and item parameter estimates. A…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhard, George, Jr.; Wang, Jue
2014-01-01
The authors of the Focus article pose important questions regarding whether or not performance-based tasks related to executive functioning are best viewed as reflective or formative indicators. Miyake and Friedman (2012) define executive functioning (EF) as "a set of general-purpose control mechanisms, often linked to the prefrontal cortex…
Energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity studies in the IR-T1 tokamak.
Agah, K Mikaili; Ghoranneviss, M; Elahi, A Salar
2015-01-01
Determinations of plasma parameters as well as the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activity, energetic electrons energy and energy confinement time are essential for future fusion reactors experiments and optimized operation. Also some of the plasma information can be deduced from these parameters, such as plasma equilibrium, stability, and MHD instabilities. In this contribution we investigated the relation between energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity in the IR-T1 Tokamak. For this purpose we used the magnetic diagnostics and a hard x-ray spectroscopy in IR-T1 tokamak. A hard x-ray emission is produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles or limiters. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons.
TalebiTaher, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Tarkeshian, R.; Salem, M. K.; Khorshid, P.
2008-04-07
Since displacement is very important for plasma position control, in IR-T1 tokamak a combination of two cosine coils and two saddle sine coils is used for horizontal displacement measurement. According to the multiple moment theory, the output of these coils linearly depends to radial displacement of plasma column. A new circuit for adding these signals to feedback system designed and unwanted effects of other fields in final output compensated. After compensation and calibration of the system, the output of horizontal displacement circuits applied to feedback control system. By considers the required auxiliary vertical field, a proportional amplifier and driver circuit are constructed to drive power transistors these power transistors switch the feedback bank capacitors. In the experiment, a good linear proportionality between displacement and output observed by applying an appropriate feedback field, the linger confinement time in IR-T1 tokamak obtained, applying this system to discharge increased the plasma duration and realizes repetitive discharges.
A Study of Large Droplet Ice Accretions in the NASA-Lewis IRT at Near-Freezing Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Dean R.; Addy, Harold E. , Jr.; Ide, Robert F.
1996-01-01
This report documents the results of an experimental study on large droplet ice accretions which was conducted in the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with a full-scale 77.25 inch chord Twin-Otter wing section. This study was intended to: (1) document the existing capability of the IRT to produce a large droplet icing cloud, and (2) study the effect of various parameters on large droplet ice accretions. Results are presented from a study of the IRT's capability to produce large droplets with MVD of 99 and 160 microns. The effect of the initial water droplet temperature on the resultant ice accretion was studied for different initial spray bar air and water temperatures. The initial spray bar water temperature was found to have no discernible effect upon the large droplet ice accretions. Also, analytical and experimental results suggest that the water droplet temperature is very nearly the same as the tunnel ambient temperature, thus providing a realistic simulation of the large droplet natural icing condition. The effect of temperature, droplet size, airspeed, angle-of attack, flap setting and de-icer boot cycling time on ice accretion was studied, and will be discussed in this report. It was found that, in almost all of the cases studied, an ice ridge formed immediately aft of the active portion of the de-icer boot. This ridge was irregular in shape, varied in location, and was in some cases discontinuous due to aerodynamic shedding.
Selective electrodiffusion of zinc ions in a Zrt-, Irt-like protein, ZIPB
Lin, W.; Fu, D.; Chai, J.; Love, J.
2010-12-10
All living cells need zinc ions to support cell growth. Zrt-, Irt-like proteins (ZIPs) represent a major route for entry of zinc ions into cells, but how ZIPs promote zinc uptake has been unclear. Here we report the molecular characterization of ZIPB from Bordetella bronchiseptica, the first ZIP homolog to be purified and functionally reconstituted into proteoliposomes. Zinc flux through ZIPB was found to be nonsaturable and electrogenic, yielding membrane potentials as predicted by the Nernst equation. Conversely, membrane potentials drove zinc fluxes with a linear voltage-flux relationship. Direct measurements of metal uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy demonstrated that ZIPB is selective for two group 12 transition metal ions, Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, whereas rejecting transition metal ions in groups 7 through 11. Our results provide the molecular basis for cellular zinc acquisition by a zinc-selective channel that exploits in vivo zinc concentration gradients to move zinc ions into the cytoplasm.
Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewska, Beata; Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena
2016-03-01
The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.
Boonyaves, Kulaporn; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K
2016-02-01
Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population, but it contains only low amounts of bioavailable micronutrients for human nutrition. Consequently, micronutrient deficiency is a widespread health problem among people who depend primarily on rice as their staple food. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most serious forms of malnutrition. Biofortification of rice grains for increased iron content is an effective strategy to reduce iron deficiency. Unlike other grass species, rice takes up iron as Fe(II) via the IRON REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT) in addition to Fe(III)-phytosiderophore chelates. We expressed Arabidopsis IRT1 (AtIRT1) under control of the Medicago sativa EARLY NODULIN 12B promoter in our previously developed high-iron NFP rice lines expressing NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE (AtNAS1) and FERRITIN. Transgenic rice lines expressing AtIRT1 alone had significant increases in iron and combined with NAS and FERRITIN increased iron to 9.6 µg/g DW in the polished grains that is 2.2-fold higher as compared to NFP lines. The grains of AtIRT1 lines also accumulated more copper and zinc but not manganese. Our results demonstrate that the concerted expression of AtIRT1, AtNAS1 and PvFERRITIN synergistically increases iron in both polished and unpolished rice grains. AtIRT1 is therefore a valuable transporter for iron biofortification programs when used in combination with other genes encoding iron transporters and/or storage proteins.
Parameter Estimation with Small Sample Size: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, Jimmy; Hong, Yuan
2010-01-01
Sample size ranks as one of the most important factors that affect the item calibration task. However, due to practical concerns (e.g., item exposure) items are typically calibrated with much smaller samples than what is desired. To address the need for a more flexible framework that can be used in small sample item calibration, this article…
Simultaneous Estimation of Overall and Domain Abilities: A Higher-Order IRT Model Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, Jimmy; Song, Hao
2009-01-01
Assessments consisting of different domains (e.g., content areas, objectives) are typically multidimensional in nature but are commonly assumed to be unidimensional for estimation purposes. The different domains of these assessments are further treated as multi-unidimensional tests for the purpose of obtaining diagnostic information. However, when…
A Comparative Study of Test Data Dimensionality Assessment Procedures Under Nonparametric IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Abswoude, Alexandra A. H.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas
2004-01-01
In this article, an overview of nonparametric item response theory methods for determining the dimensionality of item response data is provided. Four methods were considered: MSP, DETECT, HCA/CCPROX, and DIMTEST. First, the methods were compared theoretically. Second, a simulation study was done to compare the effectiveness of MSP, DETECT, and…
Taylor Approximations to Logistic IRT Models and Their Use in Adaptive Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veerkamp, Wim J. J.
2000-01-01
Showed how Taylor approximation can be used to generate a linear approximation to a logistic item characteristic curve and a linear ability estimator. Demonstrated how, for a specific simulation, this could result in the special case of a Robbins-Monro item selection procedure for adaptive testing. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Anji; Schulz, E. Matthew
Missing data create problems for the interpretations and inferences of survey results, especially if the amount of missing data is substantial. This study considers issues of missing data when comparisons are made across survey items. It is suggested that if the groups responding to different items differ in their tendency to use one end of the…
Using a Mixture IRT Model to Understand English Learner Performance on Large-Scale Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shea, Christine A.
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an eighth grade state-level math assessment contained items that function differentially (DIF) for English Learner students (EL) as compared to English Only students (EO) and if so, what factors might have caused DIF. To determine this, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis was employed.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartolucci, F.; Montanari, G. E.; Pandolfi, S.
2012-01-01
With reference to a questionnaire aimed at assessing the performance of Italian nursing homes on the basis of the health conditions of their patients, we investigate two relevant issues: dimensionality of the latent structure and discriminating power of the items composing the questionnaire. The approach is based on a multidimensional item…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bulut, Okan
2013-01-01
The importance of subscores in educational and psychological assessments is undeniable. Subscores yield diagnostic information that can be used for determining how each examinee's abilities/skills vary over different content domains. One of the most common criticisms about reporting and using subscores is insufficient reliability of subscores.…
Using a Mixture IRT Model to Improve Parameter Estimates when Some Examinees Are Amotivated
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lau, Abigail
2009-01-01
Test-takers can be required to complete a test form, but cannot be forced to demonstrate their knowledge. Even if an authority mandates completion of a test, examinees can still opt to enter responses randomly. When a test has important consequences for individuals, examinees are unlikely to behave this way. However, random responding becomes more…
A Rasch Hierarchical Measurement Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maier, Kimberly S.
This paper describes a model that integrates an item response theory (IRT) Rasch model and a hierarchical linear model and presents a method of estimating model parameter values that does not rely on large-sample theory and normal approximations. The model resulting from the integration of a hierarchical linear model and the Rasch model allows one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yamamoto, Kentaro; Muraki, Eiji
The extent to which properties of the ability scale and the form of the latent trait distribution influence the estimated item parameters of item response theory (IRT) was investigated using real and simulated data. Simulated data included 5,000 ability values randomly drawn from the standard normal distribution. Real data included the results for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schulz, E. Matthew; Kolen, Michael J.; Nicewander, W. Alan
This paper compares modified Guttman and item response theory (IRT) based procedures for classifying examinees in ordered levels when each level is represented by several multiple choice test items. In the modified Guttman procedure, within-level number correct scores are mapped to binary level mastery scores. Examinees are then assigned to levels…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Haiwen
2012-01-01
In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kogut, Jan
Methods and indices based on item response theory (IRT) for detecting and diagnosing aberrant response patterns are reviewed. These indices are divided into three groups: (1) residuals-based; (2) likelihood-based; and (3) ratio of covariances-based (extended cautions). For each index, the determination of its sampling distribution as well as its…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen
The construction of parallel tests from item response theory (IRT) based item banks is discussed. Tests are considered parallel whenever their information functions are identical. After the methods for constructing parallel tests are considered, the computational complexity of 0-1 linear programming and the heuristic procedure applied are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atalay Kabasakal, Kübra; Arsan, Nihan; Gök, Bilge; Kelecioglu, Hülya
2014-01-01
This simulation study compared the performances (Type I error and power) of Mantel-Haenszel (MH), SIBTEST, and item response theory-likelihood ratio (IRT-LR) methods under certain conditions. Manipulated factors were sample size, ability differences between groups, test length, the percentage of differential item functioning (DIF), and underlying…
Montégiani, Jean-François; Gaudin, Émilie; Després, Philippe; Jackson, Price A.; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu
2014-08-15
In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), huge inter-patient variability in absorbed radiation doses per administered activity mandates the utilization of individualized dosimetry to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. We created a reliable GPU-calculated dosimetry code (irtGPUMCD) and assessed {sup 177}Lu-octreotate renal dosimetry in eight patients (4 cycles of approximately 7.4 GBq). irtGPUMCD was derived from a brachytherapy dosimetry code (bGPUMCD), which was adapted to {sup 177}Lu PRRT dosimetry. Serial quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained from three SPECT/CT acquisitions performed at 4, 24 and 72 hours after {sup 177}Lu-octreotate administration, and registered with non-rigid deformation of CT volumes, to obtain {sup 177}Lu-octreotate 4D quantitative biodistribution. Local energy deposition from the β disintegrations was assumed. Using Monte Carlo gamma photon transportation, irtGPUMCD computed dose rate at each time point. Average kidney absorbed dose was obtained from 1-cm{sup 3} VOI dose rate samples on each cortex, subjected to a biexponential curve fit. Integration of the latter time-dose rate curve yielded the renal absorbed dose. The mean renal dose per administered activity was 0.48 ± 0.13 Gy/GBq (range: 0.30–0.71 Gy/GBq). Comparison to another PRRT dosimetry code (VRAK: Voxelized Registration and Kinetics) showed fair accordance with irtGPUMCD (11.4 ± 6.8 %, range: 3.3–26.2%). These results suggest the possibility to use the irtGPUMCD code in order to personalize administered activity in PRRT. This could allow improving clinical outcomes by maximizing per-cycle tumor doses, without exceeding the tolerable renal dose.
Tarkeshian, R.; Atyabi, S. M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salem, K.; Talebi Taher, A.; Khorshid, P.
2008-03-19
The measurement of current-carrying plasma column displacement is very important for plasma position control. Two methods for this purpose are introduced. In this paper, calculation and construction of these coils is explained. Multiple moment method has been used and derived for construction of sensing coils Also Fourier Transform has been used and derived for continuous coils. The comparison of their advantages are investigated. For IR-T1 Tokamak, Two Cosine coils and two Saddle Sine coils were designed and constructed, which have been placed diametrically around minor radius of torus. Then an electronic circuit was designed for adding and integrating the Cosine and Saddle Sine coils output with proper gain. The contribution of each coils in final output is calculated. For compensation of unwanted pickups voltage from the time varying fields each signal with adjustable gain is added to main signal, until removing the additional field effects. The final output holds good proportionality to H.D.
Generalizability in Item Response Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark
2007-01-01
An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…
Modeling Diagnostic Assessments with Bayesian Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almond, Russell G.; DiBello, Louis V.; Moulder, Brad; Zapata-Rivera, Juan-Diego
2007-01-01
This paper defines Bayesian network models and examines their applications to IRT-based cognitive diagnostic modeling. These models are especially suited to building inference engines designed to be synchronous with the finer grained student models that arise in skills diagnostic assessment. Aspects of the theory and use of Bayesian network models…
Randomized Item Response Theory Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Jean-Paul
2005-01-01
The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…
Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Using R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ravand, Hamdollah
2015-01-01
Cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) have been around for more than a decade but their application is far from widespread for mainly two reasons: (1) CDMs are novel, as compared to traditional IRT models. Consequently, many researchers lack familiarity with them and their properties, and (2) Software programs doing CDMs have been expensive and not…
Identifying an appropriate measurement modeling approach for the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Rubright, Jonathan D; Nandakumar, Ratna; Karlawish, Jason
2016-02-01
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a 30-item, dichotomously scored test of general cognition. A number of benefits could be gained by modeling the MMSE in an item response theory (IRT) framework, as opposed to the currently used classical additive approach. However, the test, which is built from groups of items related to separate cognitive subdomains, may violate a key assumption of IRT: local item independence. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate measurement model for the MMSE: a unidimensional IRT model, a testlet response theory model, or a bifactor model. Local dependence analysis using nationally representative data showed a meaningful violation of the local item independence assumption, indicating multidimensionality. In addition, the testlet and bifactor models displayed superior fit indices over a unidimensional IRT model. Statistical comparisons showed that the bifactor model fit MMSE respondent data significantly better than the other models considered. These results suggest that application of a traditional unidimensional IRT model is inappropriate in this context. Instead, a bifactor model is suggested for future modeling of MMSE data as it more accurately represents the multidimensional nature of the scale. (PsycINFO Database Record
The effect of emissive biased limiter on the magnetohydrodynamic modes in the IR-T1 tokamak
Ghasemloo, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salem, M. K.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; Nik Mohammadi, A.
2013-03-15
A moveable emissive biased limiter (EBL) for the investigation of spatial and temporal structure of MHD modes in IR-T1 tokamak, based on mirnov oscillations, was designed and constructed. The biasing has been considered to improve the global confinement by setting up an electric field at the plasma edge. Radial electric field (E{sub r}) modifies edge plasma turbulence, plasma rotation, and transport. Mirnov oscillations using singular value decomposition (SVD) and wavelet techniques were analyzed. SVD algorithm has been employed to analyze the frequency and wavenumber harmonics of the MHD fluctuations. The time-resolved frequency component analysis has been performed using wavelets. The EBL was applied to plasma at 10 ms with negative polarity. The results show that after applying EBL, the m = 2 mode is grown, m = 3 mode is suppressed, and H{sub {alpha}} radiation is decreased. Furthermore, results of the wavelet analysis of mirnov coil in the time range of 8-12 ms indicate that 1.5 ms after applying EBL, the MHD frequency is reduced from 45 kHz to 25 kHz.
A modular approach for item response theory modeling with the R package flirt.
Jeon, Minjeong; Rijmen, Frank
2016-06-01
The new R package flirt is introduced for flexible item response theory (IRT) modeling of psychological, educational, and behavior assessment data. flirt integrates a generalized linear and nonlinear mixed modeling framework with graphical model theory. The graphical model framework allows for efficient maximum likelihood estimation. The key feature of flirt is its modular approach to facilitate convenient and flexible model specifications. Researchers can construct customized IRT models by simply selecting various modeling modules, such as parametric forms, number of dimensions, item and person covariates, person groups, link functions, etc. In this paper, we describe major features of flirt and provide examples to illustrate how flirt works in practice.
An IRT Examination of the Psychometric Functioning of Negatively Worded Personality Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sliter, Katherine A.; Zickar, Michael J.
2014-01-01
This study compared the functioning of positively and negatively worded personality items using item response theory. In Study 1, word pairs from the Goldberg Adjective Checklist were analyzed using the Graded Response Model. Across subscales, negatively worded items produced comparatively higher difficulty and lower discrimination parameters than…
Modeling Rule-Based Item Generation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.
2011-01-01
An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework, using a data-augmented Gibbs sampler. An obvious…
Identification of the 1PL Model with Guessing Parameter: Parametric and Semi-Parametric Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
San Martin, Ernesto; Rolin, Jean-Marie; Castro, Luis M.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the identification of a particular case of the 3PL model, namely when the discrimination parameters are all constant and equal to 1. We term this model, 1PL-G model. The identification analysis is performed under three different specifications. The first specification considers the abilities as unknown parameters. It is…
Bayesian Prior Choice in IRT Estimation Using MCMC and Variational Bayes
Natesan, Prathiba; Nandakumar, Ratna; Minka, Tom; Rubright, Jonathan D.
2016-01-01
This study investigated the impact of three prior distributions: matched, standard vague, and hierarchical in Bayesian estimation parameter recovery in two and one parameter models. Two Bayesian estimation methods were utilized: Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and the relatively new, Variational Bayesian (VB). Conditional (CML) and Marginal Maximum Likelihood (MML) estimates were used as baseline methods for comparison. Vague priors produced large errors or convergence issues and are not recommended. For both MCMC and VB, the hierarchical and matched priors showed the lowest root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for ability estimates; RMSEs of difficulty estimates were similar across estimation methods. For the standard errors (SEs), MCMC-hierarchical displayed the largest values across most conditions. SEs from the VB estimation were among the lowest in all but one case. Overall, VB-hierarchical, VB-matched, and MCMC-matched performed best. VB with hierarchical priors are recommended in terms of their accuracy, and cost and (subsequently) time effectiveness. PMID:27729878
Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Khorshid, P.; Nedzelskiy, I.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2010-05-15
The modified Rogowski sine-coil (MRSC) has been designed and implemented for the plasma column horizontal displacement measurements on small IR-T1 tokamak. MRSC operation has been examined on test assembly and tokamak. Obtained results show high sensitivity to the plasma column horizontal displacement and negligible sensitivity to the vertical displacement; linearity in wide, {+-}0.1 m, range of the displacements; and excellent, 1.5%, agreement with the results of numerical solution of Biot-Savart and magnetic flux equations.
Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K
2014-11-01
This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.
Infrared thermography for CFRP inspection: computational model and experimental results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, Henrique C.; Zhang, Hai; Morioka, Karen; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; López, Fernando; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Tarpani, José R.
2016-05-01
Infrared Thermography (IRT) is a well-known Non-destructive Testing (NDT) technique. In the last decades, it has been widely applied in several fields including inspection of composite materials (CM), specially the fiber-reinforced polymer matrix ones. Consequently, it is important to develop and improve efficient NDT techniques to inspect and assess the quality of CM parts in order to warranty airworthiness and, at the same time, reduce costs of airline companies. In this paper, active IRT is used to inspect carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) at laminate with artificial inserts (built-in sample) placed on different layers prior to the manufacture. Two optical active IRT are used. The first is pulsed thermography (PT) which is the most widely utilized IRT technique. The second is a line-scan thermography (LST) technique: a dynamic technique, which can be employed for the inspection of materials by heating a component, line-by-line, while acquiring a series of thermograms with an infrared camera. It is especially suitable for inspection of large parts as well as complex shaped parts. A computational model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® was used in order to simulate the inspections. Sequences obtained from PT and LST were processed using principal component thermography (PCT) for comparison. Results showed that it is possible to detect insertions of different sizes at different depths using both PT and LST IRT techniques.
Assessing Model Data Fit of Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Simulated Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kose, Ibrahim Alper
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give an example of how to assess the model-data fit of unidimensional IRT models in simulated data. Also, the present research aims to explain the importance of fit and the consequences of misfit by using simulated data sets. Responses of 1000 examinees to a dichotomously scoring 20 item test were simulated with 25…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samejima, Fumiko
2008-01-01
Samejima ("Psychometrika "65:319--335, 2000) proposed the logistic positive exponent family of models (LPEF) for dichotomous responses in the unidimensional latent space. The objective of the present paper is to propose and discuss a graded response model that is expanded from the LPEF, in the context of item response theory (IRT). This specific…
Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip
2010-01-01
This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…
Flow Quality Measurements in an Aerodynamic Model of NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.
1999-01-01
As part of an ongoing effort to improve the aerodynamic flow characteristics of the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT), a modular scale model of the facility was fabricated. This 1/10th-scale model was used to gain further understanding of the flow characteristics in the IRT. The model was outfitted with instrumentation and data acquisition systems to determine pressures, velocities, and flow angles in the settling chamber and test section. Parametric flow quality studies involving the insertion and removal of a model of the IRT's distinctive heat exchanger (cooler) and/or of a honeycomb in the settling chamber were performed. These experiments illustrate the resulting improvement or degradation in flow quality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.
2013-01-01
FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…
The Impact of Varied Discrimination Parameters on Mixed-Format Item Response Theory Model Selection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.
2013-01-01
Whittaker, Chang, and Dodd compared the performance of model selection criteria when selecting among mixed-format IRT models and found that the criteria did not perform adequately when selecting the more parameterized models. It was suggested by M. S. Johnson that the problems when selecting the more parameterized models may be because of the low…
On the Performance Characteristics of Latent-Factor and Knowledge Tracing Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klingler, Severin; Käser, Tanja; Solenthaler, Barbara; Gross, Markus
2015-01-01
Modeling student knowledge is a fundamental task of an intelligent tutoring system. A popular approach for modeling the acquisition of knowledge is Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT). Various extensions to the original BKT model have been proposed, among them two novel models that unify BKT and Item Response Theory (IRT). Latent Factor Knowledge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Bo
2010-01-01
This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…
Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto
2013-01-01
The article provides an overview of goodness-of-fit assessment methods for item response theory (IRT) models. It is now possible to obtain accurate "p"-values of the overall fit of the model if bivariate information statistics are used. Several alternative approaches are described. As the validity of inferences drawn on the fitted model…
A Bayesian Semiparametric Item Response Model with Dirichlet Process Priors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miyazaki, Kei; Hoshino, Takahiro
2009-01-01
In Item Response Theory (IRT), item characteristic curves (ICCs) are illustrated through logistic models or normal ogive models, and the probability that examinees give the correct answer is usually a monotonically increasing function of their ability parameters. However, since only limited patterns of shapes can be obtained from logistic models…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny
2011-01-01
This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tian, Feng
2011-01-01
There has been a steady increase in the use of mixed-format tests, that is, tests consisting of both multiple-choice items and constructed-response items in both classroom and large-scale assessments. This calls for appropriate equating methods for such tests. As Item Response Theory (IRT) has rapidly become mainstream as the theoretical basis for…
Using Data Augmentation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the Estimation of Unfolding Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Matthew S.; Junker, Brian W.
2003-01-01
Unfolding response models, a class of item response theory (IRT) models that assume a unimodal item response function (IRF), are often used for the measurement of attitudes. Verhelst and Verstralen (1993)and Andrich and Luo (1993) independently developed unfolding response models by relating the observed responses to a more common monotone IRT…
Modified Likelihood-Based Item Fit Statistics for the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, James S.
2008-01-01
Orlando and Thissen (2000) developed an item fit statistic for binary item response theory (IRT) models known as S-X[superscript 2]. This article generalizes their statistic to polytomous unfolding models. Four alternative formulations of S-X[superscript 2] are developed for the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM). The GGUM is a…
Application of the Bi-Factor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model to Testlet-Based Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMars, Christine E.
2006-01-01
Four item response theory (IRT) models were compared using data from tests where multiple items were grouped into testlets focused on a common stimulus. In the bi-factor model each item was treated as a function of a primary trait plus a nuisance trait due to the testlet; in the testlet-effects model the slopes in the direction of the testlet…
Exploring the Full-Information Bifactor Model in Vertical Scaling with Construct Shift
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Ying; Lissitz, Robert W.
2012-01-01
To address the lack of attention to construct shift in item response theory (IRT) vertical scaling, a multigroup, bifactor model was proposed to model the common dimension for all grades and the grade-specific dimensions. Bifactor model estimation accuracy was evaluated through a simulation study with manipulated factors of percentage of common…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito
2011-01-01
A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…
McArdle, John J.; Grimm, Kevin; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Bowles, Ryan; Meredith, William
2010-01-01
This research uses multiple-sample longitudinal data from different test batteries to examine propositions about changes in constructs over the lifespan. The data come from three classic studies on intellectual abilities where, in combination, N=441 persons are repeatedly measures as many as 16 times over 70 years. Cognitive constructs of Vocabulary and Memory were measured using eight different age-appropriate intelligence test batteries, and we explore possible linkage of these scales using Item Response Theory (IRT). We simultaneously estimate the parameters of both IRT and Latent Curve Models (LCM) based on a joint model likelihood approach (i.e., NLMIXED and WINBUGS). Group differences are included in the model to examine potential inter-individual differences in levels and change. The resulting Longitudinal IRT (LIRT) analyses leads to a few new methodological suggestions for dealing with repeated constructs based on changing measurements in developmental studies. PMID:19485625
Sumerling, T J
1981-12-01
Sea water contaminated with diluted radioactive effluent from the Windscale nuclear complex in Cumbria periodically floods low-lying grazing pasture around the estuaries of the rivers Esk, Irt and Mite near Ravenglass. During 1979, an experiment was carried out to measure the transfer of caesium-137 from grass to muscle in cows grazing these pastures. Grass samples were taken in a vivo external gamma-ray measurements were made on cattle. A very low transfer coefficient was found, less than 9 X 10-4 days kg-1 with a best estimate of 4 X 10-4 days kg-1, compared with a more usual value of around 3 X 10-2 days kg-1. The low transfer seems to occur because the bulk of the caesium-137 on the grass is bound to resuspended estuarine surface sediment deposited during flooding. In this form, the caesium-137 is only poorly absorbed across the gut of the grazing cattle.
A Note on Item Information in Any Direction for the Multidimensional Three-Parameter Logistic Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bryant, Damon U.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this note is twofold: (a) to present the formula for the item information function (IIF) in any direction for the Multidimensional 3-Parameter Logistic (M3-PL) model and (b) to give the equation for the location of maximum item information (theta[sub max]) in the direction of the item discrimination vector. Several corollaries are…
A Multilevel Testlet Model for Dual Local Dependence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiao, Hong; Kamata, Akihito; Wang, Shudong; Jin, Ying
2012-01-01
The applications of item response theory (IRT) models assume local item independence and that examinees are independent of each other. When a representative sample for psychometric analysis is selected using a cluster sampling method in a testlet-based assessment, both local item dependence and local person dependence are likely to be induced.…
Bridging the Gap Between Common Sense and Mathematical Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Press, Laurence
1975-01-01
Describes a four-phase method of helping students who are mathematically unsophisticated and have difficulty relating their common sense, English-language understanding of a system to an abstract, mathematical description. The approach uses interactive simulation models. (Author/IRT)
Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2014-01-01
Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…
An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penfield, Randall David
2014-01-01
A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rijmen, Frank
2009-01-01
Three multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models for testlet-based tests are described. In the bifactor model (Gibbons & Hedeker, 1992), each item measures a general dimension in addition to a testlet-specific dimension. The testlet model (Bradlow, Wainer, & Wang, 1999) is a bifactor model in which the loadings on the specific dimensions…
Model Choice and Sample Size in Item Response Theory Analysis of Aphasia Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hula, William D.; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Martin, Nadine
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the most appropriate item response theory (IRT) measurement model for aphasia tests requiring 2-choice responses and to determine whether small samples are adequate for estimating such models. Method: Pyramids and Palm Trees (Howard & Patterson, 1992) test data that had been collected from…
Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hessen, David J.
2005-01-01
In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…
A Comparison of Item Exposure Control Procedures with the Generalized Partial Credit Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanchez, Edgar Isaac
2008-01-01
To enhance test security of high stakes tests, it is vital to understand the way various exposure control strategies function under various IRT models. To that end the present dissertation focused on the performance of several exposure control strategies under the generalized partial credit model with an item pool of 100 and 200 items. These…
An Assessment of the Nonparametric Approach for Evaluating the Fit of Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.
2014-01-01
As item response theory has been more widely applied, investigating the fit of a parametric model becomes an important part of the measurement process. There is a lack of promising solutions to the detection of model misfit in IRT. Douglas and Cohen introduced a general nonparametric approach, RISE (Root Integrated Squared Error), for detecting…
Generating Dichotomous Item Scores with the Four-Parameter Beta Compound Binomial Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monahan, Patrick O.; Lee, Won-Chan; Ankenmann, Robert D.
2007-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation technique for generating dichotomous item scores is presented that implements (a) a psychometric model with different explicit assumptions than traditional parametric item response theory (IRT) models, and (b) item characteristic curves without restrictive assumptions concerning mathematical form. The four-parameter beta…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yao, Lihua; Schwarz, Richard D.
2006-01-01
Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models have been proposed for better understanding the dimensional structure of data or to define diagnostic profiles of student learning. A compensatory multidimensional two-parameter partial credit model (M-2PPC) for constructed-response items is presented that is a generalization of those proposed to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Hoijtink, Herbert
2003-01-01
Both structural equation modeling (SEM) and item response theory (IRT) can be used for factor analysis of dichotomous item responses. In this case, the measurement models of both approaches are formally equivalent. They were refined within and across different disciplines, and make complementary contributions to central measurement problems…
Use of a Scale Model in the Design of Modifications to the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canacci, Victor A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.; Spera, David A.; Burke, Thomas (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Major modifications were made in 1999 to the 6- by 9-Foot (1.8- by 2.7-m) Icing Research tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including replacement of its heat exchanger and associated ducts and turning vanes, and the addition of fan outlet guide vanes (OGV's). A one-tenth scale model of the IRT (designated as the SMIRT) was constructed with and without these modifications and tested to increase confidence in obtaining expected improvements in flow quality around the tunnel loop. The SMIRT is itself an aerodynamic test facility whose flow patterns without modifications have been shown to be accurate, scaled representations of those measured in the IRT prior to the 1999 upgrade program. In addition, tests in the SMIRT equipped with simulated OGV's indicated that these devices in the IRT might reduce flow distortions immediately downstream of the fan by two thirds. Flow quality parameters measured in the SMIRT were projected to the full-size modified IRT, and quantitative estimates of improvements in flow quality were given prior to construction. In this paper, the results of extensive flow quality studies conducted in the SMIRT are documented. Samples of these are then compared with equivalent measurements made in the full-scale IRT, both before and after its configuration was upgraded. Airspeed, turbulence intensity, and flow angularity distributions are presented for cross sections downstream of the drive fan, both upstream and downstream of the replacement flat heat exchanger, in the stilling chamber, in the test section, and in the wakes of the new comer turning vanes with their unique expanding and contracting designs. Lessons learned from these scale-model studies are discussed.
Robin, F.; Delmas, J.; Chanal, C.; Sirot, D.; Sirot, J.; Bonnet, R.
2005-01-01
Escherichia coli CF349 exhibited a complex β-lactam resistance phenotype, including resistance to amoxicillin and ticarcillin alone and in combination with clavulanate and to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The double-disk synergy test was positive. CF349 harbored an 85-kb conjugative plasmid which encoded a β-lactamase of pI 5.9. The corresponding bla gene was identified by PCR and sequencing as a blaTEM gene. The deduced protein sequence revealed a new complex mutant of TEM-1 β-lactamase designated TEM-109 (CMT-5). TEM-109 contained both the substitutions Glu104Lys and Arg164His of the expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-6 and Met69Leu of the inhibitor-resistant TEM-33 (IRT-5). TEM-109 exhibited hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime similar to that of TEM-6 (kcat, 56 s−1 and 105 s−1, respectively; Km values, 226 and 247 μM, respectively). The 50% inhibitory concentrations of clavulanate and tazobactam (0.13 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively) were 5- to 10-fold higher for TEM-109 than for TEM-6 (0.01 and 0.06 μM, respectively) but were almost 10-fold lower than those for TEM-33. The characterization of this novel CMT, which exhibits a low level of resistance to inhibitors, highlights the emergence of this new ESBL type. PMID:16251281
A Bayesian Approach to Person Fit Analysis in Item Response Theory Models. Research Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glas, Cees A. W.; Meijer, Rob R.
A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of person fit in item response theory (IRT) models is presented. In a posterior predictive check, the observed value on a discrepancy variable is positioned in its posterior distribution. In a Bayesian framework, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure can be used to generate samples of the posterior distribution…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gomez, Rapson
2012-01-01
Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie
2012-01-01
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…
A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rauschenberger, John; And Others
1980-01-01
In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)
Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee
2013-07-01
Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.
A New Statistic for Evaluating Item Response Theory Models for Ordinal Data. CRESST Report 839
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott
2014-01-01
We propose a new limited-information goodness of fit test statistic C[subscript 2] for ordinal IRT models. The construction of the new statistic lies formally between the M[subscript 2] statistic of Maydeu-Olivares and Joe (2006), which utilizes first and second order marginal probabilities, and the M*[subscript 2] statistic of Cai and Hansen…
Linking Outcomes from Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Forms Using Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan; Rice, Mabel L.
2012-01-01
Purpose: The present work describes how vocabulary ability as assessed by 3 different forms of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; Dunn & Dunn, 1997) can be placed on a common latent metric through item response theory (IRT) modeling, by which valid comparisons of ability between samples or over time can then be made. Method: Responses from…
Item Response Theory Models for Wording Effects in Mixed-Format Scales
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu
2015-01-01
Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…
A Practical Computer Adaptive Testing Model for Small-Scale Scenarios
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chang, Hsin-Yi
2008-01-01
Computer adaptive testing (CAT) is theoretically sound and efficient, and is commonly seen in larger testing programs. It is, however, rarely seen in a smaller-scale scenario, such as in classrooms or business daily routines, because of the complexity of most adopted Item Response Theory (IRT) models. While the Sequential Probability Ratio Test…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Yanmei; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Lin
2010-01-01
Many standardized educational tests include groups of items based on a common stimulus, known as "testlets". Standard unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models are commonly used to model examinees' responses to testlet items. However, it is known that local dependence among testlet items can lead to biased item parameter estimates when…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Jia, Helena
2011-01-01
Standard 3.9 of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council for Measurement in Education, 1999) demands evidence of model fit when an item response theory (IRT) model is used to make inferences from a data set. We applied two recently…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; Jin, Ying; Thum, Yeow Meng
2010-01-01
The vertical scales of large-scale achievement tests created by using item response theory (IRT) models are mostly based on cluster (or correlated) educational data in which students usually are clustered in certain groups or settings (classrooms or schools). While such application directly violated assumption of independent sample of person in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dai, Yunyun
2013-01-01
Mixtures of item response theory (IRT) models have been proposed as a technique to explore response patterns in test data related to cognitive strategies, instructional sensitivity, and differential item functioning (DIF). Estimation proves challenging due to difficulties in identification and questions of effect size needed to recover underlying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thissen, David
2013-01-01
In this commentary, David Thissen states that "Goodness-of-fit assessment for IRT models is maturing; it has come a long way from zero." Thissen then references prior works on "goodness of fit" in the index of Lord and Novick's (1968) classic text; Yen (1984); Drasgow, Levine, Tsien, Williams, and Mead (1995); Chen and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao
2013-01-01
In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paek, Insu; Cai, Li
2014-01-01
The present study was motivated by the recognition that standard errors (SEs) of item response theory (IRT) model parameters are often of immediate interest to practitioners and that there is currently a lack of comparative research on different SE (or error variance-covariance matrix) estimation procedures. The present study investigated item…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Ying; Jiao, Hong; Lissitz, Robert W.
2012-01-01
This study investigated the application of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to validate test structure and dimensionality. Multiple content areas or domains within a single subject often exist in large-scale achievement tests. Such areas or domains may cause multidimensionality or local item dependence, which both violate the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gittler, Georg; Fischer, Gerhard
2011-01-01
The article extends and applies previous approaches by Klauer and Fischer to the statistical evaluation of ability changes in tests conforming to the Rasch model (RM). Exact uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) hypothesis tests and uniformly most accurate (UMA) confidence intervals (CIs) for the amount of change can be constructed for each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stone, Clement A.
2003-01-01
Developed and investigated a goodness-of-fit statistic that considers the uncertainty with which ability is estimated and a resampling-based hypothesis testing procedure. Simulation study results indicate that the procedure should be useful for evaluating goodness-of-fit item response theory models for most testing applications when uncertainty in…
Sirot, D; Recule, C; Chaibi, E B; Bret, L; Croize, J; Chanal-Claris, C; Labia, R; Sirot, J
1997-01-01
Escherichia coli GR102 was isolated from feces of a leukemic patient. It expressed different levels of resistance to amoxicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate and to the various cephalosporins tested. The double-disk synergy test was weakly positive. Production of a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.6 was transferred to E. coli HB101 by conjugation. The nucleotide sequence was determined by direct sequencing of the amplification products obtained by PCR performed with TEM gene primers. This enzyme differed from TEM-1 (blaT-1B gene) by four amino acid substitutions: Met-->Leu-69, Glu-->Lys-104, Gly-->Ser-238 and Asn-->Asp-276. The amino acid susbstitutions Leu-69 and Asp-276 are known to be responsible for inhibitor resistance of the IRT-4 mutant, as are Lys-104 and Ser-238 substitutions for hydrolytic activity of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases TEM-15, TEM-4, and TEM-3. These combined mutations led to a mutant enzyme which conferred a level of resistance to coamoxiclav (MIC, 64 microg/ml) much lower than that conferred by IRT-4 (MIC, 2,048 microg/ml) but higher than that conferred by TEM-15 or TEM-1 (MIC, 16 microg/ml). In addition, the MIC of ceftazidime for E. coli transconjugant GR202 (1 microg/ml) was lower than that for E. coli TEM-15 (16 microg/ml) and higher than that for E. coli IRT-4 or TEM-1 (0.06 microg/ml). The MICs observed for this TEM-type enzyme were related to the kinetic constants Km and k(cat) and the 50% inhibitory concentration, which were intermediate between those observed for IRT-4 and TEM-15. In conclusion, this new type of complex mutant derived from TEM-1 (CMT-1) is able to confer resistance at a very low level to inhibitors and at a low level to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. CMT-1 received the designation TEM-50. PMID:9174192
Spectral Analysis and Experimental Modeling of Ice Accretion Roughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, D. J.; Breuer, K. S.; Torres, B. E.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.
1996-01-01
A self-consistent scheme for relating wind tunnel ice accretion roughness to the resulting enhancement of heat transfer is described. First, a spectral technique of quantitative analysis of early ice roughness images is reviewed. The image processing scheme uses a spectral estimation technique (SET) which extracts physically descriptive parameters by comparing scan lines from the experimentally-obtained accretion images to a prescribed test function. Analysis using this technique for both streamwise and spanwise directions of data from the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) are presented. An experimental technique is then presented for constructing physical roughness models suitable for wind tunnel testing that match the SET parameters extracted from the IRT images. The icing castings and modeled roughness are tested for enhancement of boundary layer heat transfer using infrared techniques in a "dry" wind tunnel.
An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL) Model and beyond
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo M.
2005-01-01
The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002) as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of "Item Response Theory (IRT) models". The present paper provides an expository account of the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for…
Correction for Guessing in the Framework of the 3PL Item Response Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiu, Ting-Wei
2010-01-01
Guessing behavior is an important topic with regard to assessing proficiency on multiple choice tests, particularly for examinees at lower levels of proficiency due to greater the potential for systematic error or bias which that inflates observed test scores. Methods that incorporate a correction for guessing on high-stakes tests generally rely…
A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures
Allik, Jüri
2014-01-01
Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter—the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models. PMID:24847291
Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro
2014-01-01
ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.
Fitting measurement models to vocational interest data: are dominance models ideal?
Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz; Rounds, James; Williams, Bruce A
2009-09-01
In this study, the authors examined the item response process underlying 3 vocational interest inventories: the Occupational Preference Inventory (C.-P. Deng, P. I. Armstrong, & J. Rounds, 2007), the Interest Profiler (J. Rounds, T. Smith, L. Hubert, P. Lewis, & D. Rivkin, 1999; J. Rounds, C. M. Walker, et al., 1999), and the Interest Finder (J. E. Wall & H. E. Baker, 1997; J. E. Wall, L. L. Wise, & H. E. Baker, 1996). Item response theory (IRT) dominance models, such as the 2-parameter and 3-parameter logistic models, assume that item response functions (IRFs) are monotonically increasing as the latent trait increases. In contrast, IRT ideal point models, such as the generalized graded unfolding model, have IRFs that peak where the latent trait matches the item. Ideal point models are expected to fit better because vocational interest inventories ask about typical behavior, as opposed to requiring maximal performance. Results show that across all 3 interest inventories, the ideal point model provided better descriptions of the response process. The importance of specifying the correct item response model for precise measurement is discussed. In particular, scores computed by a dominance model were shown to be sometimes illogical: individuals endorsing mostly realistic or mostly social items were given similar scores, whereas scores based on an ideal point model were sensitive to which type of items respondents endorsed.
Li, Yuelin; Baser, Ray
2013-01-01
The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the final guidelines on the development and validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) assessments in drug labeling and clinical trials. This guidance paper may boost the demand for new PRO survey questionnaires. Henceforth biostatisticians may encounter psychometric methods more frequently, particularly Item Response Theory (IRT) models to guide the shortening of a PRO assessment instrument. This article aims to provide an introduction on the theory and practical analytic skills in fitting a Generalized Partial Credit Model in IRT (GPCM). GPCM theory is explained first, with special attention to a clearer exposition of the formal mathematics than what is typically available in the psychometric literature. Then a worked example is presented, using self-reported responses taken from the International Personality Item Pool. The worked example contains step-by-step guides on using the statistical languages R and WinBUGS in fitting the GPCM. Finally, the Fisher information function of the GPCM model is derived and used to evaluate, as an illustrative example, the usefulness of assessment items by their information contents. This article aims to encourage biostatisticians to apply IRT models in the re-analysis of existing data and in future research. PMID:22362655
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ackerman, Terry
2001-01-01
This book is a compendium of recent item response theory (IRT) research that reviews 27 IRT models. The book contains a historical overview of IRT followed by six sections that deal with the application of a particular IRT model or set of models. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa
2015-01-01
There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…
2010-01-01
Objective This study has used Item Response Theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of Health-Related Quality-of-Life. Method This investigation is a descriptive- analytic study. Subjects were 370 undergraduate students of nursing and midwifery who were selected from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. All participants were asked to complete the Farsi version of WHOQOL-BREF. Samejima's graded response model was used for the analyses. Results The results revealed that the discrimination parameters for all items in the four scales were low to moderate. The threshold parameters showed adequate representation of the relevant traits from low to the mean trait level. With the exception of 15, 18, 24 and 26 items, all other items showed low item information function values, and thus relatively high reliability from low trait levels to moderate levels. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that although there was general support for the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF from an IRT perspective, this measure can be further improved. IRT analyses provided useful measurement information and demonstrated to be a better methodological approach for enhancing our knowledge of the functionality of WHOQOL-BREF. PMID:22952508
Modeling directional thermal radiance from a forest canopy
McGuire, M.J.; Balick, L.K.; Smith, J.A.; Hutchinson, B.A.
1989-12-31
This paper describes an extension of an existing thermal vegetation canopy radiance model which has been modified to partially account for the geometrically rough structure of a forest canopy. Fourier series expansion of a canopy height profile is used to calculate view factors which partially account for the directional variations in canopy thermal radiance transfer. A modification of a previously developed thermal vegetation canopy model is presented, along with the measurements used to drive and verify the model. The evidence indicates that thermal radiance from a forest canopy depends on sensor viewing angle, solar position, and the degree of geometric roughness of the canopy surface. For the above canopy, hand-held IRT`s were not useful for investigating the nadir angle variations due to the averaging technique used. These data did show some azimuthal variations, but it is difficult to precisely interpret the trends because of the averaging employed. Comparisons were made between the ORIG and ROUGH thermal models. The data analysis and model comparisons suggest that thermal radiance from a forest canopy does depend on sensor view angle and that the variation can be partially explained by the position of the sun and the geometrically rough structure of the canopy surface.
Bradshaw, Laine; Templin, Jonathan
2014-07-01
Traditional testing procedures typically utilize unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to provide a single, continuous estimate of a student's overall ability. Advances in psychometrics have focused on measuring multiple dimensions of ability to provide more detailed feedback for students, teachers, and other stakeholders. Diagnostic classification models (DCMs) provide multidimensional feedback by using categorical latent variables that represent distinct skills underlying a test that students may or may not have mastered. The Scaling Individuals and Classifying Misconceptions (SICM) model is presented as a combination of a unidimensional IRT model and a DCM where the categorical latent variables represent misconceptions instead of skills. In addition to an estimate of ability along a latent continuum, the SICM model provides multidimensional, diagnostic feedback in the form of statistical estimates of probabilities that students have certain misconceptions. Through an empirical data analysis, we show how this additional feedback can be used by stakeholders to tailor instruction for students' needs. We also provide results from a simulation study that demonstrate that the SICM MCMC estimation algorithm yields reasonably accurate estimates under large-scale testing conditions.
Reise, Steven P; Moore, Tyler M; Haviland, Mark G
2010-11-01
The application of psychological measures often results in item response data that arguably are consistent with both unidimensional (a single common factor) and multidimensional latent structures (typically caused by parcels of items that tap similar content domains). As such, structural ambiguity leads to seemingly endless "confirmatory" factor analytic studies in which the research question is whether scale scores can be interpreted as reflecting variation on a single trait. An alternative to the more commonly observed unidimensional, correlated traits, or second-order representations of a measure's latent structure is a bifactor model. Bifactor structures, however, are not well understood in the personality assessment community and thus rarely are applied. To address this, herein we (a) describe issues that arise in conceptualizing and modeling multidimensionality, (b) describe exploratory (including Schmid-Leiman [Schmid & Leiman, 1957] and target bifactor rotations) and confirmatory bifactor modeling, (c) differentiate between bifactor and second-order models, and (d) suggest contexts where bifactor analysis is particularly valuable (e.g., for evaluating the plausibility of subscales, determining the extent to which scores reflect a single variable even when the data are multidimensional, and evaluating the feasibility of applying a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) measurement model). We emphasize that the determination of dimensionality is a related but distinct question from either determining the extent to which scores reflect a single individual difference variable or determining the effect of multidimensionality on IRT item parameter estimates. Indeed, we suggest that in many contexts, multidimensional data can yield interpretable scale scores and be appropriately fitted to unidimensional IRT models.
IRT test equating in complex linkage plans.
Battauz, Michela
2013-07-01
Linkage plans can be rather complex, including many forms, several links, and the connection of forms through different paths. This article studies item response theory equating methods for complex linkage plans when the common-item nonequivalent group design is used. An efficient way to average equating coefficients that link the same two forms through different paths will be presented and the asymptotic standard errors of indirect and average equating coefficients are derived. The methodology is illustrated using simulations studies and a real data example. PMID:25106395
Equating Test Scores (without IRT). Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livingston, Samuel A.
2014-01-01
This booklet grew out of a half-day class on equating that author Samuel Livingston teaches for new statistical staff at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The class is a nonmathematical introduction to the topic, emphasizing conceptual understanding and practical applications. The class consists of illustrated lectures, interspersed with…
Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye
2010-01-01
Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…
Cai, Li
2014-01-01
Lord and Wingersky’s (1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined on a grid formed by direct products of quadrature points. However, the increase in computational burden remains exponential in the number of dimensions, making the implementation of the recursive algorithm cumbersome for truly high dimensional models. In this paper, a dimension reduction method that is specific to the Lord-Wingersky recursions is developed. This method can take advantage of the restrictions implied by hierarchical item factor models, e.g., the bifactor model, the testlet model, or the two-tier model, such that a version of the Lord-Wingersky recursive algorithm can operate on a dramatically reduced set of quadrature points. For instance, in a bifactor model, the dimension of integration is always equal to 2, regardless of the number of factors. The new algorithm not only provides an effective mechanism to produce summed score to IRT scaled score translation tables properly adjusted for residual dependence, but leads to new applications in test scoring, linking, and model fit checking as well. Simulated and empirical examples are used to illustrate the new applications. PMID:25233839
Cai, Li
2015-06-01
Lord and Wingersky's (Appl Psychol Meas 8:453-461, 1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined on a grid formed by direct products of quadrature points. However, the increase in computational burden remains exponential in the number of dimensions, making the implementation of the recursive algorithm cumbersome for truly high-dimensional models. In this paper, a dimension reduction method that is specific to the Lord-Wingersky recursions is developed. This method can take advantage of the restrictions implied by hierarchical item factor models, e.g., the bifactor model, the testlet model, or the two-tier model, such that a version of the Lord-Wingersky recursive algorithm can operate on a dramatically reduced set of quadrature points. For instance, in a bifactor model, the dimension of integration is always equal to 2, regardless of the number of factors. The new algorithm not only provides an effective mechanism to produce summed score to IRT scaled score translation tables properly adjusted for residual dependence, but leads to new applications in test scoring, linking, and model fit checking as well. Simulated and empirical examples are used to illustrate the new applications.
The Effect of Repeaters on Equating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.
2010-01-01
Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…
The Challenges of Fitting an Item Response Theory Model to the Social Anhedonia Scale
Reise, Steven P.; Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.
2011-01-01
This study explored the application of latent variable measurement models to the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS; Eckblad, Chapman, Chapman, & Mishlove, 1982), a widely used and influential measure in schizophrenia-related research. Specifically, we applied unidimensional and bifactor item response theory (IRT) models to data from a community sample of young adults (n = 2,227). Ordinal factor analyses revealed that identifying a coherent latent structure in the 40-item SAS data was challenging due to: a) the presence of multiple small content clusters (e.g., doublets), b) modest relations between those clusters which, in turn, implies a general factor of only modest strength, c) items that shared little variance with the majority of items, and d) cross-loadings in bifactor solutions. Consequently, we conclude that SAS responses cannot be modeled accurately by either unidimensional or bifactor IRT models. Although the application of a bifactor model to a reduced 17-item set met with better success, significant psychometric and substantive problems remained. Results highlight the challenges of applying latent variable models to scales there were not originally designed to fit these models. PMID:21516580
The challenges of fitting an item response theory model to the Social Anhedonia Scale.
Reise, Steven P; Horan, William P; Blanchard, Jack J
2011-05-01
This study explored the application of latent variable measurement models to the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS; Eckblad, Chapman, Chapman, & Mishlove, 1982), a widely used and influential measure in schizophrenia-related research. Specifically, we applied unidimensional and bifactor item response theory (IRT) models to data from a community sample of young adults (n = 2,227). Ordinal factor analyses revealed that identifying a coherent latent structure in the 40-item SAS data was challenging due to (a) the presence of multiple small content clusters (e.g., doublets); (b) modest relations between those clusters, which, in turn, implies a general factor of only modest strength; (c) items that shared little variance with the majority of items; and (d) cross-loadings in bifactor solutions. Consequently, we conclude that SAS responses cannot be modeled accurately by either unidimensional or bifactor IRT models. Although the application of a bifactor model to a reduced 17-item set met with better success, significant psychometric and substantive problems remained. Results highlight the challenges of applying latent variable models to scales that were not originally designed to fit these models.
Stochastic modeling of plasma mode forecasting in tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Sh.; Salem, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Khorshid, P.
2012-04-01
The structure of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes has always been an interesting study in tokamaks. The mode number of tokamak plasma is the most important parameter, which plays a vital role in MHD instabilities. If it could be predicted, then the time of exerting external fields, such as feedback fields and Resonance Helical Field, could be obtained. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average are useful models to predict stochastic processes. In this paper, we suggest using ARIMA model to forecast mode number. The ARIMA model shows correct mode number (m = 4) about 0.5 ms in IR-T1 tokamak and equations of Mirnov coil fluctuations are obtained. It is found that the recursive estimates of the ARIMA model parameters change as the plasma mode changes. A discriminator function has been proposed to determine plasma mode based on the recursive estimates of model parameters.
Numerical modeling of anti-icing systems and comparison to test results on a NACA 0012 airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.
1993-01-01
A series of experimental tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis IRT on an electro-thermally heated NACA 0012 airfoil. Quantitative comparisons between the experimental results and those predicted by a computer simulation code were made to assess the validity of a recently developed anti-icing model. An infrared camera was utilized to scan the instantaneous temperature contours of the skin surface. Despite some experimental difficulties, good agreement between the numerical predictions and the experimental results were generally obtained for the surface temperature and the possibility for the runback to freeze. Some recommendations were given for an efficient operation of a thermal anti-icing system.
Numerical Modeling of Anti-icing Systems and Comparison to Test Results on a NACA 0012 Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.
1993-01-01
A series of experimental tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis IRT on an electro-thermally heated NACA 0012 airfoil. Quantitative comparisons between the experimental results and those predicted by a computer simulation code were made to assess the validity of a recently developed anti-icing model. An infrared camera was utilized to scan the instantaneous temperature contours of the skin surface. Despite some experimental difficulties, good agreement between the numerical predictions and the experiment results were generally obtained for the surface temperature and the possibility for each runback to freeze. Some recommendations were given for an efficient operation of a thermal anti-icing system.
A Comparison of Equating Methods under the Graded Response Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho
Equating tests from different calibrations under item response theory (IRT) requires calculation of the slope and intercept of the appropriate linear transformation. Two methods have been proposed recently for equating graded response items under IRT, a test characteristic curve method and a minimum chi-square method. These two methods are…
Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
2013-01-01
Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759
IRTPRO 2.1 for Windows (Item Response Theory for Patient-Reported Outcomes)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paek, Insu; Han, Kyung T.
2013-01-01
This article reviews a new item response theory (IRT) model estimation program, IRTPRO 2.1, for Windows that is capable of unidimensional and multidimensional IRT model estimation for existing and user-specified constrained IRT models for dichotomously and polytomously scored item response data. (Contains 1 figure and 2 notes.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ahlam
2011-12-01
Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students
A turbulence model for iced airfoils and its validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shin, Jaiwon; Chen, Hsun H.; Cebeci, Tuncer
1992-01-01
A turbulence model based on the extension of the algebraic eddy viscosity formulation of Cebeci and Smith developed for two dimensional flows over smooth and rough surfaces is described for iced airfoils and validated for computed ice shapes obtained for a range of total temperatures varying from 28 to -15 F. The validation is made with an interactive boundary layer method which uses a panel method to compute the inviscid flow and an inverse finite difference boundary layer method to compute the viscous flow. The interaction between inviscid and viscous flows is established by the use of the Hilbert integral. The calculated drag coefficients compare well with recent experimental data taken at the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and show that, in general, the drag increase due to ice accretion can be predicted well and efficiently.
Multimodal Education: A Model with Promise.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.; Locke, Don C.
1980-01-01
Describes a program that uses Lazarus's factors that contribute to human growth and development as the basis for its program. The modalities covered are given the headings behavior, affect, sensation and imagery, cognition, interpersonal, and diet/physiology. (IRT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong
2010-09-01
Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pregowski, Piotr; Swiderski, Waldemar; Walczak, W. T.; Usowicz, B.
1999-03-01
In order to reduce a serious problem connected with the buried mines, various detection technologies are used. The main disadvantage of applying the IRT method is presence of plenty false indications in thermograms. A simple use of IRT equipment with better temperature resolution would not help in distinguishing the mines, since noise comes not from a camera, but from soil surface. Recognizing the role of time and space variability of moisture and density of sand and possibilities to express it quantitatively plays an important role. In our model of thermal properties of the soil the volumetric unit of the soil consists of mineral and organic particles, as well as water and air. All needed parameters can be calculated. Calculations of thermal signatures of the underground objects were made basing on 2D-heat equation for the sinus type heating of the three-layer model of cylindrical geometry and cooling by convection. Measurements were made for field and laboratory stand-ups, using methodologies typical for 'single- shot' measurements as well as analyses of transient processes based on sequence of thermograms. Results of simulations and measurements confirm expectation that high level of 'radiant noises' is caused mainly by differences in the moisture and sand density levels.
An overview of a model rotor icing test in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.; Flemming, Robert J.
1994-01-01
During two entries in late 1989, a heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA LeRC Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The results of this series of tunnel tests were published previously. After studying the results from the 1989 test and comparing them to predictions, it became clear that certain test conditions still needed investigation. Therefore, a re-entry of the Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model (PFM) in the IRT was instituted in order to expand upon the current rotor craft sub-scale model experimental database. The major areas of interest included expansion of the test matrix to include a larger number of points in the FAA AC 29-2 icing envelope, inclusion of a number of high power rotor performance points, close examination of warm temperature operations, operation of the model in constant lift mode, and testing for conditions for icing test points in the full scale helicopter database. The expanded database will allow further and more detailed examination and comparison with analytical models. Participants in the test were NASA LeRC, the U.S. Army Vehicle Propulsion Directorate based at LeRC, and Sikorsky Aircraft. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions (temperature, liquid water content, median droplet diameter) and was operated over ranges of shaft angle, rotor tip speed, advance ratio, and rotor lift. The data taken included blade strain gage and balance data, as well as still photography, video, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. A discussion of the details of the test is given herein. Also, a brief examination of a subset of the data taken is also given.
Reise, Steven P.; Moore, Tyler M.; Haviland, Mark G.
2010-01-01
The application of psychological measures often results in item response data that arguably are consistent with both unidimensional (a single common factor) and multidimensional latent structures (typically caused by parcels of items that tap similar content domains). As such, structural ambiguity leads to seemingly endless “confirmatory” factor analytic studies, in which the research question is whether scale scores can be interpreted as reflecting variation on a single trait. An alternative to the more commonly-observed unidimensional, correlated-traits, or second-order representations of a measure's latent structure is a bifactor model. Bifactor structures, however, are not well understood in the personality assessment community and, thus, rarely are applied. To address this, herein we: a) describe issues that arise in conceptualizing and modeling multidimensionality, b) describe exploratory (including Schmid-Leiman and target bifactor rotations) and confirmatory bifactor modeling, c) differentiate between bifactor and second-order models, d) suggest contexts where bifactor analysis is particularly valuable (e.g., for evaluating the plausibility of subscales, determining the extent to which scores reflect a single variable even when the data are multidimensional, and evaluating the feasibility of applying a unidimensional item response theory measurement model). We emphasize that the determination of dimensionality is a related but distinct question from either determining the extent to which scores reflect a single individual difference variable or determining the effect of multidimensionality on IRT item parameter estimates. Indeed, we suggest that in many contexts, multidimensional data can yield interpretable scale scores and be appropriately fitted to unidimensional IRT models. PMID:20954056
The Value of Item Response Theory in Clinical Assessment: A Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Michael L.
2011-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) and related latent variable models represent modern psychometric theory, the successor to classical test theory in psychological assessment. Although IRT has become prevalent in the measurement of ability and achievement, its contributions to clinical domains have been less extensive. Applications of IRT to clinical…
Stability of Rasch Scales over Time
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun
2010-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…
An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.
2012-01-01
Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…
Assessing the Utility of Item Response Theory Models: Differential Item Functioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheuneman, Janice Dowd
The current status of item response theory (IRT) is discussed. Several IRT methods exist for assessing whether an item is biased. Focus is on methods proposed by L. M. Rudner (1975), F. M. Lord (1977), D. Thissen et al. (1988) and R. L. Linn and D. Harnisch (1981). Rudner suggested a measure of the area lying between the two item characteristic…
The Information Function for the One-Parameter Logistic Model: Is it Reliability?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doran, Harold C.
2005-01-01
The information function is an important statistic in item response theory (IRT) applications. Although the information function is often described as the IRT version of reliability, it differs from the classical notion of reliability from a critical perspective: replication. This article first explores the information function for the…
The Effect of Changing Content on IRT Scaling Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Lisa A.; Keller, Robert R.
2015-01-01
Equating test forms is an essential activity in standardized testing, with increased importance with the accountability systems in existence through the mandate of Adequate Yearly Progress. It is through equating that scores from different test forms become comparable, which allows for the tracking of changes in the performance of students from…
Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam
2014-01-01
In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…
A Comparative Study of IRT Fixed Parameter Calibration Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon
2006-01-01
This article provides technical descriptions of five fixed parameter calibration (FPC) methods, which were based on marginal maximum likelihood estimation via the EM algorithm, and evaluates them through simulation. The five FPC methods described are distinguished from each other by how many times they update the prior ability distribution and by…
Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li
2015-01-01
Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…
Evaluation of Linking Methods for Multidimensional IRT Calibrations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Min, Kyung-Seok
2007-01-01
Most researchers agree that psychological/educational tests are sensitive to multiple traits, implying the need for a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT). One limitation of applying a MIRT in practice is the difficulty in establishing equivalent scales of multiple traits. In this study, a new MIRT linking method was proposed and evaluated…
Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan
2012-01-01
Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…
Construct continuity in the presence of multidimensionality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staniewska, Dorota
Unidimensionality -- a condition, under which only one dominant construct is being measured by the test, is a fundamental assumption of most modern day psychometric models. However, some tests are multidimensional by design. A test, for instance, might measure physics, biology and chemistry subscales combined to measure a "general science" composite. The relative magnitudes of those subscales sometimes shift from administration to administration, which results in an altered composite. This study examined the conditions under which two different forms of a multidimensional test measure the same composite construct to a degree that allows them to be equated, i.e. used interchangeably. IRT true-score equating was used in a simulation study to assess the closeness of the scores on the forms. Conditions examined included the correlations between subscales, varying number of items per subscale form to form, and different subpopulation ability estimates on the subscales. Differences in the equating errors due to generating model (1PL or 3PL) were also examined. A way of calculating a unidimensional composite from a two-dimensional ability was devised and compared to the unidimensional composite obtained from Parscale. It was found that in general, the errors increase with decreasing correlation between traits and increased divergence of the two forms to be equated, with the later being the main predictor of the equating errors. However, the magnitude of those errors was small for the population as a whole especially when all examinee abilities are drawn from the same distribution. It was concluded that IRT true score equating is relatively robust to multidimensionality for the conditions examined, especially if the overall population score is desired. However, when accurate estimate of the equated score for individuals at the extremes of the population is needed, or whenever population abilities are drawn from more than one distribution, the unidimensional true score
Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana
2015-03-01
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology.
Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana
2015-03-01
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. PMID:25524862
Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.
1991-01-01
A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.
Evaluation of Icing Scaling on Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsao, Jen-Ching; Lee, Sam
2012-01-01
Icing scaling tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) were performed on swept wing models using existing recommended scaling methods that were originally developed for straight wing. Some needed modifications on the stagnation-point local collection efficiency (i.e., beta(sub 0) calculation and the corresponding convective heat transfer coefficient for swept NACA 0012 airfoil models have been studied and reported in 2009, and the correlations will be used in the current study. The reference tests used a 91.4-cm chord, 152.4-cm span, adjustable sweep airfoil model of NACA 0012 profile at velocities of 100 and 150 knot and MVD of 44 and 93 mm. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.4. All tests were conducted at 0deg angle of attack (AoA) and 45deg sweep angle. Ice shape comparison results were presented for stagnation-point freezing fractions in the range of 0.4 to 1.0. Preliminary results showed that good scaling was achieved for the conditions test by using the modified scaling methods developed for swept wing icing.
A computational model of selection by consequences: log survivor plots.
Kulubekova, Saule; McDowell, J J
2008-06-01
[McDowell, J.J, 2004. A computational model of selection by consequences. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 81, 297-317] instantiated the principle of selection by consequences in a virtual organism with an evolving repertoire of possible behaviors undergoing selection, reproduction, and mutation over many generations. The process is based on the computational approach, which is non-deterministic and rules-based. The model proposes a causal account for operant behavior. McDowell found that the virtual organism consistently showed a hyperbolic relationship between response and reinforcement rates according to the quantitative law of effect. To continue validation of the computational model, the present study examined its behavior on the molecular level by comparing the virtual organism's IRT distributions in the form of log survivor plots to findings from live organisms. Log survivor plots did not show the "broken-stick" feature indicative of distinct bouts and pauses in responding, although the bend in slope of the plots became more defined at low reinforcement rates. The shape of the virtual organism's log survivor plots was more consistent with the data on reinforced responding in pigeons. These results suggest that log survivor plot patterns of the virtual organism were generally consistent with the findings from live organisms providing further support for the computational model of selection by consequences as a viable account of operant behavior.
Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.
2005-09-01
Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.
Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten
2016-05-01
Psychological tests are usually analysed with item response models. Recently, some alternative measurement models have been proposed that were derived from cognitive process models developed in experimental psychology. These models consider the responses but also the response times of the test takers. Two such models are the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model. Both models can be calibrated with the diffIRT package of the R statistical environment via marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation. In this manuscript, an alternative approach to model calibration is proposed. The approach is based on weighted least squares estimation and parallels the standard estimation approach in structural equation modelling. Estimates are determined by minimizing the discrepancy between the observed and the implied covariance matrix. The estimator is simple to implement, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed. Least squares estimation also provides a test of model fit by comparing the observed and implied covariance matrix. The estimator and the test of model fit are evaluated in a simulation study. Although parameter recovery is good, the estimator is less efficient than the MML estimator.
A Multidimensional Ideal Point Item Response Theory Model for Binary Data.
Maydeu-Olivares, Albert; Hernández, Adolfo; McDonald, Roderick P
2006-12-01
We introduce a multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model for binary data based on a proximity response mechanism. Under the model, a respondent at the mode of the item response function (IRF) endorses the item with probability one. The mode of the IRF is the ideal point, or in the multidimensional case, an ideal hyperplane. The model yields closed form expressions for the cell probabilities. We estimate and test the goodness of fit of the model using only information contained in the univariate and bivariate moments of the data. Also, we pit the new model against the multidimensional normal ogive model estimated using NOHARM in four applications involving (a) attitudes toward censorship, (b) satisfaction with life, (c) attitudes of morality and equality, and (d) political efficacy. The normal PDF model is not invariant to simple operations such as reverse scoring. Thus, when there is no natural category to be modeled, as in many personality applications, it should be fit separately with and without reverse scoring for comparisons. PMID:26794914
Bookmark locations and item response model selection in the presence of local item dependence.
Skaggs, Gary
2007-01-01
The bookmark standard setting procedure is a popular method for setting performance standards on state assessment programs. This study reanalyzed data from an application of the bookmark procedure to a passage-based test that used the Rasch model to create the item ordered booklet. Several problems were noted in this implementation of the bookmark procedure, including disagreement among the SMEs about the correct order of items in the bookmark booklet, performance level descriptions of the passing standard being based on passage difficulty as well as item difficulty, and the presence of local item dependence within reading passages. Bookmark item locations were recalculated for the IRT three-parameter model and the multidimensional bifactor model. The results showed that the order of item locations was very similar for all three models when items of high difficulty and low discrimination were excluded. However, the items whose positions were the most discrepant between models were not the items that the SMEs disagreed about the most in the original standard setting. The choice of latent trait model did not address problems of item order disagreement. Implications for the use of the bookmark method in the presence of local item dependence are discussed.
Further Refinement of the LEWICE SLD Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, William B.
2006-01-01
A research project is underway at NASA Glenn Research Center to produce computer software that can accurately predict ice growth for any meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present results from version 3.2 of this software, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from previous releases in that it incorporates additional thermal analysis capabilities, a pneumatic boot model, interfaces to external computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solvers and has an empirical model for the supercooled large droplet (SLD) regime. An extensive comparison against the database of ice shapes and collection efficiencies that have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) has also been performed. The complete set of data used for this comparison will eventually be available in a contractor report. This paper will show the differences in collection efficiency and ice shape between LEWICE 3.2 and experimental data. This report will first describe the LEWICE 3.2 SLD model. A semi-empirical approach was used to incorporate first order physical effects of large droplet phenomena into icing software. Comparisons are then made to every two-dimensional case in the water collection database and the ice shape database. Each collection efficiency condition was run using the following four assumptions: 1) potential flow, no splashing; 2) potential flow, with splashing; 3) Navior-Stokes, no splashing; 4) Navi r-Stokes, with splashing. All cases were run with 21 bin drop size distributions and a lift correction (angle of attack adjustment). Quantitative comparisons are shown for impingement limit, maximum water catch, and total collection efficiency. Due to the large number of ice shape cases, comprehensive comparisons were limited to potential flow cases with and without splashing. Quantitative comparisons are shown for horn height, horn angle, icing limit, area, and leading edge thickness. The results show that the predicted results for
A Model for Employee Motivation and Satisfaction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grant, Philip C.
1979-01-01
To increase an employee's motivation, an employee must perceive that s/he will achieve higher satisfaction for greater effort. To generate such perception, rewards must clearly be contingent on effort and the cost of increased effort must grow at a slower rate than the increase in reward. (Author/IRT)
A Model for Personnel Practices and People.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burack, Elmer H.; Miller, Edwin L.
1979-01-01
Integrating comprehensive human resource planning with overall organization plans and strategies, and implementing responsive human resource programs with a growing sensitivity to the economic and policy needs of the organization represent the substance and direction of human resources management. (Author/IRT)
A Comprehensive Approach for Assessing Person Fit with Test-Retest Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.
2014-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) models allow model-data fit to be assessed at the individual level by using person-fit indices. This assessment is also feasible when IRT is used to model test-retest data. However, person-fit developments for this type of modeling are virtually nonexistent. This article proposes a general person-fit approach for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei
2011-01-01
The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…
li, Wen; Shang, Wen; Yan, Ming; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Huiming
2012-01-01
Background The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety. Methods The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model. Results The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and
Wiley, James A.; Martin, John Levi; Herschkorn, Stephen J.; Bond, Jason
2015-01-01
We put forward a new item response model which is an extension of the binomial error model first introduced by Keats and Lord. Like the binomial error model, the basic latent variable can be interpreted as a probability of responding in a certain way to an arbitrarily specified item. For a set of dichotomous items, this model gives predictions that are similar to other single parameter IRT models (such as the Rasch model) but has certain advantages in more complex cases. The first is that in specifying a flexible two-parameter Beta distribution for the latent variable, it is easy to formulate models for randomized experiments in which there is no reason to believe that either the latent variable or its distribution vary over randomly composed experimental groups. Second, the elementary response function is such that extensions to more complex cases (e.g., polychotomous responses, unfolding scales) are straightforward. Third, the probability metric of the latent trait allows tractable extensions to cover a wide variety of stochastic response processes. PMID:26544974
Anchor Selection Strategies for DIF Analysis: Review, Assessment, and New Approaches
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopf, Julia; Zeileis, Achim; Strobl, Carolin
2015-01-01
Differential item functioning (DIF) indicates the violation of the invariance assumption, for instance, in models based on item response theory (IRT). For item-wise DIF analysis using IRT, a common metric for the item parameters of the groups that are to be compared (e.g., for the reference and the focal group) is necessary. In the Rasch model,…
A Note on Stochastic Ordering of the Latent Trait Using the Sum of Polytomous Item Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Ark, L. Andries; Bergsma, Wicher P.
2010-01-01
In contrast to dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most well-known polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering of the latent trait by the total test score (SOL). This has been thought to make the ordering of respondents on the latent trait using the total test score questionable and throws doubt on the justifiability of using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maydeu-Olivares, Albert
1997-01-01
This handbook contains 27 chapters, each containing a description of a single Item Response Theory (IRT) model written by the author who originally proposed it. All chapters use the same notation and follow the same format, making the book an excellent source for information about IRT models. (SLD)
Rasch Analysis for Binary Data with Nonignorable Nonresponses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertoli-Barsotti, Lucio; Punzo, Antonio
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a two-dimensional Item Response Theory (IRT) model to deal with nonignorable nonresponses in tests with dichotomous items. One dimension provides information about the omitting behavior, while the other dimension is related to the person's "ability". The idea of embedding an IRT model for missingness into the measurement…
Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahraman, Nilufer
2013-01-01
This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…
Test Anxiety and Item Order: New Parameters for Item Response Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gershon, Richard C.
Examinees (N=1,233) at the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (JOCRF) were administered one of three test forms in which only item order differed. The study was undertaken to determine the validity of the assumption underlying item response theory (IRT) that there are fixed item parameters that can predict performance. The Rasch IRT model was…
Person Response Functions and the Definition of Units in the Social Sciences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhard, George, Jr.; Perkins, Aminah F.
2011-01-01
Humphry (this issue) has written a thought-provoking piece on the interpretation of item discrimination parameters as scale units in item response theory. One of the key features of his work is the description of an item response theory (IRT) model that he calls the logistic measurement function that combines aspects of two traditions in IRT that…
IRTEQ: Windows Application that Implements Item Response Theory Scaling and Equating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Kyung T.
2009-01-01
This article provides a brief description of a Windows application called IRTEQ. IRTEQ employs an intuitive, user-friendly graphic user interface that can rescale one test form to another by using various item response theory (IRT) scaling methods. It supports various IRT models for test forms. It can also equate test scores on the scale of one…
Detecting Local Item Dependence in Polytomous Adaptive Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mislevy, Jessica L.; Rupp, Andre A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.
2012-01-01
A rapidly expanding arena for item response theory (IRT) is in attitudinal and health-outcomes survey applications, often with polytomous items. In particular, there is interest in computer adaptive testing (CAT). Meeting model assumptions is necessary to realize the benefits of IRT in this setting, however. Although initial investigations of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.
2011-01-01
The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children with item response theory (IRT) models using a sample of 611 children. Results from a nonparametric Mokken analysis and a parametric IRT approach for boys (n = 268) and girls (n = 343) were compared. The authors found that most scales…
A Comment on Early Student Blunders on Computer-Based Adaptive Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Bert F.
2011-01-01
This article refutes a recent claim that computer-based tests produce biased scores for very proficient test takers who make mistakes on one or two initial items and that the "bias" can be reduced by using a four-parameter IRT model. Because the same effect occurs with pattern scores on nonadaptive tests, the effect results from IRT scoring, not…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mokkink, Lidwine B.; Knol, Dirk L.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Kramer, Sophia E.
2010-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this study was to improve the quality and applicability of the 6 Dutch scales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI; Demorest & Erdman, 1986, 1987, 1988) using item response theory (IRT). IRT modeling can produce precise, valid, and relatively brief instruments, resulting in minimal response burden (Edelen…
Practical Guide to Conducting an Item Response Theory Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toland, Michael D.
2014-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) is a psychometric technique used in the development, evaluation, improvement, and scoring of multi-item scales. This pedagogical article provides the necessary information needed to understand how to conduct, interpret, and report results from two commonly used ordered polytomous IRT models (Samejima's graded…
An Overview of Nonlinear Factor Analysis and Its Relationship to Item Response Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Champlain, Andre
An approach that is currently gaining popularity in educational measurement is one that treats item response theory (IRT) as a special case of nonlinear factor analysis (NLFA). A brief overview is provided of some of the research that has examined the relationship between IRT and NLFA. Three NLFA models are outlined, emphasizing their major…
Statistical Indexes for Monitoring Item Behavior under Computer Adaptive Testing Environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhu, Renbang; Yu, Feng; Liu, Su
A computerized adaptive test (CAT) administration usually requires a large supply of items with accurately estimated psychometric properties, such as item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, to ensure the precision of examinee ability estimation. However, an estimated IRT model of a given item in any given pool does not always correctly…
The Sequential Probability Ratio Test and Binary Item Response Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nydick, Steven W.
2014-01-01
The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common method for terminating item response theory (IRT)-based adaptive classification tests. To decide whether a classification test should stop, the SPRT compares a simple log-likelihood ratio, based on the classification bound separating two categories, to prespecified critical values. As has…
Modeling of operating history of the research nuclear reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naymushin, A.; Chertkov, Yu; Shchurovskaya, M.; Anikin, M.; Lebedev, I.
2016-06-01
The results of simulation of the IRT-T reactor operation history from 2012 to 2014 are presented. Calculations are performed using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCU-PTR. Comparison is made between calculation and experimental data for the critical reactor.
A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.
A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.
1991-01-01
An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are shown as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.
Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.
2005-12-02
Calculations have been performed for postulated transients in the Critical Facility at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) in Libya. These calculations have been performed at the request of staff of the Renewable Energy and Water Desalinization Research Center (REWDRC) who are performing similar calculations. The transients considered were established during a working meeting between ANL and REWDRC staff on October 1-2, 2005 and subsequent email correspondence. Calculations were performed for the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) core. These calculations have been performed independently from those being performed by REWDRC and serve as one step in the verification process.
Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division
2007-09-24
Calculations have been performed for postulated transients in the VVR-SM Reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) of the Academy of Sciences in the Republic of Uzbekistan. (The reactor designation in Cyrillic is BBP-CM; transliterating characters to English gives VVRSM but translating words gives WWR-SM.) These calculations have been performed at the request of staff of the INP who are performing similar calculations. The transients considered were established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and INP staff during summer 2006 [Ref. 1], subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. Calculations were performed for the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core, the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) core, and one mixed HEU-LEU core during the transition. These calculations have been performed independently from those being performed by INP and serve as one step in the verification process.
Modern psychometrics applied in rheumatology–A systematic review
2012-01-01
Background Although item response theory (IRT) appears to be increasingly used within health care research in general, a comprehensive overview of the frequency and characteristics of IRT analyses within the rheumatic field is lacking. An overview of the use and application of IRT in rheumatology to date may give insight into future research directions and highlight new possibilities for the improvement of outcome assessment in rheumatic conditions. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the application of IRT to patient-reported and clinical outcome measures in rheumatology. Methods Literature searches in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science resulted in 99 original English-language articles which used some form of IRT-based analysis of patient-reported or clinical outcome data in patients with a rheumatic condition. Both general study information and IRT-specific information were assessed. Results Most studies used Rasch modeling for developing or evaluating new or existing patient-reported outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis patients. Outcomes of principle interest were physical functioning and quality of life. Since the last decade, IRT has also been applied to clinical measures more frequently. IRT was mostly used for evaluating model fit, unidimensionality and differential item functioning, the distribution of items and persons along the underlying scale, and reliability. Less frequently used IRT applications were the evaluation of local independence, the threshold ordering of items, and the measurement precision along the scale. Conclusion IRT applications have markedly increased within rheumatology over the past decades. To date, IRT has primarily been applied to patient-reported outcomes, however, applications to clinical measures are gaining interest. Useful IRT applications not yet widely used within rheumatology include the cross-calibration of instrument scores and the development of computerized adaptive tests which may reduce the
Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A
2013-01-01
We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.
Ciesla, James R.; Yao, Ping
2011-01-01
The objective of this research is to use item response theory (IRT) to validate a 14-item peer relations scale for use in the adolescent treatment population. Subjects are 509 adolescents discharged from substance abuse treatment from 2004–2009. The person reliability is 0.76 and the Cronbach’s alpha person raw score reliability is 0.93 both indicating the scale is a strong metric. The item reliability of 0.99 is high showing the model is reliable. The real separation (8.49) meaning items are placed on the Rasch “ruler” with about eight levels of importance identified. The mean-square statistics of the infit and outfit values were between 0.5 and 1.5 for the items indicating a low level of randomness and thus unidimensionality of the scale. Inspection of a Wright Item Map shows the hierarchical structure of the scale with a moderate degree of inter-item spread. The analysis shows the scale is a reliable unidimensional metric. PMID:22879749
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Li
2013-01-01
Lord and Wingersky's (1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined…
Stability Analysis of the Viscous Polytropic Dark Energy Model in Einstein Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yue-Yi; Chen, Ju-Hua; Wang, Yong-Jiu
2016-10-01
Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 10873004, the State Key Development Program for Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2010CB832803, and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University under Grant No IRT0964.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schilling, Stephen G.
2007-01-01
In this paper the author examines the role of item response theory (IRT), particularly multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) in test validation from a validity argument perspective. The author provides justification for several structural assumptions and interpretations, taking care to describe the role he believes they should play in any…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walters, Glenn D.; Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.
2011-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) methods were applied to items from the 80-item Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; G. D. Walters, 1995) to determine how well they measure the latent trait of criminal thinking in a group of 2,872 male medium security prison inmates. Preliminary analyses revealed that the 64 PICTS thinking style…
How to Treat Omitted Responses in Rasch Model-Based Equating
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shin, Seon-Hi
2009-01-01
This study investigated the impact of the coding scheme on IRT-based true score equating under a common-item nonequivalent groups design. Two different coding schemes under investigation were carried out by assigning either a zero or a blank to a missing item response in the equating data. The investigation involved a comparison study using actual…
IRT Analysis of General Outcome Measures in Grades 1-8. Technical Report # 0916
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alonzo, Julie; Anderson, Daniel; Tindal, Gerald
2009-01-01
We present scaling outcomes for mathematics assessments used in the fall to screen students at risk of failing to learn the knowledge and skills described in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Focal Point Standards. At each grade level, the assessment consisted of a 48-item test with three 16-item sub-test sets aligned to the…
How IRT Can Solve Problems of Ipsative Data in Forced-Choice Questionnaires
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Anna; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto
2013-01-01
In multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) questionnaires, items measuring different attributes are presented in blocks, and participants have to rank order the items within each block (fully or partially). Such comparative formats can reduce the impact of numerous response biases often affecting single-stimulus items (aka rating or Likert scales).…
An IRT Analysis of Preservice Teacher Self-Efficacy in Technology Integration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browne, Jeremy
2011-01-01
The need for rigorously developed measures of preservice teacher traits regarding technology integration training has been acknowledged (Kay 2006), but such instruments are still extremely rare. The Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) represents one such measure, but past analyses of its functioning have been limited by sample size and…
Grade Equivalent and IRT Representations of Growth. ACT Research Report Series 97-2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schulz, E. Matthew; Nicewander, W. Alan
It has long been a part of psychometric lore that the variance of children's scores on cognitive tests increases with age. This "increasing-variance" phenomenon was first observed on A. Binet's intelligence measures in the early 1900s. An important detail in this matter is the fact that developmental scales based on age or grade have served as the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon; Kolen, Michael J.
2007-01-01
Under item response theory, the characteristic curve methods (Haebara and Stocking-Lord methods) are used to link two ability scales from separate calibrations. The linking methods use their respective criterion functions that can be defined differently according to the symmetry- and distribution-related schemes. The symmetry-related scheme…
Upset and latchup thresholds in CD-4000 series CMOS devices. IRT 4337-007
Harrity, J. W.; Gammill, P. E.
1980-01-01
A test program designed to verify that neutron irradiation and subsequent anneal is an effective method for suppressing ionization-induced latchup yielded as a byproduct a large body of data covering the upset and latchup thresholds of non-neutron-irradiated bulk CMOS devices. Sixty-six part types in the hardened RCA CD-4000 series and four National Semiconductor part types were tested. Upset levels ranged from 2-200 rad(Si). Latchup was observed in forty of the seventy part types tested. Latchup thresholds ranged from 9 to 708 rad(Si). Latchup currents ranged from 15 mA to 1.9 A.
Creating IRT-Based Parallel Test Forms Using the Genetic Algorithm Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sun, Koun-Tem; Chen, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Shu-Yen; Cheng, Chien-Fen
2008-01-01
In educational measurement, the construction of parallel test forms is often a combinatorial optimization problem that involves the time-consuming selection of items to construct tests having approximately the same test information functions (TIFs) and constraints. This article proposes a novel method, genetic algorithm (GA), to construct parallel…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.; Sireci, Stephen G.
2012-01-01
Item parameter drift (IPD) occurs when item parameter values change from their original value over time. IPD may pose a serious threat to the fairness and validity of test score interpretations, especially when the goal of the assessment is to measure growth or improvement. In this study, we examined the effect of multidirectional IPD (i.e., some…
Assessing Retest Effects at the Individual Level: A General IRT-Based Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.
2015-01-01
Test-retest studies for assessing stability and change are widely used in different domains and allow improved or additional individual estimates of interest to be obtained. However, if these estimates are to be validly interpreted the responses given at Time-2 must be free of retest effects, and the fulfilment of this assumption must be…
The Long-Term Sustainability of IRT Scaling Methods in Mixed-Format Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Lisa A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.
2013-01-01
Due to recent research in equating methodologies indicating that some methods may be more susceptible to the accumulation of equating error over multiple administrations, the sustainability of several item response theory methods of equating over time was investigated. In particular, the paper is focused on two equating methodologies: fixed common…
A Bootstrap Generalization of Modified Parallel Analysis for IRT Dimensionality Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finch, Holmes; Monahan, Patrick
2008-01-01
This article introduces a bootstrap generalization to the Modified Parallel Analysis (MPA) method of test dimensionality assessment using factor analysis. This methodology, based on the use of Marginal Maximum Likelihood nonlinear factor analysis, provides for the calculation of a test statistic based on a parametric bootstrap using the MPA…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matlock, Ki Lynn; Turner, Ronna
2016-01-01
When constructing multiple test forms, the number of items and the total test difficulty are often equivalent. Not all test developers match the number of items and/or average item difficulty within subcontent areas. In this simulation study, six test forms were constructed having an equal number of items and average item difficulty overall.…
A HO-IRT Based Diagnostic Assessment System with Constructed Response Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Chih-Wei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liao, Chen-Huei
2011-01-01
The aim of the present study was to develop an on-line assessment system with constructed response items in the context of elementary mathematics curriculum. The system recorded the problem solving process of constructed response items and transfered the process to response codes for further analyses. An inference mechanism based on artificial…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jurich, Daniel P.; DeMars, Christine E.; Goodman, Joshua T.
2012-01-01
The prevalence of high-stakes test scores as a basis for significant decisions necessitates the dissemination of accurate and fair scores. However, the magnitude of these decisions has created an environment in which examinees may be prone to resort to cheating. To reduce the risk of cheating, multiple test forms are commonly administered. When…
Zhu, Qifeng; Yin, Yanxia; Liu, Hanjie; Tian, Jinhong
2014-01-01
Inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) type β-lactamase mutation is largely known. Therefore, it is of interest to identify new yet improved leads against IRT from traditional Chinese medicine. Hence, we screened more than 10,000 compounds from Chinese medicine (tcm@taiwan database) with mutant molecular IRT models through docking techniques. This exercise identified compounds affeic acid, curcumin, salvianolic acid E, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid with high binding score with the mutants. This was further validated in vitro where salvianolic acid E combined with cefoperazone and sulbactam effectively inhibit the R244S mutant. PMID:25670878
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoban, Gary J.
1976-01-01
Discusses the type of person who becomes principal, the authority-responsibility of the principal, and the nonteaching resocialization of the principal and then offers a six-step model for eliminating the principalship. (Author/IRT)
A Round Trip Ticket from Goal Development ot Boardroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peper, John B.
The speaker comments on a goal development process that has been used in the Milwaukee Public Schools for planning and implementing policy. Improvement of attendance was the goal selected for use in illustrating the model. (Author/IRT)
Promoting Women in Educational Administration: A Case Study of Conflict and Stress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adkinson, Judith A.
1978-01-01
Describes Project ICES, a model for increasing the numbers of women holding administrative positions in Kansas's public school systems, the organizational characteristics that promoted conflict and participant stress, and the unplanned mechanism (organized anarchy) that reduced conflict. (Author/IRT)
Radaev, A. I. Schurovskaya, M. V.
2015-12-15
The choice of the spatial nodalization for the calculation of the power density and burnup distribution in a research reactor core with fuel assemblies of the IRT-3M and VVR-KN type using the program based on the Monte Carlo code is described. The influence of the spatial nodalization on the results of calculating basic neutronic characteristics and calculation time is investigated.
Characterization of ZIP1’s role in zinc homeostasis in the model legume Medicago truncatula
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The ZIP family of metal transporters includes members in plant, animal, and microbial species, which have sequence similarity to the ZRT (zinc-regulated transporter) and IRT (iron-regulated transporter) proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transporters from this family have been shown to transport ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conrad, Kendon J.; Riley, Barth B.; Conrad, Karen M.; Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.
2010-01-01
In assessing criminality, researchers have used counts of crimes, arrests, and so on, because interval measures were not available. Additionally, crime seriousness varies depending on demographic factors. This study examined the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) regarding psychometric quality using item response theory (IRT) and invariance of the…
Going Places No Infrared Temperature Devices Have Gone Before
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Exergen's IRt/c is a self-powered sensor that matches a thermocouple within specified temperature ranges and provides a predictable and repeatable signal outside of this specified range. Possessing an extremely fast time constant, the infrared technology allows users to measure product temperature without touching the product. The IRt/c uses a device called a thermopile to measure temperature and generate current. Traditionally, these devices are not available in a size that would be compatible with the Exergen IRt/c, based on NASA s quarterinch specifications. After going through five circuit designs to find a thermopile that would suit the IRt/c design and match the signal needed for output, Exergen maintains that it developed a model that totaled just 20 percent of the volume of the previous smallest detector in the world. Following completion of the project with Glenn, Exergen continued development of the IRt/c for other customers, spinning off a new product line called the micro IRt/c. This latest development has broadened applications for industries that previously could not use infrared thermometers due to size constraints. The first commercial use of the micro IRt/c involved an original equipment manufacturer that makes laminating machinery consisting of heated rollers in very tight spots. Accurate temperature measurement for this application requires close proximity to the heated rollers. With the micro IRt/c s 50-millisecond time constant, the manufacturer is able to gain closer access to the intended temperature targets for exact readings, thereby increasing productivity and staying ahead of competition.In a separate application, the infrared temperature sensor is being utilized for avalanche warnings in Switzerland. The IRt/c is mounted about 5 meters above the ground to measure the snow cover throughout the mountainous regions of the country.
Seda, Gilbert; Sanchez-Ortuno, Maria M.; Welsh, Carolyn H.; Halbower, Ann C.; Edinger, Jack D.
2015-01-01
Study Objective: In this meta-analysis, we compare the short-term efficacy of prazosin vs. IRT on nightmares, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods: Reference databases were searched for randomized controlled trials using IRT or prazosin for nightmares, sleep disturbance, and/or PTSS. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting the mean posttest score in the control group from the mean posttest score in the treatment group, and dividing the result by the pooled standard deviation of both groups. Mixed effects models were performed to evaluate effects of treatment characteristics, as well as sample characteristics (veteran vs. civilian) on treatment efficacy. Results: Four studies used prazosin, 10 used IRT alone or in combination with another psychological treatment, and 1 included a group receiving prazosin and another group receiving IRT. Overall effect sizes of both treatments were of moderate magnitude for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and PTSS (p < 0.01). Effect size was not significantly different with type of treatment (psychological vs. pharmacological) on nightmare frequency (p = 0.79), sleep quality (p = 0.65), or PTSS, (p = 0.52). IRT combined with CBT for insomnia showed more improvement in sleep quality compared to prazosin (p = 0.03), IRT alone (p = 0.03), or IRT combined with another psychological intervention, (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Although IRT interventions and prazosin yield comparable acute effects for the treatment of nightmares, adding CBT for insomnia to IRT seems to enhance treatment outcomes pertaining to sleep quality and PTSS. More randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up are warranted. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 9. Citation: Seda G, Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Welsh CH, Halbower AC, Edinger JD. Comparative meta-analysis of prazosin and imagery rehearsal therapy for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):11
Brewer, Casey J; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C
2014-12-01
Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in iron overload. Men have twice the mortality rate of women, though the cause is unknown. In hemojuvelin-knockout mice, a model of the disease, males load more cardiac iron than females. We postulated that sex differences in cardiac iron import cause differences in cardiac iron concentration. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA of cardiac iron transporters in hemojuvelin-knockout mice. No sex differences were discovered among putative importers of nontransferrin-bound iron (L-type and T-type calcium channels, ZRT/IRT-like protein 14 zinc channels). Transferrin-bound iron transporters were also analyzed; these are controlled by the iron regulatory element/iron regulatory protein (IRE/IRP) system. There was a positive relationship between cardiac iron and ferroportin mRNA in both sexes, but it was significantly steeper in females (p < 0.05). Transferrin receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1 were more highly expressed in females than males (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively), consistent with their lower cardiac iron levels, as predicted by IRE/IRP regulatory pathways. Light-chain ferritin showed a positive correlation with cardiac iron that was nearly identical in males and females (R(2) = 0.41, p < 0.01; R(2) = 0.56, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas heavy-chain ferritin was constitutively expressed in both sexes. This represents the first report of IRE/IRP regulatory pathways in the heart. Transcriptional regulation of ferroportin was suggested in both sexes, creating a potential mechanism for differential set points for iron export. Constitutive heavy-chain-ferritin expression suggests a logical limit to cardiac iron buffering capacity at levels known to produce heart failure in humans. PMID:25220979
Potochnick, Stephanie
2016-01-01
As of December 2011, 13 states have adopted an in-state resident tuition (IRT) policy that provides in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants and several other states are considering similar legislation. While previous research focuses on how IRT policies affect college entry and attainment, this study examines the effect these policies have on high school dropout behavior. Using the Current Population Survey (CPS) and difference-in-difference models, this paper examines whether IRT policies reduce the likelihood of dropping out of high school for Mexican foreign-born non-citizens (FBNC), a proxy for undocumented youth. The policy is estimated to cause an eight percentage point reduction in the proportion that drops out of high school. The paper develops an integrated framework that combines human capital theory with segmented assimilation theory to provide insight into how IRT policies influence student motivation and educational attainment at the high school level. PMID:24576624
Potochnick, Stephanie
2014-05-01
As of December 2011, 13 states have adopted an in-state resident tuition (IRT) policy that provides in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants and several other states are considering similar legislation. While previous research focuses on how IRT policies affect college entry and attainment, this study examines the effect these policies have on high school dropout behavior. Using the Current Population Survey (CPS) and difference-in-difference models, this paper examines whether IRT policies reduce the likelihood of dropping out of high school for Mexican foreign-born non-citizens (FBNC), a proxy for undocumented youth. The policy is estimated to cause an eight percentage point reduction in the proportion that drops out of high school. The paper develops an integrated framework that combines human capital theory with segmented assimilation theory to provide insight into how IRT policies influence student motivation and educational attainment at the high school level.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman, Thomas J.
This paper discusses six different models of organizational structure and leadership, including the scalar chain or pyramid model, the continuum model, the grid model, the linking pin model, the contingency model, and the circle or democratic model. Each model is examined in a separate section that describes the model and its development, lists…
Prophylactic effect of probiotics on the development of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.
Chae, Chang-Suk; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Kim, Jung-Eun; Im, Sin-Hyeog
2012-01-01
Probiotics are live bacteria that confer health benefits to the host physiology. Although protective role of probiotics have been reported in diverse diseases, no information is available whether probiotics can modulate neuromuscular immune disorders. We have recently demonstrated that IRT5 probiotics, a mixture of 5 probiotics, could suppress diverse experimental disorders in mice model. In this study we further investigated whether IRT5 probiotics could modulate the progression of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a T cell dependent antibody mediated autoimmune disorder in which acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction is the major auto-antigen. Oral administration of IRT5 probiotics significantly reduced clinical symptoms of EAMG such as weight loss, body trembling and grip strength. Prophylactic effect of IRT5 probiotics on EMAG is mediated by down-regulation of effector function of AChR-reactive T cells and B cells. Administration of IRT5 probiotics decreased AChR-reactive lymphocyte proliferation, anti-AChR reactive IgG levels and inflammatory cytokine levels such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17. Down-regulation of inflammatory mediators in AChR-reactive lymphocytes by IRT5 probiotics is mediated by the generation of regulatory dendritic cells (rDCs) that express increased levels of IL-10, TGF-β, arginase 1 and aldh1a2. Furthermore, DCs isolated from IRT5 probiotics-fed group effectively converted CD4(+) T cells into CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells compared with control DCs. Our data suggest that IRT5 probiotics could be applicable to modulate antibody mediated autoimmune diseases including myasthenia gravis.
ten Cate, Jacob M
2015-01-01
Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. PMID:25871413
Models, Fiction, and Fictional Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chuang
2014-03-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Most Models in Science Are Not Fictional * Typically Fictional Models in Science * Modeling the Unobservable * Fictional Models for the Unobservable? * References
The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis
Agafonov, Oleg; Selstø, Christina Helen; Thorsen, Kristian; Xu, Xiang Ming; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter
2016-01-01
Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake. PMID:26800438
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tomkowicz, Joanna; Rogers, W. Todd
2005-01-01
Ability estimates yielded by the one- (1PL), two- (2PL), and three-parameter (3PL) models and the nominal response model (NRM) were compared with the number-right (NR) scoring model using items not susceptible to test-wiseness (NTW) and items susceptible to the ID1 test-wiseness strategy. These items were contained in grade 12 diploma examinations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian
2013-01-01
Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2] Wald…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deng, Nina
2011-01-01
Three decision consistency and accuracy (DC/DA) methods, the Livingston and Lewis (LL) method, LEE method, and the Hambleton and Han (HH) method, were evaluated. The purposes of the study were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of these methods, especially when their assumptions were not well satisfied, (2) to investigate the "true"…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meshkani, Sakineh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Lafouti, Mansoureh
2015-06-01
For understanding the effect of resonant helical magnetic field (RHF) and bias on the edge plasma turbulent transport, the radial and poloidal electric field (Er, EP ), poloidal and toroidal magnetic field (BP, Br ) were detected by the Langmuir probe, magnetic probe and diamagnetic loop. The poloidal, toroidal and radial velocity (VP, Vr, Vt ) can be determined from the electric and magnetic field. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of the magnitude of bias (V bias = 200v, V bias = 320v) on Er, EP, BP, Bt, VP, Vr, Vt . Moreover, we applied RHF with L = 2, L = 3 and L = 2 and 3 and investigate the effect of the helical windings radius on above parameters. Also, the experiment was repeated by applying the positive biasing potentials and RHF's simultaneously. The results show that by applying bias to the plasma at t = 15 msec at r/a = 0.9, Er , BP and Bt increase while EP decreases. The best modification occurs at V bias = 200v. By applying RHF to the plasma, both the electric and magnetic field vary. Er reaches the highest in the presence of RHF with L = 3. The same results are obtained for BP, Bt, VP and Vt . While the inverse results are obtained for EP and Vr . Finally, RHF and bias are applied simultaneously to the plasma. With applied bias with V bias = 200v and RHF with L = 2 and 3, we reach to the ideal circumstance. The same results obtain in the situation with V bias = 320v and RHF with L = 2 and 3.
Sitdikov,I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.
2008-07-13
The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, John C.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.
2006-01-01
The effects of five ability estimators, that is, maximum likelihood estimator, weighted likelihood estimator, maximum a posteriori, expected a posteriori, and Owen's sequential estimator, on the performances of the item response theory-based adaptive classification procedure on multiple categories were studied via simulations. The following…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
2005-01-01
This article describes a general item response theory-based factor analytic procedure that allows assessment of the equivalence between 2 administrative modes of a questionnaire: paper and pencil, and Internet based. The theoretical relations between the present procedure and other methods used in previous empirical research are shown, and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hickendorff, Marian
2013-01-01
The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…
A Study of Large Droplet Ice Accretion in the NASA Lewis IRT at Near-Freezing Conditions. Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Miller, Dean R.; Ide, Robert F.
1997-01-01
Results of experiments designed to determine the effects of large droplet ice accretion on a NACA 23012 wing section are presented. Using primarily an icing condition with a median volumetric diameter droplet size of 160 micron and a liquid water content of 0.82 grams per cubic meter, the effects of various air temperatures, angles of attack, and de-icer boot cycle interval times on ice accretion were studied. Measurements of aerodynamic performance penalties due to the ice accretions were made. Results were also compared with similar tests conducted with a Twin Otter wing section in Part 1 of this study. The form of the ice from the large droplet cloud varied as a function of air total temperature; particularly at the near-freezing temperatures of 28 F to 34 F. Changing boot cycle interval time did not prevent formation of an ice ridge. The most detrimental aerodynamic effects occurred at an air total temperature of 28 F.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thissen, David; Wainer, Howard
Simulation studies of the performance of (potentially) robust statistical estimation produce large quantities of numbers in the form of performance indices of the various estimators under various conditions. This report presents a multivariate graphical display used to aid in the digestion of the plentiful results in a current study of Item…
Kadengye, Damazo T; Cools, Wilfried; Ceulemans, Eva; Van den Noortgate, Wim
2012-06-01
Missing data, such as item responses in multilevel data, are ubiquitous in educational research settings. Researchers in the item response theory (IRT) context have shown that ignoring such missing data can create problems in the estimation of the IRT model parameters. Consequently, several imputation methods for dealing with missing item data have been proposed and shown to be effective when applied with traditional IRT models. Additionally, a nonimputation direct likelihood analysis has been shown to be an effective tool for handling missing observations in clustered data settings. This study investigates the performance of six simple imputation methods, which have been found to be useful in other IRT contexts, versus a direct likelihood analysis, in multilevel data from educational settings. Multilevel item response data were simulated on the basis of two empirical data sets, and some of the item scores were deleted, such that they were missing either completely at random or simply at random. An explanatory IRT model was used for modeling the complete, incomplete, and imputed data sets. We showed that direct likelihood analysis of the incomplete data sets produced unbiased parameter estimates that were comparable to those from a complete data analysis. Multiple-imputation approaches of the two-way mean and corrected item mean substitution methods displayed varying degrees of effectiveness in imputing data that in turn could produce unbiased parameter estimates. The simple random imputation, adjusted random imputation, item means substitution, and regression imputation methods seemed to be less effective in imputing missing item scores in multilevel data settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, R.
2013-12-01
demographic questions; three discreet instruments measuring (1) mental models of climate change, (2) attitudes and beliefs about climate change, and (3) self-reported behaviors; and an experimental intervention, followed by a behavioral intention question. Latent class analysis (LCA) and item-response theory (IRT) will be employed to analyze multiple-choice responses to the mental model survey to create groupings of individuals assumed to hold similar mental of climate change. A principal component analysis (PCA) using oblique rotation was employed to identify five scales (Chronbach's alpha > 0.80) within the attitude/belief instrument. Total and sub-scale scores were also calculated for self-reported behaviors. The relationships between mental models, attitudes and behaviors will be analyzed using multiple regression models. This work presents not only the development and validation of three novel instruments for accurately and efficiently measuring mental models, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors, but also provides insight into the types of mental models individuals hold. Understanding how climate change is conceptualized and how such knowledge influences attitudes and behaviors gives educators tools for guiding students towards more expert understandings while also enabling environmentalists to craft more effective messages.
Gavett, Brandon E; Horwitz, Julie E
2012-03-01
The serial position effect shows that two interrelated cognitive processes underlie immediate recall of a supraspan word list. The current study used item response theory (IRT) methods to determine whether the serial position effect poses a threat to the construct validity of immediate list recall as a measure of verbal episodic memory. Archival data were obtained from a national sample of 4,212 volunteers aged 28-84 in the Midlife Development in the United States study. Telephone assessment yielded item-level data for a single immediate recall trial of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Two parameter logistic IRT procedures were used to estimate item parameters and the Q(1) statistic was used to evaluate item fit. A two-dimensional model better fit the data than a unidimensional model, supporting the notion that list recall is influenced by two underlying cognitive processes. IRT analyses revealed that 4 of the 15 RAVLT items (1, 12, 14, and 15) were misfit (p < .05). Item characteristic curves for items 14 and 15 decreased monotonically, implying an inverse relationship between the ability level and the probability of recall. Elimination of the four misfit items provided better fit to the data and met necessary IRT assumptions. Performance on a supraspan list learning test is influenced by multiple cognitive abilities; failure to account for the serial position of words decreases the construct validity of the test as a measure of episodic memory and may provide misleading results. IRT methods can ameliorate these problems and improve construct validity.
A neutronic feasibility study for LEU conversion of the IR-8 research reactor.
Deen, J. R.
1998-10-22
Equilibrium fuel cycle comparisons for the IR-8 research reactor were made for HEU(90%), HEU(36%), and LEU (19.75%) fuel assembly (FA) designs using three dimensional multi-group diffusion theory models benchmarked to detailed Monte Carlo models of the reactor. Comparisons were made of changes in reactivity, cycle length, average {sup 235}U discharge burnup, thermal neutron flux, and control rod worths for the 90% and 36% enriched IRT-3M fuel assembly and the 19.75% enriched IRT-4M fuel assembly with the same fuel management strategy. The results of these comparisons showed that a uranium density of 3.5 g/cm{sup 3} in the fuel meat would be required in the LEU IRT-4M fuel assembly to match the cycle length of the HEU(90%) IRT-3M FA and an LEU density of 3.7 g/cm{sup 3} is needed to match the cycle length of the HEU(36%) IRT-3M FA.
Models, Part IV: Inquiry Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callison, Daniel
2002-01-01
Discusses models for information skills that include inquiry-oriented activities. Highlights include WebQuest, which uses Internet resources supplemented with videoconferencing; Minnesota's Inquiry Process based on the Big Six model for information problem-solving; Indiana's Student Inquiry Model; constructivist learning models for inquiry; and…
Yost, S.A.
1991-05-01
Radom matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described.
Yost, S.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)
1992-09-30
In this paper, random matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two-component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.
1987-01-01
Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levenson, Harold E.; Hurni, Andre
1978-01-01
Suggests building models as a way to reinforce and enhance related subjects such as architectural drafting, structural carpentry, etc., and discusses time, materials, scales, tools or equipment needed, how to achieve realistic special effects, and the types of projects that can be built (model of complete building, a panoramic model, and model…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, W. G. G.
1970-01-01
Discusses the historical development of both the wave and the corpuscular photon model of light. Suggests that students should be informed that the two models are complementary and that each model successfully describes a wide range of radiation phenomena. Cites 19 references which might be of interest to physics teachers and students. (LC)
Hydrological models are mediating models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.
2013-08-01
Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting
Model Experiments and Model Descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian
1999-01-01
The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
A system-level design and analysis model was developed. This model was conceived to have several key elements: a solar pond thermodynamic performance model, a power generation subsystem model, and an economic analysis element. The basic approach was to create these elements or modules and refine them on an individual basis yet retain the capability to easily couple them into a full system design model. This building block approach allows for maximum flexibility and substitution of refined descriptions as the technology develops. A general overview of interconnecting these subsystem models is presented. The primary program control element will perform the administrative functions of data input, data output, information storage and transfer, and sequential calling of the subsystem models. From the point of view of the requirements of a system design model, a power conversion subsystem model was developed. The goal of the effort was a preliminary subsystem model compatible with the solar pond subsystem model so that a first order system simulation analysis could be performed.
Bois, Frederic Y; Brochot, Céline
2016-01-01
Pharmacokinetics is the study of the fate of xenobiotics in a living organism. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models provide realistic descriptions of xenobiotics' absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes. They model the body as a set of homogeneous compartments representing organs, and their parameters refer to anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical entities. They offer a quantitative mechanistic framework to understand and simulate the time-course of the concentration of a substance in various organs and body fluids. These models are well suited for performing extrapolations inherent to toxicology and pharmacology (e.g., between species or doses) and for integrating data obtained from various sources (e.g., in vitro or in vivo experiments, structure-activity models). In this chapter, we describe the practical development and basic use of a PBPK model from model building to model simulations, through implementation with an easily accessible free software. PMID:27311461
Phillips, C.K.
1985-12-01
This lecture provides a survey of the methods used to model fast magnetosonic wave coupling, propagation, and absorption in tokamaks. The validity and limitations of three distinct types of modelling codes, which will be contrasted, include discrete models which utilize ray tracing techniques, approximate continuous field models based on a parabolic approximation of the wave equation, and full field models derived using finite difference techniques. Inclusion of mode conversion effects in these models and modification of the minority distribution function will also be discussed. The lecture will conclude with a presentation of time-dependent global transport simulations of ICRF-heated tokamak discharges obtained in conjunction with the ICRF modelling codes. 52 refs., 15 figs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Immekus, Jason C.; Imbrie, P. K.
2008-01-01
Dimensionality assessment using the full-information item bifactor model for graded response data is provided. The model applies to data in which each item relates to a general factor and one group factor. Specifically, alternative model specification within item response theory (IRT) is shown to test a scale's factor structure. For illustrative…
A Standardization Approach to Adjusting Pretest Item Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Shun-Wen; Hanson, Bradley A.; Harris, Deborah J.
This study presents and evaluates a method of standardization that may be used by test practitioners to standardize classical item statistics when sample sizes are small. The effectiveness of this standardization approach was compared through simulation with the one-parameter logistic (1PL) and three parameter logistic (3PL) models based on the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roussos, Louis A.; Schnipke, Deborah L.; Pashley, Peter J.
The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) differential item functioning (DIF) parameter for uniform DIF is well defined when item responses follow the two-parameter-logistic (2PPL) item response function (IRF), but not when they follow the three-parameter-logistic (3PL) IRF, the model typically used with multiple choice items. This research report presents a…
H. Yang
1999-11-04
The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Druyan, Leonard M.
2012-01-01
Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.
Braby, L.A.
1990-09-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.
Burr, M.T.
1995-04-01
As developers make progress on independent power projects around the world, models for success are beginning to emerge. Different models are evolving to create ownership structures that accomoate a complex system of regulatory requirements. Other frameworks make use of previously untapped fuel resources, or establish new sources of financing; however, not all models may be applied to a given project. This article explores how developers are finding new alternatives for overcoming development challenges that are common to projects in many countries.
Robinson, C.E.
1990-01-01
A heat-flow calorimeter has been modeled on a Compaq PC, using the Algor Heat Transfer Modeling and Analysis Program, Algor Interactive Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA. Employed in this application of the Algor finite element analysis program are two-dimensional axisymmetric thermal conductivity elements. The development of a computer calorimeter modeling program allows for the testing of new materials and techniques without actual fabrication of the calorimeter. 2 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.
V. Chipman
2002-10-05
The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post
Extending item response theory to online homework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kortemeyer, Gerd
2014-06-01
Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.
New Spray Bar System Installed in NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, Thomas B.
1998-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is the world's largest refrigerated wind tunnel dedicated to the study of aircraft icing. In the IRT, natural icing conditions are duplicated to test the effects of in-flight icing on actual aircraft components and on scale models of airplanes and helicopters. The IRT's ability to reproduce a natural icing cloud was significantly improved with the recent installation of a new spray bar system. It is the spray bar system that transforms the low-speed wind tunnel into an icing wind tunnel by producing microscopic droplets of water and injecting them into the wind tunnel air stream in order to accurately simulate cloud moisture.
Overview of the Icing and Flow Quality Improvements Program for the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, Thomas B.; Kevdzija, Susan L.; Sheldon, David W.; Spera, David A.
2001-01-01
Major upgrades were made in 1999 to the 6- by 9-Foot (1.8- by 2.7-m) Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These included replacement of the electronic controls for the variable-speed drive motor, replacement of the heat exchanger, complete replacement and enlargement of the leg of the tunnel containing the new heat-exchanger, the addition of flow-expanding and flow-contracting turning vanes upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger, respectively, and the addition of fan outlet guide vanes (OGV's). This paper describes the rationale behind this latest program of IRT upgrades and the program's requirements and goals. An overview is given of the scope of work undertaken by the design and construction contractors, the scale-model IRT (SMIRT) design verification program, the comprehensive reactivation test program initiated upon completion of construction, and the overall management approach followed.
Model Selection for Geostatistical Models
Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.
2006-02-01
We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budiansky, Stephen
1980-01-01
This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin
2013-01-01
Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ballard, W.L.
1968-01-01
The article discusses models of synchronic and diachronic phonology and suggests changes in them. The basic generative model of phonology is outlined with the author's reinterpretations. The systematic phonemic level is questioned in terms of its unreality with respect to linguistic performance and its lack of validity with respect to historical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Confrey, Jere; Doerr, Helen M.
1994-01-01
Presents an argument for learner-centered modeling tools and approaches that take into account students' conceptions. Based on a theoretical argument for the interplay of grounded activity and systematic inquiry, the article reports on a study of an integrated science and mathematics high school class that investigated modeling activities.…
Protein structure modeling with MODELLER.
Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej
2014-01-01
Genome sequencing projects have resulted in a rapid increase in the number of known protein sequences. In contrast, only about one-hundredth of these sequences have been characterized at atomic resolution using experimental structure determination methods. Computational protein structure modeling techniques have the potential to bridge this sequence-structure gap. In this chapter, we present an example that illustrates the use of MODELLER to construct a comparative model for a protein with unknown structure. Automation of a similar protocol has resulted in models of useful accuracy for domains in more than half of all known protein sequences.
Linguistic models and linguistic modeling.
Pedryez, W; Vasilakos, A V
1999-01-01
The study is concerned with a linguistic approach to the design of a new category of fuzzy (granular) models. In contrast to numerically driven identification techniques, we concentrate on budding meaningful linguistic labels (granules) in the space of experimental data and forming the ensuing model as a web of associations between such granules. As such models are designed at the level of information granules and generate results in the same granular rather than pure numeric format, we refer to them as linguistic models. Furthermore, as there are no detailed numeric estimation procedures involved in the construction of the linguistic models carried out in this way, their design mode can be viewed as that of a rapid prototyping. The underlying algorithm used in the development of the models utilizes an augmented version of the clustering technique (context-based clustering) that is centered around a notion of linguistic contexts-a collection of fuzzy sets or fuzzy relations defined in the data space (more precisely a space of input variables). The detailed design algorithm is provided and contrasted with the standard modeling approaches commonly encountered in the literature. The usefulness of the linguistic mode of system modeling is discussed and illustrated with the aid of numeric studies including both synthetic data as well as some time series dealing with modeling traffic intensity over a broadband telecommunication network.
Veronica J. Rutledge
2013-01-01
The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to
When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Ying
2009-01-01
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…
Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.
2003-01-01
Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibbons, Robert D.; And Others
In the process of developing a conditionally-dependent item response theory (IRT) model, the problem arose of modeling an underlying multivariate normal (MVN) response process with general correlation among the items. Without the assumption of conditional independence, for which the underlying MVN cdf takes on comparatively simple forms and can be…
The Performance of Local Dependence Measures with Psychological Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houts, Carrie R.; Edwards, Michael C.
2013-01-01
The violation of the assumption of local independence when applying item response theory (IRT) models has been shown to have a negative impact on all estimates obtained from the given model. Numerous indices and statistics have been proposed to aid analysts in the detection of local dependence (LD). A Monte Carlo study was conducted to evaluate…
The Comparative Performance of Conditional Independence Indices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Doyoung; De Ayala, R. J.; Ferdous, Abdullah A.; Nering, Michael L.
2011-01-01
To realize the benefits of item response theory (IRT), one must have model-data fit. One facet of a model-data fit investigation involves assessing the tenability of the conditional item independence (CII) assumption. In this Monte Carlo study, the comparative performance of 10 indices for identifying conditional item dependence is assessed. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ackerman, Terry
1998-01-01
This book provides a historical overview of item-response theory (IRT) and contains a compendium of item-response-theory research. Each of its six sections deals with a unique application of a model or a family of models. Requires a strong psychometric background to understand some of the discussions. (SLD)
Mitchell, W.D.
1972-01-01
Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimaldi, P.
2012-07-01
These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view
Braby, L A
1991-01-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. PMID:1811477
Braby, L A
1991-01-01
The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions which are modified by characteristics of the radiation, the timing of its administration, the chemical and physical environment, and the nature of the biological system. However, it is generally agreed that the health effects in animals originate from changes in individual cells, or possibly small groups of cells, and that these cellular changes are initiated by ionizations and excitations produced by the passage of charged particles through the cells. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. Different phenomena (LET dependence, dose rate effect, oxygen effect etc.) and different end points (cell survival, aberration formation, transformation, etc.) have been observed, and no single model has been developed to cover all of them. Instead, a range of models covering different end points and phenomena have developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified.
Modular Modeling System Model Builder
McKim, C.S.; Matthews, M.T.
1996-12-31
The latest release of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Model Builder adds still more time-saving features to an already powerful MMS dynamic-simulation tool set. The Model Builder takes advantage of 32-bit architecture within the Microsoft Windows 95/NT{trademark} Operating Systems to better integrate a mature library of power-plant components. In addition, the MMS Library of components can now be modified and extended with a new tool named MMS CompGen{trademark}. The MMS Model Builder allows the user to quickly build a graphical schematic representation for a plant by selecting from a library of predefined power plant components to dynamically simulate their operation. In addition, each component has a calculation subroutine stored in a dynamic-link library (DLL), which facilitates the determination of a steady-state condition and performance of routine calculations for the component. These calculations, termed auto-parameterization, help avoid repetitive and often tedious hand calculations for model initialization. In striving to meet the needs for large models and increase user productivity, the MMS Model Builder has been completely revamped to make power plant model creation and maintainability easier and more efficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan
2016-01-01
Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…
Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...
Insepov, Z.; Norem, J.; Vetizer, S.; Mahalingam, S.
2011-12-23
Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gradient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.
Daniel, David J; Mc Pherson, Allen; Thorp, John R; Barrett, Richard; Clay, Robert; De Supinski, Bronis; Dube, Evi; Heroux, Mike; Janssen, Curtis; Langer, Steve; Laros, Jim
2011-01-14
A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.
Ray, R.M. )
1986-12-01
PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1) chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2) carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3) in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4) polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5) steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.
Navrotskaya, Valeriya; Oxenkrug, Gregory; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Summergrad, Paul
2015-01-01
Exposure to high sugar diet (HSD) serves as an experimental model of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in mammals and insects. Peripheral IR induced by HSD delays emergence of pupae from larvae and decreases body weight of Drosophila imago. Understanding of mechanisms of IR/T2D is essential for refining T2D prevention and treatment strategies. Dysregulation of tryptophan (TRP) – kynurenine (KYN) pathway was suggested as one of the mechanisms of IR development. Rate-limiting enzyme of TRP – KYN pathway in Drosophila is TRP 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), an evolutionary conserved ortholog of human TDO. In insects TDO is encoded by vermilion gene. TDO is not active in vermilion mutants. In order to evaluate the possible impact of deficient formation of KYN from TRP on the inducement of IR by HSD, we compared the effect of HSD in wild type (Oregon) and vermilion mutants of Drosophila melanogaster by assessing the time of white pupae emergence from larva and body weight of imago. Delay of emergence of pupae from larvae induced by high sucrose diet was less pronounced in vermilion (1.4 days) than in Oregon flies (3.3 days) in comparison with flies maintained on standard diet. Exposure to high sucrose diet decreased body weight of Oregon (but not vermilion) imago. Attenuation of high sucrose diet–induced IR/T2D in vermilion flies might depend on deficiency of TRP – KYN pathway. Besides IR/T2D, HSD induces obesity in Drosophila. Future studies of HSD-induced obesity and IR/T2D in TDO deficient vermilion mutants of Drosophila might help to understand the mechanisms of high association between IR/T2D and obesity. Modulation of TRP – KYN metabolism might be utilized for prevention and treatment of IR/T2D. PMID:26191458
"We Freeze to Please": A History of NASA's Icing Research Tunnel and the Quest for Flight Safety
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leary, William M.
2002-01-01
The formation of ice on wings and other control surfaces of airplanes is one of the oldest and most vexing problems that aircraft engineers and scientists continue to face. While no easy, comprehensive answers exist, the staff at NASAs Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland has done pioneering work to make flight safer for experimental, commercial, and military customers. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) initiated government research on aircraft icing in the 1930s at its Langley facility in Virginia. Icing research shifted to the NACA's Cleveland facility in the 1940s. Initially there was little focus on icing at either location, as these facilities were more concerned with aerodynamics and engine development. With several high-profile fatal crashes of air mail carriers, however, the NACA soon realized the need for a leading research facility devoted to icing prevention and removal. The IRT began operation in 1944 and, despite renovations and periodic attempts to shut it down, has continued to function productively for almost 60 years. In part because icing has proved so problematic over time, IRT researchers have been unusually open-minded in experimenting with a wide variety of substances, devices, and techniques. Early icing prevention experiments involved grease, pumping hot engine exhaust onto the wings, glycerin soap, mechanical and inflatable "boots," and even corn syrup. The IRT staff also looked abroad for ideas and later tried a German and Soviet technique of electromagnetism, to no avail. More recently, European polymer fluids have been more promising. The IRT even periodically had "amateur nights" in which a dentist's coating for children's teeth proved unequal to the demands of super-cooled water droplets blown at 100 miles per hour. Despite many research dead-ends, IRT researchers have achieved great success over the years. They have developed important computer models, such as the LEWICE software
Curtis, S.B.
1990-09-01
Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) interaction'' of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Curtis, S.B.
1990-09-01
Several models and theories are reviewed that incorporate the idea of radiation-induced lesions (repairable and/or irreparable) that can be related to molecular lesions in the DNA molecule. Usually the DNA double-strand or chromatin break is suggested as the critical lesion. In the models, the shoulder on the low-LET survival curve is hypothesized as being due to one (or more) of the following three mechanisms: (1) ``interaction`` of lesions produced by statistically independent particle tracks; (2) nonlinear (i.e., linear-quadratic) increase in the yield of initial lesions, and (3) saturation of repair processes at high dose. Comparisons are made between the various approaches. Several significant advances in model development are discussed; in particular, a description of the matrix formulation of the Markov versions of the RMR and LPL models is given. The more advanced theories have incorporated statistical fluctuations in various aspects of the energy-loss and lesion-formation process. An important direction is the inclusion of physical and chemical processes into the formulations by incorporating relevant track structure theory (Monte Carlo track simulations) and chemical reactions of radiation-induced radicals. At the biological end, identification of repair genes and how they operate as well as a better understanding of how DNA misjoinings lead to lethal chromosome aberrations are needed for appropriate inclusion into the theories. More effort is necessary to model the complex end point of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denning, Peter J.
1990-01-01
Although powerful computers have allowed complex physical and manmade hardware systems to be modeled successfully, we have encountered persistent problems with the reliability of computer models for systems involving human learning, human action, and human organizations. This is not a misfortune; unlike physical and manmade systems, human systems do not operate under a fixed set of laws. The rules governing the actions allowable in the system can be changed without warning at any moment, and can evolve over time. That the governing laws are inherently unpredictable raises serious questions about the reliability of models when applied to human situations. In these domains, computers are better used, not for prediction and planning, but for aiding humans. Examples are systems that help humans speculate about possible futures, offer advice about possible actions in a domain, systems that gather information from the networks, and systems that track and support work flows in organizations.
Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.
1980-01-01
Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the /sup 56/Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.
2015-12-01
The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .
Although air quality models have been applied historically to address issues specific to ambient air quality standards (i.e., one criteria pollutant at a time) or welfare (e.g.. acid deposition or visibility impairment). they are inherently multipollutant based. Therefore. in pri...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah
2007-01-01
Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebert, James R.; Elliott, Nancy A.; Hurteau, Laura; Schulz, Amanda
2004-01-01
Students must understand the fundamental process of convection before they can grasp a wide variety of Earth processes, many of which may seem abstract because of the scales on which they operate. Presentation of a very visual, concrete model prior to instruction on these topics may facilitate students' understanding of processes that are largely…
Ensemble forecasting has been used for operational numerical weather prediction in the United States and Europe since the early 1990s. An ensemble of weather or climate forecasts is used to characterize the two main sources of uncertainty in computer models of physical systems: ...
A. Alsaed
2004-09-14
The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality
A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying
2014-01-01
When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…
Designing P-Optimal Item Pools in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhou, Xuechun
2012-01-01
Current CAT applications consist of predominantly dichotomous items, and CATs with polytomously scored items are limited. To ascertain the best approach to polytomous CAT, a significant amount of research has been conducted on item selection, ability estimation, and impact of termination rules based on polytomous IRT models. Few studies…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu
2013-01-01
This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…
Partial Credit Analysis of Mathematics Items from the Ohio-Off Grade Proficiency Tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
The Ohio Off-Grade Proficiency Tests help in monitoring students' progress toward Ohio's adapted model courses of study in reading, mathematics, citizenship, science, and writing. The purpose of this study was to provide item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates and descriptive statistics of the scoring categories of the short-response items…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wothke, Werner; Burket, George; Chen, Li-Sue; Gao, Furong; Shu, Lianghua; Chia, Mike
2011-01-01
It has been known for some time that item response theory (IRT) models may exhibit a likelihood function of a respondent's ability which may have multiple modes, flat modes, or both. These conditions, often associated with guessing of multiple-choice (MC) questions, can introduce uncertainty and bias to ability estimation by maximum likelihood…
The Determinants of Innovation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman, Christopher
1979-01-01
Argues, that simple market-demand or science-push models are an inadequate explanation of the trend of invention in specific branches of manufacturing industry or the economy as a whole. Reprints available from Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., PO Box 8891, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; specify Code 0016-3287/79/030206-10; $2.00. (Author/IRT)
Item Analysis and Differential Item Functioning of a Brief Conduct Problem Screen
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.
2012-01-01
Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item…
Measuring Mathematical Competences of Engineering Students at the Beginning of Their Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Irene; Rösken-Winter, Bettina; Lehmann, Malte; Duchhardt, Christoph; Heinze, Aiso; Nickolaus, Reinhold
2015-01-01
This article reports about our efforts to determine engineering students' competence in mathematics. Our research is embedded in a larger project, KoM@ING--"Modeling and developing competence: Integrated IRT based and qualitative studies with a focus on mathematics and its usage in engineering studies", within the program "Modeling…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Jinghua; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Cook, Linda
2004-01-01
This study explored possible configurations of the new SAT® critical reading section without analogy items. The item pool contained items from SAT verbal (SAT-V) sections of 14 previously administered SAT tests, calibrated using the three-parameter logistic IRT model. Multiple versions of several prototypes that do not contain analogy items were…
The Logic of Tax Limits: Alternative Constitutional Constraints on the Power to Tax.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brennan, Geoffrey; Buchanan, James
1979-01-01
In order to offer an analysis of alternative tax limitation possibilities, the ways in which Leviathan (the nonbenevolent despot model of government) can be constrained by elements of the "fiscal constitution" are examined. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)
Multidimensional Linking for Tests with Mixed Item Types
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yao, Lihua; Boughton, Keith
2009-01-01
Numerous assessments contain a mixture of multiple choice (MC) and constructed response (CR) item types and many have been found to measure more than one trait. Thus, there is a need for multidimensional dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) modeling solutions, including multidimensional linking software. For example,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina
2012-01-01
Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…
Conceptions of Research and Development for Education in the United States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holzner, Burkart; Salmon-Cox, Leslie
1977-01-01
Discusses the evolution of models for educational research and development that are prescriptive rather than descriptive of intellectual activity. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)
Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knupp, Tawnya Lee
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…
Towards the Optimization of Educational Inventory Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Daniel J.
1977-01-01
Addresses the problem of funds lost from interest because of once-per-year delivery schedules that result in excess supplies on hand. The solution used is to carefully match the structure of supplies inventory systems to the assumptions used in formal models from management science. (Author/IRT)
An Explanatory Item Response Theory Approach for a Computer-Based Case Simulation Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahraman, Nilüfer
2014-01-01
Problem: Practitioners working with multiple-choice tests have long utilized Item Response Theory (IRT) models to evaluate the performance of test items for quality assurance. The use of similar applications for performance tests, however, is often encumbered due to the challenges encountered in working with complicated data sets in which local…
Managing Garbage Can Hierarchies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padgett, John F.
1980-01-01
Operationalizes garbage-can theory into a stochastic process model for the case of a traditional Weberian bureaucracy. Illustrates how ambiguity may impinge on decision making within a structural setting familiar to classical organization theorists and derives the managerial implications of garbage-can theory. (Author/IRT)
A Demonstration of Using Person-Fit Statistics in Standard Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bay, Luz; Nering, Michael L.
The use of person-fit methods to determine the extent to which a panelist's ratings fit the item response theory (IRT) models used in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is demonstrated. Person-fit methods are statistical methods that allow the identification of nonfitting response vectors. To determine whether panelists'…
An Evaluation of Item Response Theory Classification Accuracy and Consistency Indices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wyse, Adam E.; Hao, Shiqi
2012-01-01
This article introduces two new classification consistency indices that can be used when item response theory (IRT) models have been applied. The new indices are shown to be related to Rudner's classification accuracy index and Guo's classification accuracy index. The Rudner- and Guo-based classification accuracy and consistency indices are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Champlain, Andre F.
This paper provides a brief overview of some of the research that has examined the relationship between item response theory (IRT) and nonlinear factor analysis (NFA), and outlines three NLFA models, emphasizing their major strengths and weaknesses for practical applications. The focus is on: (1) R. McDonald's polynomial approximation of a normal…
Outlier Detection in High-Stakes Certification Testing. Research Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meijer, Rob R.
Recent developments of person-fit analysis in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Methods from statistical process control are presented that have been proposed to classify an item score pattern as fitting or misfitting the underlying item response theory (IRT) model in a CAT. Most person-fit research in CAT is restricted to…
Models, Part V: Composition Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callison, Daniel
2003-01-01
Describes four models: The Authoring Cycle, a whole language approach that reflects the inquiry process; I-Search, an approach to research that uses the power of student interests; Cultural Celebration, using local heritage topics; and Science Lab Report, for the composition of a lab report. (LRW)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.