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Sample records for 3rd degree burns

  1. [Experience with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the nutrition of a patient with 3rd and 4th degree facial burns].

    PubMed

    Halmy, C; Szücs, A; Gyökeres, T; Dékány, K; Mezeine, T I; Kertész, E

    1998-05-17

    Recovery after thermal injury depends in great proportion on nutrition. A major problem is accounted in patients with facial burn, because they can not be nourished per vias naturales. Eliminating disadvantages of parenteral nutrition, but utilizing the advantages of enteral nutrition, we have tried a new method of treatment in a patient whose case is presented. On the second day after injury a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was made. On the 7th day after injury and on the 4th day from the beginning of enteral nutrition complete intake of food and liquid was assured through the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma. We had no complication related to the gastrostoma. Nutrition through the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma at our patient provided a "natural" route to assure liquid, electrolite and energy balance, prevented atrophy of intestinal mucosa and its metabolic and immunologic complications. With the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma the possible complications of central line catheter were omitted. Our opinion is that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe and effective method for the clinical nutrition of burned patients.

  2. Plane stress yield function described by 3rd-degree spline curve and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamaishi, Toshiro; Tsutamori, Hideo; Iizuka, Eiji; Sato, Kentaro; Ogihara, Yuki; Matsui, Yohei

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a plane stress yield function which is described by 3rd-degree spline curve is proposed. This yield function can predict a material anisotropy with flexibility and consider evolution of anisotropy in terms of both r values and stresses. As an application, hole expanding simulation results are shown to discuss accuracy of the proposed yield function.

  3. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  4. Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-yan

    In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

  5. The treatment of extensively burned patients and {beta} irradiational injury skin burn patients with irradiated pigskin

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Zhong Yi; Lu Xing An; Jing Ling; Qi Qiang

    1994-12-31

    Obvious therapeutic effects achieved by the covering of irradiation sterilized pigskin on burn wounds, escarectomized 3rd degree burn wounds and {beta} injured burns are introduced. The article introduces also the manufacture processes of irradiated pigskins and the selection of surgical treatments of various burns.

  6. Propolis and amnion reepithelialise second-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Pessolato, Alicia Greyce Turatti; Martins, Daniele dos Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlanetto; de Carvalho, Ana Flávia

    2011-11-01

    Burns are serious consequences of trauma in terms of both imminent mortality and prolonged periods of morbidity. They are often accompanied by unsatisfactory cosmetic as well as functional and psychological outcomes. These complications emphasise the need for stronger efforts in achieving greater diversity and effectiveness in the treatment of skin burns. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of gross and microscopic epidermal and dermal responses in the process of regenerative repair or healing of burns in rats that were treated either daily with 5% propolis ointment or by autologous amnion graft. Second-degree burns were inflicted in the neck region of female rats by contact with a hot metal (at 130 °C) for 5 s. Propolis treatment accelerated the process of tissue repair and led to decreased local inflammation, which indicates that treatment with propolis was successful in the initial period (7 days) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in all the periods evaluated (14 and 21 days). Amnion treatment inhibited local inflammation (assessed macroscopically), stimulated local epithelial regeneration (assessed microscopically) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in the days following burn. These treatments offer new therapeutic strategies for treating severe skin burns; these strategies may allow the minimisation of scar formation, a more rapid return of function and, ultimately, a better quality of life for burn patients.

  7. Dye pack injury causing third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Robert L; Smith, Howard G

    2008-01-01

    A 42-year-old African-American male patient allegedly robbed a community bank. Upon leaving the bank a dye pack device detonated causing full thickness burn to the left thigh as well as second-degree burns to areas of his left leg, right leg, penis, and scrotum. The patient underwent surgical debridement and grafting of the left thigh burn wound. He had 100% graft take, and was discharged into the care of the Federal Bureau of Investigation awaiting trial for bank robbery. Security dye packs are stacks of currency bills, which are sewn together with a hollow chamber containing tear gas, smoke devices, or a dye and can be bent or folded. No previous reports of burn injuries secondary to dye packs have been reported in the literature. Of interest, however, personal injury lawsuits on the part of the accused have been tried in the court system. The continued evolution of theft, law enforcement, and antipersonnel devices underscores the importance that burn care providers be made aware of the mechanisms of action and injury associated with these devices.

  8. Enhancing drugs absorption through third-degree burn wound eschar.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Ali; Hashemlou, Azadeh; Momeni, Parisa; Moghimi, Hamid R

    2008-08-01

    Antimicrobial therapy remains the most important method of wound infection treatment. Systemically administered antimicrobials may not achieve therapeutic levels in wound. On the other hand, some topically applied antimicrobials cannot penetrate eschar well enough. Therefore, an attempt has been made here to increase permeation of topically applied drugs through eschar using the so-called skin penetration enhancers. To perform this investigation, effects of different potential penetration enhancers on permeation of chlorhexidine, silver sulfadiazine and nitroglycerin through human third-degree burn eschar was evaluated. Results showed that water, glycerin, saline, sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS) and ethanol tend to reduce permeation of chlorhexidine through burn eschar. But, water, glycerin, hexane:ethanol and ethyl acetate:ethanol were able to increase permeation of silver sulfadiazine significantly by about 1.2-1.8 times, while saline, SDS and dimethyl sulfoxide were not able to change its permeation. Glycine showed 2.7 times enhancement toward permeation of nitroglycerin, followed by water, hexane:ethanol mixture, saline and SDS with enhancement ratios of 1.8-2.3. Urea, ethanol and citral were not able to increase permeation of nitroglycerin through eschar. This study shows that permeation of drugs through burn eschar can be improved by penetration enhancement including hydration; the effect depends on the nature of the penetrant.

  9. Quantitative assessments of burn degree by high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering and statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Huang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2011-02-01

    An accurate and quantitative modality to assess the burn degree is crucial for determining further treatments to be properly applied to burn injury patients. Ultrasounds with frequencies higher than 20 MHz have been applied to dermatological diagnosis due to its high resolution and noninvasive capability. Yet, it is still lacking a substantial means to sensitively correlate the burn degree and ultrasonic measurements quantitatively. Thus, a 50 MHz ultrasound system was developed and implemented to measure ultrasonic signals backscattered from the burned skin tissues. Various burn degrees were achieved by placing a 100 °C brass plate onto the dorsal skins of anesthetized rats for various durations ranged from 5 to 20 s. The burn degrees were correlated with ultrasonic parameters, including integrated backscatter (IB) and Nakagami parameter (m) calculated from ultrasonic signals acquired from the burned tissues of a 5 × 1.4 mm (width × depth) area. Results demonstrated that both IB and m decreased exponentially with the increase of burn degree. Specifically, an IB of -79.0 ± 2.4 (mean ± standard deviation) dB for normal skin tissues tended to decrease to -94.0 ± 1.3 dB for those burned for 20 s, while the corresponding Nakagami parameters tended to decrease from 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.45 ± 0.04. The variation of both IB and m was partially associated with the change of properties of collagen fibers from the burned tissues verified by samples of tissue histological sections. Particularly, the m parameter may be more sensitive to differentiate burned skin due to the fact that it has a greater rate of change with respect to different burn durations. These ultrasonic parameters in conjunction with high-frequency B-mode and Nakagami images could have the potential to assess the burn degree quantitatively.

  10. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns.

  11. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy

    PubMed Central

    YU, GUANYING; YE, LAN; TAN, WEI; ZHU, XUGUO; LI, YAONAN; JIANG, DUYIN

    2016-01-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep-degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep-degree burns. PMID:26846279

  12. Does 3rd age plus 3rd world equal 3rd class?

    PubMed

    Tout, K

    1992-04-01

    The patterns of care of the aged population are being influenced by demographic changes, migration, and industrialization in developing countries. There is no longer a secure place for the elders in the community as chiefs, sages, or useful members of the household. In very large mega-cities the aged living in an extended family are more prone to psychological problems than in a lone living situation. There are many variations in the degree of abandonment or loss of dignity, which are described in examples from Vilcabamba, Potosi, Lima, and Belize. For example in Belize, there are no cities to migrate to so people leave to seek their fortunes in the US or the UK. Solutions are possible within the community. The experiences of HelpAge International are reported for Pro Vida, Colombia; India; and Sri Lanka. In Colombia efforts were made to acquire a bakery so that the elderly could be employed in bread baking, donating loaves to institutions, and selling half the loaves on the street. Other projects involved improving living conditions for lone old people in shanty towns and training social workers. The institutional aim was to concentrate on a locale. Attention was given to providing instruction in classrooms to enlighten youth about the needs of the elderly. HelpAge in India concentrated on eye problems of the elderly in remote areas through awareness and fundraising campaigns. HelpAge Sri Lanka has set up seminars and training programs which have been models for similar programs in Thailand. Shared experience with the problems of aged beggars suggests that funding must come from nongovernmental agencies. The cultivation and sale of herbs by the elderly was promoted in Vilcabamba; in Jamaica a memory bank was established for preserving cultural traditions. Abandoned industries have been revived. The needs of the organizers, who are primarily volunteers, are organization skills. Governments can supplement meager funds by enhancing traditional life, by removing

  13. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  14. The Effects of Argan Oil in Second-degree Burn Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Umit; Halici, Zekai; Akpinar, Erol; Yayla, Muhammed; Avsar, Ummu; Harun, Un; Harun, Un; Hasan Tarik, Atmaca; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    Argan oil, produced from the kernels of the argan tree (Argania spinosa), has been shown to have antioxidant properties. To examine the effect of argan oil in second-degree burn wound healing, an in vivo experiment was conducted among 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups: a sham group, a control group (burned but no topical agent), a group in which argan oil was applied once a day, a group in which argan oil was applied twice a day, and a group treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine once a day. Second-degree burns were created by scalding hot water (85˚ C for 15 seconds). Treatment began 24 hours after the burn injury; in the argan oil groups, 1 mL of argan oil was administered via syringe to the wound. The rate of wound healing was quantified by wound measurements on days 1, 7, and 14 after burn injury. Tissues were analyzed for molecular and histologic changes in TGF-β expression and fibroblast activity. Percent contraction of burned skin tissue was determined using the stereo investigator program, which calculated the burn field to the millimeter. Means (SD) were calculated and compared using Duncan's multiple comparison test. The group receiving argan oil twice daily showed significantly increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 from 39.66- to 58.70-fold compared to the burn control group on day 14 (P less than 0.05). Both argan oil-treated groups showed significantly increased contraction compared to the burn control group at all 3 timepoints; the group receiving argan oil twice daily had a greater contraction rate (31% on day 7, 76% on day 14) than the silver sulfadiazine group (22% on day 7, 69% on day 14), (P less than 0.05). Histopathological assessments on days 3, 7, and 14 showed greater healing/contraction in both argan oil and silver sulfadiazine groups compared to the control group. These results suggest argan oil is effective in healing experimentally created second-degree burns in rats. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies are

  15. The Healing Effect of Nettle Extract on Second Degree Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hosein; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Iranpour, Maryam; Khodarahmi, Ali; Baghaee, Mehrdad; Pedram, Mir Sepehr; Saleh, Sahar; Araghi, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous studies were carried out to develop more sophisticated dressings to expedite healing processes and diminish the bacterial burden in burn wounds. This study assessed the healing effect of nettle extract on second degree burns wound in rats in comparison with silver sulfadiazine and vaseline. METHODS Forty rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups. A deep second-degree burn was created on the back of each rat using a standard burning procedure. The burns were dressed daily with nettle extract in group 1, silver sulfadiazine in group 2, vaseline in group 3 and without any medication in group 4 as control group. The response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during the treatment until day 42. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on days 10 and 42. RESULTS A statistically significant difference was observed in group 1 compared with other groups regarding 4 scoring parameters after 10 days. A statistically significant difference was seen for fibrosis parameter after 42 days. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed at the same time in nettle group and minimal repair in the control group. CONCLUSION Our findings showed maximal rate of healing in the nettle group. So it may be a suitable substitute for silver sulfadiazine and vaseline when available. PMID:25606473

  16. Use of platelet-rich plasma in deep second- and third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Venter, Neil Grant; Marques, Ruy Garcia; Santos, Jeanine Salles Dos; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2016-06-01

    Unfortunately burns are a common occurrence, leading to scarring or death. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors that can accelerate wound healing. We analyzed the use of PRP in deep second-degree (dSD), deep second-degree associated with diabetes mellitus (dSDD), and third-degree (TD) burns in rats. Sixty syngeneic rats divided into three groups (dSD, dSDD, and TD) were burned, half receiving topical PRP and half being used as control; 10 additional rats per group were used for PRP preparation. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and skin biopsies were collected. dSD and dSDD wounds treated with PRP showed faster wound closure, reduction in CD31-, CD68-, CD163-, MPO-, and in TGF-β-positive cells, and an increase in MMP2-positive cells. The neo-epidermis was thinner in the control of both the dSD and dSDD groups and granulation tissue was less reduced in the control of both the dSDD and TD groups. These results indicate that PRP can accelerate the healing process in dSD and dSDD, but not in TD burns.

  17. Third-degree burn leading to partial foot amputation--why a notebook is no laptop.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

    2012-08-01

    So far a few case reports about laptops causing burns have been published. Now for the first time, we report on a case, in which notebook-induced thermal injuries placed in a patient's lap resulted in severe second- and third-degree burns. As a consequence, a partial amputation of the left foot had to be performed. Furthermore, we measured maximum temperatures of 12 popular laptops, which were running full load for 3 h. For this experiment air circulation underneath the device was blocked in order to simulate surrounding conditions, which were present when the patient got injured. Although this setting may be the reason for most of all notebook burns, this kind of test has not been part of any scientific publication until now. Patients with lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness or decreased peripheral sensitivity have a higher risk for thermal injuries.

  18. Clindamycin Phosphate Absorption from Nanoliposomal Formulations through Third-Degree Burn Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Azadeh; Manafi, Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been shown that topical nanoliposomal formulations improve burn healing process. On the other hand, it has been shown that liposomal formulations increase drug deposition in the normal skin while decrease their systemic absorption; there is not such data available for burn eschar. Present investigation studies permeation of clindamycin phosphate (CP) through burn eschar from liposomal formulations to answer this question. In this investigation, permeation of CP through fully hydrated third-degree burn eschar was evaluated using solution, normal nanoliposomes and ultradeformable nanoliposomes. METHODS Liposomal CP were prepared by thin-film hydration and characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and short-time stability. Then the effect of liposomal lipid concentration on CP absorption was investigated. RESULTS The permeability coefficient ratio (liposome/solution) and permeation lag-time ratio (liposome/solution) of CP through burn eschar at 20 Mm lipid concentration were 0.81±0.21 and 1.19±1.30 respectively, indicating the retardation effects of liposomes. Data also showed that increasing liposomal lipid concentration from 20 to 100 mM, clindamycin permeation decreased by about 2 times. There was no difference between normal liposome and ultradeformable liposome in terms of clindamycin absorption. CONCLUSION Nanoliposomes could decrease trans-eschar absorption of CP, in good agreement with normal skin data, and might indicate CP deposition in the eschar tissue. PMID:26284183

  19. Fournier's gangrene in a patient after third-degree burns: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fournier's gangrene is characterized by tissue ischemia leading to rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis. Case presentation We present the case of a patient with Fournier's gangrene after third-degree burns. Clinical manifestations, laboratory results and treatment options are discussed. Conclusion Fournier's gangrene is a surgical emergency. Although it can be lethal, it is still a challenging situation in the field of surgical infections. PMID:19830156

  20. Ethosomal Curcumin Promoted Wound Healing and Reduced Bacterial Flora in Second Degree Burn in Rat.

    PubMed

    Partoazar, A; Kianvash, N; Darvishi, M H; Nasoohi, S; Rezayat, S M; Bahador, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Curcumin is well known in biomedical investigations with an extensive antimicrobial properties and wound repair effect. However, clinical criteria recommend curcumin should be formulated for topical medication. Material and method: In this study, we prepared Ethosomal curcumin (Etho-cur) formulation for wound healing and bacterial flora assessments in treated rats which were subjected to second degree burn under a standard procedure. Results: Applying once daily of Etho-cur (0.2%) topically on rat's dorsal for 14 days significantly recovered main aspects of wound repair including re-epithelization (P<0.01), neovascularization (P<0.01), collagen synthesis (P<0.001), granulation tissue formation (P<0.001) compared with control. Considerable wound contraction was occurred by Etho-cur treatment sooner than other groups and after 16 days it was completed with a significant (P<0.001) value. Furthermore, ethosomal formulation of curcumin similar to silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream 1% potentially inhibited (P<0.001) growth of the burn bacterial flora including Pseudomonas aeruginosa as predominant bacteria among experimental isolations during 14 days treatment. Also, antibacterial activity of Etho-cur was estimated approximately 11% more potent than free curcumin in reduction of the burn bacterial flora. Conclusion: Regarding the results, ethosomal curcumin efficiently fights against wound infection and promotes wound repair in burn injuries in rats.

  1. Enhancement effect of terpenes on silver sulphadiazine permeation through third-degree burn eschar.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Hamid R; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad S; Manafi, Ali

    2009-12-01

    Antimicrobial therapy remains one of the most important methods of wound management. Systemically administered antimicrobials may not achieve therapeutic levels in wound and most agents cannot penetrate burn eschar well enough when applied topically. Therefore, we tested the notion to increase permeability of eschar toward topical agents using terpenes, a well-known class of skin permeation enhancers. Four terpenes, limonene (hydrocarbon), eucalyptol (ether), alpha-pinene oxide (epoxide) and geraniol (alcohol) were chosen and their effects on permeation of silver sulphadiazine (SSD), a widely used topical antimicrobial agent, through human third-degree burn eschar was evaluated using static diffusion cells. Results showed that terpenes increased permeation flux of SSD through eschar significantly (P<0.0001). Limonene provided the highest flux enhancement ratio (9.0 times), followed by geraniol, eucalyptol and alpha-pinene oxide with enhancement ratios of 5.5, 4.7 and 4.3 respectively. The effects of terpenes on permeation lag-time, was less than 20%. Data analysis revealed that terpenes increase permeation of SSD mainly by increasing its partitioning into the eschar. The present results show that permeation of drugs through burn eschar can be increased considerably by terpenes and that burn wound antimicrobial therapy may be improved by terpenes and possibly other penetration enhancers.

  2. The use of physical hydrogels of chitosan for skin regeneration following third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Boucard, Nadège; Viton, Christophe; Agay, Diane; Mari, Eliane; Roger, Thierry; Chancerelle, Yves; Domard, Alain

    2007-08-01

    Skin repair is an important field of the tissue engineering, especially in the case of extended third-degree burns, where the current treatments are still insufficient in promoting satisfying skin regeneration. Bio-inspired bi-layered physical hydrogels only constituted of chitosan and water were processed and applied to the treatment of full-thickness burn injuries. The aim of the study was at assessing whether this material was totally accepted by the host organism and allowed in vivo skin reconstruction of limited area third-degree burns. A first layer constituted of a rigid protective gel ensured good mechanical properties and gas exchanges. A second soft and flexible layer allowed the material to follow the geometry of the wound and ensured a good superficial contact. To compare, highly viscous solutions of chitosan were also considered. Veterinary experiments were performed on pig's skins and biopsies at days 9, 17, 22, 100 and 293, were analysed by histology and immuno-histochemistry. Only one chitosan material was used for each time. All the results showed that chitosan materials were well tolerated and promoted a good tissue regeneration. They induced inflammatory cells migration and angiogenetic activity favouring a high vascularisation of the neo-tissue. At day 22, type I and IV collagens were synthesised under the granulation tissue and the formation of the dermal-epidermal junction was observed. After 100 days, the new tissue was quite similar to a native skin, especially by its aesthetic aspect and its great flexibility.

  3. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  4. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... if signs of infection develop. These signs include: Drainage or pus from the burned skin Fever Increased pain Red streaks spreading from the burn Swollen lymph nodes Also call a provider right away if ...

  5. Low-level red laser improves healing of second-degree burn when applied during proliferative phase.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; da Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Dos Santos Silva, Marco Aurélio; Venter, Neil Grant; de Porto, Luís Cristóvão; de Fonseca, Adenilson; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level red laser on tissue repair in rats submitted to second-degree burn, evaluating if the timing of laser treatment influences the healing process. The animals had their backs shaved and divided as follows: control group (n = 12)-rats burned and not irradiated, early laser group (n = 12)-rats burned and irradiated from day 1 after injury for five consecutive days, and late laser group (n = 14)-rats burned and irradiated from day 4 after injury for five consecutive days. Laser irradiation was according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode, 660 nm) as recommended by the laser device manufacturer. Half of the animals were sacrificed 10 days after burn, and the other animals were sacrificed 21 days after burn. The late laser group accelerated wound contraction 10 and 21 days after burn. The late laser group accelerated reepithelialization 18 days after burn. The late laser group increases the granulation tissue 10 and 21 days after burn. Both irradiated groups increased type III collagen expression and TGF-β 21 days after burn. Both irradiated groups increased macrophage and myofibroblast numbers 10 days after burn and decreased 21 days after. Low-level red laser exposure contributes to the process of tissue repair of second-degree burns, but the intervention during proliferative phase is crucial in the final outcome of the repair process.

  6. Second-degree burns with six etiologies treated with autologous noncultured cell-spray grafting.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Vives, Roger; Choi, Myung S; Young, Matthew T; Over, Patrick; Ziembicki, Jenny; Corcos, Alain; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2016-11-01

    Partial and deep partial-thickness burn wounds present a difficult diagnosis and prognosis that makes the planning for a conservative treatment versus mesh grafting problematic. A non-invasive treatment strategy avoiding mesh grafting is often chosen by practitioners based on their clinical and empirical evidence. However, a delayed re-epithelialization after conservative treatment may extend the patient's hospitalization period, increase the risk of infection, and lead to poor functional and aesthetic outcome. Early spray grafting, using non-cultured autologous cells, is under discussion for partial and deep partial-thickness wounds to accelerate the re-epithelialization process, reducing the healing time in the hospital, and minimizing complications. To address planning for future clinical studies on this technology, suitable indications will be interesting. We present case information on severe second-degree injuries after gas, chemical, electrical, gasoline, hot water, and tar scalding burns showing one patient per indication. The treatment results with autologous non-cultured cells, support rapid, uncomplicated re-epithelialization with aesthetically and functionally satisfying outcomes. Hospital stays averaged 7.6±1.6 days. Early autologous cell-spray grafting does not preclude or prevent simultaneous or subsequent traditional mesh autografting when indicated on defined areas of full-thickness injury.

  7. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock, and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the ...

  8. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    PubMed

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Physics, 3rd edn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, David

    1999-09-01

    The number of broadly based physics texts written at a level corresponding to second year and above of UK physics degrees is limited. This is such a book thoroughly updated in a third edition, the first edition having been published 20 years ago. The book is unusual in that the reader is referred to the Freeman website www.whfreeman.com/physics for some additional sections. It will be interesting to see whether this proves to be an attractive feature. The coverage reflects the US emphasis on topics and contains both theoretical and experimental details. It should not be regarded as an introductory text although it is clearly written. Thus the first two chapters take the reader straight into relativity, concentrating mainly on special relativity but going on to general relativity. From here the reader is led to ideas of quantization of charge, light and energy, followed by an exploration of the nuclear atom, wavelike properties of particles and Schrödinger's equation. Solution of this equation for the hydrogen atom introduces a section on spectroscopy. The next chapter on statistical physics includes Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and brings to a close Part 1, which concentrates on the theoretical groundwork. Consistent with its title, the book does not cover traditional aspects of thermodynamics and electromagnetic theory. Part 2 is entitled `Applications' and begins with a chapter on molecular structure and spectra. Lasers and masers are included here but geometrical, physical and nonlinear optics get limited or no coverage. Solid state physics follows but, despite the title of the book, there is little on modern devices, although the section on superconductivity mentions high temperature materials. The chapters on nuclear physics, fission, fusion reactors and medical applications and a chapter on particle physics are comprehensive. Finally a chapter on astrophysics and cosmology is referred to, but the reader must find this at the website. As this is

  10. Third-degree burns caused by ignition of chlorhexidine: A case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Anthony; Bengezi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Ignition of chlorhexidine by an electrocautery unit is rare but can have devastating consequences for the patient and the surgeon. A case involving a 77-year-old man who underwent removal of an indwelling artificial urethral sphincter is presented. The chlorhexidine was ignited when the urologist activated the electrocautery unit, causing third-degree burns to the patient. A plastic surgeon treated the burns with surgical debridement and split-thickness skin grafting. A systematic review of the literature was performed with best practice recommendations. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the ninth such case reported. PMID:25535466

  11. The Ups and Downs of 3rd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  13. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  14. PreK-3rd: How Superintendents Lead Change. PreK-3rd Policy Action Brief. No. Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Leading change to create an integrated PreK-3rd education and connect early learning programs with the K-12 system is not easy. Superintendents require courage to take the first step, persistence and political skills to encourage organizational and community engagement, and a relentless focus on results to measure progress and build momentum. As a…

  15. No correlation between initial arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and degree of lung injury following ovine burn and smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-04-01

    Fire victims often suffer from burn injury and concomitant inhalation trauma, the latter significantly contributing to the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels has been proposed as a diagnostic marker to verify and, perhaps, quantify the degree of lung injury following inhalation trauma. However, this correlation has not yet been sufficiently validated. A total of 77 chronically instrumented sheep received sham injury, smoke inhalation injury, or combined burn and inhalation trauma following an established protocol. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were determined directly after injury and correlated to several clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury that were detected 48 hours post-injury. The injury induced severe impairment of pulmonary gas exchange and increases in transvascular fluid flux, lung water content, and airway obstruction scores. No significant correlations were detected between initial carboxyhemoglobin levels and all measured clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury. In conclusion, the amount of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentration cannot predict the degree of lung injury at 48 hours after ovine burn and smoke inhalation trauma.

  16. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  17. Nice observatory measurements of double stars (3rd series)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorel, J.-C.

    2000-12-01

    We present recent measurements of visual double stars made at the Nice Observatory (3rd series). We also report the discovery of a new double star: JCT 4. Moreover we give a more precise position of the double star DOO 35. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  18. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the

  19. Third-Degree Hindpaw Burn Injury Induced Apoptosis of Lumbar Spinal Cord Ventral Horn Motor Neurons and Sciatic Nerve and Muscle Atrophy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Hua; Cheng, Kuang-I; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Wu, Tai-Cheng; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe burns result in hypercatabolic state and concomitant muscle atrophy that persists for several months, thereby limiting patient recovery. However, the effects of burns on the corresponding spinal dermatome remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether burns induce apoptosis of spinal cord ventral horn motor neurons (VHMNs) and consequently cause skeletal muscle wasting. Methods. Third-degree hindpaw burn injury with 1% total body surface area (TBSA) rats were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after burn injury. The apoptosis profiles in the ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and gastrocnemius muscles were examined. The Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve were marked with S100. The gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to measure the denervation atrophy. Result. The VHMNs apoptosis in the spinal cord was observed after inducing third-degree burns in the hindpaw. The S100 and TUNEL double-positive cells in the sciatic nerve increased significantly after the burn injury. Gastrocnemius muscle apoptosis and denervation atrophy area increased significantly after the burn injury. Conclusion. Local hindpaw burn induces apoptosis in VHMNs and Schwann cells in sciatic nerve, which causes corresponding gastrocnemius muscle denervation atrophy. Our results provided an animal model to evaluate burn-induced muscle wasting, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25695065

  20. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Thunbergia laurifolia supercritical carbon dioxide extract in rats with second-degree burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwansang, Juthaporn; Itthipanichpong, Chandhanee; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee

    2015-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl (TL) has been traditionally used as an antidote, anti-inflammatory, and anti-drug addiction. This study investigated the burn wound healing activity of TL leaf extract (TLL) from supercritical CO2 extraction in rats. The extract was prepared to 2.5%, 5%, and 10% gel (TLL gel). Rats were induced to second-degree burn wounds. They were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group), which five groups were topically applied gel base, 1% silver sulfadiazine gel, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% TLL gel, respectively, for 14 days. Six untreated burn rats were used as the control group. The rats in each group were evaluated for wound healing rate, histological parameters, and wound collagen content. Rats treated with 10% TLL gel had a higher wound healing rate than rats in the control and untreated groups. An increase in collagen content, which indicates good regeneration of wound skin, was observed in the TLL treated rats from a pathological study by Masson's trichrome and collagen content assay. The results from this study suggest that T. laurifolia leaf extract obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction promotes the recovery of wound skin by shortening the inflammation phase, increasing collagen content, and stimulating fibroblasts proliferation and migration in wound healing. PMID:26317073

  1. Plasma copper, zinc and iron in burn patients

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.K.; Tamura, T.; Sauberlich, H.E.; Dimick, A.R. )

    1989-02-09

    Plasma copper, zinc and iron levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry in 25 patients admitted to the Burn Care Center from December 1986 to May 1988. The plasma samples were obtained within 48 hours of admission while the patients were beginning aggressive oral nutrition support therapy. The percentage of total body-surface area (TBSA) burn ranged from 11 to 65 (mean 29.2%) and involved 2nd and 3rd degree burns. The mean plasma zinc and iron levels were 0.77 ({plus minus} 0.23; SD) and 0.58 ({plus minus} 0.22) {mu}g/ml, respectively, in 11 patients with < 25% TBSA burns. These levels were higher than the means of 14 patients with {ge} 25% TBSA burns (0.67 {plus minus} 0.23 and 0.50 {plus minus} 0.13 {mu}g/ml, respectively). Plasma copper levels were significantly decreased in patients with {ge} 25% TBSA burns (0.56 {plus minus} 0.27 {mu}l/ml) compared to patients with < 25% TBSA burns. A significant correlation between TBSA burn and plasma copper levels was also found among all patients. The data indicate that the plasma copper levels are lower as the percentage of body surface area burn increases. Although the mechanisms of this rapid decline of plasma levels are not known, careful attention should be given to monitor the nutrient status of these minerals during the treatment and recovery of burn patients.

  2. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  3. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  4. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  5. 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potrakhov, N. N.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this preface a brief history, modern aspects and future tendencies in development of the X-ray technique as seen from the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique that was held on 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are described On 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg on the basis of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” n. a. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) was held the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique. The tradition to hold a similar conference in our country was laid in Soviet times. The last of them, the All-Union Conference on the Prospects of X-ray Tubes and Equipment was organized and held more than a quarter century ago – on 21–23 November 1999, at the initiative and under the leadership of the chief engineer of the Leningrad association of electronic industry “Svetlana” Borovsky Alexander Ivanovich and the chief of special design bureau of X-ray devices of “Svetlana” Shchukin Gennady Anatolievich. The most active part in the organization and work of the conference played members of the department of X-ray and electron beam instruments of Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute “LETI” (the former name of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”), represented by head of the department professor Ivanov Stanislav Alekseevich.

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Aloe Vera Gel and Nitrofurazone 2% on Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation Regarding Superficial Second-Degree Burns

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Parichehr Sabaghzade; Varaie, Shokoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in burn wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in wound care. Aloe Vera is an herbal medicine, which has wound healing effects on chronic wound. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effect of Aloe Vera gel and nitrofurazone 2% on epithelialization and granulation tissue formation with respect to superficial second-degree burns. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial and the sampling method was used based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. The sample size was 30 patients that were admitted to Kerman burn center, including patients that had superficial burn in the symmetry limb, who were chosen based on depth burn and the qualifications needed for the study. One part of the burned area was dressed using ointment nitrofurazone 2% (according to routine care in the hospital) and the symmetry part was dressed using Aloe Vera gel. The tools for data collection included a demographic questionnaire, tools of bats-joints for checking epithelialization and granulation tissue. The burn wound epithelialization and granulation at the beginning of patient’s admission and the first, second and third weeks after dressing were assessed and recorded. Results: In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds were remarkably earlier than those patients treated with nitrofurazone 2% (P<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Aloe Vera gel enhanced epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds in superficial second-degree burn patients better than nitrofurazone 2%. The mechanism of the remarkable efficacy of Aloe Vera gel in the epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn injuries may be explained by its hydrocolloid and moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27516662

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Aloe Vera Gel and Nitrofurazone 2% on Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation Regarding Superficial Second-Degree Burns

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Parichehr Sabaghzade; Varaie, Shokoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in burn wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in wound care. Aloe Vera is an herbal medicine, which has wound healing effects on chronic wound. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effect of Aloe Vera gel and nitrofurazone 2% on epithelialization and granulation tissue formation with respect to superficial second-degree burns. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial and the sampling method was used based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. The sample size was 30 patients that were admitted to Kerman burn center, including patients that had superficial burn in the symmetry limb, who were chosen based on depth burn and the qualifications needed for the study. One part of the burned area was dressed using ointment nitrofurazone 2% (according to routine care in the hospital) and the symmetry part was dressed using Aloe Vera gel. The tools for data collection included a demographic questionnaire, tools of bats-joints for checking epithelialization and granulation tissue. The burn wound epithelialization and granulation at the beginning of patient’s admission and the first, second and third weeks after dressing were assessed and recorded. Results: In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds were remarkably earlier than those patients treated with nitrofurazone 2% (P<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Aloe Vera gel enhanced epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds in superficial second-degree burn patients better than nitrofurazone 2%. The mechanism of the remarkable efficacy of Aloe Vera gel in the epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn injuries may be explained by its hydrocolloid and moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27840469

  8. Topical application effect of the isolectin hydrogel (Cramoll 1,4) on second-degree burns: experimental model.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Danielle dos Santos Tavares; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Cavalcanti, Carmelita de Lima Bezerra; de Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos Teles; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria dos Anjos; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of hydrogel isolectin in the treatment of second-degree burns. Twenty male rats were randomly divided into two groups (G1 = treatment with hydrogel containing 100 μg/mL Cramoll 1,4 and G2 = Control, hydrogel). After 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, animals were euthanized. On the 7th day, G1 showed intense exudates, necrosis and edema. On the 14th day, G1 showed tissue reepithelialization and moderate autolysis. On the 21st day, G1 showed intense fibroblastic proliferation, presence of dense collagen, and moderate fibrosis. On the 28th day, G1 showed complete tissue epithelialization. On the 35th day, G1 showed modeled dense collagen. The significant wound contraction was initiated from day, 14 in the G1. There were no significant differences in biochemical and hematological parameters analyzed. These results extend the potential of therapeutic applications for Cramoll 1,4 in the treatment of thermal burns.

  9. Development and evaluation of silver sulfadiazine loaded microsponge based gel for partial thickness (second degree) burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Mahesh; Ghosh, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine has been frequently used as an antibacterial agent for topical treatment of partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we present the preparation of silver sulfadiazine microsponges by w/o/w emulsion solvent evaporation method. Formulation variables were optimized by using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized microsponges were characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD, particle size analysis, SEM analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry studies. Viscosity, texture analysis and ex vivo drug deposition study of optimized microsponge loaded gel were also evaluated. The safety of the optimized gel was assessed by MTT assay using epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cell lines. In vitro antibacterial studies were carried out to compare the antibacterial inhibitory efficiency of the optimized gel against the commercial product. The efficacy of the optimized gel was evaluated by the partial thickness (second degree) burn wound model in mice. Optimized microsponge loaded gel enhanced the drug retaining capacity in the skin layers, by 3 fold higher to that of a commercial product. The antibacterial inhibitory efficiency of optimized gel was similar to the commercial product against the Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Optimized gel showed reduced frequency of application, no skin irritation, low cytotoxicity on dermal cell lines and enhanced wound contraction.

  10. Topical Application Effect of the Isolectin Hydrogel (Cramoll 1,4) on Second-Degree Burns: Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Tavares Pereira, Danielle; Madruga Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; de Lima Bezerra Cavalcanti, Carmelita; Teles de Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos; Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Luana; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of hydrogel isolectin in the treatment of second-degree burns. Twenty male rats were randomly divided into two groups (G1 = treatment with hydrogel containing 100 μg/mL Cramoll 1,4 and G2 = Control, hydrogel). After 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, animals were euthanized. On the 7th day, G1 showed intense exudates, necrosis and edema. On the 14th day, G1 showed tissue reepithelialization and moderate autolysis. On the 21st day, G1 showed intense fibroblastic proliferation, presence of dense collagen, and moderate fibrosis. On the 28th day, G1 showed complete tissue epithelialization. On the 35th day, G1 showed modeled dense collagen. The significant wound contraction was initiated from day, 14 in the G1. There were no significant differences in biochemical and hematological parameters analyzed. These results extend the potential of therapeutic applications for Cramoll 1,4 in the treatment of thermal burns. PMID:22500079

  11. A two-pulse technique for extracting 3rd harmonic from ultrasound contrast agent echo signal.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-hee; Kim, Sang-min; Song, Tai-kyong

    2008-01-01

    Multi-pulse techniques like CPS (contrast pulse sequence) and TPS (triplet pulse sequence) are the most popular methods for separating the 3rd harmonic signals from received signal. Those two methods, however, transmit a pulse at least three times along each scanline with different phase and amplitude, which results in the frame rate reduction. In this paper, we propose a technique using two pulses whose phase difference is 90 degrees and a simple digital filter. The second harmonic signal is eliminated by summing two received signals as their phase difference becomes 180 degrees and then the fundamental signals are eliminated by using a digital filter. Computer simulations are performed for different values of signal bandwidths and filter specifications. The results show the maximum error is -35.5 dB compared to TPS.

  12. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  13. 3rd Pavia international symposium on advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Kidney cancers' natural history has radically changed in the past few years, due to the development of novel targeted agents. Despite these improvements, several unanswered questions still remain on the table, regarding the best first-line treatment, the ideal sequence of treatments, the management of specific subgroups of patients (e.g., elderly patients or those with comorbidities) and the relevance of prognostic factors, among many others. To foster discussions among clinicians and investigators working in this field, and to exchange different viewpoints concerning the newest advances in kidney cancer pathogenesis and treatment, the 3rd Pavia International Symposium on Advanced Kidney cancer was held in Pavia (Italy) between 30 June and 1 July 2011. The aim of this report is to summarize the most significant advances in the different disciplines applied to advanced kidney cancer, which were presented and discussed during the meeting, and how these advances will be changing the perspective of patients with this disease.

  14. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  15. Mucosal fluid evaporation is not the method of heat dissipation from fourth-degree laryngopharyngeal burns

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Guo-an; Qiu, Yu-xuan; Wen, Chun-quan; Fu, Tai-ran

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to explore whether mucosal fluid evaporation represents a method of heat dissipation from thermal air inhalation injury and to assess laryngopharyngeal tissue damage according to heat quantity changes of dry air and vapour. Fifteen adult male beagles were divided into five groups to inhale heated air or vapour for 10 min as follows: control group (ordinary air), group I (91–110 °C heated air), group II (148–175 °C heated air), group III (209–227 °C heated air), and group IV (96 °C saturated vapour). The heat quantity changes of the dry air and vapour were calculated via thermodynamic formulas. The macroscopic and histological features of the laryngopharynxes were examined and assessed by various tissue damage grading systems. Group IV exhibited the most serious laryngopharyngeal damage, including cilia exfoliation, submucosal thrombosis, glandular atrophy, and chondrocyte degeneration, which is indicative of fourth-degree injury. The quality, heat quantity, and proportional reduction of heat quantity of vapour in group IV were all higher than those in the other groups. Furthermore, we found that mucosal fluid evaporation is not the method of heat dissipation from thermal air inhalation injury used by the airways. Laryngopharyngeal tissue damage depends chiefly on the heat quantity of vapour in the air. PMID:27349685

  16. Nanolayered siRNA delivery platforms for local silencing of CTGF reduce cutaneous scar contraction in third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Castleberry, Steven A; Golberg, Alexander; Sharkh, Malak Abu; Khan, Saiqa; Almquist, Benjamin D; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin L; Hammond, Paula T

    2016-07-01

    Wound healing is an incredibly complex biological process that often results in thickened collagen-enriched healed tissue called scar. Cutaneous scars lack many functional structures of the skin such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and papillae. The absence of these structures contributes to a number of the long-term morbidities of wound healing, including loss of function for tissues, increased risk of re-injury, and aesthetic complications. Scar formation is a pervasive factor in our daily lives; however, in the case of serious traumatic injury, scars can create long-lasting complications due to contraction and poor tissue remodeling. Within this report we target the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key mediator of TGFβ pro-fibrotic response in cutaneous wound healing, with controlled local delivery of RNA interference. Through this work we describe both a thorough in vitro analysis of nanolayer coated sutures for the controlled delivery of siRNA and its application to improve scar outcomes in a third-degree burn induced scar model in rats. We demonstrate that the knockdown of CTGF significantly altered the local expression of αSMA, TIMP1, and Col1a1, which are known to play roles in scar formation. The knockdown of CTGF within the healing burn wounds resulted in improved tissue remodeling, reduced scar contraction, and the regeneration of papillary structures within the healing tissue. This work adds support to a number of previous reports that indicate CTGF as a potential therapeutic target for fibrosis. Additionally, we believe that the controlled local delivery of siRNA from ultrathin polymer coatings described within this work is a promising approach in RNA interference that could be applied in developing improved cancer therapies, regenerative medicine, and fundamental scientific research.

  17. Microdrilling of PCB substrate using DPSS 3rd harmonic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Chang, Won Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ku; Jeong, Sungho; Shin, Bo Sung; Whang, Kyung Hyun

    2003-02-01

    Micromachining using the DPSS 3rd Harmonic Laser (355nm) has outstanding advantages as a UV source in comparison with Excimer lasers in various aspects such as maintenance cost, maskless machining, high repetition rate and so on. It also has the greater absorptivity of many materials in contrast to other IR sources. In this paper, the process for micro-drilling of through and blind hope in Cu/PI/Cu substrate with the UV DPSSL and a scanning device is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods. It is known that there is a large gap between the ablation threshold of copper and that of PI. We use the multi path for through hole with high energy density and we use Archimedes spiral path for blind hole with different energy densities to ablate different material. Furthermore, Matlab simulations considering the energy threshold of material is performed to anticipate the ablation shape according to the duplication of pulse, and FEM thermal analysis is used to predict the ablation depth of copper. This study would be widely applicable to various laser micromachining applications including through and blind hole micro-drilling of PCB, and micromachining of semiconductor components, medical parts and printer nozzles amongst others.

  18. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  19. Bifurcation of limit cycles in 3rd-order Z2 Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei; Han, Maoan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we show that a Z2-equivariant 3rd-order Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order symmetric perturbations can have at least 10 limit cycles. The method combines the general perturbation to the vector field and the perturbation to the Hamiltonian function. The Melnikov function is evaluated near the center of vector field, as well as near homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits.

  20. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2012-03-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph

  1. Anti-inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities of Aloe vera, Honey and Milk Ointment on Second-Degree Burns in Rats.

    PubMed

    Farzadinia, Parviz; Jofreh, Niloofar; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Movahed, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Bargahi, Afshar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was morphological and morphometric investigation of burn healing impacts of an honey, milk, and Aloe vera (HMA) ointment on experimentally induced second-degree burns, to approve the medicinal basis of its use in Iranian traditional medicine. A total of 21 male Albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g were divided into 3 groups of 7, including (1) control group, (2) positive control group, and (3) the treatment group that were treated with eucerin, silver sulfadiazine 3% and HMA ointment 5% respectively.After anesthetizing, the second-degree burns (1 cm(2) areas) were made on the back of the animals using a digital controlled hot plaque, and each group was treated topically, based on the time scheduled. Then, skin punch biopsies were obtained on the 1st, 14th, and 28th days of post-burn induction; processed; and stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome methods. The results showed that HMA ointment induces cell proliferation, increasing the wound closure rate, blood vessel counts, and collagen fiber density in treated animals. It also reduced the wound secretions, inflammation, and scar formation. According to the obtained morphological, morphometric results, we concluded that the traditional HMA ointment, which is rich in therapeutic biomaterials and minerals, has multiple healing effects on burn wounds in rats.

  2. Effect of low-level laser therapy on types I and III collagen and inflammatory cells in rats with induced third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Fiório, Franciane B; Albertini, Regiane; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used to accelerate wound healing in third-degree burns. This study investigated the effects of lasers on the tissue repair process of third-degree burns. Burns were produced on the backs of male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, injury, LLLT 3 J/cm(2), and LLLT 4 J/cm(2). Each group was further divided into two subgroups; the rats in one subgroup were killed on day 8 and those in the other, on day 16 after injury. The animals in LLLT 3 J/cm(2) and LLLT 4 J/cm(2) were irradiated 1 h after injury, and irradiation was repeated every 48 h. Laser (660 nm, 35 mW) treatment at fluences of 3 and 4 J/cm(2) were used. After killing the rats, tissue fragments from the burnt area were removed for histological analysis. The LLLT-treated groups showed a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the number of inflammatory cells and increased collagen deposition compared to the injury group. Laser irradiation (both 3 and 4 J/cm(2)) resulted in reduction in the inflammatory process and improved collagen deposition, thereby ameliorating the healing of third-degree burns.

  3. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    . Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  5. Potential for Significant Reductions in Dropout Rates: Analysis of an Entire 3rd Grade State Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Dorothyjean

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen percent of 1997-98 North Carolina 3rd graders were observed to drop out of high school. A series of logits predict probabilities of dropping out on determinants such as math and reading test scores, absenteeism, suspension, and retention, at the following grade levels: 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th. The same cohort and variables are used to…

  6. Investigating the effects of Hydroalcoholic extract of jujube fruit (Zizyphus vulgaris L.) on second degree burn wound healing in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, F; Abdollahzadeh, F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Two thirds of all accidents and injuries leading to death all around the world occur in developing countries like Iran. One of these accidents is burn that can have unpleasant effects on the individual’s body and soul. Skin wound healing is a process that happens as a result of coordination between tissues, cells, and different factors. The remaining inflammation and insufficient amount of vessel construction are among the most important causes of delayed wound healing. In recent years, jujube fruit (Zizyphus vulgaris L.) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as a traditional therapeutic agent. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of jujube fruit extract on second-degree burn wound among Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: The present empirical-interventional study included 48 Balb/c mice weighing approximately 30 +/- 3 gr. After burn wounds of 1.5 cm2 were created and second-degree burns was affirmed by a pathologist, the mice were divided into four control groups; one treated with Vaseline, one treated with silver sulfadiazine ointment, one treated with jujube fruit extract 1%, and a control group. Results: In treatment groups, 1 gr ointment containing hydroalcoholic extract of jujube fruit was utilized twice a day until complete recovery. Afterwards, the four groups were compared with regard to the wound area and histopathology. The collected data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests by using SPSS software. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the intervention group and the Vaseline and control groups with regard to the percentage of wound recovery (P smaller than 0.05). The results of the study indicated that the jujube fruit extract could accelerate burn wound healing among Balb/c mice. It is recommended that further research is conducted on the effects of different doses of this medicine on laboratory animals and then on humans.

  7. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to respond... Infantry BCTs and Heavy Armor BCTs augmented with the protection and versatility of an additional SBCT. The... socioeconomic impacts that would be associated with the stationing of the different types of Army BCTs...

  8. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  12. The effect of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract for healing of second-degree burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Ghasemali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Zamani, Peyman; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pollen of saffron extract cream in the treatment of thermal induced burn wounds and to compare its results with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in rats. Animals were divided into four groups and administrated a topical cream including control, base, saffron (20%) or SSD (1%) at 24 hour after a burn injury that was induced by hot water. In special days, according to a pre-planned schedule, animal's weight, wound size, as well as skin histo-pathology were determined in different groups under topical treatments. On day 25, average size of wound was 5.5, 4, 0.9 and 4.1 cm2 in control, base, saffron and silver groups. The wound size of saffron group was significantly smaller than other groups. Histological comparison has shown that saffron significantly increased re-epithelialization in burn wounds, as compared to other cream-treated wounds. Although the exact mechanism of saffron is unclear, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of saffron may have contributed to the wound healing. The results of this study raise the possibility of potential efficacy of saffron in accelerating wound healing in burn injuries.

  13. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  14. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  15. Comparison of the Application of Allogeneic Fibroblast and Autologous Mesh Grafting With the Conventional Method in the Treatment of Third-Degree Burns.

    PubMed

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Hormozi, Abdoljalil Kalantar; Hosseini, Seyed Nejat; Sorouri, Rahim; Mozafari, Naser; Ghazisaidi, Mohammad Reza; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi; Moghimi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Shahin Mohammad; Mirzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a multipart process involving different cell types and growth factors. Third-degree burns are usually treated by early excision and skin grafting. Tissue engineering has been developed in this field in response to limitations associated with autografts. Allogeneic fibroblasts on meshed split thickness skin grafts (STSGs) are known to have useful properties in wound healing and can be used to construct a new model of living skin substitute. Fourteen patients were chosen from June 2009 until December 2010 as the sample for this study. After debridement and wound excision, meshed STSG was used to cover the entire wound. Alloskin (allofibroblasts cultured on a combination of silicone and glycosaminoglycan) was applied on one side and petroleum jelly-impregnated gauze (Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute) was applied on the other. The healing time, scar formation, and pigmentation score were assessed for the patients. All analyses were undertaken with SPSS 17 software. Alloskin demonstrated good properties compared to petroleum jelly-impregnated gauze. The average healing time and hypertrophic scar formation were significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the skin pigmentation score in the alloskin group was closer to normal. Alloskin grafting, including fibroblasts on meshed STSG, may be a useful method to reduce healing time and scar size and may require less autologous STSG in extensive burns where a high percentage of skin is burned and there is a lack of available donor sites.

  16. The Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) device for hastened attachment of a superficial inferior-epigastric flap to third-degree burns on hand and fingers.

    PubMed

    Weinand, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device has a wide range of clinical applications, including treatment of infected surgical wounds, traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, wounds with exposed bone and hardware, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. Increased release of growth factors has been described, leading to improved vascularization and thereby formation of new tissue. The system is also used in burn surgery for reconstructive purposes. In this case report, a patient suffered from a third-degree burn injury to the dorsum of the hand with exposure of tendons, necessitating the use of a flap reconstruction. The patient was treated with a superficial inferior-epigastric artery-based flap and the VAC system was applied in a created glove-like shape. Hastened attachment of the flap onto the exposed fingers was observed after 4 days. The author reports on the additional use of the VAC system to hasten flap attachment in a patient with a burn injury to the dorsum of the hand.

  17. Heterogeneity of mast cells and expression of Annexin A1 protein in a second degree burn model with silver sulfadiazine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Helena Ribeiro; de Azevedo, Lucas Ribeiro; Possebon, Lucas; Costa, Sara de Souza; Iyomasa-Pilon, Melina Mizusaki; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Girol, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) participate in all stages of skin healing and one of their mediators is the Annexin A1 protein (AnxA1), linked to inflammation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis processes, but not studied in thermal burns yet. Therefore, our objectives were to evaluate the behavior of MCs and AnxA1 in a second degree burn model, treated or not with silver sulfadiazine 1% (SDP 1%) and associated to macrophages quantification and cytokines dosages. MCs counts showed few cells in the early stages of repair but increased MCs in the final phases in the untreated group. The normal skin presented numerous tryptase-positive MCs that were reduced after burning in all analyzed periods. Differently, few chymase-positive MCs were observed in the early stages of healing, however, increased chymase-positive MCs were found at the final phase in the untreated group. MCs also showed high immunoreactivity for AnxA1 on day 3 in both groups. In the tissue there was a strong protein expression in the early stages of healing, but in the final phases only in the SDP treated animals. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 levels and macrophages quantification were increased in inflammation and reepithelialization phases. Reduced IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels and numerous macrophages occurred in the treated animals during tissue repair. Our results indicate modulation in the profile of MCs and AnxA1expression during healing by the treatment with SDP 1%, pointing them as targets for therapeutic interventions on skin burns. PMID:28278234

  18. 3 rd generation 1280 x 720 FPA development status at Raytheon Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. F.; Radford, W. A.; Patten, E. A.; Graham, R. W.; McEwan, T. F.; Vodicka, J. G.; Bornfreund, R. E.; Goetz, P. M.; Venzor, G. M.; Johnson, S. M.; Jensen, J. E.; Nosho, B. Z.; Roth, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed and demonstrated the first-ever 1280 x 720 pixel dual-band MW/LWIR focal plane arrays (FPA) to support 3rd-Generation tactical IR systems under the U.S. Army's Dual-Band FPA Manufacturing (DBFM) program. The MW/LWIR detector arrays are fabricated from MBE-grown HgCdTe triple-layer heterojunction (TLHJ) wafers. The RVS dual-band FPA architecture provides highly simultaneous temporal detection in the MWIR and LWIR bands using time-division multiplexed integration (TDMI) incorporated into the readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The TDMI ROIC incorporates a high degree of integration and output flexibility, and supports both dual-band and single-band full-frame operating modes, as well as high-speed LWIR "window" operation at 480 Hz frame rate. The ROIC is hybridized to a two-color detector array using a single indium interconnect per pixel, which makes it highly producible for 20 μm unit cells and exploits mature fabrication processes currently used to produce single-color FPAs. High-quality 1280 x 720 MW/LWIR FPAs have been fabricated and excellent dual-band imagery produced at 60 Hz frame rate. The 1280 x 720 detector arrays for these FPAs have LWIR cutoff wavelengths >=10.5 μm at 78K. These FPAs have demonstrated high-sensitivity at 78K with MW NETD values < 20 mK and LW NETD values <30 mK with f/3.5 apertures. Pixel operability greater than 99.9% has been achieved in the MW band and greater than 98% in the LW band.

  19. Development of a new nanofiber scaffold for use with stem cells in a third degree burn animal model.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Daniela; Leonardi, Dilmar; Soster, Paula Rigon da Luz; Lersch, Michelle; Rosa, Annelise; Crestani, Thayane; Scher, Cristiane; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Pranke, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    The combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and nanotechnology to promote tissue engineering presents a strategy for the creation of new substitutes for tissues. Aiming at the utilization of the scaffolds of poly-d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA) associated or not with Spirulina biomass (PDLLA/Sp) in skin wounds, MSCs were seeded onto nanofibers produced by electrospinning. These matrices were evaluated for morphology and fiber diameter by scanning electron microscopy and their interaction with the MSCs by confocal microscopy analysis. The biomaterials were implanted in mice with burn imitating skin defects for up to 7 days and five groups were studied for healing characteristics. The scaffolds demonstrated fibrous and porous structures and, when implanted in the animals, they tolerated mechanical stress for up to two weeks. Seven days after the induction of lesions, a similar presence of ulceration, inflammation and fibrosis among all the treatments was observed. No group showed signs of re-epithelization, keratinization or presence of hair follicles on the lesion site. In conclusion, although there was no microscopical difference among all the groups, it is possible that more prolonged analysis would show different results. Moreover, the macroscopic analysis of the groups with the scaffolds showed better cicatrization in comparison with the control group.

  20. Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies That Support Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…

  1. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  2. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  3. The Effect of Book Blogging on the Motivation of 3rd-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…

  4. Education Reform Starts Early: Lessons from New Jersey's PreK-3rd Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This report seeks to describe how New Jersey became a national leader in early education and PreK-3rd, identify its successes and challenges, draw lessons from its experience for policymakers in other states and nationally, and provide recommendations for New Jersey policymakers to translate progress to date into sustained, large scale learning…

  5. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  6. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used…

  7. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  8. Effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED on the healing process of third-degree burns: clinical and histological study in rats.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos Catão, Maria Helena Chaves; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Bento, Patrícia Meira; de Oliveira Costa, Roniery

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green light-emitting diode (LED) on the healing process of skin burns through clinical and histopathologic analysis in rats. For this, 100 animals were randomly divided into five groups: G1-untreated control (CTR), G2-red laser (LVER), G3-infrared (LINF), G4-photodynamic therapy (PDT), and G5-green LED. Burn was induced on the dorsum of the rat and the treatment of the experimental groups was red light (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and λ660 nm), infrared (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and λ780 nm), green LED irradiation (60 J/cm(2), 10 s, λ520, and 550 nm), and photodynamic therapy (10 J/cm(2), 40 mW, and λ660 nm), the latter combined with methylene blue photosensitizer at concentration 0.5 μg/mL. Applications were performed daily until day prior to sacrifice of the animal at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days with intraperitoneal anesthetic overdose. The specimens collected were clinically examined and soon after processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Picrosirius for analysis under light and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Animals treated with LVER, LINF, PDT (p < 0.001), and LED (p < 0.05) stimulated production and maturation of collagen, and increased the consumption of food and water compared to the CTR (p < 0.001). Laser λ660 nm and λ780 nm showed the largest wound reductions in all groups (p = 0.001). In conclusion, red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED favored the healing process of third-degree burns in rats.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline in two different forms (soaked gauzes and cream) and citrizan gel in the topical treatment of second-degree superficial cutaneous burns.

    PubMed

    Martini, Patrizia; Mazzatenta, Carlo; Saponati, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    A total of 227 patients (mean age 41.3 years, 52% females) with at least one second-degree superficial cutaneous burn of thermal origin of a smallest transverse diameter ≥20 mm and a largest transverse diameter ≤90 mm were randomised to receive the topical application of aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (Fitostimoline) in two different forms (soaked gauzes and cream) or catalase of horse origin in form of gel (Citrizan Gel), given up to healing or to a maximum of 20 days. The rate of lesion healing at end of study was significantly higher in patients treated with Fitostimoline (gauzes 97.3%, cream 91.5%) than in those receiving catalase (84.5%). The pooled Fitostimoline groups were also significantly more effective than catalase gel in reducing total symptoms score, pain at medication, pain at rest, and burning at end of study. Both formulations of Fitostimoline and catalase gel were well tolerated in terms of adverse effects in the site of application.

  10. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline in Two Different Forms (Soaked Gauzes and Cream) and Citrizan Gel in the Topical Treatment of Second-Degree Superficial Cutaneous Burns

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Patrizia; Mazzatenta, Carlo; Saponati, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    A total of 227 patients (mean age 41.3 years, 52% females) with at least one second-degree superficial cutaneous burn of thermal origin of a smallest transverse diameter ≥20 mm and a largest transverse diameter ≤90 mm were randomised to receive the topical application of aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (Fitostimoline) in two different forms (soaked gauzes and cream) or catalase of horse origin in form of gel (Citrizan Gel), given up to healing or to a maximum of 20 days. The rate of lesion healing at end of study was significantly higher in patients treated with Fitostimoline (gauzes 97.3%, cream 91.5%) than in those receiving catalase (84.5%). The pooled Fitostimoline groups were also significantly more effective than catalase gel in reducing total symptoms score, pain at medication, pain at rest, and burning at end of study. Both formulations of Fitostimoline and catalase gel were well tolerated in terms of adverse effects in the site of application. PMID:21747844

  11. Application of 670 nm InGaP laser and microcurrent favors the healing of second-degree burns in Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, M.; Fernandes, C. R.; Neves, L. M. G.; Mourão, V.; Barbieri, R.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Santos, G. M. T.; Mendonça, F. A. S.

    2015-02-01

    The treatment of burn wounds has been a challenge due to their severity and associated multiple complications, and represents a major public health problem. This study investigated the effects of 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation and microcurrent (10 µA) stimulation on the healing of second-degree burns inflicted on the back of Wistar rats. Seventy-two animals were divided into four groups: no treatment (C); animals irradiated with a 670 nm InGaP laser (L); animals receiving microcurrent stimulation (10 µA/3 min) (MC); animals receiving 670 nm InGaP laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation (10 µA/3 min) on alternate days (MCL). Wound samples were collected on days 7, 14 and 21 of treatment for structural and morphometric analysis and for Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. The applied alone and alternate of laser and microcurrent reduced the number of inflammatory cells and increased the number of newly formed vessels and fibroblasts, collagen fiber content and fiber reorganization. The two treatments also favorably modified the expression of VEGF and TGF-β1, inducing angiogenesis and decreasing the inflammation time.

  12. Persistent lactic acidosis after chronic topical application of silver sulfadiazine in a pediatric burn patient: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Willis, Monte S; Cairns, Bruce A; Purdy, Ashley; Bortsov, Andrey V; Jones, Samuel W; Ortiz-Pujols, Shiara M; Willis, Tina M Schade; Joyner, Benny L

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year old male who sustained 2(nd) and 3(rd) degree burns that covered approximately 60% TBSA presented to a large adult and pediatric verified burn center. On hospital day (HD) 26 of his stay, Candida fungemia was identified by blood culture, delaying operative management until HD 47. On HD 47, after his first operative intervention, the patient developed a persistent metabolic and lactic acidosis. On HD 66, a search for a cause of his osmol gap of 56 mOsm/kg revealed a potential source-propylene glycol. Previous studies have implicated the propylene glycol emulsifier in the silver sulfadiazine that was being applied to his skin as a rare cause of lactic acidosis in severely burned patients. Within 24 hours of stopping the silver sulfadiazine therapy, his lactic acidosis and osmol gap resolved; within 72 hours his metabolic acidosis resolved. Silver sulfadiazine is commonly used adjunct therapy in the treatment of 2(nd) and 3(rd) degree burns and generally has few adverse reactions. The absorption of propylene glycol systemically can rarely occur when applied to extensive burns, presumably due to the disruption of the skin barrier; the half-life of PG is 10 hours and can be prolonged with renal disease because ~50% of the sulfadiazine is excreted in the urine unchanged. When propylene glycol is present systemically, it is metabolized to lactic acid in the liver, which can cause a lactic acidosis. Several commonly used drugs also use propylene glycol as an emulsifier, including IV preparations of lorazepam, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and phenytoin. In all of these clinical scenarios, including severe burn patients that are being treated with silver sulfadiazine, both lactic acid and propylene glycol levels should be measured to monitor for this rare, potentially serious co-morbidity.

  13. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, A.L.; Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Fung, I. |; Matthews, E. |

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  14. Digital photogrammetry and histomorphometric assessment of the effect of non-coherent light (light-emitting diode) therapy (λ640 ± 20 nm) on the repair of third-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Neves, Silvana Maria Véras; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Filho, Antônio Luiz Martins Maia; Mendes, Lianna Martha Soares; Veloso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of coherent light therapy from the red region of the electromagnetic spectrum on the tissue-healing process. This study analysed the effect of non-coherent light therapy (light-emitting diode-LED) with or without silver sulfadiazine (sulpha) on the healing process of third-degree burns. In this study, 72 rats with third-degree burns were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12): Gr1 (control), Gr2 (non-contact LED), Gr3 (contact LED), Gr4 (sulfadiazine), Gr5 (sulfadiazine + non-contact LED) and Gr6 (sulfadiazine + contact LED). The groups treated with LED therapy received treatment every 48 h (λ = 640 ± 20 nm, 110 mW, 16 J/cm(2); 41 s with contact and 680 s without contact). The digital photometric and histomorphometric analyses were conducted after the burn occurred. The combination of sulpha and LED (contact or non-contact) improved the healing of burn wounds. These results demonstrate that the combination of silver sulfadiazine with LED therapy (λ = 640 ± 20 nm, 4 J/cm(2), without contact) improves healing of third-degree burn wounds, significantly reduces the lesion area and increases the granulation tissue, increases the number of fibroblasts, promotes collagen synthesis and prevents burn infections by accelerating recovery.

  15. Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. Educator's Practice Guide. NCEE 2016-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…

  16. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe.

  17. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  18. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  19. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  20. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  2. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-08-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary study introduces and evaluates a novel technique for pinpointing learners’ misconceptions, namely, one that has learners create and interpret their own photographs (CIP). 27 high-school students and 26 pre-service teacher trainees were asked to assume the role of textbook designers and create a display—photograph plus attached verbal explanation—which, in their opinion, best depicted Newton’s 3rd law. Subsequent analysis of the participants’ photographs yielded the following six misconception categories: 3rd law not depicted; 3rd law depicts a sequence of events; tendency to introduce irrelevant entities in explanations; the word ‘reaction’ used colloquially; tendency to restrict the application of the third law to dynamic situations; and informal explanations in which the word “force” is absent. The findings indicate that, indeed, the CIP method can be effectively employed to elicit, detect, and investigate learners’ misconceptions. The CIP method joins the growing efforts to utilize the yet relatively untapped potential of visual tools for science education purposes.

  3. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  4. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  5. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  6. [Modern surgical treatment of breast cancer. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue into the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations.

  7. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area.

  8. Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hulbert, Steve; Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shapiro, David; Shen, Qun; Baltser, Jana

    2011-09-01

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  9. Extreme and Local 3rd Harmonic Response of Niobium (Nb) Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oripov, Bakhrom; Tai, Tamin; Anlage, Steven

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are being widely used in new generation particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are based on bulk Nb. Based on the needs of the SRF community to identify defects on Nb surfaces, a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope was successfully built using a magnetic writer from a conventional magnetic recording hard-disk drive1. This magnetic writer can create an RF magnetic field, localized and strong enough to drive Nb into the vortex state. This probe enables us to locate defects through scanning and mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency range. Recent measurements have shown that 3rd harmonic nonlinear response is far more sensitive to variations in input power and temperature then linear response, thus we mainly study the 3rd harmonic response. Moreover, the superconductor is usually the only source for nonlinear response in our setup, thus there is less chance of having noise or background signal. Understanding the mechanism responsible for this non-linear response is important for improving the performance of SRF cavities. Besides Nb we also study various other superconductors such as MgB2 and the cuprate Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) for potential applications in SRF cavities. This work is funded by US Department of Energy through Grant # DE-SC0012036T and CNAM.

  10. The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3rd IGMC, 2015): overall activities and outcome highlights.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Dallol, Ashraf; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Kalamegam, Gauthaman; Al-Hamzi, Emad; Shay, Jerry W; Scherer, Stephen W; Agarwal, Ashok; Budowle, Bruce; Gari, Mamdooh; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2016-10-17

    The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3(rd) IGMC) was organised by the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This conference is a continuation of a series of meetings, which began with the first International Genomic Medicine Conference (1(st) IGMC, 2011) followed by the second International Genomic Medicine Conference (2(nd) IGMC, 2013). The 3(rd) IGMC meeting presented as a timely opportunity to bring scientists from across the world to gather, discuss, and exchange recent advances in the field of genomics and genetics in general as well as practical information on using these new technologies in different basic and clinical applications. The meeting undoubtedly inspired young male and female Saudi researchers, who attended the conference in large numbers, as evidenced by the oversubscribed oral and poster presentations. The conference also witnessed the launch of the first content for npj Genomic Medicine, a high quality new journal was established in partnership by CEGMR with Springer Nature and published as part of the Nature Partner Journal series. Here, we present a brief summary report of the 2-day meeting including highlights from the oral presentations, poster presentations, workshops, poster prize-winners and comments from the distinguished scientists.

  11. Editorial: 3rd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy. There is also broad recognition that while these problems extend throughout the population, they disproportionately impact economically disadvantaged populations and other vulnerable populations and represent a major contributor to health disparities. Thus, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing health disparities, which receives special attention in this 3rd Special Issue. We also devote considerable space to the longstanding challenges of reducing cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products in vulnerable populations, obesity, and for the first time food insecurity. Across each of these topics we include contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges. PMID:27693562

  12. 3rd Circuit hints it may reconsider McNemar reasoning.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The [name removed] v. The Disney Store ruling is under criticism and the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals may reconsider its 1996 decision to not allow employees who receive disability benefits to sue under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A panel of 3rd Circuit judges, working on [name removed] v. American Sterilizer Co., asserts that the [name removed] decision should not be used to assume that an individual's ADA claims are barred because of prior representations of disability. [Name removed] is suing American Sterilizer under the retaliation provisions of the ADA. Other courts are criticizing the [name removed] decision, including the District of Columbia Court in [name removed] v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. The [name removed] court assets that a statement made in the context of a disability application does not preclude an ADA claim brought by a worker for illegal discrimination because the ADA and the Social Security Act differ in their statutory intent. AIDS advocates state that the [name removed] decision places a plaintiff in the position of having to choose between asserting a legal right or maintaining an income. Alan Epstein, who represented [name removed], is pleased by the criticism but explains that [name removed], who died this summer, will not be vindicated.

  13. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B received 10% licorice extract and Group C was considered as control group and received gel base as the base of medication. Group D did not receive any medication and just underwent burn injury. A standard 3rd degree burn wound was produced by a hot plate with similar size about 20% of total body surface area (TBSA) and at identical temperature. After 24 h of burn production, 108 colony forming units (CFU) of toxigenic strains of P. aeruginosa (PA 103) were inoculated subcutaneously into the burnt area. After 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically evaluated. RESULTS Decrease in size of the burn wounds, in inflammation and re-epithelialization were poor in groups B-D. Infection to P. aeruginosa was still visible in groups B-D but was absent in Group A. The mean histological score, tensile strength, maximum stress, yield strength and stiffness in groups B-D were lower compared with Group A. CONCLUSION Licorice extract in 10% concentration was shown not to be effective in healing of P. aeruginosa infected burn wounds. PMID:25489532

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  15. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-11-21

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting.

  16. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  17. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan].

    PubMed

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure.

  18. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  19. Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd Edition (by T. P. Coultate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carandang, Rachelle; Ziegler, Greg

    1998-02-01

    Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd edition, by T. P. Coultate, is an excellent textbook in food chemistry for undergraduates. It is a concise version of the very detailed Food Chemistry by Fennema and similar to, but with advantages over, Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry by Wong and Principles of Food Chemistry by Deman. The book assumes knowledge of biochemistry and basic principles in organic chemistry, but presents very practical examples that allow the student to see the obvious link between theory and practice. The examples are described almost as if the author is performing a demonstration in a classvery vivid to the imagination. This is important because students are expected in the future to perform and put into practice their knowledge of food chemistry.

  20. Retrospective Dosimetry of Vver 440 Reactor Pressure Vessel at the 3RD Unit of Dukovany Npp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Sus, F.; Klupak, V.; Rataj, J.; Hogel, J.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) residual lifetime of the Czech VVER-440 is currently monitored under Surveillance Specimens Programs (SSP) focused on reactor pressure vessel materials. Neutron fluence in the samples and its distribution in the RPV are determined by a combination of calculation results and the experimental data coming from the reactor dosimetry measurements both in the specimen containers and in the reactor cavity. The direct experimental assessment of the neutron flux density incident onto RPV and neutron fluence for the entire period of nuclear power plant unit operation can be based on the evaluation of the samples taken from the inner RPV cladding. The Retrospective Dosimetry was also used at Dukovany NPP at its 3rd unit after the 18th cycle. The paper describes methodology, experimental setup for sample extraction, measurement of activities, and the determination of the neutron flux and fluence averaged over the samples.

  1. Simulation of robustness of a new e-beam column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, K.; Fuse, T.; Kinoshita, H.; Parker, N. William

    2008-03-01

    We are now investigating a new concept column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique, in order to obtain fine resolution and high current density beams for electron beam direct writing (EBDW) suitable for below 32nm technology nodes. From the first experimental verification, it is found that the 3 rd-order imaging has a benefit of increasing the beam current compared with conventional Gaussian beam without any beam blurring. However, in order to realize such a column which can work stably in the sub 32nm technology node generations, it is important to clarify how robust the 3 rd-order imaging is against the mechanical tolerances in column manufacturing. This paper describes the tolerance analysis for errors of column manufacturing by simulation. The column has an electron gun with small virtual source and two (Gun and Main) lenses. A patterned beam defining aperture, which enables the 3 rd-order imaging, is set between the 1 st and the 2 nd lenses. The influences of errors such as concentricity, offset and tilt between optical parts on the beam shape, beam current density distribution, and beam edge acuity on a wafer is analyzed for this column. According to these results, the 3 rd-order imaging appears to have sufficiently large allowance compared to the error budget for column manufacturing required in the sub 32nm technology node patterning.

  2. Healing efficacy of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil in an ovine burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Asmussen, Sven; Traber, Daniel L; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Connelly, Rhykka; Traber, Lillian D; Walker, Timothy W; Malgerud, Erik; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of sea buckthorn (SBT) seed oil - a rich source of substances known to have anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective activity, and to promote skin and mucosa epithelization - on burn wound healing, five adult sheep were subjected to 3rd degree flame burns. Two burn sites were made on the dorsum of the sheep and the eschar was excised down to the fascia. Split-thickness skin grafts were harvested, meshed, and fitted to the wounds. The autograft was placed on the fascia and SBT seed oil was topically applied to one recipient and one donor site, respectively, with the remaining sites treated with vehicle. The wound blood flow (LASER Doppler), and epithelization (ultrasound) were determined at 6, 14, and 21 days after injury. 14 days after grafting, the percentage of epithelization in the treated sites was greater (95 ± 2.2% vs. 83 ± 2.9%, p<0.05) than in the untreated sites. Complete epithelization time was shorter in both treated recipient and donor sites (14.20 ± 0.48 vs. 19.60 ± 0.40 days, p<0.05 and 13.40 ± 1.02 vs. 19.60 ± 0.50 days, p<0.05, respectively) than in the untreated sites, confirmed by ultrasound. In conclusion, SBT seed oil has significant wound healing activity in full-thickness burns and split-thickness harvested wounds.

  3. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  4. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  5. Burn Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs - Fire and Burn Prevention - - Fire Safe Kids - - Senior Smoke Alarm Program - - National Scald Campaign - - Community Services - Burn Survivor Support - - Camp Beyond the Scars - - Retreats - - Burn Survivor & Caregiver Support Groups - - Scholarship Program - - Emergency Needs & Special Assistance Fund - - Red ...

  6. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  7. Geysers Characteristics before and after Landslide of June 3-rd, 2007 (Geysers Valley, Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droznin, V. A.; Kiryukhin, A. V.; Muraviev, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1990 cycling characteristics of five geysers (Maly, Bolshoy, Shel, Velican, Troynoy) were contentiously monitoring using automatic telemetric system (V A Drosnin, http://www.ch0103.emsd.iks.ru/ ). The most powerful geyser Velikan erupted steam clouds at 300 m height. 1:20 UTC June 3-rd, 2007 lower basin of the Geysers Valley was in a few minutes buried under 10 mln m3 of mud, debris, and blocks of rocks. Some indications were found, that landslide triggered by steam eruption in the upstream area of Vodopadny creek. As a result of this three famous geysers (Pervenets, Sakharny,Troynoy) located at lower elevations were sealed under 10-30 m thick caprock as well as Vodopadny hot creek, a rock dumb trap Geysernaya river and lifted water into 20 m deep lake, which flooded three famous geysers (Conus, Bolshoy and Maly) terminating their cycling activity. Nevertheless Bolshoy and Maly activity continues in a form of discharge of water circulated in the former geysers channels and a clear plume at a lake surface above exits observed. Shortly after landslide continuous monitoring of the cycling characteristics of the upper basin geysers, including Velikan and lake level, accomplished by temperature loggers - restarted. There are some indications time periods of the geysers cycling decrease.

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  9. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  10. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Debuyst, R; Fattibene, P; Meghzifene, A; Onori, S; Bayankin, S N; Blackwell, B; Brik, A; Bugay, A; Chumak, V; Ciesielski, B; Hoshi, M; Imata, H; Ivannikov, A; Ivanov, D; Junczewska, M; Miyazawa, C; Pass, B; Penkowski, M; Pivovarov, S; Romanyukha, A; Romanyukha, L; Schauer, D; Scherbina, O; Schultka, K; Shames, A; Sholom, S; Skinner, A; Skvortsov, V; Stepanenko, V; Tielewuhan, E; Toyoda, S; Trompier, F

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose.

  11. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  12. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  13. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  14. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult.

  15. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  16. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  17. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and…

  18. Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…

  19. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  20. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  1. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  2. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  3. A Program Evaluation of ClassScape Used in 3rd Grade Classes in a Rural County in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Misha Neely

    2012-01-01

    The research study will examine the impact of using the ClassScape program and targeted interventions on 3rd grade reading levels of performance. The conceptual and theoretical framework for the study suggests the need to connect formative, benchmark, and summative assessments in North Carolina. Furthermore, the review of the literature will…

  4. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) focuses on the earliest stages of human development, and provides a novel paradigm to complement other strategies for lifelong prevention of common chronic health conditions. The 3rd International Congress on DOHaD, held in 2005, retained the most ...

  5. Visual Arts Teaching in Kindergarten through 3rd-Grade Classrooms in the UAE: Teacher Profiles, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…

  6. Chitosan dressing promotes healing in third degree burns in mice: gene expression analysis shows biphasic effects for rapid tissue regeneration and decreased fibrotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Ruth M; Dai, Tianhong; Kimball, Jess; Wang, Eugenia; Hamblin, Michael R; Wiesmann, William P; McCarthy, Simon J; Baker, Shenda M

    2013-02-01

    Burns are a significant health challenge and healing can result in scar formation. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, has been used to promote wound healing. In this study we used gene expression profiling in a mouse model of full thickness cutaneous burn to assess the benefits of treating with a chitosan lactate dressing. Three days after wounding mice treated with chitosan showed increased expression of genes associated with formation of granulation tissue. At a later time point, seven days after wounding, genes that initially showed increased expression were now down-regulated, and there was increased expression of genes involved in remodeling suggesting that the chitosan treatment results in accelerated healing. Quantitative RT-PCR showed modulated mRNA levels for TGFβ1 by the chitosan dressing. TGFβ1 initially promotes healing but extended activity can result in scarring. Importantly we found that expression was elevated at day three, but decreased at day seven suggesting that chitosan treatment will not result in scar formation, and may even be beneficial in preventing scar formation. Additionally, the biphasic regulation of expression of TGFβ1 could be a powerful biomarker for future studies of the wound-healing potential of chitosan based and other treatments for burn wounds.

  7. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowers have a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound. PMID:26909337

  8. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  9. A collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Sands, Dawn; Whitton, Colin M; Merton, R Elizabeth; Longstaff, Colin

    2002-08-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to replace the 2nd International Standard (IS) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The 2nd IS for tPA (86/670) was used to calibrate the replacement Standard, which was selected from two candidate materials included in the collaborative study. Participants were provided with five sets of four samples (A, B, C, D) and asked to use sample A (2nd IS, 86/670, 850 IU/ml) to determine the activity of B (86/624, approximately 850 IU/ml), C and D (coded duplicates of the same material, 98/714 approximately 11,000 IU/ml). A total of 14 laboratories returned results from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, providing data from 60 independent assays. Four laboratories used a reference method based on a published monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia for Alteplase for Injection, 1998, and the remaining 10 used their own method. Fibrin was used as promoter of tPA activity by 12 out of the 14 laboratories, the remaining two used kits where fibrinogen fragments were the promoter. Data from this collaborative study and the previous study to establish the 2nd IS for tPA show that tPA from melanoma cells and recombinant tPA from CHO cells are both suitable materials as International Standards. It was agreed that sample C, D, recombinant tPA, 98/714, be established as the 3rd International Standard for tPA with a potency of 10,000 IU per ampoule, calculated as the mean value from laboratories using fibrin as a promoter of tPA activity. The standard was established by WHO in November 2000.

  10. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  11. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  13. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  14. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  15. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  16. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  17. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  18. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  19. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  20. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  1. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid: meeting summary of the 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin 2013, Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC.

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA Project Leader Larry D. Welch, IDA David L...3693 Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA...Welch on “ Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security for the United States and China.” Also included are presentations by Senior Colonel Jiang

  3. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  4. [The significance of low-frequency magnetotherapy for local treatment of burns. An experimental comparative approach (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sauer, H D; Rudy, D

    1980-02-01

    Under standardized experimental conditions 3rd degree burns were produced on the neck of 241 Wistar-rats. The process of wound-healing was documented by means of planimetric, histologic and microbiologic methods. In comparison to an untreated control-group the effectiveness of low-frequency magnetotherapy (system magnetodyn 5 by W. Krauss) as well as coagulation of necrosis according to Grob and autologous skin-transplantation were studied. The results obtained indicate that only early debridement of necrosis and subsequent autologous skin-grafting guarantees sufficient acceleration of wound healing. The low-frequency magnetotherapy according to Krauss showed no effect of therapeutic value. With the coagulation of necrosis, as described by Grob, a germfree status under the necrosis was obtained for nearly 2 weeks.

  5. Burn Wise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  6. Ultraviolet-C Light for Treatment of Candida albicans Burn Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Zhao, Jie; St. Denis, Tyler G; Wu, Qiuhe; Xia, Yumin; Huang, Liyi; Sharma, Sulbha K; d’Enfert, Christophe; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Burn patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and related expense exacerbated by the emergence of drug resistant fungal strains. In this study, we investigated the use of UVC light (254-nm) for the treatment of Candida albicans infection in mouse third degree burns. In-vitro studies demonstrated that UVC could selectively kill the pathogenic yeast C. albicans compared to a normal keratinocyte cell line in a light exposure dependent manner. A mouse model of chronic C. albicans infection in non-lethal 3rd degree burns was developed. The C. albicans strain was stably transformed with a version of the Gaussia princeps luciferase gene that allowed real-time bioluminescence imaging of the progression of C. albicans infection. UVC treatment with a single exposure carried out on day 0 (30 minutes post-infection) gave an average 2.16-log10-unit (99.2%) loss of fungal luminescence when 2.92 J/cm2 UVC had been delivered, while UVC 24-hours post-infection gave 1.94-log10-unit (95.8%) reduction of fungal luminescence after 6.48 J/cm2. Statistical analysis demonstrated that UVC treatment carried out both on both day 0 and day 1 significantly reduced the fungal bioburden of infected burns. UVC was found to be superior to a topical antifungal drug, nystatin cream. UVC was tested on normal mouse skin and no gross damage was observed 24 hours after 6.48 J/cm2. DNA lesions (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) were observed by immunofluorescence in normal mouse skin immediately after a 6.48 J/cm2 UVC exposure, but the lesions were extensively repaired at 24-hours after UVC exposure. PMID:21208209

  7. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    A new version of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) is being compiled in the framework of cooperation between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This initiative aims at mapping the global land degradation and desertification, as well as introducing the reader with complex interactions of geo-physical, socio-economic, and political aspects that affect the environmental sustainability. Recurrent extreme events resulting from climate change, such as more severe droughts, combined with non-adapted land use practices can affect the resilience of ecosystems tipping them into a less productive state. Thus, to describe the effects of climatological hazards on land degradation and desertification processes, we computed a World drought climatology that will be part of the 3rd edition of the WAD and will replace and update to 2010 the results presented in the 2nd edition in 1997. This paper presents the methodology used to compute three parameters included in the WAD drought climatology, i.e. drought frequency, intensity and duration, and discusses their spatio-temporal patterns both at global and continental scales. Because drought is mainly driven and triggered by a rainfall deficit, we chose the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as the drought indicator to estimate our climatological parameters. The SPI is a statistical precipitation-based drought indicator widely used in drought-related studies. We calculated the SPI on three different accumulation periods: 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6), and 12 months (SPI-12), in order to take into account meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought-related features. Each quantity has been calculated on a monthly basis using the baseline period between January 1951 and December 2010. As data input, we used the Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 (0.5˚x0.5˚) of gridded monthly precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation

  8. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  10. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  11. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  12. Cement Burns

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munir; Moynagh, M.; Lawlor, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cement burns account for relatively few admissions to a burn unit; however, these burns deserve separate consideration because of special features of diagnosis and management. Cement burns, even though potentially disabling, have rarely been reported in literature. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted with cement burns injuries to the national burns unit at the St James's Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, over a 10-year period for the years 1996–2005. Results: A total of 46 patients with cement burns were admitted. The majority of patients were aged 16–74 years (mean age = 32 years). Eighty-seven percent of injuries occurred in an industrial and 13% in a domestic setting. The upper and lower extremities were involved in all the patients, and the mean total body surface area affected was 6.5%. The mean length of hospital stay was 21 days with a range of 1–40 days. Thirty-eight (82%) were surgically managed involving debridement and split-thickness skin graft (SSG) and four (9%) were conservatively managed. A further four did not have data available. Conclusion: Widespread inexperience in dealing with this group of cement burns patients and delays in referral to burns unit highlights the potential for greater levels of general awareness and knowledge in both prevention and treatment of these burns. As well, early debridement and split-thickness skin grafting at diagnosis constitutes the best means of reducing the high socioeconomic costs and allows for early return to work. PMID:18091981

  13. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  14. Assessment of human exposure to 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) through consumption of broiler meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, P; Persoons, D; Uyttendaele, M; Butaye, P; De Zutter, L; Dierick, K; Herman, L; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Dewulf, J

    2012-09-17

    Acquired resistance of Escherichia coli to 3rd generation cephalosporin antimicrobials is a relevant issue in intensive broiler farming. In Belgium, about 35% of the E. coli strains isolated from live broilers are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins while over 60% of the broilers are found to be carrier of these 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) after selective isolation. A model aimed at estimating the exposure of the consumer to CREC by consumption of broiler meat was elaborated. This model consists of different modules that simulate the farm to fork chain starting from primary production, over slaughter, processing and distribution to storage, preparation and consumption of broiler meat. Input data were obtained from the Belgian Food Safety agencies' annual monitoring plan and results from dedicated research programs or surveys. The outcome of the model using the available baseline data estimates that the probability of exposure to 1000 colony forming units (cfu) of CREC or more during consumption of a meal containing chicken meat is ca. 1.5%, the majority of exposure being caused by cross contamination in the kitchen. The proportion of CREC (within the total number of E. coli) at primary production and the overall contamination of broiler carcasses or broiler parts with E. coli are dominant factors in the consumer exposure to CREC. The risk of this exposure for human health cannot be estimated at this stage given a lack of understanding of the factors influencing the transfer of cephalosporin antimicrobial resistance genes from these E. coli to the human intestinal bacteria and data on the further consequences of the presence of CREC on human health.

  15. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis B.

    2015-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments.

  16. A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-10-01

    A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

  17. Tunnelling of the 3rd kind: A test of the effective non-locality of quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Simon A.; Gies, Holger; Jaeckel, Joerg; Wallace, Chris J.

    2013-03-01

    Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this letter we argue that tunnelling of the 3rd kind —where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance— provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Concomitant Neuronal and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Ovine Burn and Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured and untreated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with simultaneous infusion of selective inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (n = 5). The injury was induced by 48 breath of cotton smoke and a 3rd degree burn of 40% total body surface area. All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated. The injury induced severe pulmonary dysfunction as indicated by decreases in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and increases in pulmonary shunt fraction, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. The treatment fully prevented the elevations in lymph and plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, pulmonary shunting, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and wet/dry weight ratio and significantly attenuated the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio. In conclusion, simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase exerts beneficial pulmonary effects in an ovine model of ARDS secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. This novel treatment strategy may represent a useful therapeutic adjunct for patients with these injuries. PMID:21263377

  19. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-09-18

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term.

  20. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214.

  1. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  2. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  3. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  4. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  5. Palaeocommunity dynamics across the Lower to Middle Miocene 3rd order sequence boundary of the Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd order sequence boundary from the Lower to the Middle Miocene of the Paratethys is characterized by a well-known major change of the molluscan fauna. This change was mainly studied based on regional species lists, which suggest a transition from low-diversity Karpatian (Upper Burdigalian) to highly diverse Badenian (Langhian and Lower Serravallian) assemblages. Here, we present quantitative data from 4 Karpatian and 6 Badenian localities to capture the anatomy of this faunal transition by comparing species-abundance patterns of local assemblages. 223 bulk samples, comprising more than 65,000 shells, were taken from shell beds; all molluscs > 1mm were studied quantitatively and sorted into 496 species. Independent sources (e.g., palaeogeographic position of localities and environmental data from foraminifera) suggest a water depth ranging from the intertidal to several tens of meters for the studied assemblages. Ordination methods indicate that benthic assemblages in the study area developed along the same depth-related environmental gradient across the 3rd order sequence boundary. Due to strong facies shifts at the boundary, the Karpatian faunas are mostly preserved in nearshore settings, but the Badenian faunas range from intertidal to shelf depth. Statistical analyses indicate that differences between the total of Karpatian and the total of Badenian assemblages are smaller than any differences among individual localities. The striking differences among the studied localities are most likely due to heterogeneous environments present on the Lower and Middle Miocene shelf of the Central Paratethys. Clearly, the immigration of several thermophilic molluscan families and superfamilies (e.g., Strombidae, Tonnoidea, Isognomonidae, and Carditidae) reflects climatic changes at the onset of the Langhian transgression. Our quantitative approach, however, favours the strong facies shift at the Lower / Middle Miocene boundary as the main reason for the pretended faunal

  6. Burn Pits

    MedlinePlus

    ... unexploded ordnance, petroleum and lubricant products, plastics, rubber, wood, and discarded food. Burning waste in open air ... Regulations Web Policies No FEAR Act Whistleblower Rights & Protections Site Index USA.gov White House Inspector General ...

  7. Early acute antibody-mediated rejection of a negative flow crossmatch 3rd kidney transplant with exclusive disparity at HLA-DP.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M; Baum, Caitlin E; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-08-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA.

  8. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  9. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  10. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  11. From bottom to top: Identification to precision measurement of 3rd-generation quarks with the atlas detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapp, Kevin

    The 3rd-generation quarks, bottom ( b) and top (t), are recent additions to the Standard Model of particle physics, and precise characterization of their properties have important implications to searching for new physics phenomena. This thesis presents two analyses which use 4.6 fb-1 of pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to measure their properties. The first is an analysis which measures our ability to identify jets originating from b quarks with machine-learning algorithms applied to simulated and real data, so the result in simulation can be corrected to match that in data. This measurement has implications for our ability to identify processes with b quarks in their final state; t quarks decay to a b quark and a weak vector boson W more than 99% of the time. The second analysis presented measures properties of the t → Wb decay channel associated with phenomena not predicted by the Standard Model, through a set of effective couplings which preserve Lorentz covariance. The kinematic information of the final-state particles is used to construct an event-specific coordinate system, and probability density is estimated as a function of solid angle in these coordinates. A parameterization of the effective couplings is extracted via a novel unfolding method, finding their values consistent with the Standard Model expectation, contributing the first measurement of the correlation between the parameters, and improving on previous limits.

  12. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  13. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  14. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it…

  15. Aerosolized alpha-tocopherol ameliorates acute lung injury following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Morita, Naoki; Traber, Maret G; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Westphal, Martin; Murakami, Kazunori; Leonard, Scott W; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Herndon, David; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L

    2006-03-01

    Victims of fire accidents who sustain both thermal injury to the skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of oxidant injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that delivery of vitamin E, an oxygen superoxide scavenger, directly into the airway would attenuate acute lung injury postburn and smoke inhalation. Sheep (N = 17 female, 35 +/- 5 kg) were divided into 3 groups: (1) injured, then nebulized with vitamin E (B&S, Vitamin E, n = 6); (2) injured, nebulized with saline (B&S, Saline, n = 6); and (3) not injured, not treated (Sham, n = 5). While under deep anesthesia with isoflurane, the sheep were subjected to a flame burn (40% total body surface area, 3rd degree) and inhalation injury (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40 degrees C). All groups were resuscitated with Ringer lactate solution (4 mL/kg/%burn/24 h) and placed on a ventilator [positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cm H2O, tidal volume = 15 mL/kg] for 48 h. B&S injury halved the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/g) compared with sham-injured animals (1.5 +/- 0.3), whereas vitamin E treatment elevated the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (7.40 +/- 2.61) in the injured animals. B&S injury decreased pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2 ratios) from 517 +/- 15 at baseline to 329 +/- 49 at 24 h and to 149 +/- 32 at 48 h compared with sham ratios of 477 +/- 14, 536 +/- 48, and 609 +/- 49, respectively. Vitamin E treatment resulted in a significant improvement of pulmonary gas exchange; ratios were 415 +/- 34 and 283 +/- 42 at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Vitamin E nebulization therapy improved the clinical responses to burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

  16. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  17. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  18. "Elderly Deafblindness." Proceedings of the European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network (3rd, Marcelli di Numana, Italy, October 2-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deafblind International, London (England).

    This text includes all of the plenary presentations from the 3rd European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network. This international conference was the first to focus specifically on older people with dual sensory impairment. Presentations addressed the awareness of the needs of older people with deafblind or dual…

  19. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  20. Burn Wise - Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  1. Burn Injuries in Children and the Use of Biological Dressings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    is the subcutaneous fat, which con- tains free nerve endings and the roots of hair follicles . Burns are classified as first, second, or third degree...and hair follicles , is also destroyed, third-degree burns appear dry, white, charred, or leathery, and the tissue has no sensation. Burns that extend...are blanching, and are extremely tender. Hair is usually intact, and there may be thin, fluid-filled blis- ters. Deep partial-thickness burns extend

  2. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice.

  3. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  4. Burn Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    areas involving large areas of skin the patient is exposed to death first from shock . . .’’ [10]. In describing the pathophysiology leading to the shock...state seen in burns he postulated that various irritants , mental and physical, caused vasomotor paresis leading to accumulation of blood in the...resuscitation volumes. Subsequent studies suggested a decrease in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Oda et al., in 2006, published their experience

  5. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  6. Outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Kassira, Wrood; Namias, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    The leading etiologies of pediatric burns are scald, thermal, and electrical injuries. The initial management of burns involves assessment of burn depth and total body surface area (TBSA) affected, a history, and physical examination. Calculation of percent of TBSA affected is an important determinant of the necessity for hospitalization versus outpatient management. Only second- and third-degree burns are included in the calculation. The criteria for outpatient management vary based on the center experience and resources. One such set of criteria in an experienced burn center includes burn affecting less than 15% TBSA, therefore not requiring fluid resuscitation; the ability to take in oral fluids, excluding serious perioral burns; no airway involvement or aspiration of hot liquid; no abuse; and dependable family able to transport the patient for clinic appointments. Once the child is ready to reenter school, the physician must discuss with the family and school staff any needs and expectations for the child, including wound care. Social reintegration can be difficult. Educating the teachers and staff of the child's appearance may help prepare the students.

  7. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  9. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  11. A Low Distortion 3rd-Order Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for a Worldwide Digital TV-Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Koji; Matsukawa, Kazuo; Mitani, Yosuke; Takayama, Masao; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Sakiyama, Shiro; Dosho, Shiro

    This paper presents a low distortion 3rd-order continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for a worldwide digital TV-receiver whose peak SNDR is 69.8dB and SNR is 70.2dB under 1V power supply. To enhance SNDR performance, the mechanisms to occur harmonic distortions at feedback current-steering DAC and flash ADC have been analyzed. A low power tuning system using RC-relaxation oscillator has been developed in order to achieve high yield against PVT variations. A 3rd-order modulator with modified single opamp resonator contributes to cost reduction by realizing a very compact circuit. Reduction schemes of the distortions enabled the modulator to achieve FOM of 0.18pJ/conv-step.

  12. The temperature field and heat transfer in the porthole of the Space Shuttle - Outer surface under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Heping; Yu, Qizheng; Zhang, Jizhou

    In this paper, the transient combined heat transfer in the silicon glass porthole of Space Shuttle is studied by control volume method, ray tracing method and spectral band model. The temperature field in the silicon glass and heat flux entering the space cabin are given under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition. The computational results show, if the radiation in the silicon glass is omitted, the errors for temperature fields are not too evident, but for heat flux are quite large.

  13. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  14. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  15. Thigh burn associated with laptop computer use.

    PubMed

    Paulius, Karina; Napoles, Phyllis; Maguina, Pirko

    2008-01-01

    Laptop computers are an uncommon source of burns to the thighs and perineum. Burns can result from the prolonged contact of hot surfaces at the base of the computer with the user's lap. The authors report a case of second-degree burns to the thigh of an otherwise healthy patient that resulted from prolonged use of the laptop. We measured the temperatures of the patient's computer and the temperatures of other popular laptop computers. Laptops can develop temperatures that can pose a risk for burns if the skin is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Patients with impaired lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness, or decreased mobility are at higher risk for laptop burns. To their knowledge, this is the first case report of such a burn injury in the American literature.

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  17. Leukoencephalopathy associated with extensive burns.

    PubMed Central

    Gregorios, J B

    1982-01-01

    Unusual neuropathological changes were observed in two cases following extensive burns. These consisted of perivascular areas of demyelination distributed symmetrically in the brain and affecting the white matter predominantly. One case in addition had widespread petecchial and ring haemorrhages characteristic of brain purpura. Both patients sustained second and third degree burns in greater than 50% of the body surface area, developed metabolic acidosis, sepsis, disturbance in consciousness and multiple episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest prior to death. A toxic metabolic state related to a burn toxin released from the damaged tissue or from bacterial action to the tissue in addition to low platelet level is proposed as the major pathogenetic factor in the development of the neurological symptoms and the patients' demise. Images PMID:6754873

  18. High resolution three-dimensional (256 to the 3rd) spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Werner J. A.; Buch, Kenneth A.

    Results from highly resolved three-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field zeta(x,t) in a turbulent shear flow. Each of these experiments consists of 256 to the 3rd individual point measurements of the local instantaneous conserved scalar value in the flow. The spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements reach beyond the local Kolmogorov scale and resolve the local strain-limited molecular diffusion scale in the flow. The results clearly show molecular mixing occurring in thin strained laminar diffusion layers in a turbulent flow.

  19. Efficacy studies of Vectobac 12as and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small plot field studies.

    PubMed

    Floore, T G; Petersen, J L; Shaffer, K R

    2004-12-01

    Efficacy studies were conducted with VectoBac 12AS and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small field test plots. The products were obtained off the shelf from distributors and had different lot numbers. They were evaluated over a 2-year period in spring 2002 and 2003. Application rates were 0.29, 0.58, and 1.10 liter/ha and evaluations were made 24 and 48 h after treatment. Both products performed well in these studies, with VectoBac 12AS being more effective at the 0.29 liter/ha rate.

  20. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  1. Care for the Critically Injured Burn Patient Modulation of Burn Scars Through Laser Deliver of Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    fractional Erbium:YAG Figure 1: Third degree burn immediately after injury. There is loss of epidermis (char) and hair follicles . Blistering is...14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that hypertrophic burn scars can be remodeled by fractional laser treatment and...effectiveness of these novel delivery systems and cell-based therapies for third degree burns in a porcine model. We will test the hypothesis that

  2. Dishonorary Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2008-01-01

    If an honorary degree lacks values to begin with, does withdrawing it deliver a rebuke to the recipient? Is whatever honor that comes with the distinction embedded in the fancy paper, or is it wholly in the eye of the degree holder? Are honorary degrees really such silly things that individuals should mock their bestowal or withdrawal? The case of…

  3. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  4. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  5. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  6. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; La Franca, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Ricci, F.; Smith, Howard A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated γ-ray sources. Many of the γ-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behavior similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  7. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  8. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  9. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  10. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  11. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  12. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  13. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  14. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  15. Characteristics of burn patients injured in methamphetamine laboratory explosions.

    PubMed

    Spann, Matthew D; McGwin, Gerald; Kerby, Jeffrey D; George, Richard L; Dunn, Shane; Rue, Loring W; Cross, James M

    2006-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) as a recreational drug has increased exponentially in recent years, resulting in an emergence of clandestine laboratories. Consequently, the frequency with which burn centers across the country are admitting patients injured as a consequence of the volatile manufacturing process of MA is increasing. This study focused on comparing outcomes between burn patients injured secondary to MA laboratory explosions and patients sustaining burns from other mechanisms. All patients identified to have suffered burns secondary to MA laboratory explosions between 1998 and 2004 were included in this study. These patients were compared with those who did not experience such burns during this same time period. In total, 19 patients were identified as having been burned in MA laboratory explosions. These patients had a larger component of third-degree burns (24.8% vs 13.5%; P < .05) as well as TBSA burned (28.4% vs 20.7%; P < .05). In addition, patients using MA had an increased incidence of inhalation injury (31.2% vs 6.1%; P < .05). They also exhibited a significantly increased frequency of complications, such as nosocomial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and sepsis. Overall, the rate of mortality was significantly increased in patients using MA (26.3% vs 8.5%; P < .05); however, no significant difference was observed after adjustment for age, burn size, and inhalation injury. MA burn patients have larger burn size, incidence of inhalation injury, and increased morbidity when compared with non-MA burn patients.

  16. The nitric acid burn trauma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Kolios, L; Striepling, E; Kolios, G; Rudolf, K-D; Dresing, K; Dörges, J; Stürmer, K M; Stürmer, E K

    2010-04-01

    Nitric acid burn traumata often occur in the chemical industry. A few publications addressing this topic can be found in the medical database, and there are no reports about these traumata in children. A total of 24 patients, average 16.6 years of age, suffering from nitric acid traumata were treated. Wound with I degrees burns received open therapy with panthenol-containing creams. Wound of II degrees and higher were initially treated by irrigation with sterile isotonic saline solution and then by covering with silver-sulphadiazine dressing. Treatment was changed on the second day to fluid-absorbent foam bandages for superficial wounds (up to IIa degrees depth) and occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages in combination with enzymatic substances for IIb degrees -III degrees burns. After the delayed demarcation, necrectomy and mesh-graft transplantation were performed. All wounds healed adequately. Chemical burn traumata with nitric acid lead to specific yellow- to brown-stained wounds with slower accumulation of eschar and slower demarcation compared with thermal burns. Remaining wound eschar induced no systemic inflammation reaction. After demarcation, skin transplantation can be performed on the wounds, as is commonly done. The distinguishing feature of nitric-acid-induced chemical burns is the difficulty in differentiation and classification of burn depth. An immediate lavage should be followed by silver sulphadiazine treatment. Thereafter, fluid-absorbent foam bandages or occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages should be used according to the burn depth. Slow demarcation caused a delay in performing surgical treatments.

  17. Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Klein, Mathew B.; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter wave reflectometry of an experimental rat skin burn model obtained by the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Full thickness burns, as confirmed by histology, were created on rats (n = 4) euthanized immediately prior to the experiments. Statistical analysis shows that the burned tissue exhibits higher reflectivity compared to normal skin over a frequency range between 0.5 and 0.7 THz (p < 0.05), likely due to post-burn formation of interstitial edema. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a double Debye dielectric relaxation model can be used to explain the terahertz response of both normal and less severely burned rat skin. Finally, our data suggest that the degree of conformation between the experimental burn measurements and the model for normal skin can potentially be used to infer the extent of burn severity. PMID:21833370

  18. "Fishing for Burn Prevention": a novel approach to burn and fire safety.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, R C; Hansen, S L; Voigt, D W; Paul, C N

    1999-01-01

    "Fishing for Burn Prevention" is an interactive educational burn and fire safety program designed to stimulate family involvement at health fairs, and it provides an alternative to handing out safety information. The program attracts preschoolers through preteens and is staffed by burn center personnel. The design consists of a small pool, a wooden fishing rod, several cutout fish, and hook-and-loop fasteners. Words that will stimulate interaction between the presenter and the participant are written on the fish; these can include "smoke detector," "cool the burn," "fire escape plan," "matches," "grease fire," and "120 degrees F." Providing an interactive, hands-on activity at health fairs can increase burn and fire safety awareness for the entire family.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed

    Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described.

  20. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.

  1. [The pain from burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  2. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  3. Fire Service Training. Immediate Care of the Burn Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    Part of a series of instructional outlines intended for use in a training program for firemen with no previous formal training, this curriculum guide discusses the emergency treatment of thermal, chemical, and electrical burns. The topics covered are as follow: (1) evaluation of the degree and extent of the burn; (2) shock, its signs and…

  4. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  5. One Burn, One Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    for supporting burn treatment has induced a rethinking of current medical documentation processes of burns, especially with respect to the Lund...Browder burn diagram. In the past, the lack of comparability, scientific evalu- ation possibilities, and as a consequence, missing medical evidence in...to interested parties after registration. To that end, a protected (everyone is able to read the content, one has to register to edit) wiki (www

  6. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  7. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  8. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  9. Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    wound invasion was identified only Nine of 97 patients (9%) with histologic burn wound after septic or cardiogenic shock had been present in invasion...051= ADA12589 Th JouRHAL oP TRAUMA Vol. 21, No. 9 Copyright 0 1981 by The Williams & Wilkins Co. ,r, Prin U.S.A. . Burn Wound Infection WILLIAM F...admitted to a burn center during a 3-year period C had histologically confirmed bacterial or tungal burn wound invasion. Nine of t X Q these 97

  10. Does pyrogenicity protect burning plants?

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Paul R; Passmore, Heather A; Platt, William J; Myers, Jonathan A; Paine, C E Timothy; Harms, Kyle E

    2010-12-01

    Pyrogenic plants dominate many fire-prone ecosystems. Their prevalence suggests some advantage to their enhanced flammability, but researchers have had difficulty tying pyrogenicity to individual-level advantages. Based on our review, we propose that enhanced flammability in fire-prone ecosystems should protect the belowground organs and nearby propagules of certain individual plants during fires. We base this hypothesis on five points: (1) organs and propagules by which many fire-adapted plants survive fires are vulnerable to elevated soil temperatures during fires; (2) the degree to which burning plant fuels heat the soil depends mainly on residence times of fires and on fuel location relative to the soil; (3) fires and fire effects are locally heterogeneous, meaning that individual plants can affect local soil heating via their fuels; (4) how a plant burns can thus affect its fitness; and (5) in many cases, natural selection in fire-prone habitats should therefore favor plants that burn rapidly and retain fuels off the ground. We predict an advantage of enhanced flammability for plants whose fuels influence local fire characteristics and whose regenerative tissues or propagules are affected by local variation in fires. Our "pyrogenicity as protection" hypothesis has the potential to apply to a range of life histories. We discuss implications for ecological and evolutionary theory and suggest considerations for testing the hypothesis.

  11. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  12. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  13. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  14. Trends in the nature of provision in ophthalmology services and resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing: 3rd National UK survey.

    PubMed

    Czuber-Dochan, Wladyslawa J; Waterman, Christine G; Waterman, Heather A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade in the United Kingdom (UK), the roles of nurses have become increasingly specialised to support a more efficient and effective health service. In ophthalmology, the changes are most visible in the growing number of patients being treated as day case and the greater nursing contribution to patient outcomes. To support this change there is a continuing need for educational institutions to create opportunities to meet the training needs of nurses working in both specialised areas and at the advance level of practice. This article reports on a 3rd national survey the aims of which were to investigate trends in the nature and provision of ophthalmic services and the resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing. The results demonstrate that over the three surveys there has been a significant increase of pre-operative assessment units and a significant decrease of designated ophthalmic wards. Between the second and third survey, the results indicate fewer difficulties with funding but there has been an increase of respondents stating a lack of training institutions offering ophthalmic courses. The survey shows that at a time when nurses need to acquire ophthalmic nursing skills and knowledge there appear to be fewer opportunities for them to access ophthalmic courses.

  15. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  16. The origin of anomalous 3rd neighbor exchange in 2D triangular magnets (NiGa2S4 and others)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Igor

    2008-03-01

    2D magnetic materials with triangular lattices have been attracting much interest. Among them one finds the parent compound of an exotic superconductor, NaxCoO2.yH2O, A-type antiferromagnets like NaNiO2, in-plane antiferromagnetism (LiCrO2), spin-liquid type materials (NiGa2S4), charge-order (AgNiO2). The main structural motif in all of them is the AB2 plane, where A is a transition metal and B is oxygen or sulfur. Experiments and calculations inevitably find anomalously strong 3rd neighbor exchange coupling in all these triangular planes, despite different band fillings and different magnetic ground states. I will explain why this happens, why this effect is so universal, and why it can be understood entirely on a one-electron level. I will use as an example NiGa2S4, with a reference to NaxCoO2 as well.

  17. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  18. Heating-pad burn as a complication of abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel Ege, G Y; Ozcan, M

    2003-01-01

    As the sensory nerves supplying the abdominal wall are divided during abdominoplasty, sensory changes occur in the abdominal skin after surgery, which are troublesome for some patients. These sensory changes can lead to burn injury in uninformed patients. We report the case of a patient who sustained a second-degree burn to the anterior abdominal skin following the application of a heating pad after an abdominoplasty. This burn healed with conservative treatment. Burn injuries due to sensory loss in the abdominal skin following abdominoplasty must be kept in mind, and patients must be informed about this complication.

  19. A review of first aid treatments for burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Cuttle, Leila; Pearn, John; McMillan, James R; Kimble, Roy M

    2009-09-01

    Throughout history there have been many different and sometimes bizarre treatments prescribed for burns. Unfortunately many of these treatments still persist today, although they often do not have sufficient evidence to support their use. This paper reviews common first aid and pre-hospital treatments for burns (water--cold or warm, ice, oils, powders and natural plant therapies), possible mechanisms whereby they might work and the literature which supports their use. From the published work to date, the current recommendations for the first aid treatment of burn injuries should be to use cold running tap water (between 2 and 15 degrees C) on the burn, not ice or alternative plant therapies.

  20. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  1. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  2. Epidemiology of Burn Injuries at a Newly Established Burn Care Center in Rasht

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Cyrus Emir; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Tolouei, Mohammad; Paydary, Koosha; Samidoust, Pirouz; Mobayen, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in the care of burn injuries have resulted from the efforts of regional patient-based specialist teams at burn care centers. Objectives We conducted this study to assess the four-year epidemiology of burn injuries in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, medical records of 2274 burn patients, treated at Velayat hospital from January 2007 to December 2010 in Rasht, Iran, were assessed. Age, sex, level of education, occupation, severity and degree of burn, burn surface area, burn cause and outcome of patients were evaluated. Results In our study the overall mortality rate was 8.7%; 65.7% of patients were men and 34.3% were women. Mean age of patients was 31.47 ± 22.67 years. Mean Total Burn Surface Area (TBSA) was 15.24 ± 18.4. Lowest TBSA was 0.5% and highest TBSA was 100%. Significant associations were observed between age (P = 0.0001), place of residence (P = 0.004), level of education (P = 0.0001), unemployment (P = 0.0001), marital status (P = 0.021), causes of burn (P = 0.0001), TBSA (P = 0.0001) and mortality rate. In our study, no significant difference was observed between age and sex (P = 0.071). Conclusions Due to high prevalence of burn injuries in Iran, increasing the level of awareness of the society as well as adhering to safety procedures both at home and workplace is recommended via implementing effective national safety policies. PMID:24350121

  3. Analysis of burns caused by long-term exposure to a heating pad.

    PubMed

    Diller, K R

    1991-01-01

    The potential for creating a second-degree burn by extended exposure to an electric heating pad was evaluated in a simple model. Extrapolation of empirical results from experiments in thermal burns and in hyperthermia indicated that a heating pad at the low power setting can produce a burn within a threshold time of approximately 12 to 20 hours.

  4. Burns Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... for fluid resuscitation, wound cleaning, skin replacement, infection control and nutritional support. What is on the horizon for burn research? Improving methods for wound healing and tissue repair offer tremendous opportunities to enhance the quality of life for burn patients and may also ...

  5. Pain in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  6. Hot bitumen burns: 92 hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M; Schraf, S; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A A

    1997-08-01

    Bitumen burns while comprising a small percentage of all types of burns are troublesome. They affect persons engaged in gainful employment which the burns then curtail, as well as requiring special attention because the substance adheres to the skin and is therefore difficult to remove. Ninety-two consecutive patients with such burns who were admitted as in-patients over a 10-year period (1985-1995) have been reviewed. Most of the burns occurred on a worksite and involved active young persons (mean age 29.6 years) the mean size of the burn was 3.87 per cent TBSA, mainly affecting the upper extremities and hands. Mean hospitalization time was 10.6 days. Bitumen burns are fully predictable and can easily be prevented by avoiding unsafe practice and/or equipment. Bitumen is a general term for petroleum-derived substances ranging from true petroleum through so-called mineral tars, to asphalt. Asphalt (Asphaltum) is a semi-solid mixture of several hydrocarbons probably formed by the evaporation of the lighter or more volatile constituents. It is amorphous of low specific gravity, 1-2, with a black or brownish black colour and pitchy lustre. At room temperature it is solid becoming molten and spreadable when heated to 93 degrees C and over. Roofing tars and asphalts are usually heated to temperatures of 232 degrees C to achieve desirable viscosities (e.g. for spraying), whereas lower temperatures are required for the manageable form to pave roads. Notable localities for asphaltum are the island of Trinidad and the Dead Sea region where lake asphaltums were long known to the ancient. Ironically, none of the 92 patients who were treated for bitumen injuries in the 'Soroka' (Beer-Sheba, Israel) and 'Barzilai' (Ashkelon, Israel) Medical Centres (80 and 150 km from the lake respectively) had anything to do with the Dead Sea area.

  7. Battery acid burns of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wormald, P J; Wilson, D A

    1993-04-01

    Strong acid ingestion produces distinctly different injuries from alkali burns. Alkali burns are well described but the lack of literature on the diagnosis and management of acid burns is apparent. This retrospective review of 18 patients with battery acid (30% sulphuric acid) ingestion showed no correlation between the severity of the symptomatology and the degree of injury. The quantity of acid needed to cause a significant upper GIT burn was more than 200 ml. Previous reports that acid spared the oesophagus due to rapid transit were disproved, since oesophageal involvement was found in 55% (10/18). Deep burns rather than circumferential burns resulted in stricture formation. The major injury site was the gastric antrum with 4 patients (23%) requiring surgical intervention to restore function.

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Association for the Study of Pain, burning mouth Syndrome (BMS) is defined as a burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membrane in the absence of clinical signs or laboratory findings. The etiology is unknown and presents a challenge for both researchers and clinicians. The management of BMS is still not satisfactory. The prognosis is poor and the burning sensation can last for many years causing a dramatic impact on the patient's quality of life. It is important to distinguish between true BMS and symptomatic burning sensation which occurs when the burning sensation is secondary to a local or systemic pathologic condition. Currently, there are no defined diagnostic criteria for BMS. A diagnosis is usually reached by exclusion of other diseases. This may lead to misdiagnoses, presenting an obstacle to successful treatment.

  10. Dual-imaging system for burn depth diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Priya; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Qin, Yi; Nanney, Lillian; Cardwell, Nancy; Pollins, Alonda; Sexton, Kevin; Yadegar, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Currently, determination of burn depth and healing outcomes has been limited to subjective assessment or a single modality, e.g., laser Doppler imaging. Such measures have proven less than ideal. Recent developments in other non-contact technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pulse speckle imaging (PSI) offer the promise that an intelligent fusion of information across these modalities can improve visualization of burn regions thereby increasing the sensitivity of the diagnosis. In this work, we combined OCT and PSI images to classify the degree of burn (superficial, partial-thickness and full-thickness burns). Algorithms were developed to integrate and visualize skin structure (with and without burns) from the two modalities. We have completed the proposed initiatives by employing a porcine burn model and compiled results that attest to the utility of our proposed dual-modal fusion approach. Computer-derived data indicating the varying burn depths were validated through immunohistochemical analysis performed on burned skin tissue. The combined performance of OCT and PSI modalities provided an overall ROC-AUC=0.87 (significant at p<0.001) in classifying different burn types measured after 1-h of creating the burn wounds. Porcine model studies to assess feasibility of this dual-imaging system for wound tracking are underway.

  11. Burns functional disabilities among burn survivors: a study in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Agbenorku, Pius

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the types of functional disabilities in adult and paediatric burns survivors, with specific emphasis on potential risk and socio-economic factors of burn disabilities present in Ghana. Patients and Methods: The descriptive study was carried out in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana from May 2011 to April 2012. Burn survivors who came for follow-up visits after been discharged home and had functional disability were the participants of the study. They were physically examined and interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire after their informed consent/or that of their parents (in the cases of paediatrics burns survivors) was sought. Results: A total of 70 participants consented for the study. Their ages ranged from 8/12 – 78 years, with a mean age of 12±1.7 years. Majority (60.0%, N=42) of the participants had third degree burns. The nature of disabilities of participants were mostly scar contractures (42.9%, N=30) of which 36.7% (N=11) had impeded arm elevation; 23.3% (N=7) could not fold the palm or move the digits. From the multiple regression analysis risk factors for burn victim to have disability were paediatric age (OR=11.1, P=0.043), third degree of burn (OR=6.2, P=0.001) and anatomical part affected (OR=18.3, P=0.031). Socio-economic factors that affected burn disability victims were nuclear family compensation (OR=4.2, P=0.021), community mockery/stigmatization (OR=0.1, P=0.052) and caretakers time and finance (OR=5.2, P=0.033). Conclusion: The commonest functional disabilities recorded were scar contractions of the axilla region which had impeded the ability of the patients to lift the arm. Risk factors for burns disability included childhood age, third degree of burn incurred and anatomical part affected. Social factors influencing the lives of burn survivors with disability were good family and negative community interactions. Significant economical factors recorded were caretakers’ time and financial constrains. PMID

  12. Burn injury secondary to air bag deployment.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Ingrid; Mancini, Luca Livio; Guizzardi, Marco; Monti, Marcello

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of air bags has been proven in diminishing the rate of fatalities and severity of injury in motor vehicle crashes. Unfortunately, as with any developing technology, new problems have been encountered that are directly attributable to the deployment of the air bag itself. Most air bag-related injuries are minor and, surprisingly, more than 7% are burns typically involving the upper extremity or head or neck. Fortunately, these are superficial burns that usually require only expectant therapy, but a high degree of suspicion in these circumstances is needed to make the proper diagnosis.

  13. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples.

  14. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  15. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  16. β-Glucan treatment prevents progressive burn ischaemia in the zone of stasis and improves burn healing: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Firat, Cemal; Samdanci, Emine; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi; Ak, Muharrem; Turtay, Muhammed Gokhan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan

    2013-02-01

    Saving the zone of stasis is one of the major goals of burn specialists. Increasing the tissue tolerance to ischaemia and inhibiting inflammation have been proposed to enable salvage of this zone. After a burn, excessive inflammation, including increased vascular permeability, local tissue oedema and neutrophil activation, causes local tissue damage by triggering vascular thrombosis and blocking capillaries, resulting in tissue ischaemia and necrosis. Oxygen radicals also contribute to tissue damage after a burn. However, macrophages play a pivotal role in the response to burn. We studied β-glucan because of its many positive systemic effects that are beneficial to burn healing, including immunomodulatory effects, antioxidant effects (free-radical scavenging activity) and effects associated with the reduction of the inflammatory response. There were four test groups in this study with eight rats in each group. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 was administered a local pomade (bacitracin+neomycin sulphate), group 3 received β-glucan (50 mg kg(-1), orally) + the local pomade and group 4 received β-glucan. Burns were created using a brass comb model. Macroscopic, histopathological and statistical assessments were performed. Samples were harvested on the 3rd, 7th and 21 days for analysis. The neutrophilic infiltration into the zone of stasis was analysed on day 3. Macrophage infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation ratios in the zone of stasis were analysed on days 7 and 21. The β-glucan groups (groups 3 and 4) exhibited lower neutrophil counts on the 3rd day, and macrophage infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis and re-epithelialisation were very high in these groups on the 7th day. In particular, re-epithelialisation on the 21st day was significantly better in the β-glucan groups. This study demonstrated that β-glucan may prevent neutrophil-dependent tissue damage and burn-induced oxidative injury through

  17. Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam

  18. [Bacterial epidemiology in the burns unit at military teaching hospital Mohamed V of Rabat].

    PubMed

    Essayagh, Touria; Zohoun, Alban; Essayagh, Meriem; Elameri, Abdelouahab; Zouhdi, Mimoun; Ihrai, Hsain; Elhamzaoui, Sakina

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to establish the ecology of the Burns Unit of the Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V of Rabat. We present results of a retrospective study of four years (March 2006-June 2010) on all micro-organisms isolated from patient samples. During the study period, we analyzed 307 samples corresponding to isolate bacterial strains from 288 non-redundant and 5 yeasts among which 4 corresponded to Candida albicans. The bacteriological profile of the isolated stumps showed a change between 2006 and 2010. Staphylococcus aureus in 2007 and 2008 (52.3%, 33.9%) was in 3rd position in 2010 (10.5%). Acinetobacter baumannii found in 3rd position or below (3.7%, 11.6%, 15.3%), between 2006 and 2008, reached the summit in 2009 and 2010 (22.6% and 23.7%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain dominant in 2006 (33.3%) maintained its second position in 2007, 2008 and 2010 (19.8%, 18.6%, 18.4%) while it was third in 2009 (14.3%). Study of the resistance in antibiotics of the main isolated bacteria showed a stability of the profile of resistance. In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of bacteria is necessary, in the burns unit and in the hospital, to guide better the probability antibiotic treatment.

  19. Predictors of Muscle Protein Synthesis after Severe Pediatric Burns

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Eva C.; Herndon, David N.; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases, but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months post-injury, and identify predictors that influence this response. Study design 87 children with ≥40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2 and ~ 4 weeks post-burn, and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury to determine skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Results Patients (8±6 years) had large (62, 51–72% TBSA) and deep (47±21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months post-burn compared to established values from healthy young adults. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, children >3 years old, and when burns were >80% TBSA. Conclusions Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least one year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiological response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by gender, age and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn victims. PMID:25807408

  20. Burn encephalopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Mohnot, D; Snead, O C; Benton, J W

    1982-07-01

    Among 287 children with burns treated over a recent two-year period, 13 (5%) showed evidence of encephalopathy. The major clinical symptoms were an altered sensorium and seizures. The majority of symptoms began later than 48 hours after the burn and were accompanied by multiple metabolic aberrations including hypocalcemia. Three children had a relapsing course, and 1 had temporarily enlarged cerebral ventricles. Eleven children improved to normal. In the majority of instances, burn encephalopathy probably reflects central nervous system dysfunction resulting from complex metabolic, hematological, and hemodynamic abnormalities rather than from a single metabolic abnormality.

  1. Diaper burn: accident, abuse, or neglect.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C F; Oral, R; Gullberg, L

    2000-06-01

    A 7-year-old, female with mental retardation and seizure disorder was admitted with burns. Reportedly, her brother who was 12 years old was cooking dinner for himself. A towel caught fire. He threw the towel over his head, and the patient's diaper ignited. She had partial thickness second-degree burns over her right elbow, upper abdomen, both inner thighs, and buttocks with multiple blistering, which was estimated to be 7% of the total body surface. The child abuse team took a diaper similar to the one the child was wearing at the time of injury and found that it easily ignited and melted in several seconds. This is the first medically reported burn case due to a disposable diaper.

  2. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J Burn Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918-925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...

  3. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arrives. previous continue What to Do (continued) For Flame Burns: Extinguish the flames by having your child roll on the ground. ... a hot-steam one. Choose sleepwear that's labeled flame retardant (either polyester or treated cotton). Cotton sweatshirts ...

  4. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  5. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  6. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  7. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  8. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  9. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  10. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N

    2013-07-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care.

  11. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  12. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  13. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  14. Thermoregulation in burn patients during exercise.

    PubMed

    Austin, K G; Hansbrough, J F; Dore, C; Noordenbos, J; Buono, M J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients with burns on 30 to 40% and 60% or greater of their BSA to thermoregulate their core temperature during exercise in the heat. Two groups (n = 3 in each) of subjects with healed third-degree burns (34.0 +/- 1.4% and 77.7 +/- 12.4%, respectively) and a group of unburned subjects (n = 2) exercised for 1 hour on a cycle ergometer at 75 Watts in an environmental chamber set at 35 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Subjects were monitored for rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, whole body sweat rate, skin blood flow, and active sweat gland density (number per cm ) in unburned, burned, and harvested skin. The results demonstrated that patients with burns on 60% or greater BSA did not show an intolerance to moderate exercise in the heat, as evidenced by only a moderate rise in rectal temperature and heart rate. Furthermore, the responses were similar to those of the unburned subjects.

  15. Rosse, 3rd Earl of [William Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1800-67) and Rosse, 4th Earl of [Laurence Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1840-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Irish astronomer and landowner, the 3rd Lord Rosse was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and Oxford as a mathematician. He became interested in astronomy and made at the family castle in Birr a 36 in reflector with the same design as William Herschel's (see HERSCEL FAMILY). Mapped the Moon, and observed nebulae with the intent to resolve them into stars. He developed the technology at Birr Cast...

  16. Contact radiator burn subsequent to spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sever, C; Aysal, B K; Sahin, C; Kulahci, Y

    2012-06-30

    An unusual case is reported in which a patient sustained a third-degree burn of the plantar surface of the right foot as the result of contact with a heating radiator. This occurred when the patient fell asleep in his hospital bed after knee surgery. Spinal anaesthesia is easy to perform, and the risk factors, though present, are not serious. Such accidents are not infrequent and care should be taken to prevent them.

  17. Prescribed burning consumes key forest structural components: implications for landscape heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Holland, Greg J; Clarke, Michael F; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-12-19

    Prescribed burning to achieve management objectives is a common practice in fire-prone regions worldwide. Structural components of habitat that are combustible and slow to develop are particularly susceptible to change associated with prescribed burning. We used an experimental, "whole-landscape" approach to investigate the effect of differing patterns of prescribed burning on key habitat components (logs, stumps, dead trees, litter cover, litter depth, and understorey vegetation). Twenty-two landscapes (each ~100 ha) were selected in a dry forest ecosystem in southeast Australia. Experimental burns were conducted in 16 landscapes (stratified by burn extent) while six served as untreated controls. We measured habitat components prior to and after burning. Landscape burn extent ranged from 22% to 89% across the 16 burn treatments. With the exception of dead standing trees (no change), all measures of habitat components declined as a consequence of burning. The degree of loss increased as the extent to which a landscape was burned also increased. Prescribed burning had complex effects on the spatial heterogeneity (beta diversity) of structural components within landscapes. Landscapes that were more heterogeneous pre-fire were homogenized by burning, while those that were more homogenous pre-fire tended to display greater differentiation post-burning. Thus, the notion that patch mosaic burning enhances heterogeneity at the landscape-scale depends on prior conditions. These findings have important management implications. Where prescribed burns must be undertaken, effects on important resources can be moderated via control of burn characteristics (e.g., burn extent). Longer-term impacts of prescribed burning will be strongly influenced by the return interval, given the slow rate at which some structural components accumulate (decades to centuries). Management of habitat structural components is important given the critical role they play in (1) provision of habitat

  18. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  19. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  20. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  1. Tar burns in the southwest.

    PubMed

    Schiller, W R

    1983-07-01

    The burns which result from contact of human skin with hot tar may be quite serious in proportion to the body surface area involved. Although tending toward partial thickness burns, patchy areas of full thickness skin loss are commonly observed. The use of petrolatum-based ointments on the burn initially to dissolve the tar into the dressings seems like the most efficient and humane method of tar removal. Subsequently, care of the wound is like that of any other burn. Tar burns involving greater than 10 per cent of the body surface area are likely to be the most serious and require intravenous fluid resuscitation. Many tar burns appear to be preventable.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, W.M.; Liu, Mei-Huey

    1994-12-01

    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5{degrees} latitude x 5{degrees} longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominant in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft.

  4. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  5. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2010-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by burning of the oral mucosa, with or without dysgeusia and xerostomia, in the setting of no underlying systemic disease or identifiable abnormalities on physical examination or laboratory testing. BMS disproportionately affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease is unknown; no single treatment has proven universally successful. In light of these shortcomings, having a practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with BMS can improve both patient quality of life and physician satisfaction.

  6. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  7. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  8. [Burns in an aeronautic environment].

    PubMed

    Rigotti, G

    1979-10-27

    Following an examination of the aetiology of burns in aeronautic environments, the physiopathology, classification and general and local treatment of the burn case is discussed. Special mention is then made of aircraft as an extremely useful means of transport.

  9. Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation Burn

    NASA Video Gallery

    The terminal initiation burn, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The burn lasted ...

  10. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  11. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  12. Burn Care in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    tent configuration and later occupied Ibn Sina Hospital, in the international zone in Baghdad, Iraq. In the tent configura- tion, the 28th CSH provided...at Ibn Sina Hos- pital continuously. In a relatively austere general hospital environment, burn care has been provided with a focus on the

  13. Burn and Scald Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry oven mitts or potholders. Hot cookware can heat moisture in a potholder or hot pad, resulting in a scald burn. • Wear short, close-fitting or tightly rolled sleeves when cooking. • Have a “kid-free zone” of at least 3 feet around the stove. ...

  14. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  15. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  16. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome: update.

    PubMed

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José

    2014-06-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by burning symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "burning mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "burning mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral burning sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research.

  18. Burns of children caused by electric stoves.

    PubMed

    Still, J; Craft-Coffman, B; Law, E; Colon-Santini, J; Grant, J

    1998-01-01

    During a 2-year period, eight patients sustained burns caused by the tipping over of electric stoves. In seven of these cases, children aged 2 to 4 years stood up on the open oven door of a stove. The stove then tipped forward, and a pot of boiling liquid on the stove spilled onto the child, who fell forward across the oven door. The general area of involvement was back and buttocks, with spattered areas elsewhere on the body. In one other case, an older child, aged 8, sat on the open oven door and was burned when a pot fell on him. The weight of the children ranged from 12.7 to 20 kilograms, with a mean of 15.2 kilograms. The 8-year old weighed 14.9 kilos. Burn size ranged from 3% to 30%, with a mean of 16.75%. All burns were second-degree and were treated by debridement and coverage with either porcine grafts or Biobrane (Dow Hickman Pharmaceuticals, Inc.). Healing was satisfactory in all cases. Hospital stay ranged from 2 to 20 days. The increase in the use of electric stove has led to a situation in which children, usually toddlers, can overbalance the stove and bring down the pots sitting on the heating elements. This represents another mechanism by which young children can be injured in the kitchen; the awareness of this should be disseminated.

  19. Studies of droplet burning and extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.

    1993-01-01

    A project on droplet combustion, pursued jointly with F.L. Dryer of Princeton University, has now been in progress for many years. The project involves experiments on the burning of single droplets in various atmospheres, mainly at normal atmosperic pressure and below, performed in drop towers and designed to be performed aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or the Space Station. It also involves numerical computations on droplet burning, performed mainly at Princeton, and asymptotic analyses of droplet burning, performed mainly at UCSD. The focus of the studies rests primarily on time-dependent droplet-burning characteristics and on extinction phenomena. The presentation to be given here concerns the recent research on application of asymptotic methods to investigation of the flame structure and extinction of hydrocarbon droplets. These theoretical studies are investigating the extent to which combustion of higher hydrocarbons - heptane, in particular - can be described by four-step reduced chemistry of the kind that has achieved a good degree of success for methane flames. The studies have progressed to a point at which a number of definite conclusions can now be stated. These conclusions and the reasoning that led to them are outlined here.

  20. Studies of droplet burning and extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    A project on droplet combustion, pursued jointly with F. L. Dryer of Princeton University, has now been in progress for many years. The project involves experiments on the burning of single droplets in various atmospheres, mainly at normal atmospheric pressure and below, performed in drop towers and designed to be performed aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or the Space Station and currently manifest for Spacelab in the MSL-1 flight of the Space Shuttle in April of 1997. It also involves numerical computations on droplet burning, performed mainly at Princeton, and asymptotic analyses of droplet burning, performed mainly at UCSD. The focus of the studies rests primarily on time-dependent droplet-burning characteristics and on extinction phenomena. The presentation to be given here concerns the recent research on application of asymptotic methods to investigation of the flame structure and extinction of alcohol droplets. These theoretical studies are relevant to the second of the proposed space-flight tests and are currently investigating the extent to which combustion of alcohols can be described by four-step reduced chemistry similar to that which has achieved a good degree of success for alkane flames. These studies have progressed to a point at which a number of definite conclusions can now be stated. These conclusions and the reasoning that led to them are outlined.

  1. Burn Wise Outreach Materials for Retailers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  3. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Composition ...

  4. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  5. Hypocupremia in a major burn.

    PubMed

    Brian, J E; Caldwell, F T; Woody, R C; Bowser-Wallace, B H

    1987-03-01

    Trace element deficiency in burns is an area which apparently has not been investigated. We recently encountered a severely burned patient with profound copper depletion. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and delayed healing may have been secondary to this deficiency. Further study is needed to clearly delineate the role of acquired copper deficiency in recovering burned patients.

  6. Investigation of the factors responsible for burns during MRI.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, M F; Condon, B; Hadley, D M

    2001-04-01

    Numerous reported burn injuries have been sustained during clinical MRI procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible factors that may be responsible for such burns. Experiments were performed to investigate three possible mechanisms for causing heating in copper wire during MRI: direct electromagnetic induction in a conductive loop, induction in a resonant conducting loop, and electric field resonant coupling with a wire (the antenna effect). Maximum recorded temperature rises were 0.6 degrees C for the loop, 61.1 degrees C for the resonant loop, and 63.5 degrees C for the resonant antenna. These experimental findings suggest that, contrary to common belief, it is unlikely that direct induction in a conductive loop will result in thermal injury. Burn incidents are more likely to occur due to the formation of resonant conducting loops and from extended wires forming resonant antenna. The characteristics of resonance should be considered when formulating safety guidelines.

  7. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  8. Burn and Smoke Inhalation Injury in Sheep Depletes Vitamin E: Kinetic studies using deuterated tocopherols

    PubMed Central

    Traber, M.G.; Shimoda, K.; Murakami, K.; Leonard, S. W.; Enkhbaatar, P.; Traber, L.D.; Traber, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that burn and smoke injury will deplete tissue α-tocopherol and cause its faster plasma disappearance, deuterium-labeled vitamin E was administered to sheep exposed to both surface skin burn and smoke insufflation that causes injury similar to human victims of fire accidents. Two different protocols were used: 1) deuterated vitamin E was administered orally with food at 0 time (just prior to injury), or 2) the labeled vitamin E was administered orally with food the day prior to injury. The animals that had been operatively prepared seven days before, were anaesthetized, then received both 40% body surface area 3rd° burn and 48 breaths of cotton smoke, or sham injuries. All were resuscitated with Ringer’s lactate solution (4 ml/kg/% BSA burn/24h) and mechanically ventilated. Blood samples were collected at various times after vitamin E dosing. In both studies the depletion of plasma α-tocopherol was faster in the injured sheep. The sheep given deuterated vitamin E 24 h prior to injury had similar maximum α-tocopherol concentrations at similar times. The exponential rates of α -tocopherol disappearance were 1.5 times greater and half-lives were 12 h shorter (p<0.05) in the injured sheep. In separate studies, various tissues were obtained from sheep that were sacrificed from 4 h to 48 h after injury. The liver α -tocopherol concentrations in sheep killed at various times after injury appear to show a linear decrease at a rate of 0.1 nmol α -tocopherol/g liver per hour, suggesting that the liver is supplying α -tocopherol to maintain the plasma and lung α -tocopherol concentrations, but that this injury is so severe that the liver is unable to maintain lung α -tocopherol concentrations. These findings suggest that α -tocopherol should be administered to burn patients to prevent vitamin E depletion and to protect against oxidative stress from burn injury. PMID:17395015

  9. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  10. The year in burns 2011.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  11. The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Science and the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning, the science symposium of Arctic Science Summit Week 2015 (ISAR-4/ICARPIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, Peter; Kodama, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Research (ISAR-4) with the theme of "Rapid change of the Arctic climate system and its global influence" was held as the science symposium of the Arctic Science Summit Week 2015, together with the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII) with the theme of "Integrating Arctic Research: a Roadmap for the Future," in Toyama, Japan, from April 27 to April 30, 2015. There were 340 oral and 177 poster presentations, totalling 511 presentations. Among them, 38 papers were submitted to this special issue and 30 were accepted. 16 sessions in which those accepted papers were presented are described.

  12. Type 1 Diabetes and NKT Cells: A Report on the 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation, September 2004, Heron Island, QLD, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Julie M.; Jordan, Margaret A.; Baxter, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    NKT cells play a major role in regulating the vigor and character of a broad range of immune responses. Defects in NKT cell numbers and function have been associated with type 1 diabetes, especially in the NOD mouse model. The 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation provided an opportunity for researchers in the field of NKT cell biology to discuss their latest results, many of which have direct relevance to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:17491677

  13. The ENCCA-WP7/EuroSarc/EEC/PROVABES/EURAMOS 3rd European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting/Joint Workshop of EU Bone Sarcoma Translational Research Networks; Vienna, Austria, September 24-25, 2015. Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Kager, Leo; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hassan, Bass; Anninga, Jakob; Bennister, Lindsey; Bovée, Judith V M G; Brennan, Bernadette; Broto, Javier M; Brugières, Laurence; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Copland, Christopher; Dutour, Aurélie; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Stefano; Fiocco, Marta; Fleuren, Emmy; Gaspar, Nathalie; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerrand, Craig; Gerß, Joachim; Gonzato, Ornella; van der Graaf, Winette; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Herrero-Martín, David; Klco-Brosius, Stephanie; Kovar, Heinrich; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lancia, Carlo; LeDeley, Marie-Cecile; McCabe, Martin G; Metzler, Markus; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela; Picci, Piero; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Reinke, Denise; Rutkowski, Piotr; Scotlandi, Katia; Strauss, Sandra; Thomas, David; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Vassal, Gilles; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3rd Joint ENCCA-WP7, EuroSarc, EEC, PROVABES, and EURAMOS European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting, which was held at the Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna, Austria on September 24-25, 2015. The joint bone sarcoma network meetings bring together European bone sarcoma researchers to present and discuss current knowledge on bone sarcoma biology, genetics, immunology, as well as results from preclinical investigations and clinical trials, to generate novel hypotheses for collaborative biological and clinical investigations. The ultimate goal is to further improve therapy and outcome in patients with bone sarcomas.

  14. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  15. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  16. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krezdorn, N.; Limbourg, A.; Paprottka, F.J.; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R.; Vogt, P.M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours. PMID:28149254

  17. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging.

    PubMed

    Krezdorn, N; Limbourg, A; Paprottka, F J; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R; Vogt, P M

    2016-09-30

    Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours.

  18. Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Nebu C; Zarugh, Adel; Suraliwala, Khushroo H

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns.

  19. Thermal burns on lower limb resulting from laptop use: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Nebu C.; Zarugh, Adel; Suraliwala, Khushroo H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old man with a background history of incomplete quadriplegia, who sustained a second degree thermal burn of the lower limb from prolonged proximity to the extractor fan of his laptop. We have also reviewed all other reported cases of thermal burns associated with laptop use. This literature review highlights the variability in the extent of injury and the subsequent management of laptop induced burns. PMID:25593437

  20. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound depth

    PubMed Central

    Suber, Freeman; Carroll, Michael C.; Moore, Francis D.

    2007-01-01

    A major component of burn injury is caused by additional local damage from acute inflammation. Using a scald burn model in mice, we find that this part of the injury is dependent on recognition of self-antigen by specific natural IgM, leading to activation of the complement system. We propose that the depth of a burn wound is a sum of the thermal energy applied and of the degree of host inflammatory response. PMID:17360462

  1. Burns due to acid assaults in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Acid burns are not very frequent, occupying between 3% and maximum 14% of all etiologies. They mostly occur at home or at work, however there has been an increase in publications outlining chemical burns where aggression is the cause of this burn. There is a different epidemiological profile between developed countries and developing ones. It seems an ongoing upsurge is occurring in the number of registered attacks within developing countries in recent years. A cross sectional retrospective review of attacks by acid was done in Bogota, Colombia from 1995 to the first trimester 2012. A cumulative number of 35 burn patients were registered during the study period. It is found that the main target, almost the unique target, of this attack are young women belonging to low socioeconomic status with low education degree and high dependence on her partner. The patient's age mean was 22.7 years, ranging from 13 to 41 years. The physical and psychological scars were very severe.

  2. Silicon Burning and the Formation of the Iron Peak Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hix, William Raphael

    1995-01-01

    At its heart, this thesis is a study of silicon burning, the ultimate stage of nuclear energy generation in massive stars (those with masses greater than 8 times the mass of the sun) and a major contributor to the thermonuclear energy liberated by exploding supernovae. As such it is the source of the iron peak elements found in nature. With the conversion of silicon to iron taking place via a series of photodisintegrations and proton, neutron, and alpha-particle captures, silicon burning is inherently the most complicated of the nuclear burning stages. It is therefore an extremely computationally intensive process. We show that this process is further complicated because Coulomb screening of nuclear reactions plays an important role in the process of silicon burning, most importantly in the equilibrium abundances which result. Screening is also a consideration in the calculation of quasi-equilibrium abundances. Quasi-equilibrium (QSE), due to the near balance of opposing pairs of reactions during silicon burning, is an important tool to understanding the process of silicon burning. We find that the physics of silicon burning is dominated by the formation of 2 quasi-equilibrium groups, one centered on silicon and the other containing the iron peak elements. We further find that the degree of neutronization has a profound effect on quasi-equilibrium. For larger degrees of neutronization the QSE groups remain separate to much greater degrees of silicon exhaustion. Furthermore, the degree of neutronization is important in determining the membership of the quasi-equilibrium groups, the reaction fluxes which link these groups, and the rate of silicon exhaustion. We utilize the concept of quasi-equilibrium, to develop a new approximation for calculating the nuclear abundance distribution during silicon burning. The speed and accuracy of this quasi-equilibrium approximation allows us to discuss a method for studying the temporal evolution of silicon burning without

  3. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-08

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  4. Chromatic analysis of burn scar based on ANN by using photoelectrical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baikun; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong; Zhang, Mingjian; Wang, Qifang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel method for the chromatic analysis of burn scar is proposed. The aim of the algorithm is to evaluate the curative effect and set up the treatment plan pertinently, because the scar color is an impersonal parameter reflects the degree of scar hypertrophy. The method is based on artificial neural network (ANN) by using photoelectrical technique, and composed of three main parts: firstly capture the digital color images of the burn scar using CCD camera, then change the RGB color data of the burn scar into that of HSB color space and emend it using ANN, lastly judge the degree of burn scar hypertrophy by chromatic analysis using ANN again. The experimental results were good conformed to the degrees of scar hypertrophy given by clinical evaluations. It suggests that the chromatic analysis technique of the burn scar is valuable for further study and apply to the clinical engineering.

  5. Effects of Minoxidil Gel on Burn Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeli, Payam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rohani, Shohreh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil has been reported to inhibit in-vitro fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. These in-vitro effects proposed minoxidil to be a potential antifibrotic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of minoxidil gel on wound healing procedure in a second-degree burn model in rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and a second-degree burn was induced on the back of Wistar rats using a heated 2 cm diameter metal plate. Experimental groups received 2% or 5% topical minoxidil gel, dexpanthenol or sliver sulfadiazine. Histological parameters including collagen content, angiogenesis, number of preserved follicles and necrosis along with tensile strength of burn wound area were assessed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-injury.Microscopic evaluation of specimens collected from sample animals were consistent and showed a second-degree burn. Main histological findings regarding minoxidil topical usage showed that collagen content and tensile strength of burned area did not differ between groups. However, minoxidil increased the number and diameter of blood vessels significantly compared with other groups.Although minoxidil improved the process of wound-healing, our results did not support the proposed idea of its usage as an antifibrotic agent. However, to reject its possible effects as an antifibrotic agent, more objective animal models should be developed and studied. PMID:24734077

  6. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn.

  7. The Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics (3rd) Held in Paris, France on 16-19 June 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    d (x,yl) O (14) - v cose) + coso (u coso + v Sine)) where Here I cos + v sin 0 is the velocity compoonent norma l to the phase curve of tb flog...The pressure say be critten as to the th degree of freedom. , is the gen- tuh son of frre-surface and body-induced eralized norma ’, At is th. panel...the poten- wake harmonic at order A are annulled by the flow generated by each ApA distribution on eachtial, the panel width has to be small with re

  8. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  9. CAD tool for burn diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images.

  10. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  11. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Janom, H H

    2014-03-31

    Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures.

  12. [The organization of burn care].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  13. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  14. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  15. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  16. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  17. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  18. In-vivo cutaneous burn characterization and scar assay with multi-functional optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeorum; Le, Viet-Hoan; Yoon, Calvin J.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-03-01

    Research about the cutaneous burn was separated by assessment of burn depth and development of wound healing therapy. Various in vivo optical techniques were used to determined burn depth and observe the wound healing process. In this paper, we report the usage of multimodal optical coherence tomography system, which containing angiographic and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) with conventional OCT system, at burn studies. Burn was induced at 4 different degrees by control the attachment time of 75 Celsius degree heated brass rod at dorsal skin of the rat. For the burn depth assessment, we imaged the different burn degrees area. Changes of polarization sensitive signal were providing burn depth information. To see the wound healing process, each wound area imaged at long period. Conventional OCT shows the structural information about the tissue, like layer and hair follicle. Angiographic OCT provides vascular distribution and diameter of blood vessel information and PS-OCT shows birefringence tissue information. Based on the multimodal OCT data, burn depth assessment were well matched with burn induced time and wound healing process was consistent with previous wound healing report. Therefore, the multimodal OCT holds potential for burn study.

  19. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  20. Exercise following burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  1. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome.

  3. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  4. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk.

  5. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  6. Burning Fuel Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.

  7. [Burns and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Rochet, J M; Hareb, F

    2002-03-01

    Necessary principles of rehabilitation for burn patient are based on empirical findings recently corroborated by discoveries about healing pathophysiology. Risks are assessable immediately from the extensive, depth and situation of the burns, problems appear only if the dermis is affected: retraction, hypertrophy and losses of substances. To cutaneous problems it is necessary to add those linked to the prolonged immobilization and to complications of the resuscitation. To be effective, re-education has to be precocious, continuously suited to cicatricial processing and to the different therapeutic steps: resuscitation, surgical treatment, processing in a re-education and rehabilitation center, steady at home and processing of the sequelae. The processing rests on the repressive cloth port 23/24 hours during more of a year, the port of orthesis of immobilization and segmental posture (to stretch the dermis permanently) and the mobilization of articulations to avoid their stiffening. The cooperation of the patient is essential, it needs the share of therapies as well as the totality of problems and difficulties met by the patient, that they are physical, psychological, social, family or occupational. The steady has to be insured by a pluridisciplinarity team during at least the two necessary years for the cicatricial maturation.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  9. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    PubMed

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  10. Use of Topical PC-NSAIDs to Treat Burn Injury and Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0016 TITLE: Use of Topical PC-NSAIDs to Treat Burn Injury and Pain PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lenard Lichtenberger...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of Topical PC-NSAIDs to Treat Burn Injury and Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0016 5c. PROGRAM...for continued development of Indo-PC for treatment of acute pain caused by 2nd degree burn wounds. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Burn, phospholipid, NSAID

  11. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  12. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  13. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  14. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  15. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  16. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  17. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  18. Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

  19. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  20. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  1. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  2. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  3. Minor burn management: potions and lotions

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first aid for burns is to run cold water over the burn for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface area using the rule of nines. Consult a burn unit if more than 5% of the total body surface area is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep burns and burns to special areas, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical burns should also be assessed by a burn unit. For minor burns, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As burns are tetanus prone, check the patient’s immunisation status. Burns that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a burn unit. The burn unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640

  4. The year in burns 2013.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  5. Two cases of burns caused by misuse of coagulation unit and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rolly, G

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of severe burns with monitoring apparatus are described. In a female patient of 45 years, a severe third degree burn occurred by misuse of coagulation apparatus (inversion of the poles of an older Bovie apparatus), in the presence of a non-floating ECG monitoring device. A high intensity current was established from the coagulation unit, via the earth plate under the buttocks, to the indifferent electrode placed on the chest, where burns occurred. In an 8 month female baby, having laparotomy for a neuroblastoma, a third degree burn of 5 cm diameter occurred with a non-floating ECG monitor. A twin-wired disposable earth plate was placed just beneath the indifferent ECG electrode on the leg. A burning current was established between the Bovie coagulation unit and the monitor.

  6. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  7. Your College Degree: The External Degree Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haponski, William C.; And Others

    Information on undertaking an external degree program to obtain a college education is presented. An external degree program is one that has no, or minimal requirements for residence (on-campus attendance). Most often it can be entered at any time of the year and usually grants credit for documented learning already acquired. An external degree…

  8. Assessment and management of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Martyn; Swales, Beverley

    Burns are a common injury in the UK. Most burns are limited in size and depth and are therefore suitable for management in the community. Primary care and non-specialist clinicians need to understand initial assessment of the burn and when referral to a specialist burns unit is indicated. Successful treatment of minor burns and ongoing care of severe burns in the community requires careful selection of dressings to support wound healing and achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

  9. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor".

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M

    2014-06-30

    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  10. [Resuscitation of the burned child in critical condition].

    PubMed

    Sanabria Carretero, P; Vogel, C; Reinoso-Barbero, F; López Gutíerrez, J C

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in surgical techniques, control of infection and nutritional support have dramatically increased the survival rates of burned children. The characteristics of severely burned pediatric patients dictate that management be different from that required for adults in the intensive care unit. The formulas for fluid replacement should be based on body surface rather than weight in children and adjusted for degree of stress and age, with appropriate monitoring and treatment of hypothermia, pain and associated psychological disorders. Early assessment and treatment of airway obstruction and gas and smoke inhalation syndromes with high FiO2 is necessary; prophylactic endotracheal intubation may be required.

  11. The External Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  12. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  13. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

  14. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  15. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    hypernatremia. • Administration of high-dose ascorbic acid may decrease overall fluid requirements, and is wor- thy of further study. OVERVIEW Purpose...The purpose of this guideline is to review the princi- ples of resuscitation after burn injury, including type and rate of fluid administration , and...organ dysfunction caused by inadequate resuscitation has become uncommon in modern American burn care. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well

  16. Colonization of burn wounds in Ain Shams University Burn Unit.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Salah; Mabrouk, Amr; Maher, Ashraf

    2003-05-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 70 burned patients admitted to the Burn Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, with the aim to verify the pattern of microbial colonization of burn wounds. Throughout the study period starting from 1 June 1999 till 31 May 2001, 281 sampling procedures (surface swabs) were performed from the burn wounds. A total of 301 microbial isolates were grown in cultures. Eight different species of bacteria, and only one species of Candida (C. albicans) were detected. There was no incidence of recovery of anaerobic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the most frequent isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%), then Escherichia coli (13.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (11.6%), Streptococcus pyogenes (8.3%), Enterobacter species (6.6%), and lastly Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans (5.9 and 3.6%, respectively). Studying the time-related changes in burn wound microbial colonization showed an initial predominance of gram-positive cocci upon admission (70.7%) over gram-negative bacilli (27.6%). During the first 5 days, gram-negative bacilli started to predominate (55.7%) over gram-positive cocci (40.3%). Burn wound sampling performed starting from the sixth day onwards, revealed further prevalence of gram-negative bacilli (72.7%) over gram-positive cocci (22.7%). As for Candida albicans, there was a gradual increase in the frequency of its recovery as time elapsed from admission. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. Falsely raised whole blood chloride caused by systemic absorption of cerium nitrate cream for burns.

    PubMed

    Ha, Leah Y; Woollard, Gerald A; Chiu, Weldon W

    2015-03-01

    Whole blood, serum or plasma chloride is almost exclusively measured by potentiometry with an ion-selective chloride electrode which utilizes membrane selectivity to chloride ions. Other anions such as bromide, iodide and thiosulphate can interfere but usually are not present in high enough concentration to cause significant cross reactivity. A patient from our burns unit had serial chloride measurements on a Radiometer ABL800 blood gas analyser. The results were higher in contrast to plasma measurements on the Abbott Architect Ci8200, which were within reference intervals and in line with the patient's pathophysiological status. This indicated a likely interference with the blood gas analyser chloride estimation. The chloride results on the ABL800 for 3rd, 4th and 5th day after the burn accident were 170, 137 and 119 mmol/L. Corresponding plasma chloride results on the Ci8200 were all around 105 mmol/L. Nitrate was found to be markedly elevated in these samples, and the results were 6.7, 4.9 and 1.1 mmol/L, respectively (reference limit < 0.08 mmol/L). To further demonstrate nitrate was the causative agent, pooled plasma spiked with 7 mmol/L of sodium nitrate caused a rise in the ABL800 chloride from 105 to 202 mmol/L. Later we confirmed that the patient was topically medicated with cerium nitrate cream (Flammacerium®, Sinclair IS Pharma, UK) for his burns. In summary, the results clearly indicated nitrate was the interferent with the ABL800 chloride estimation and the source was the topical burns cerium nitrate cream.

  18. Optimal low-thrust, three-burn orbit transfers with large plane changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zondervan, K. P.; Wood, L. J.; Caughey, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optimal low-thrust, three-burn solutions have been obtained for orbit transfers between a 28.5-degree inclined low earth orbit and a series of 63.4-degree inclined circular orbits as well as a series of 63.4-degree inclined elliptical orbits with twelve hour periods. Solutions have also been obtained for orbit transfers between 97-degree inclined orbits and a 57-degree inclined low earth orbit. Thrust to weight ratios as low as 0.02 were considered. A hybrid nonlinear programming method was used to obtain the solutions. Analysis of the optimal steering during various burns reveals a natural division of the steering strategies into two categories based on whether a burn results in a change predominantly in semi-major axis or orbit plane. The similarity of these optimal steering strategies to previously obtained simple near-optimal steering strategies is discussed.

  19. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  20. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  1. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  3. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  4. Extensive burns caused by the abusive use of photosensitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Braye, F; Latarjet, J; Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Tranchand, P; Boucaud, C

    1997-01-01

    Psoralens are photosensitizing agents used in dermatology as reinforcements in psoralen ultraviolet A-range therapy. We report observations of 14 young women hospitalized for severe burns caused by abusive use of psoralens. The burns were of superficial and deep second-degree depth and covered more than 76% of the body surface on average. All patients needed fluid resuscitation. Hospital stay was 11 days on average. Healing was obtained without skin grafting in all cases. Among the six patients who responded to the mailed questionnaire, negative effects are now present in all patients as inflammatory peaks. Two patients have esthetic sequelae such as dyschromia and scars. The misuse of photosensitizing agents poses many problems. These accidents are very expensive. The largeness of the burned surface can involve a fatal prognosis. And finally, one can suspect that a much larger portion of the population regularly uses these products without any serious accident. In this case carcinogenesis can be expected.

  5. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  6. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  7. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  8. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phonekeo, V.; Samarakoon, L.; Saphangthong, T.

    2014-02-01

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern.

  9. Cardiac output after burn injury.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, J. M.; Shakespeare, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac output after burn injury has been measured by the non-invasive method of impedance plethysmography. An initial study of 143 normal subjects was undertaken in order to investigate variations in cardiac output with age. Fifteen patients were monitored during resuscitation after extensive burns. Fourteen patients showed a depression of stroke volume below the lower limits of the normal range, derived from the initial study on normal people. PMID:6691694

  10. Infectious Complications After Burn Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    and burn wound Epidemiology of infection sepsis’ through the use of effective topical antimicrobial agents and timely excision and grafting have...and early closure of the burn woundthe epidemiology of infection have occurred, resulting in have become standard practice; at the same time, the a...airway and gastrointestinal tract. vasive wound infection , endocarditis , or suppurative Perioperative antibiotic use. thrombophlebitis are common causes

  11. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Insensate skin and chronic medical illness such as diabetes mellitus were common risk factors. The scald potential from hydrotherapy in patients with... diabetic or other neuropathy is well document- cd.46.47 A second group at risk arc patients requiring cutaneous, fusciocuraneous, or myocutancous flap...excrcmity burns related to scnsorv loss in diabetes mellitus. 1 fam Pract 1987;24 (2):149-51. 47. Balakrishnan C, Rak TP, Meininger MS. Burns of the

  12. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    finally allow us to follow the ACS program in bariatric surgery and link quality-based purchasing with verification. For this col- laborative...University of Washington Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington. See under consensus statements for author affiliations. The 2012 ABA burn...correspondence to Nicole S. Gibran MD, FACS, UW Medicine Regional Burn Center, UW Medicine Department of Surgery , Seattle, Washington 98104. Copyright

  13. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  14. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  17. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  18. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  19. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  1. 50 CFR 35.10 - Controlled burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlled burning. 35.10 Section 35.10 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... burning. Controlled burning will be permitted on wilderness units when such burning will contribute to...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier...

  3. How Much Global Burned Area Can Be Forecast on Seasonal Time Scales Using Sea Surface Temperatures?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48 of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p < 0.01 level using a single ocean climate index (OCI) 3 or more months prior to the month of peak burning. Continental regions where burned area had a higher degree of predictability included equatorial Asia, where 92% of the burned area exceeded the correlation threshold, and Central America, where 86% of the burned area exceeded this threshold. Pacific Ocean indices describing the El Nino-Southern Oscillation were more important than indices from other ocean basins, accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI-burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  4. How much global burned area can be forecast on seasonal time scales using sea surface temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48% of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p < 0.01 level using a single ocean climate index (OCI) 3 or more months prior to the month of peak burning. Continental regions where burned area had a higher degree of predictability included equatorial Asia, where 92% of the burned area exceeded the correlation threshold, and Central America, where 86% of the burned area exceeded this threshold. Pacific Ocean indices describing the El Niño-Southern Oscillation were more important than indices from other ocean basins, accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI—burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  5. Reconstruction of the pediatric burned hand.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert L

    2009-11-01

    Though the hand constitutes only 3% of the total body surface area, a burned hand is a major injury. Reconstruction of the burned hand is key to the overall rehabilitation of the burned patient. Whether an isolated injury, or part of burns to a large overall body surface area, loss of the hand represents a major functional impairment. The American Burn Association recognizes the importance of the burned hand by designating it a major injury. In addition, loss of the hand constitutes a 57% loss of function for the whole person. Thus, successful management of the burned hand is important.

  6. [Acute respiratory insufficiency in burn patients from smoke inhalation].

    PubMed

    Gartner, R; Griffe, O; Captier, G; Selloumi, D; Otman, S; Brabet, M; Baro, B

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory injuries by smoke inhalation are one of the most frequent reasons for acute respiratory failure in burn victims. They are most often of chemical origin and are responsible of a 20 to 70% increase of the mortality compared to the mortality of patients with similar burn injuries, but without inhalation lesions. They are often associated to a certain degree to other factors of acute respiratory failure: superior air way obstruction by oedema in face and neck burns, thoracic expansion hindrance due to thoracic burns, lung trauma lesions by blast injury. The generalized inflammatory reaction due to the extent of burns and an initial inadequate resuscitation are worsening factors. The inflammatory process may be responsible of lung injuries similar to those induced by smoke inhalation, even when there is no inhalation. The treatment remains symptomatic and based on the oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, prevention of infections and maintain of homeostasis by hydroelectrolytic adequate resuscitation. The nitric oxyde associated to the almitrin allows in a certain number of cases to minimize intra pulmonary shunting and to normalize the VA/O ratio. The development of treatments allowing to modulate inflammatory mediators may lead to news therapies in the future.

  7. [Preliminary Study on the Structural Characteristics of Residue from Rice Straw Burning in Field].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-chao; Chen, Li-na; Yin, Yong; Huang, Zhao-qin; Dai, Jing-yu

    2015-07-01

    Because of their special structural characteristics, straw burning residues (biochar) have important impacts on the soil carbon sequestration and the transport and transformation behavior of pollutants. In this paper, a series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study the basic physical and chemical properties and structural features of rice straw burning residues generating at different incineration intensity in field. The results show that: the basic physical and chemical properties of straw burning residues from field were closely associated with the burning intensity. The higher the burning intensity, the lower the TOC content. Meanwhile, the order degree of carbon atoms in the resulting residue increased. Wherein the fatty component of rice straw burning residues is gradually reduced with the burning intensity while the aromaticity of rice straw burning residues is gradually increased. In addition, the organic components in the straw burning residues from field have more significant contribution to the surface area.

  8. Spatiotemporal progression of cell death in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; McClain, Steve A.; Lin, Fubao; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Burns are dynamic injuries, characterized by progressive death of surrounding tissue over time. Though central to an understanding of burn injury progression, the spatiotemporal degrees and rates of cellular necrosis and apoptosis in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns are not well characterized. Using a validated porcine hot comb model, we probed periburn tissue at 1, 4, and 24 hours after injury for high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a marker of necrosis and activated cleaved caspase 3 (CC3a) as a marker of apoptosis, followed by spatiotemporal morphometric analysis. We found that necrosis was the most prominent mechanism of cell death in burn injury progression, with significant progression between 1 and 4 hours post-burn. Apoptosis appeared not to play a role in early burn injury progression, but was observed in cells at the interface of necrotic and viable tissue at 24 hours post-burn. Our findings imply that intervention within the first 4 hours following injury is likely necessary to limit burn injury progression. Additionally, based on HMGB1 staining patterns, we define distinct early, intermediate and late pathological signs of cell necrosis that may facilitate delineation of causal mechanistic relationships of burn injury progression in vivo. PMID:22092800

  9. "Put on your face to face the world": women's narratives of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tevya A; Medved, Maria I; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Brockmeier, Jens; Sareen, Jitender; Thakrar, Sulaye; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2013-12-01

    The survival rate of individuals with burn injury has significantly increased due to medical advances in burn care. This has led to a need to focus on psychological aspects of burn injury recovery, particularly on how people come to terms with their changed bodies. The literature suggests that burn size and severity are not directly associated with the degree of distress but that subjective perceptions and interpretations - of, for instance, body image - are pertinent. Body image appears to be particularly important for women and thus, in this study, we investigated women's experiences of their bodies following mild to moderate burns. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 female burn survivors in the first year after injury, using methods of narrative analysis for the investigations of the transcripts. Thirteen consecutive women who met inclusion criterion were approached at regional burn care follow-up clinic. In their narratives, the women predominantly emphasized how well they were doing; however, counter-narratives emerged indicating dissatisfaction and distress. The tension between these two different kinds of narratives suggests an ambivalent relationship with the burn injury. We concluded that it is imperative for health care professionals to be cognizant of these conflicting experiences in order to adequately address burn survivors' needs in rehabilitation.

  10. Temperature responses in severely burned children during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    The authors have previously described thermoregulatory responses of severely burned children during submaximal exercise in a thermoneutral environment. However, the thermoregulatory response of burned children to exercise in the heat is not well understood and could have important safety implications for rehabilitation. Children (n = 10) with >40% TBSA burns and nonburned children (n = 10) performed a 30-minute bout of treadmill exercise at 75% of their peak aerobic power in a heated environment. Intestinal temperature, burned and unburned skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded pre-exercise, every 2 minutes during exercise, and during recovery. Three of the 10 burned children completed the exercise bout in the heat; however, all the nonburned children completed the 30-minute bout. One burned child reached a core body temperature >39 degrees C at minute 23. Burned children had significantly higher core body temperature through the first 12 minutes of exercise compared with nonburned children. However, nine of 10 (90%) burned children did not become hyperthermic during exercise in the heat. Specific to this study, hyperthermia did not typically occur in burned children, relative to nonburned children. Whether this is due to an intolerance to exercise in the heat or to an inability to generate sufficient heat during exercise needs to be explored further.

  11. [Unusual and fatal type of burn injury: hot air sauna burn].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Koljonen, V

    2007-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a popular recreational activity in Finland and is generally considered safe even for pregnant women and patients suffering from heart problems; but mixing alcohol with sauna bathing can be hazardous. In the normal Finnish recreational sauna the temperature is usually between 80 and 90 degrees C. A wide variety of burn injuries, in all age groups, are related to sauna bathing; scalds and contact burns account for over 85% while hot air, steam and flame burns for only 15%. Dehydration in patients under the influence of alcohol heightens the risk of hypotension which impairs skin blood circulation. This increased warming of the skin is an effect that is more marked on the outer and upper parts of the body exposed to hot air. Such patients require intensive care on admission: fluid replacement according to the Parkland formula, forced diuresis and immediate correction of acidosis and myoglobinuria. These patients have significant rhabdomyolysis on admission. The best predictor of survival is the creatine kinase level on the second post-injury day. CT scans are necessary to diagnose the underlying conditions of unconsciousness. The necrotic area extends to subcutaneous fat tissue and even to the underlying muscles. The level of excision is typically fascial and, in some areas, layers of the muscle must be removed. Owing to the popularity of sauna bathing throughout the world, it is important to know the extent of damage in this type of injury, in order not to underestimate the severity of such lesions.

  12. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  13. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  14. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  15. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  16. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  17. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  18. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  19. How to manage burns in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268745

  20. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  1. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  2. Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, Eric G.

    2004-08-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an updated and expanded section on computer applications in radiation therapy and electron beam therapy, and features enhanced user-friendliness and visual appeal with a new, easy-to-follow format, including sidebars and a larger trim size. With its user-friendly presentation and broad, comprehensive coverage of radiotherapy physics, this Third Edition doubles as a medical text and handy professional reference.

  3. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  4. Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought into a new sequence. 5. The umbrella function of WRB aims to allow the allocation of soil classes existing in a national classification system within the WRB. Characteristics that in a national system are regarded to be important must be considered in WRB - not necessarily at the highest level, but at least somewhere. The third edition of WRB allows a better accommodation of soil types, e.g., of the Australian and the Brazilian system. 6. Some environments or even ecoregions had not been well represented in WRB. The third edition allows a better accommodation of soils of ultra-continental permafrost regions, acid-sulphate soils and Technosols. 7. How to explain complicated sets of characteristics? For the third edition, efforts were made to give better structured definitions that can be more easily grasped. The editors of the third edition are convinced that the new WRB allows a more precise classification of soils including both, a better naming of pedons and a better elaboration of soil map legends.

  5. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  6. Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham

    2003-03-01

    Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.

  7. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  8. Cerebral computed tomography, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, L.; Nice, C.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the utilization of computed tomography in evaluating patients with intracranial and orbital disorders. It features clinical correlations and provides an overview of general principles, performance, and normal anatomy of CT. It covers evaluation of specific neurologic signs and symptoms, including stroke, metastatic disease, increased intracranial pressure, head injury, pediatric conditions, and more.

  9. Peace Corps. 3rd Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the third year of the Peace Corps. An introduction comments on returning volunteers and presents regional maps with tables for Latin America, Africa, Near East and South Asia, and Far East. Section 1 contains letters and reports from volunteers in Peru, Ivory Coast,…

  10. 3RD Symposium on Applied Surface Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    lithium -- a condition which occurs during under-potential discharge. The surface studies of lithium on carbon showed lithium to be much more mobile in...of surface chemistry. The talk will begin with a summary of results for carbon monoxide chemisorbed on supported Rh as studied by transmission... lithium anode and the high surface-area Shawinigan Black current collector of the Li-LiAsF6 -AN-SO2 battery system have been ana- lyzed by XPS, SAM and

  11. DDN New User Guide, 3rd Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-05

    incomplete or incorrect address is returned to the sender with an error message. If a mail message is undeliverable due to network or machine problems, most... mail programs try to resend it several times before returning it to the sender . Many mail programs allow you to use a local text editor to revise or...username and password. These may be entered in either upper or lowercase. After a successful login, InfoMail notifies user of mail in his " Inbox ." INBOX

  12. LA50 in burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-Forootan, K.; Karimi, H.; Motevalian, S.A.; Momeni, M.; Safari, R.; Ghadarjani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months – 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country PMID:27857645

  13. LA50 in burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P < 0.05). LA50 values showed that children tolerate more extensive burns. Female sex, burn size, age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  14. The uncertainty in burn prediction as a result of variable skin parameters: an experimental evaluation of burn-protective outfits.

    PubMed

    Gasperin, Matej; Juricić, Dani

    2009-11-01

    The reliable prediction of burns, resulting from exposure to elevated levels of heat, received early interest in physiology and later on in various branches of applied research and engineering. In this paper we address the problem of estimating the extent of skin burns in the context of a quantitative assessment of protective garments from the statistical point of view. We rely on the experimental platform built around the thermal mannequin equipped with an array of thermal sensors. The dressed mannequin is first exposed to the flash fire, in order to determine the incident heat flux on the mannequin's surface. This information is then used in a heat-transfer model of the skin, the result of which is an estimate of the degree of injury that would occur to a human exposed to the same flame conditions. The methods used so far, employed a deterministic skin model defined with the nominal thermal and geometrical parameters. However, skin properties differ from human to human and from one location on the body to another; this results in different configurations of the areas affected by injuries. In this paper we apply a Monte-Carlo approach to estimate the dispersion of the burns over a broad population of humans. The results obtained from experimental data records indicate that the variations in the dermis are the most decisive for increased dispersions at the estimated second- and third-degree burn areas.

  15. Costs, affordability, and feasibility of an essential package of cancer control interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Gelband, Hellen; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Horton, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin O; Bray, Freddie; Cleary, James; Dare, Anna J; Denny, Lynette; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C; Jaffray, David A; Knaul, Felicia; Levin, Carol; Rabeneck, Linda; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sullivan, Terrence; Trimble, Edward L; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-05-21

    Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as “an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions.” BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  17. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  18. Exercise behaviors after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients.

  20. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29

  1. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

  2. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  3. When are burns not accidental?

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J

    1986-04-01

    One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis.

  4. In vivo imaging of dermal collagen in skin burn by collagen-sensitive second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Optical assessment of skin burns is possible with second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy due to its high sensitivity to thermal denaturation of collagen molecules. In contrast to previous studies that were performed using excised tissue specimens ex vivo, in this study, we demonstrated in vivo observation of dermal collagen fibers in living rat burn models with SHG microscopy. We confirmed that changes in SHG vanishing patterns in the SHG images depended on the burn degree. The results imply that SHG microscopy can be used as a low-invasiveness, highly quantitative tool for skin burn assessment.

  5. Enhancement of burning velocity by dissociated oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Green technology, such as preventing global warming, has been developed for years. Researches on plasma assisted combustion is one of the technologies and have been done for investigating more efficient combustion, more efficient use of fossil fuel with plasmas or applying electric fields. In the ignition time delay analyses with the dissociated oxygen atoms which is generated by non-equilibrium plasma had significant effect on the ignition time. In this paper, dissociated oxygen could effect on burning velocity or not has been examined using CHEMKIN. As a result, no effect can be seen with dissociation degree of lower than 10-3. But there is an effect on the enhancement of burning velocity with higher degree of 10-3. At the dissociation degree of 5×10-2, the burning velocity is enhanced at a factor of 1.24. And it is found that the distributions of each species in front of preheat zone are completely different. The combustion process is proceeded several steps in advance, and generation of H2O, CO and CO2 can be seen before combustion in higher dissociation case. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  6. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  7. Butane Hash Oil Burns: A 7-Year Perspective on a Growing Problem.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Kathleen S; Barsun, Alura; Kwan, Peter; Teo, Esther H; Palmieri, Tina L; Sen, Soman; Maguina, Pirko; Greenhalgh, David G

    With the legalization of marijuana in four states, and decriminalization in many others, marijuana is becoming easier to obtain. The authors have experienced an increase in burn injuries related to the production of butane hash oil (BHO; a concentrated tetrahydrocannabinol product produced by the distillation of marijuana plant products with pressurized butane). This article updates our experience and highlights the increasing public health problem associated with these burns. Charts of patients who presented to the burn center with suspicion of BHO-related injuries between January 2007 and December 2014 were examined. Data collected included demographics, injury characteristics, treatment utilized, and outcomes. Charts of 101 patients were identified as having BHO-related burn injury. The mean age of these patients was 30.5 ± 10.6 years (mean ± standard deviation, range: 2-55 years) and 93.1% were male. Patients sustained a mean of 26.8 ± 24.1% TBSA burn with 14.3 ± 25.1% third degree burns. Three patients died as the result of their injuries. Patients required a mean of 12 ± 48.4 ventilator days, and 27.1 ± 59.4 days in the hospital. The number of patients presenting with these burns increased over the past 7 years. BHO burns occur most commonly in February (12 patients), on Wednesday (19 patients), and between 18:00 and 06:00 (58 patients). There has been a sharp increase in the number of patients presenting with burn-associated BHO production in the region over the past 7 years. The authors as burn care providers need to increase public awareness of this issue and aid in the development of legislation to help prevent these burns before it becomes a public health crisis.

  8. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on experimental burn wound healing in rats: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bilic, I; Petri, N M; Bezic, J; Alfirevic, D; Modun, D; Capkun, V; Bota, B

    2005-01-01

    A body of data supports the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in the treatment of thermal burns, but the role of HBO2 in the treatment of burn injury remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible positive effects of HBO2 on the experimental burn wound healing. Deep second degree burns were produced on the depilated backs of 70 male Wistar rats using a validated burn protocol. The animals were assigned randomly to one of two groups: 35 to the control group, which was treated with silver sulphadiazine and placebo gas, and 35 to the experimental group, which was treated with silver sulphadiazine and HBO2. The main outcome measure was wound healing, characterized by formation of post-burn edema, neoangiogenesis, number of regeneratory active follicles, necrosis staging, margination of leukocytes, and time of epithelization. A significant reduction of the post-burn edema after treatment with HBO2 (p = 0.009) was found. HBO2 had a beneficial effect on neoangiogenesis (p = 0.009). The number of preserved regeneratory active follicles was significantly higher (p = 0.009) and epithelial regeneration was more rapid in the experimental group (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences for margination of leukocytes (p = 0.55) or necrosis staging (p = 1.00). These data further support earlier conclusions that HBO2 is beneficial in the healing of burn wounds.

  9. Analysis of rugae in burn victims and cadavers to simulate rugae identification in cases of incineration and decomposition.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, M; Limson, K S; Julian, R

    2005-06-01

    The most challenging situations in Forensic Odonto-Stomatology are mass disasters, where the forensic dentist is usually confronted with charred human remains or heavily decomposed or fragmented bodies. This article determines the extent of preservation of palatal rugae for use as an alternative identification tool in such situations, using a study group comprising burn victims and cadavers simulating forensic cases of incineration and decomposition. The thermal effects and the decomposition changes on the palatal rugae of burn victims with panfacial third degree burns and human cadavers in storage were respectively assessed and graded on a new scale. Ninety three percent of burn victims and 77% of human cadavers had Grade 0 changes (normal). When changes were noted, they were less pronounced than the generalized body involvement of burns in burn victims and the generalized body decomposition of human cadavers.

  10. Suppressants for lowering propellant binder burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    Addition of boron compound to lower burning rate of solid propellant binder is reported. Chemical reactions involved in propellant binder modification are described. Advantages of method for lowering burning rate are analyzed.

  11. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Search The CDC Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries are Preventable Note: Javascript is disabled ... ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Key Prevention Tips To prevent burns ...

  12. Management of burns in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sittah, G.S.; Chahine, F.M.; Janom, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population. Surgical and medical interventions used for the management of geriatric burns remain a field of controversy and ongoing debate. Improvement of burn management with reduction in mortality in this age group warrants addressing survivors’ quality of life, with a special focus on rehabilitation and support. PMID:28289356

  13. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  14. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work.

  15. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect solution...of the degradation-resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings...Identified membrane stiffness as a critical parameter for a successful cornea -protective membrane and quantitatively assessed this parameter

  16. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect... cornea as is done in amniotic membrane transplantation . However we proposed and, have now tested, an alternative method for securing the... cornea of burn patients that were produced in Year 1. Major findings: Established that 2 and 3 layer crosslinked amniotic membrane composites are more

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  18. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  19. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients.

  20. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  1. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  2. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  3. [Progress in individual identification of burned bones].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-dong; Ren, Fu; Xing, Rui-xian; Pei, Lin-guo

    2009-02-01

    The burned bone DNA test have became more and more important in identifying the individuals and paternity involved in the fire, explosion disasters as well as burn corpse crimes. As an important genetic marker system, STR has been widely used in forensic individual identification, paternity test and other fields. In this article, the influence of burned temperature and time to STR typing was reviewed, the choice of STR locus and DNA extraction methods were discussed about burned bones.

  4. GATEWAYS: Degree program alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, K.R.; Thayer, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is using non-traditional solutions to assist employees in attaining degrees required for essential Laboratory operations. Varieties of distance learning technologies have been implemented to meet some degree needs. While distance learning is not always a perfect solution, it enables the Laboratory to provide education that would otherwise not be practical for full-time employees. The Laboratory has also formed partnerships with local colleges to design programs to fill particular needs. Meeting the challenge of providing cost-effective, viable degree programs in an isolated location requires both patience and innovation.

  5. Burn properties of fabrics and garments worn in India.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, S B; Kale, S R; Mohan, D

    2000-05-01

    A full-scale human form dummy was designed for studying the burning of common dress assemblies (i.e. combination of garments) worn in India. The dummy was made in eight parts; each made of a steel shell filled with water so as to replicate properties of skin-tissue combination. Four thermocouples were fixed on the dummy for measuring torso, neck and face temperatures. The dummy was clothed separately in three women's dress assemblies (saree, salwar-khameez and nightgown) and men's dress assemblies (kurta-pyjama, shirt-pant and lungi), and ignited at the feet by a flat flame. The tests showed that loose fitting garments burnt easily. Once completely burnt, all dress assemblies result in third degree burns over most of the body. The burning process of synthetics is radically different from cottons or cotton-polyester blends. However, flame duration and temperatures produced on the skin are not radically different, suggesting that on the whole synthetics are no worse than cotton garments. Thick garments, such as, jeans and khadi, do not ignite easily and are inherently safer than similar garments made of light fabric. The studies show that results of standard flammability tests using single fabric strips do not correlate with the burning observed in garments as part of a dress where multilayering is common. Standards/codes for fire safety of garments and garment-dress assembly combinations need to be evolved to adequately address their fire safety.

  6. The application of moist dressing in treating burn wound

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Basic experiments have demonstrated that the effect of wound healing in moist environments is better than that in dry environments; therefore, research on moist dressing is the focus of wound healing research. 42 burn patients receiving treatment in Jiangsu Provincial People’s Hospital were selected as experimental cases. Wound surface is divided into treatment group and control group using a self-contrasted method. The treatment group received a moist dressing in the treatment of burn wounds and the control group adopted iodine gauze or Vaseline gauze coverage. Wound healing effect and the impact on the degree of pain of in the two different treatment methods were observed after treatment. The results of 42 patients were included in the analysis. The average healing time of patients’ burn wounds in treatment group is (10.9 3.3) d, and the average healing time in control group is (13.8 3.6) d, so, the difference is significant (P<0.01). Wound pain in the treatment group is significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). Using moist dressing (Mepitel and Mepilex, etc.) in the treatment of burn wounds, wound-healing time can be shortened and wound pain can be reduced significantly. PMID:28352735

  7. A major burn injury in a liver transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Delikonstantinou, I.; Philp, B.; Kamel, D.; Barnes, D.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate the clinical course of a burned patient, primarily affecting wound healing and thus complicating permanent wound coverage. We hereby present the successful management of a 48-year-old female liver transplant recipient with a major burn injury, aiming to elucidate the effects of the patient’s immunosuppression on surgical treatment. After admission to the Burns ITU, the patient underwent serial debridement of the burn and coverage with cryopreserved allografts. Despite immunosuppression, no prolonged survival of the allo-epidermis was documented. Nevertheless, a variable degree of vascularized allo-dermis was clinically identified. She subsequently underwent skin autografting and was discharged home with most of the wounds healed. Although there are isolated reports of survival of skin allografts in immunocompromised patients, in our case the allografted skin did not provide permanent wound coverage. However, it permitted a staged surgical management, allowing the immunosuppressive regime to change, the skin donor sites to heal and it also provided a dermal scaffold for successful skin autografting. PMID:28149251

  8. [Burn-out and engagement among oral surgeons].

    PubMed

    Gorter, R C; Jacobs, B L T H; Allard, R H B

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure Dutch oral surgeons' levels of burn-out risk and the contributing role of demanding working conditions. In addition, the extent of work engagement was considered, and which stimulating working conditions contributed to it. All 179 Dutch oral surgeons registered in the Dutch Dental Association's files received a questionnaire by means of which burn-out, work engagement and both demanding and stimulating aspects from the work environment could be measured. Based upon a 70% response, it can be concluded that Dutch oral surgeons have a relatively low risk of burn-out and a high degree of engagement. Demanding working conditions which explain the differences in the risk of burn-out are: 'Pressure of work and clinic organization', and 'Lack of variation and perspective in work'. Differences in enthusiasm were best explained by 'Variety in work', and 'Positive effect upon patients'. It is remarkable that the mean for all demanding aspects of work is relatively low and the mean for all stimulating aspects is relatively high.

  9. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...

  11. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open burning. 52.273 Section 52.273... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.273 Open burning. (a) The following rules or portions of rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open...

  12. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open burning. 52.273 Section 52.273... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.273 Open burning. (a) The following rules or portions of rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open...

  13. Subeschar Treatment of Burn-Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    treatment for day and sulfadiazine silver cream during the night. The wound was the burn wound that becomes infected despite topical cleansed daily, by... sulfadiazine silver burn cream was discon- Houston, San Antonio, TX 78234 (Dr McManus). tinued, and the burn wound treated with mafenide acetate cream Arch

  14. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    PubMed

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  15. The morphology of cutaneous burn injuries and the type of heat application.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, T; Pfeiffer, H; Pellerin, P; Karger, B

    2009-05-30

    The morphology of burn injuries in 120 consecutive patients from the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, CHR, Hospital B in Lille was correlated to the etiology and type of heat. Analysis identified five typical patterns of cutaneous burn injuries. Jet of flame-pattern from methylated spirits and gasoline detonations: superficial burn injuries; sparing of skin wrinkles and the submental region; absence or small amounts of soot; preference of exposed body regions, esp. the face and hands. Explosion-pattern from explosions and electrothermal injuries: superficial burn injuries; sparing of skin wrinkles but not of the submental region; soot; preference of exposed body regions. Alveolar soot arrangement and metallisation in electrothermal injuries. Considerable third-degree burns in dust explosions. Flame-pattern from direct flame effects due to burning gasoline or oil, open fires or ignited clothing: nonuniform depth including large third-degree burns; no sparing of the submental region; soot; preference of body regions covered by clothing. Immersion-pattern: superficial (bullous) injuries; blurred junction between scalded and unscalded areas; extremities, buttocks, and back are favourite sites; cave child abuse: waterlines and zebra-burns. Spilling-pattern: superficial injuries; sharp junction between scalded and unscalded areas; head, anterior trunk, and upper extremities are favourite sites; running off and splashing stains. Consideration of these patterns can assist the reconstruction in fire investigations or unclear scaldings. In cases of suspected arson, a typical burn injury pattern or a single finding not compatible with the rest of the pattern can disprove a suspect or raise the level of suspicion.

  16. Degree by Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  17. Burning Rate Transitions for HMX Burned as a Binderless Propellant,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    have shown that the regression attains velocities up to 6000 cm/s at high pressure , with pressure exponents as low as 0.3, depending on sample...base of the charge, extremely high burn rate propellant (several thou- sand cm/s or more depending on gun pressure and muzzle velocity desired) is...experiments were carried out, the calculated flame heights range from 17 to 700 cm, depending on particle size and pressure . Thus, it is not surprising that

  18. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries.

  19. A Clarion to Recommit and Reaffirm Burn Rehabilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Winnipeg , Canada; Burn Rehabilitation Department, Regions Burn Center, St Paul, Minnesota; ¶Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York...Texas; **Burn Rehabilitation, Wake Forest University Burn Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina; †† School of Physical and Occupational Therapy...California; Burn Rehabilitation Department, Shriners Burns Institute, Galveston, Texas; and ¶¶ Division of Physical Therapy, University of Utah, Salt

  20. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes.