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Sample records for 3rd generation cephalosporins

  1. Assessment of human exposure to 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) through consumption of broiler meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, P; Persoons, D; Uyttendaele, M; Butaye, P; De Zutter, L; Dierick, K; Herman, L; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Dewulf, J

    2012-09-17

    Acquired resistance of Escherichia coli to 3rd generation cephalosporin antimicrobials is a relevant issue in intensive broiler farming. In Belgium, about 35% of the E. coli strains isolated from live broilers are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins while over 60% of the broilers are found to be carrier of these 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) after selective isolation. A model aimed at estimating the exposure of the consumer to CREC by consumption of broiler meat was elaborated. This model consists of different modules that simulate the farm to fork chain starting from primary production, over slaughter, processing and distribution to storage, preparation and consumption of broiler meat. Input data were obtained from the Belgian Food Safety agencies' annual monitoring plan and results from dedicated research programs or surveys. The outcome of the model using the available baseline data estimates that the probability of exposure to 1000 colony forming units (cfu) of CREC or more during consumption of a meal containing chicken meat is ca. 1.5%, the majority of exposure being caused by cross contamination in the kitchen. The proportion of CREC (within the total number of E. coli) at primary production and the overall contamination of broiler carcasses or broiler parts with E. coli are dominant factors in the consumer exposure to CREC. The risk of this exposure for human health cannot be estimated at this stage given a lack of understanding of the factors influencing the transfer of cephalosporin antimicrobial resistance genes from these E. coli to the human intestinal bacteria and data on the further consequences of the presence of CREC on human health.

  2. [Piperacillin/tazobactam--Tazocin. A penicillin-based alternative to 3rd generation cephalosporins and carbapenems].

    PubMed

    Schønning, Kristian; Tvede, Michael

    2002-05-13

    The antibiotic piperacillin/tazobactam has recently been licensed for use in Denmark. Piperacillin/tazobactam combines a well known beta-lactam antibiotitic, piperacillin, and an inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase, tazobactam. The combination of piperacillin and tazobactam compared to piperacillin alone has an expanded antimicrobial spectrum, which includes Klebsiellae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris resistant to ampicillin, as well as beta-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus. As piperacillin in itself possesses antimicrobial activity against streptococci, enterococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the antimicrobial activity of piperacillin/tazobactam indicates that the combination may constitute an alternative to third generation cephalosporins and carbapenems in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections infections in critically ill patients and for the empirical treatment of acute neutropenic febrile patients, as indicated by clinical studies.

  3. Analysis of Salmonella enterica with reduced susceptibility to the 3rd generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, isolated from US cattle during 2000-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade enteric bacteria in Europe, Africa and Asia have become increasingly resistant to cephalosporin antimicrobials. This is largely due to the spread of genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes which can inactivate many cephalosporins. Recently these resistance me...

  4. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  5. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  6. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  7. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  8. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  9. IVHM for the 3rd Generation RLV Program: Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The objective behind the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) project is to develop and integrate the technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Technological areas discussed include: developing, validating, and transfering next generation IVHM technologies to near term industry and government reusable launch systems; focus NASA on the next generation and highly advanced sensor and software technologies; and validating IVHM systems engineering design process for future programs.

  10. New Material System for 3rd Generation IR Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    CdTe /Si composite substrates. However, in either case, HgCdSe growth experiments were conducted and material characterized . 3.2 HgCdSe Material...indeed tunable, we varied the material fluxes and measured the cut-off wavelength of the layer. Figure 6 shows several films characterized by Fourier...misfit dislocations need to be generated somewhere in the thin film stack to alleviate this energy which ultimately propagates into the IR-absorbing

  11. Structures for the 3rd Generation Reusable Concept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of NASA is to create an advance space transportation system that provides a safe, affordable highway through the air and into space. The long-term plans are to reduce the risk of crew loss to 1 in 1,000,000 missions and reduce the cost of Low-Earth Orbit by a factor of 100 from today's costs. A third generation reusable concept vehicle (RCV) was developed to assess technologies required to meet NASA's space access goals. The vehicle will launch from Cape Kennedy carrying a 25,000 lb. payload to the International Space Station (ISS). The system is an air breathing launch vehicle (ABLV) hypersonic lifting body with rockets and uses triple point hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellant. The focus of this paper is on the structural concepts and analysis methods used in developing the third generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Member sizes, concepts and material selections will be discussed as well as analysis methods used in optimizing the structure. Analysis based on the HyperSizer structural sizing software will be discussed. Design trades required to optimize structural weight will be presented.

  12. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this initiative, funded by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, is to model, validate, and predict, with high fidelity, the microstructural evolution of third-generation high-refractory Ni-based disc superalloys during heat treating and service conditions. This initiative is a natural extension of the DARPA-AIM (Accelerated Insertion of Materials) initiative with GE/Pratt-Whitney and with other process simulation tools. Strong collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a key component of this initiative and the focus of this program is on industrially relevant disk alloys and heat treatment processes identified by GRC. Employing QuesTek s Computational Materials Dynamics technology and PrecipiCalc precipitation simulator, physics-based models are being used to achieve high predictive accuracy and precision. Combining these models with experimental data and probabilistic analysis, "virtual alloy design" can be performed. The predicted microstructures can be optimized to promote desirable features and concurrently eliminate nondesirable phases that can limit the reliability and durability of the alloys. The well-calibrated and well-integrated software tools that are being applied under the proposed program will help gas turbine disk alloy manufacturers, processing facilities, and NASA, to efficiently and effectively improve the performance of current and future disk materials.

  13. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  14. Prevalence of lactose fermenting coliforms resistant to third generation cephalosporins in cattle feedlot throughout a production cycle and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Increases in incidence of human infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (3GC) have become a public health concern. The 3GC ceftiofur is commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of feedlot cattle but the impact this practice has on public h...

  15. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  16. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  17. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and…

  18. 3 rd generation 1280 x 720 FPA development status at Raytheon Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. F.; Radford, W. A.; Patten, E. A.; Graham, R. W.; McEwan, T. F.; Vodicka, J. G.; Bornfreund, R. E.; Goetz, P. M.; Venzor, G. M.; Johnson, S. M.; Jensen, J. E.; Nosho, B. Z.; Roth, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed and demonstrated the first-ever 1280 x 720 pixel dual-band MW/LWIR focal plane arrays (FPA) to support 3rd-Generation tactical IR systems under the U.S. Army's Dual-Band FPA Manufacturing (DBFM) program. The MW/LWIR detector arrays are fabricated from MBE-grown HgCdTe triple-layer heterojunction (TLHJ) wafers. The RVS dual-band FPA architecture provides highly simultaneous temporal detection in the MWIR and LWIR bands using time-division multiplexed integration (TDMI) incorporated into the readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The TDMI ROIC incorporates a high degree of integration and output flexibility, and supports both dual-band and single-band full-frame operating modes, as well as high-speed LWIR "window" operation at 480 Hz frame rate. The ROIC is hybridized to a two-color detector array using a single indium interconnect per pixel, which makes it highly producible for 20 μm unit cells and exploits mature fabrication processes currently used to produce single-color FPAs. High-quality 1280 x 720 MW/LWIR FPAs have been fabricated and excellent dual-band imagery produced at 60 Hz frame rate. The 1280 x 720 detector arrays for these FPAs have LWIR cutoff wavelengths >=10.5 μm at 78K. These FPAs have demonstrated high-sensitivity at 78K with MW NETD values < 20 mK and LW NETD values <30 mK with f/3.5 apertures. Pixel operability greater than 99.9% has been achieved in the MW band and greater than 98% in the LW band.

  19. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  20. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  1. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  2. A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-10-01

    A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

  3. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214.

  4. Concentrating-solar biomass gasification process for a 3rd generation biofuel.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Zhang, Xiangping

    2009-06-01

    A new concept of producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source is proposed in this paper. The aim of the concept is to obtain an easy to handle fuel with near-zero CO2 emission and reduced land-use requirements compared to first and second generation biofuels. The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomassto a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. H2 from water electrolysis with solar power is used for reverse water gas shift to avoid producing CO2 during the process. In a chemical process simulation, we compare the solar biofuel concept with two other advanced synfuel concepts: second generation biofuel and coal-to-liquid, both using gasification technology and capture and storage of CO2 generated in the fuel production. The solar-driventhird generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO2-neutral fuel cycle. With CO2 capture, second generation biofuel would lead to the removal of 50% of the carbon in the biomass from the atmosphere. There is a trade-off between reduced biomass feed costs and the increased capital requirements for the solar-driven process; it is attractive at intermediate biomass and CO2 prices.

  5. Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Alexander; Baumert, Philipp; Hamprecht, Axel; Rohde, Anna; Peter, Silke; Feihl, Susanne; Knobloch, Johannes; Gölz, Hanna; Kola, Axel; Obermann, Birgit; Querbach, Christiane; Willmann, Matthias; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Tacconelli, Evelina; Gastmeier, Petra; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried V

    2017-01-01

    As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.

  6. Safe Life Propulsion Design Technologies (3rd Generation Propulsion Research and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The tasks outlined in this viewgraph presentation on safe life propulsion design technologies (third generation propulsion research and technology) include the following: (1) Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) life prediction methods; (2) Life prediction methods for ultra high temperature polymer matrix composites for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and engine application; (3) Enabling design and life prediction technology for cost effective large-scale utilization of MMCs and innovative metallic material concepts; (4) Probabilistic analysis methods for brittle materials and structures; (5) Damage assessment in CMC propulsion components using nondestructive characterization techniques; and (6) High temperature structural seals for RLV applications.

  7. Third generation cephalosporins in the parenteral to oral switch.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, D

    1994-01-01

    In the present economic climate, it is increasingly necessary to ensure the cost-effectiveness of all aspects of healthcare. The expenditure on medications in a hospital is largely determined by the workload and throughput, but efforts to rationalise the use of medications will result in benefits both in patient care and overall costs. The purpose of this report is to discuss the advantages of switching from parenteral to oral cephalosporin therapy after the initial stage of infection treatment, the potential of presently available oral cephalosporins for use in a parenteral-to-oral switch regimen, and the outcome of a parenteral-to-oral switch programme, which used parenteral cefotaxime and oral cefixime, implemented at Hillingdon Hospital.

  8. Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hulbert, Steve; Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shapiro, David; Shen, Qun; Baltser, Jana

    2011-09-01

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  9. From bottom to top: Identification to precision measurement of 3rd-generation quarks with the atlas detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapp, Kevin

    The 3rd-generation quarks, bottom ( b) and top (t), are recent additions to the Standard Model of particle physics, and precise characterization of their properties have important implications to searching for new physics phenomena. This thesis presents two analyses which use 4.6 fb-1 of pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to measure their properties. The first is an analysis which measures our ability to identify jets originating from b quarks with machine-learning algorithms applied to simulated and real data, so the result in simulation can be corrected to match that in data. This measurement has implications for our ability to identify processes with b quarks in their final state; t quarks decay to a b quark and a weak vector boson W more than 99% of the time. The second analysis presented measures properties of the t → Wb decay channel associated with phenomena not predicted by the Standard Model, through a set of effective couplings which preserve Lorentz covariance. The kinematic information of the final-state particles is used to construct an event-specific coordinate system, and probability density is estimated as a function of solid angle in these coordinates. A parameterization of the effective couplings is extracted via a novel unfolding method, finding their values consistent with the Standard Model expectation, contributing the first measurement of the correlation between the parameters, and improving on previous limits.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Feces following Therapeutic Administration of Third Generation Cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lindsey; Yang, Ying; Littier, Heather; Ray, Partha; Zhang, Tong; Pruden, Amy; Strickland, Michael; Knowlton, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Although dairy manure is widely applied to land, it is relatively understudied compared to other livestock as a potential source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment and ultimately to human pathogens. Ceftiofur, the most widely used antibiotic used in U.S. dairy cows, is a 3rd generation cephalosporin, a critically important class of antibiotics to human health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical ceftiofur antibiotic treatment on the prevalence of ARGs in the fecal microbiome of dairy cows using a metagenomics approach. β-lactam ARGs were found to be elevated in feces from Holstein cows administered ceftiofur (n = 3) relative to control cows (n = 3). However, total numbers of ARGs across all classes were not measurably affected by ceftiofur treatment, likely because of dominance of unaffected tetracycline ARGs in the metagenomics libraries. Functional analysis via MG-RAST further revealed that ceftiofur treatment resulted in increases in gene sequences associated with "phages, prophages, transposable elements, and plasmids", suggesting that this treatment also enriched the ability to horizontally transfer ARGs. Additional functional shifts were noted with ceftiofur treatment (e.g., increase in genes associated with stress, chemotaxis, and resistance to toxic compounds; decrease in genes associated with metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell division and cell cycle), along with measureable taxonomic shifts (increase in Bacterioidia and decrease in Actinobacteria). This study demonstrates that ceftiofur has a broad, measureable and immediate effect on the cow fecal metagenome. Given the importance of 3rd generation cephalospirins to human medicine, their continued use in dairy cattle should be carefully considered and waste treatment strategies to slow ARG dissemination from dairy cattle manure should be explored.

  11. Increasing use of third-generation cephalosporins for pneumonia in the emergency department: may some prescriptions be avoided?

    PubMed

    Goffinet, N; Lecadet, N; Cousin, M; Peron, C; Hardouin, J-B; Batard, E; Montassier, E

    2014-07-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are used to treat inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia. Some of these prescriptions may be avoided, i.e. replaced by agents less likely to promote ESBL-mediated resistance. Our objectives were to assess the recent trend of third-generation cephalosporins use for pneumonia in the emergency department, and the proportion of avoidable prescriptions. This was a retrospective study of patients treated for community-acquired pneumonia in an emergency department, and subsequently hospitalized in non ICU wards. Third-generation cephalosporin prescriptions were presumed unavoidable if they met both criteria: (i) age ≥ 65 yr or comorbid condition, and (ii) allergy or intolerance to penicillin, or failure of penicillin first-line therapy, or treatment with penicillin in three previous months. Prescriptions were otherwise deemed avoidable. The proportion of patients treated with a third generation cephalosporin increased significantly from 13.9 % (6.9-24.1 %) in 2002 to 29.5 % (18.5-42.6 %) in 2012 (OR = 1.07 [1.01-1.14] , P = 0.02). This increase was independent from other factors associated with the prescription of a third-generation cephalosporin (immunocompromising condition, antibacterial therapy in three previous months, fluid resuscitation and REA-ICU class). Treatment with third-generation cephalosporin was avoidable in 118 out of 147 patients (80.3 % [72.7-86.2 %]). On day 7 after admission in the ED, treatment with third-generation cephalosporins was stopped or de-escalated in, respectively, 17 % and 32 % of patients. Antibiotic stewardship programs should be implemented to restrict the third-generation cephalosporins use for pneumonia in the emergency department.

  12. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours.

  13. Passive magnetic bearing in the 3rd generation miniature axial flow pump-the valvo pump 2.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Ishida, Yuya; Yano, Tetsuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    The new miniature axial flow pump (valvo pump 2) that is installed at the base of the ascending aorta consists of a six-phase stator, an impeller in which four neodymium magnets are incorporated, and passive magnetic bearings that suspend the impeller for axial levitation. The impeller is sustained by hydrodynamic force between the blade tip of the impeller and the inner housing of the stator. The passive magnetic bearing consists of a ring neodymium magnet and a columnar neodymium magnet. The ring neodymium magnet is set in the stationary side and the columnar neodymium magnet is incorporated in the impeller shaft. Both neodymium magnets are coaxially mounted, and the anterior and posterior passive magnetic bearings suspend the impeller by repulsion force against the hydrodynamic force that acts to move the impeller in the inflow port direction. The passive magnetic bearing was evaluated by a tensile test, and the levitation force of 8.5 N and stiffness of 2.45 N/mm was obtained. Performance of the axial flow pump was evaluated by an in vitro experiment. The passive magnetic bearing showed sufficient levitation capacity to suspend the impeller in an axial direction. In conclusion, the passive magnetic bearing is promising to be one of levitation technology for the third-generation axial flow blood pump.

  14. PBP 4 Mediates High-Level Resistance to New-Generation Cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Liana C.; Gilbert, Aubre; Basuino, Li; da Costa, Thaina M.; Hamilton, Stephanie M.; dos Santos, Katia R.; Chambers, Henry F.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of both hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections worldwide. β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat S. aureus infections, but resistance to these and other antibiotics make treatment problematic. High-level β-lactam resistance of S. aureus has always been attributed to the horizontally acquired penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a) encoded by the mecA gene. Here, we show that S. aureus can also express high-level resistance to β-lactams, including new-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporins that are active against methicillin-resistant strains, through an uncanonical core genome-encoded penicillin binding protein, PBP 4, a nonessential enzyme previously considered not to be important for staphylococcal β-lactam resistance. Our results show that PBP 4 can mediate high-level resistance to β-lactams. PMID:27067335

  15. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  16. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples.

  17. Kirby-Bauer disc approximation to detect inducible third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuan; Weissman, Scott J; Chesnut, Mary Frances; Zhang, Bei; Shen, Lisong

    2004-07-15

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in enteric Gram-negative bacilli may be difficult to detect using standard methods of either Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion (KBDD) or broth dilution for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). This difficulty is due to genetic differences in resistance determinants, differences in levels of gene expression, and variation in spectra of enzymatic activity against the substrate beta-lactams used for susceptibility testing. We have examined 95 clinical isolates reportedly susceptible to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, as originally determined by either KBDD or MIC methods. The organisms studied here were isolated in 2002 from two pediatric hospital centers (Seattle, USA and Shanghai, China). They belong to the inducible beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacilli, such as Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Morganella spp., Providencia spp., and Proteus vulgaris. A Kirby-Bauer disc approximation (KBDA) method identified inducible phenotypes of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in 76% of isolates, which would otherwise be considered susceptible by standard KBDD methods.

  18. Association of veterinary third-generation cephalosporin use with the risk of emergence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toyotaka; Okubo, Torahiko; Usui, Masaru; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Izumiyama, Satoshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins in food animals has been suggested to increase the risk of spread of Enterobacteriaceae carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases to humans. However, evidence that selection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant bacteria owing to the actual veterinary use of these drugs according to criteria established in cattle has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the natural occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in dairy cattle following clinical application of ceftiofur. E. coli isolates were obtained from rectal samples of treated and untreated cattle (n = 20/group) cultured on deoxycholate-hydrogen sulfide-lactose agar in the presence or absence of ceftiofur. Eleven cefazoline-resistant isolates were obtained from two of the ceftiofur-treated cattle; no cefazoline-resistant isolates were found in untreated cattle. The cefazoline-resistant isolates had mutations in the chromosomal ampC promoter region and remained susceptible to ceftiofur. Eighteen extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from two ceftiofur-treated cows were obtained on ceftiofur-supplemented agar; no extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates were obtained from untreated cattle. These extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates possessed plasmid-mediated β-lactamase genes, including bla(CTX-M-2) (9 isolates), bla(CTX-M-14) (8 isolates), or bla(CMY-2) (1 isolate); isolates possessing bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-14) were clonally related. These genes were located on self-transmissible plasmids. Our results suggest that appropriate veterinary use of ceftiofur did not trigger growth extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in the bovine rectal flora; however, ceftiofur selection in vitro suggested that additional ceftiofur exposure enhanced selection for specific extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant β-lactamase-expressing E. coli clones.

  19. Selection of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of healthy dogs after administration of first-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Ayako; Yossapol, Montira; Shibata, Sanae; Asai, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although antimicrobial products are essential for treating diseases caused by bacteria, antimicrobial treatment selects for antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of administration of first-generation cephalosporins on development of resistant Escherichia coli in dog feces. The proportions of cephalexin (LEX)-resistant E. coli in fecal samples of three healthy dogs treated i.v. with cefazolin before castration and then orally with LEX for 3 days post-operation (PO) were examined using DHL agar with or without LEX (50 µg/mL). LEX-resistant E. coli were found within 3 days PO, accounted for 100% of all identified E. coli 3-5 days PO in all dogs, and were predominantly found until 12 days PO. LEX-resistant E. coli isolates on DHL agar containing LEX were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, β-lactamase typing and plasmid profiling. All isolates tested exhibited cefotaxime (CTX) resistance (CTX minimal inhibitory concentration ≥4 µg/mL). Seven PFGE profiles were classified into five groups and three β-lactamase combinations (blaCMY-4 -blaTEM-1 , blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 -blaCTX-M-15 -blaCMY-4 ). All isolates exhibited identical PFGE profiles in all dogs on four days PO and subsequently showed divergent PFGE profiles. Our results indicate there are two selection periods for AMR bacteria resulting from the use of antimicrobials. Thus, continuing hygiene practices are necessary to prevent AMR bacteria transfer via dog feces after antimicrobial administration.

  20. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  1. Transport of cefodizime, a novel third generation cephalosporin antibiotic, in isolated rat choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Nohjoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sugiyama, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1989-07-01

    To characterize the transport system by which cephalosporin antibiotics are accumulated by the choroid plexus, kinetic analysis of cefodizime transport was performed. Accumulation of cefodizime was against an electrochemical potential gradient via a saturable process (Km = 470 microM, Vmax = 174 nmol/ml of tissue per min) that was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors (KCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol), hypothermia, a sulfhydryl reagent (p-hydroxymer-curibenzoic acid) and anion transport inhibitors (probenecid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene -2,2'-disulfonic acid). Accumulation of cefodizime was inhibited competitively by benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of aproximately 100 microM. Cefodizime inhibited competitively the accumulation of benzylpenicillin with an inhibition constant of approximately 500 microM. Kinetic analysis using 16 kinds of beta-lactam antibiotics also supported the view (1) that the transport system of cefodizime is shared by benzylpenicillin and (2) that these beta-lactam antibiotics are transported via a common transport system. These findings indicate that the major transport system of cephalosporin antibiotics in the rat choroid plexus is via a carrier-mediated active anion transport process. The affinity of beta-lactam antibiotics for this transport system in the choroid plexus may be a major factor in determining their pharmacokinetics in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. Fluoroquinolone and Third-Generation-Cephalosporin Resistance among Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli: Do Rates Vary by Hospital Characteristics and Geographic Region?

    PubMed Central

    Bidell, Monique R.; Palchak, Melissa; Mohr, John

    2016-01-01

    This analysis of nearly 10,000 hospital-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes due to Escherichia coli showed that fluoroquinolone and third-generation-cephalosporin resistance rates were 34.5% and 8.6%, respectively; the rate of concurrent resistance to both agents was 7.3%. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates exceeded 25% regardless of geographic location or hospital characteristics. The findings suggest that fluoroquinolones should be reserved and third-generation cephalosporins be used with caution as empirical agents for hospitalized patients with UTIs due to E. coli. PMID:26926640

  3. Long-term outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae & third generation cephalosporin use in a neonatal intensive care unit in north India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Upadhyay, Supriya; Mishra, Shweta; Tiwari, Karuna; Anupurba, Shampa; Sen, Malay Ranjan; Basu, Sriparna; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of ESBL - producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use. Methods: Isolates of K. pneumoniae (43 from blood, 3 from pus and endotracheal tube, 4 from environment) causing successive outbreaks in the NICU of a tertiary care university hospital were studied for two years. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by agar dilution methods. ESBL production was determined by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Clonal relatedness among the isolates was studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). Genetic environment of these isolates was assessed by the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. Transformation experiments were done, and plasmids of these isolates were characterized by stability testing and incompatibility testing. Subsequently, a change in the ongoing antibiotic policy was adopted, and corresponding changes in the behaviour of these isolates studied. Results: During the period from August 2011 to January 2013, 46 isolates of monoclonal ESBL K. pneumoniae were obtained from different neonates and four similar environmental isolates were studied. Multidrug-resistant ESBL isolates harboured both blaCTXM-15 and blaSHV-5. The dfr and aac-6’ resistant genes were found in gene cassettes. A 50 kb plasmid belonging to IncFIIA group was detected in all the isolates which was transferable and stable. The emergence and regression of the outbreaks coincided with antibiotic usage in the NICU, with widespread

  4. Influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, A; Giménez, M J; Robledo, O; Aguilar, L; Tarragó, D; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with <50% susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values of cefditoren were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, whereas cefixime exhibited only marginal activity (MIC(90)=16 microg/ml). Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was <10%, and susceptibility to cefotaxime decreased from 87.9% in the intermediate category to 63.0% in the resistant group. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime. In conclusion, the activity of cefixime, cefdinir and cefpodoxime was highly affected by penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.

  5. Feel the heat: The effect of temperature on development, behavior and central pattern generation in 3rd instar Calliphora vicina larvae.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Schlegel, Philipp; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Like in all poikilothermic animals, higher temperatures increase developmental rate and activity in Calliphora vicina larvae. We therefore could expect temperature to have a persistent effect on the output of the feeding and crawling central pattern generators (CPGs). When confronted with a steep temperature gradient, larvae show evasive behavior after touching the substrate with the cephalic sense organs. Beside this reflex behavior the terminal- and dorsal organ might also mediate long term CPG modulation. Both organs were thermally stimulated while their response was recorded from the maxillary- or antennal nerve. The terminal organ showed a tonic response characteristic while the dorsal organ was not sensitive to temperature. Thermal stimulation of the terminal organ did not affect the ongoing patterns of fictive feeding or crawling, recorded from the antennal- or abdominal nerve respectively. A selective increase of the central nervous system (CNS) temperature accelerated the motor patterns of both feeding and crawling. We propose that temperature affects centrally generated behavior via two pathways: short term changes like thermotaxis are mediated by the terminal organ, while long term adaptations like increased feeding rate are caused by temperature sensitive neurons in the CNS which were recently shown to exist in Drosophila larvae.

  6. The 3rd generation Front-End cards of the Pierre Auger surface detectors: Test results and performance in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.; Bäcker, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Buchholz, P.; Fleck, I.; Kampert, K.-H.; Rammes, M.; Rautenberg, J.; Taşcău, O.

    2009-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory comprises 1600 water Cherenkov detectors distributed over an area of 3000 km2. The Cherenkov light is detected by three 9-in. photo-multiplier tubes from which the signals of the anode and last dynode are digitized by 10 bit 40 MHz FADCs. An Altera Cyclone FPGA is employed to generate different local triggers and to handle the data transfer to a communication board. After briefly discussing the design of the cards we present an autonomous test-bench, which has been set up in order to test the large number of boards prior to installation in the field. The qualification procedure and the results obtained in the laboratory are presented. Up to three years of operation in the field demonstrate a very good performance and reliability of the Front-End cards.

  7. Population Distribution of Beta-Lactamase Conferring Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Human Clinical Enterobacteriaceae in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Guido M.; Platteel, Tamara N.; Fluit, Ad C.; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hall, Maurine A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, blaCTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by blaCTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%), blaSHV-12 (n = 24, 8%) and blaTEM-52 (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained blaCTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that blaCTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:23284886

  8. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J M; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Hall, Maurine A L

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by bla(CTX-M-1) (n = 47, 15%), bla(CTX-M-14) (n = 15, 5%), bla(SHV-12) (n = 24, 8%) and bla(TEM-52) (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15). Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15) is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Regnath, Thomas; Mertes, Thomas; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, particularly to third-generation cephalosporins, has been reported in many countries. We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p = 0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p = 0.08). No resistance and stable minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for cefixime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. High-level resistance was found for ciprofloxacin (39.6%) and tetracycline (20.0%) but not for azithromycin; 16.3% of the isolates produced betalactamase. Thus, cephalosporins can still be used for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the study area. To avoid further increasing resistance to azithromycin, its usage should be limited to patients allergic to cephalosporins, or (in combination with cephalosporins) to patients for whom no susceptibility testing could be performed or those co-infected with chlamydiae. PMID:27632642

  10. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae

    PubMed Central

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen. PMID:27494134

  11. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    PubMed

    El-Jade, Mohamed Ramadan; Parcina, Marijo; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Stein, Christoph; Meilaender, Alina; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R) and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  12. Cefotetan: a second-generation cephalosporin active against anaerobic bacteria. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Canadian Infectious Disease Society.

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, M J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for the use of cefotetan, a cephamycin antibiotic, in order to minimize its overprescription. OPTIONS: Clinical practice options considered were treatment of infections with the use of second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems such as imipenem as well as combination regimens of agents active against anaerobic bacteria, such as metronidazole or clindamycin with an aminoglycoside. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles published between January 1982 and December 1993. In-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies published in recognized peer-reviewed journals that used recognized standard methods with appropriate controls were reviewed. For results of clinical trials, the reviewers emphasized randomized double-blind trials with appropriate controls. VALUES: The Antimicrobial Agents Committee of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (M.J.G.) recommended use of cefotetan to prevent and treat infections against which it has proved effective in randomized controlled trials. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: These guidelines should lead to less inappropriate prescribing of cefotetan, with its attendant costs and risk of development of resistant bacteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Cefotetan could be considered an alternative single agent for prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery. It may be used to treat patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and endometritis. VALIDATION: This article was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed by the Council of the CIDS, and any further necessary revisions were made by the chairman of the committee. PMID:8069799

  13. Third generation cephalosporin use in a tertiary hospital in Port of Spain, Trinidad: need for an antibiotic policy

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Phillips, Marjorie; Ramlal, Hema; Teemul, Karen; Prabhakar, P

    2004-01-01

    Background Tertiary care hospitals are a potential source for development and spread of bacterial resistance being in the loop to receive outpatients and referrals from community nursing homes and hospitals. The liberal use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) in these hospitals has been associated with the emergence of extended-spectrum beta- lactamases (ESBLs) presenting concerns for bacterial resistance in therapeutics. We studied the 3GC utilization in a tertiary care teaching hospital, in warded patients (medical, surgical, gynaecology, orthopedic) prescribed these drugs. Methods Clinical data of patients (≥ 13 years) admitted to the General Hospital, Port of Spain (POSGH) from January to June 2000, and who had received 3GCs based on the Pharmacy records were studied. The Sanford Antibiotic Guide 2000, was used to determine appropriateness of therapy. The agency which procures drugs for the Ministry of Health supplied the cost of drugs. Results The prevalence rate of use of 3GCs was 9.5 per 1000 admissions and was higher in surgical and gynecological admissions (21/1000) compared with medical and orthopedic (8 /1000) services (p < 0.05). Ceftriaxone was the most frequently used 3GC. Sixty-nine (36%) patients without clinical evidence of infection received 3Gcs and prescribing was based on therapeutic recommendations in 4% of patients. At least 62% of all prescriptions were inappropriate with significant associations for patients from gynaecology (p < 0.003), empirical prescribing (p < 0.48), patients with undetermined infection sites (p < 0.007), and for single drug use compared with multiple antibiotics (p < 0.001). Treatment was twice as costly when prescribing was inappropriate Conclusions There is extensive inappropriate 3GC utilization in tertiary care in Trinidad. We recommend hospital laboratories undertake continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns so that appropriate changes in prescribing guidelines can be developed and

  14. Review of the spectrum and potency of orally administered cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Jacobs, Michael R; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2007-03-01

    The antimicrobial spectrum and in vitro potency of the most frequently prescribed orally administered cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin) and amoxicillin/clavulanate are reviewed. These beta-lactam agents have been widely used in the outpatient arena for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract and other mild-to-moderate infections. The data presented here were obtained from critical review articles on each of these compounds. Cephalexin and cefaclor were among the least potent and had the narrowest antimicrobial spectrums against the pathogens evaluated. In contrast, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime were highly active against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and retained some activity against penicillin-intermediate strains, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was the most active against S. pneumoniae, including most penicillin nonsusceptible strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefdinir were the most potent compounds against methicillin (oxacillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cefpodoxime was the most potent compound against Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime were also active against Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. In summary, orally administered "3rd-generation" or extended spectrum cephalosporins exhibited more balanced spectrums of activity against the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for outpatient respiratory tract and other infections when compared with other widely used oral cephalosporins of earlier generations or amoxicillin alone.

  15. Biosynthesis of Cephalosporin C

    PubMed Central

    Ott, J. L.; Godzeski, C. W.; Pavey, D.; Farran, J. D.; Horton, D. R.

    1962-01-01

    A series of complex and synthetic media have been developed that are suitable for the production of cephalosporin C and cephalosporin N by a mutant strain of Cephalosporium (C.M.I. 49,137). dl-Methionine increased the yield of both antibiotics, with more effect on cephalosporin N. l-Cystine had a greater enhancing effect on formation of cephalosporin C than on formation of cephalosporin N in synthetic media; serine increased yields of cephalosporin C under certain conditions. Disaccharides or polysaccharides appeared to be the best source for carbohydrates. No evidence was found for precursor action such as is found in penicillin fermentations. The ability of resting cells to produce antibiotic was demonstrated. PMID:16349624

  16. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Using Third Generation Cephalosporins Can Reduce the Risk of Early Rebleeding in the First Acute Gastroesophageal Variceal Hemorrhage: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial infection may be a critical trigger for variceal bleeding. Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent rebleeding in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). The aim of the study was to compare prophylactic third generation cephalosporins with on-demand antibiotics for the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding. In a prospective trial, patients with the first acute GEVB were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous cefotaxime 2 g q 8 hr for 7 days, prophylactic antibiotics group) or to receive the same antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Sixty-two patients in the prophylactic group and 58 patients in the on-demand group were included for analysis. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infection (3.2% vs. 15.5%, p=0.026). The actuarial rebleeding rate in the prophylactic group was significantly lower than that in the ondemand group (33.9% vs. 62.1%, p=0.004). The difference of rebleeding rate was mostly due to early rebleeding within 6 weeks (4.8% vs. 20.7%, p=0.012). On multivariate analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis (relative hazard: 0.248, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.067-0.919, p=0.037) and bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.901, 95% CI: 1.053-14.448, p=0.042) were two independent determinants of early rebleeding. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can prevent bacterial infection and early rebleeding in patients with the first acute GEVB. PMID:17043424

  17. Repurposing clinically approved cephalosporins for tuberculosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramón-García, Santiago; González del Río, Rubén; Villarejo, Angel Santos; Sweet, Gaye D.; Cunningham, Fraser; Barros, David; Ballell, Lluís; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago; Thompson, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    While modern cephalosporins developed for broad spectrum antibacterial activities have never been pursued for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, we identified first generation cephalosporins having clinically relevant inhibitory concentrations, both alone and in synergistic drug combinations. Common chemical patterns required for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were identified using structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies. Numerous cephalosporins were synergistic with rifampicin, the cornerstone drug for TB therapy, and ethambutol, a first-line anti-TB drug. Synergy was observed even under intracellular growth conditions where beta-lactams typically have limited activities. Cephalosporins and rifampicin were 4- to 64-fold more active in combination than either drug alone; however, limited synergy was observed with rifapentine or rifabutin. Clavulanate was a key synergistic partner in triple combinations. Cephalosporins (and other beta-lactams) together with clavulanate rescued the activity of rifampicin against a rifampicin resistant strain. Synergy was not due exclusively to increased rifampicin accumulation within the mycobacterial cells. Cephalosporins were also synergistic with new anti-TB drugs such as bedaquiline and delamanid. Studies will be needed to validate their in vivo activities. However, the fact that cephalosporins are orally bioavailable with good safety profiles, together with their anti-mycobacterial activities reported here, suggest that they could be repurposed within new combinatorial TB therapies. PMID:27678056

  18. Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in Salmonella spp. resistant to third generation cephalosporins isolated from pork in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Jiang, Gui-Ze; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ding, Huan-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of third generation cephalosporin resistant Samonella isolates from pork of a slaughterhouse in China and the features of transferable elements carrying blaCTX-M genes. One hundred and twenty-six (7.3%) Salmonella isolates were identified; S. Derby and S. Rissen were the most two prevalent serotypes. Among these isolates 20 (15.8%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and nine of them carried blaCTX-M-27. S1-PFGE and replicon typing of blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids showed that seven were untypeable plasmids of about 104 Kb and two were IncP plasmids of about 300 Kb. Complete sequence analysis of one PBRT-untypeable plasmid showed it was a P1-like bateriophage, named SJ46, which contained a non-phage-associated region with several mobile elements, including Tn1721, ISEcp1B and IS903D. The other six 104 Kb PBRT-untypeable blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids also harboured the same phage-insertion region of SJ46 suggesting that they were the same P1-like bacteriophage. PFGE profiles of the parental strains revealed both potential vertical and horizontal spread of this P1-like blaCTX-M-27-containing element. Additionally, the representative gene of the P1 family bacteriophage, repL, was detected in 19.0% (24/126) of the isolates. This study indicated a potential role of P1-family bacteriophage in capture and spread of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens. PMID:28098241

  19. Evaluation of the βLacta test, a rapid test detecting resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Renvoisé, Aurélie; Decré, Dominique; Amarsy-Guerle, Rishma; Huang, Te-Din; Jost, Christelle; Podglajen, Isabelle; Raskine, Laurent; Genel, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Pierre; Jarlier, Vincent; Arlet, Guillaume

    2013-12-01

    For decades, third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) have been major drugs used to treat infections due to Enterobacteriaceae; growing resistance to these antibiotics makes the rapid detection of such resistance important. The βLacta test is a chromogenic test developed for detecting 3GC-resistant isolates from cultures on solid media within 15 min. A multicenter prospective study conducted in 5 French and Belgian hospitals evaluated the performance of this test on clinical isolates. Based on antibiotic susceptibility testing, strains resistant or intermediate to cefotaxime or ceftazidime were classified as 3GC resistant, and molecular characterization of this resistance was performed. The rates of 3GC resistance were 13.9% (332/2,387) globally, 9.4% in Escherichia coli (132/1,403), 25.6% in Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/328), 30.3% in species naturally producing inducible AmpC beta-lactamases (109/360), and 5.6% in Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter koseri (7/124). The sensitivities and specificities of the βLacta test were, respectively, 87.7% and 99.6% overall, 96% and 100% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and 67.4% and 99.6% for species naturally producing inducible AmpC beta-lactamase. False-negative results were mainly related to 3GC-resistant strains producing AmpC beta-lactamase. Interestingly, the test was positive for all 3GC-resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates (n = 241). The positive predictive value was 97% and remained at ≥96% for prevalences of 3GC resistance ranging between 10 and 30%. The negative predictive values were 99% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae and 89% for the species producing inducible AmpC beta-lactamase. In conclusion, the βLacta test was found to be easy to use and efficient for the prediction of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, particularly in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains.

  20. Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, in complex with manganese, inhibits proteasome activity and induces the apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Wang, Huannan; Bao, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Cefepime (FEP), which is a member of the fourth-generation cephalosporin class, has been extensively studied as a biochemical and antimicrobial reagent in recent years. Manganese (Mn) is important in the biochemical and physiological processes of many living organisms, and it is also high expressed in some tumor tissues. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the proteasome-inhibitory and anti-proliferative properties of 8 metal complexes (FEP‑Cu, FEP-Zn, FEP-Co, FEP-Ni, FEP-Cd, FEP-Cr, FEP-Fe, FEP-Mn) in MDA-MB‑231 human breast cancer cells. The FEP-Mn complex was found to be more potent in its ability to inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity than the other compounds tested. Moreover, the FEP-Mn complex inhibited proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity and induced the apoptosis of breast cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the MCF-10A cells were much less sensitive to the FEP complexes compared with the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. These results demonstrated that the FEP-Mn(II) complex has the potential to act as a proteasome inhibitor and apoptosis inducer and therefore has possible future applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  2. Diagnosis and management of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Scott D; Salazar, Kimberly C

    2013-08-01

    Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Immediate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with use of a specific cephalosporin, as a cross-reaction between different cephalosporins or as a cross-reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics, namely, penicillin. Historically, frequent reports of anaphylaxis following administration of first- and second-generation cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy led to the belief of a high degree of allergic cross-reactivity. More recent evidence reveals a significantly lower risk of cross-reactivity between penicillins and the newer-generation cephalosporins. The current thought is that a shared side chain, rather than the β-lactam ring structure, is the determining factor in immunologic cross-reactivity. Understanding the chemical structure of these agents has allowed us to identify the allergenic determinants for penicillin; however, the exact allergenic determinants of cephalosporins are less well understood. For this reason, standardized diagnostic skin testing is not available for cephalosporins as it is for penicillin. Nevertheless, skin testing to the cephalosporin in question, using a nonirritating concentration, provides additional information, which can further guide the work-up of a patient suspected of having an allergy to that drug. Together, the history and the skin test results can assist the allergist in the decision to recommend continued drug avoidance or to perform a graded challenge versus an induction of tolerance procedure.

  3. Longitudinal metagenomic profiling of bovine milk to assess the impact of intramammary treatment using a third-generation cephalosporin

    PubMed Central

    Ganda, Erika K.; Bisinotto, Rafael S.; Lima, Svetlana F.; Kronauer, Kristina; Decter, Dean H.; Oikonomou, Georgios; Schukken, Ynte H.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in food animals has a direct impact on human health, and approximately 80% of the antibiotics prescribed in the dairy industry are used to treat bovine mastitis. Here we provide a longitudinal description of the changes in the microbiome of milk that are associated with mastitis and antimicrobial therapy. Next-generation sequencing, 16 S rRNA gene quantitative real-time PCR, and aerobic culturing were applied to assess the effect of disease and antibiotic therapy on the milk microbiome. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis associated with Gram-negative pathogens or negative aerobic culture were randomly allocated into 5 days of Ceftiofur intramammary treatment or remained as untreated controls. Serial milk samples were collected from the affected quarter and the ipsilateral healthy quarter of the same animal. Milk from the mastitic quarter had a higher bacterial load and reduced microbial diversity compared to healthy milk. Resolution of the disease was accompanied by increases in diversity indexes and a decrease in pathogen relative abundance. Escherichia coli-associated mastitic milk samples had a remarkably distinct bacterial profile, dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, when compared to healthy milk. However, no differences were observed in culture-negative mastitis samples when compared to healthy milk. Antimicrobial treatment had no significant effect on clinical cure, bacteriological cure, pathogen clearance rate or bacterial load. PMID:27874095

  4. Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square √s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Stanley Scott

    2006-01-01

    We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p$\\bar{p}$ beams operating at √s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb-1 of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of σ < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 → bτ) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of mV LQ3 > 317 GeV=c2. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are σ < 360fb and mV LQ3 > 294 GeV=c2. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of σ < 493fb (σ < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is mV LQ3 > 251 GeV=c2 (mV LQ3 > 223 GeV=c2) for the nominal (1σ varied) theoretical expectation.

  5. Genetic characterization of the mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate and third-generation cephalosporins in Salmonella enterica from three Spanish hospitals.

    PubMed

    de Toro, María; Sáenz, Yolanda; Cercenado, Emilia; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; García-Campello, Marta; Undabeitia, Esther; Torres, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance were characterized in 90 Salmonella enterica isolates either resistant or with intermediate resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC(R/I)) or resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (C3G(R)). These isolates were recovered in three Spanish hospitals during 2007-2009. The C3G(R) phenotype was expressed by three isolates that carried the following extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes: phage-associated bla(CTX M-10) in S. Virchow, bla(CTX-M-14a) surrounded by ISEcp1 and IS903 in S. Enteritidis, and bla(CTX-M-15) linked to ISEcp1 and orf477 in S. Gnesta (first description in this serotype). The AMC(R/I) phenotype was found in 87 isolates (79 S. Typhimurim, 7 S. Enteritidis, and one S. Thompson). The bla(PSE-1) gene, followed by bla(OXA-1) was mostly found among S. Typhimurim, and the bla(TEM-1) gene among S. Enteritidis. Three different gene combinations [bla(PSE-1) +floR+aadA2+sul+tet(G); bla(OXA-1) +catA+aadA1/strA-strB+sul+tet(B) and bla(TEM-1) + cmlA1+aadA/strA-strB+sul+tet(A)/tet(B) genes] were associated with the ampicillin-chloramphenicol-streptomycin-sulfonamides-tetracycline phenotype in 68 AMC(R/I) S. enterica isolates. Class 1 integrons were observed in 79% of the isolates and in most of them (45 isolates) two integrons including the aadA2 and bla(PSE-1) gene cassettes, respectively, were detected. The bla(OXA-1) +aadA1 arrangement was detected in 23 isolates, and the aac(6')-Ib-cr+bla(OXA-1) +catB3+arr3 in another one. Non-classic class 1 integrons were found in three isolates: dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+cmlA1+aadA1 (1 isolate), dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+ cmlA1+aadA1+qacH+IS440+sul3 (1 isolate) and dfrA12+orfF+aadA2+cmlA1+aadA1+qacH+IS440+ sul3+orf1+mef(B)Δ-IS26 (1 isolate). Taken together, these results underline the need for clinical concern regarding β-lactam resistance in Salmonella and thus for continuous monitoring.

  6. Third-Generation-Cephalosporin-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Humans and Companion Animals in Switzerland: Spread of a DHA-Producing Sequence Type 11 Clone in a Veterinary Setting

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Nadia; Francey, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates originating mainly from one human hospital (n = 22) and one companion animal hospital (n = 25) in Bern (Switzerland) revealed the absence of epidemiological links between human and animal isolates. Human infections were not associated with the spread of any specific clone, while the majority of animal infections were due to K. pneumoniae sequence type 11 isolates producing plasmidic DHA AmpC. This clonal dissemination within the veterinary hospital emphasizes the need for effective infection control practices. PMID:25733505

  7. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  8. The Ups and Downs of 3rd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  10. PreK-3rd: How Superintendents Lead Change. PreK-3rd Policy Action Brief. No. Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Leading change to create an integrated PreK-3rd education and connect early learning programs with the K-12 system is not easy. Superintendents require courage to take the first step, persistence and political skills to encourage organizational and community engagement, and a relentless focus on results to measure progress and build momentum. As a…

  11. Role of cephalosporins in the era of Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark H.; Chalmers, James D.; Nord, Carl E.; Freeman, Jane; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6.6 to 7.3 cases per 10 000 patient bed-days from 2011–12 to 2012–13, respectively. While CDI incidence and cephalosporin usage varied widely across countries studied, there was no clear association between overall cephalosporin prescribing (or the use of any particular cephalosporin) and CDI incidence. Moreover, variations in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cephalosporins of the same generation make categorization by generation insufficient for predicting impact on gut microbiota. A multitude of additional factors can affect the risk of CDI. Antibiotic choice is an important consideration; however, CDI risk is associated with a range of antibiotic classes. Prescription of multiple antibiotics and a long duration of treatment are key risk factors for CDI, and risk also differs across patient populations. We propose that all of these are factors that should be taken into account when selecting an antibiotic, rather than focusing on the exclusion of individual drug classes. PMID:27659735

  12. Role of cephalosporins in the era of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark H; Chalmers, James D; Nord, Carl E; Freeman, Jane; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6.6 to 7.3 cases per 10 000 patient bed-days from 2011-12 to 2012-13, respectively. While CDI incidence and cephalosporin usage varied widely across countries studied, there was no clear association between overall cephalosporin prescribing (or the use of any particular cephalosporin) and CDI incidence. Moreover, variations in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of cephalosporins of the same generation make categorization by generation insufficient for predicting impact on gut microbiota. A multitude of additional factors can affect the risk of CDI. Antibiotic choice is an important consideration; however, CDI risk is associated with a range of antibiotic classes. Prescription of multiple antibiotics and a long duration of treatment are key risk factors for CDI, and risk also differs across patient populations. We propose that all of these are factors that should be taken into account when selecting an antibiotic, rather than focusing on the exclusion of individual drug classes.

  13. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  14. Nice observatory measurements of double stars (3rd series)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorel, J.-C.

    2000-12-01

    We present recent measurements of visual double stars made at the Nice Observatory (3rd series). We also report the discovery of a new double star: JCT 4. Moreover we give a more precise position of the double star DOO 35. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  15. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the

  16. Simulation of robustness of a new e-beam column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, K.; Fuse, T.; Kinoshita, H.; Parker, N. William

    2008-03-01

    We are now investigating a new concept column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique, in order to obtain fine resolution and high current density beams for electron beam direct writing (EBDW) suitable for below 32nm technology nodes. From the first experimental verification, it is found that the 3 rd-order imaging has a benefit of increasing the beam current compared with conventional Gaussian beam without any beam blurring. However, in order to realize such a column which can work stably in the sub 32nm technology node generations, it is important to clarify how robust the 3 rd-order imaging is against the mechanical tolerances in column manufacturing. This paper describes the tolerance analysis for errors of column manufacturing by simulation. The column has an electron gun with small virtual source and two (Gun and Main) lenses. A patterned beam defining aperture, which enables the 3 rd-order imaging, is set between the 1 st and the 2 nd lenses. The influences of errors such as concentricity, offset and tilt between optical parts on the beam shape, beam current density distribution, and beam edge acuity on a wafer is analyzed for this column. According to these results, the 3 rd-order imaging appears to have sufficiently large allowance compared to the error budget for column manufacturing required in the sub 32nm technology node patterning.

  17. 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potrakhov, N. N.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this preface a brief history, modern aspects and future tendencies in development of the X-ray technique as seen from the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique that was held on 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are described On 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg on the basis of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” n. a. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) was held the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique. The tradition to hold a similar conference in our country was laid in Soviet times. The last of them, the All-Union Conference on the Prospects of X-ray Tubes and Equipment was organized and held more than a quarter century ago – on 21–23 November 1999, at the initiative and under the leadership of the chief engineer of the Leningrad association of electronic industry “Svetlana” Borovsky Alexander Ivanovich and the chief of special design bureau of X-ray devices of “Svetlana” Shchukin Gennady Anatolievich. The most active part in the organization and work of the conference played members of the department of X-ray and electron beam instruments of Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute “LETI” (the former name of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”), represented by head of the department professor Ivanov Stanislav Alekseevich.

  18. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  19. 3rd Pavia international symposium on advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Kidney cancers' natural history has radically changed in the past few years, due to the development of novel targeted agents. Despite these improvements, several unanswered questions still remain on the table, regarding the best first-line treatment, the ideal sequence of treatments, the management of specific subgroups of patients (e.g., elderly patients or those with comorbidities) and the relevance of prognostic factors, among many others. To foster discussions among clinicians and investigators working in this field, and to exchange different viewpoints concerning the newest advances in kidney cancer pathogenesis and treatment, the 3rd Pavia International Symposium on Advanced Kidney cancer was held in Pavia (Italy) between 30 June and 1 July 2011. The aim of this report is to summarize the most significant advances in the different disciplines applied to advanced kidney cancer, which were presented and discussed during the meeting, and how these advances will be changing the perspective of patients with this disease.

  20. Extreme and Local 3rd Harmonic Response of Niobium (Nb) Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oripov, Bakhrom; Tai, Tamin; Anlage, Steven

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are being widely used in new generation particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are based on bulk Nb. Based on the needs of the SRF community to identify defects on Nb surfaces, a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope was successfully built using a magnetic writer from a conventional magnetic recording hard-disk drive1. This magnetic writer can create an RF magnetic field, localized and strong enough to drive Nb into the vortex state. This probe enables us to locate defects through scanning and mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency range. Recent measurements have shown that 3rd harmonic nonlinear response is far more sensitive to variations in input power and temperature then linear response, thus we mainly study the 3rd harmonic response. Moreover, the superconductor is usually the only source for nonlinear response in our setup, thus there is less chance of having noise or background signal. Understanding the mechanism responsible for this non-linear response is important for improving the performance of SRF cavities. Besides Nb we also study various other superconductors such as MgB2 and the cuprate Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) for potential applications in SRF cavities. This work is funded by US Department of Energy through Grant # DE-SC0012036T and CNAM.

  1. Use of cephalosporins in patients with immediate penicillin hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Q U

    2014-10-01

    A 10% cross-reactivity rate is commonly cited between penicillins and cephalosporins. However, this figure originated from studies in the 1960s and 1970s which included first-generation cephalosporins with similar side-chains to penicillins. Cephalosporins were frequently contaminated by trace amount of penicillins at that time. The side-chain hypothesis for beta-lactam hypersensitivity is supported by abundant scientific evidence. Newer generations of cephalosporins possess side-chains that are dissimilar to those of penicillins, leading to low cross-reactivity. In the assessment of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins, one has to take into account the background beta-lactam hypersensitivity, which occurs in up to 10% of patients. Cross-reactivity based on skin testing or in-vitro test occurs in up to 50% and 69% of cases, respectively. Clinical reactivity and drug challenge test suggest an average cross-reactivity rate of only 4.3%. For third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the rate is probably less than 1%. Recent international guidelines are in keeping with a low cross-reactivity rate. Despite that, the medical community in Hong Kong remains unnecessarily skeptical. Use of cephalosporins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity begins with detailed history and physical examination. Clinicians can choose a cephalosporin with a different side-chain. Skin test for penicillin is not predictive of cephalosporin hypersensitivity, while cephalosporin skin test is not sensitive. Drug provocation test by experienced personnel remains the best way to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity and to find a safe alternative for future use. A personalised approach to cross-reactivity is advocated.

  2. Microdrilling of PCB substrate using DPSS 3rd harmonic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Chang, Won Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ku; Jeong, Sungho; Shin, Bo Sung; Whang, Kyung Hyun

    2003-02-01

    Micromachining using the DPSS 3rd Harmonic Laser (355nm) has outstanding advantages as a UV source in comparison with Excimer lasers in various aspects such as maintenance cost, maskless machining, high repetition rate and so on. It also has the greater absorptivity of many materials in contrast to other IR sources. In this paper, the process for micro-drilling of through and blind hope in Cu/PI/Cu substrate with the UV DPSSL and a scanning device is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods. It is known that there is a large gap between the ablation threshold of copper and that of PI. We use the multi path for through hole with high energy density and we use Archimedes spiral path for blind hole with different energy densities to ablate different material. Furthermore, Matlab simulations considering the energy threshold of material is performed to anticipate the ablation shape according to the duplication of pulse, and FEM thermal analysis is used to predict the ablation depth of copper. This study would be widely applicable to various laser micromachining applications including through and blind hole micro-drilling of PCB, and micromachining of semiconductor components, medical parts and printer nozzles amongst others.

  3. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  4. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem.

  5. Characterization and activity of cephalosporin metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Auda, S H; Mrestani, Y; Fetouh, M I; Neubert, R H H

    2008-08-01

    Semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotics have structures similar to that of penicillins, and both groups of compounds are characterized by similar properties and determined by the same methods. Most antibiotics, including cephalosporins and their decomposition products, contain electron donor groups that can bind naturally occurring metal ions in vivo. Cephalosporin antibiotics exhibit a change in their toxicological properties and biological performance when they were tested as metal complexes. The proposed reason for such a behavior is the capability of chelate binding of the cephalosporins to the metals. In an attempt to understand the coordination mode of metals with cephalosporins, different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, UV-visible, NMR spectroscopy and voltammetric measurements were carried out to elucidate the structure of the metal-cephalosporin complexes. Synthesis, characterization and biological screening of the cephalosporins and of the cephalosporin-metal complexes are discussed in this review. However, little information is available on the influence of the metal ions on the pharmacokinetics of the cephalosporin derivatives.

  6. Bifurcation of limit cycles in 3rd-order Z2 Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei; Han, Maoan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we show that a Z2-equivariant 3rd-order Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order symmetric perturbations can have at least 10 limit cycles. The method combines the general perturbation to the vector field and the perturbation to the Hamiltonian function. The Melnikov function is evaluated near the center of vector field, as well as near homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits.

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2012-03-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    . Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  10. Potential for Significant Reductions in Dropout Rates: Analysis of an Entire 3rd Grade State Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Dorothyjean

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen percent of 1997-98 North Carolina 3rd graders were observed to drop out of high school. A series of logits predict probabilities of dropping out on determinants such as math and reading test scores, absenteeism, suspension, and retention, at the following grade levels: 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th. The same cohort and variables are used to…

  11. Impact of the administration of a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) to one-day-old chicks on the persistence of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli in intestinal flora: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Baron, Sandrine; Jouy, Eric; Touzain, Fabrice; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Larvor, Emeline; de Boisseson, Claire; Amelot, Michel; Keita, Alassane; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate under controlled conditions the impact on the excretion of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli of the injection of one-day-old chicks with ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin (3GC). Three isolators containing specific-pathogen-free chicks were used. In the first one, 20 birds were injected with ceftiofur then ten of them were orally inoculated with a weak inoculum of a 3GC-resistant E. coli field isolate containing an IncI1/ST3 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1 beta-lactamase. The other chicks were kept as contact birds. None of the 20 birds in the second isolator were injected with ceftiofur, but ten of them were similarly inoculated with the 3GC-resistant strain and the others kept as contact birds. A third isolator contained ten non-injected, non-inoculated chicks. Fecal samples were collected regularly over one month and the E. coli isolated on non-supplemented media were characterized by antimicrobial agar dilution, detection of selected resistance genes and determination of phylogenetic group by PCR. The titers of 3GC-resistant E. coli in individual fecal samples were evaluated by culturing on 3GC-supplemented media. Results showed that the inoculated strain rapidly and abundantly colonized the inoculated and contact birds. The ceftiofur injection resulted in significantly higher percentages of 3GC-resistant E. coli isolates among the analyzed E. coli. No transfer of the 3GC-encoding plasmid to other isolates could be evidenced. In conclusion, these results highlight the dramatic capacity of 3GC-resistant E. coli to colonize and persist in chicks, and the selecting pressure imposed by the off-label use of ceftiofur.

  12. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Biotic and abiotic degradation of four cephalosporin antibiotics in a lake surface water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Muxian; Wang, Lianhong; Ji, Rong

    2010-09-01

    Cephalosporins are widely used veterinary and human antibiotics, but their environmental fate and impacts are still unclear. We studied degradation of four cephalosporins (cefradine, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime) from each generation in the surface water and sediment of Lake Xuanwu, China. The four cephalosporins degraded abiotically in the surface water in the dark with half-lives of 2.7-18.7d, which were almost the same as that in sterilized surface water. Under exposure to simulated sunlight, the half-lives of the cephalosporins decreased significantly to 2.2-5.0d, with the maximal decrease for ceftriaxone from 18.7d in the dark to 4.1d under the light exposure. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrate on photodegradation of the cephalosporins were compound-specific. While DOM (5 mg L(-1)) stimulated the photodegradation of only cefradine (by 9%) and cefepime (by 34%), nitrate (10 microM) had effects only on cefepime (stimulation by 13%). Elimination rates of the cephalosporins in oxic sediment (half-lives of 0.8-3.1d) were higher than in anoxic sediment (half-lives of 1.1-4.1d), mainly attributed to biodegradation. The data indicate that abiotic hydrolysis (for cefradine, cefuroxime, and cefepime) and direct photolysis (for ceftriaxone) were the primary processes for elimination of the cephalosporins in the surface water of the lake, whereas biodegradation was responsible for the elimination of the cephalosporins in the sediment. Further studies are needed on chemical structure, toxicity, and persistence of transformation products of the cephalosporins in the environment.

  14. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to respond... Infantry BCTs and Heavy Armor BCTs augmented with the protection and versatility of an additional SBCT. The... socioeconomic impacts that would be associated with the stationing of the different types of Army BCTs...

  15. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  18. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus during cephalosporin therapy.

    PubMed

    Primavera, Alberto; Cocito, Leonardo; Audenino, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Cephalosporins may induce nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), a potentially reversible condition. Despite the wide use of these antibiotics, there are only few reported cases, because this condition is probably underestimated. We report two new cases of NCSE occurring during treatment with cefepime and ceftazidime, and emphasize the utility of emergent electroencephalogram in patients with an acute altered state of consciousness while receiving treatment with cephalosporins, particularly when there is evidence of impaired renal function.

  19. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  20. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  1. 3rd College of Surgeons Lecture--bringing up surgeons.

    PubMed

    Ong, Siew Chey

    2009-03-01

    The talk traces briefly the development and changes of surgical training in the English-speaking world in the early days and the trials and tribulations of surgical training in Singapore a few decades ago. The factors that brought about the surge of American surgery from late 19th century to the first half of the 20th century are discussed. Structured surgical training leading to the exit point was introduced by William Halsted of Johns Hopkins Hospital around 1892, a system that was later adopted by all other medical disciplines and by all other hospitals in the US. It is considered to be the prime mover of the rapid progress of American medicine. Training surgeons to only the entry point while leaving the competence of trainees to chance, used to be common in the British surgical world. The trend now favours surgical training to the exit point. It is also the system being adopted in Singapore. Increasing demands of high standard of patient care and public accountability no longer allow us to be casual and permissive mentors of future generations of surgeons. Proper surgical upbringing requires a good structured programme that itself needs to be accredited and periodically reviewed. It also requires that discipline be observed on the part of trainees. Knowledge and skills are within the capability of our mentors to impart, but inculcation of good attitude and ethics in trainees is a harder goal to achieve.

  2. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  3. Plane stress yield function described by 3rd-degree spline curve and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamaishi, Toshiro; Tsutamori, Hideo; Iizuka, Eiji; Sato, Kentaro; Ogihara, Yuki; Matsui, Yohei

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a plane stress yield function which is described by 3rd-degree spline curve is proposed. This yield function can predict a material anisotropy with flexibility and consider evolution of anisotropy in terms of both r values and stresses. As an application, hole expanding simulation results are shown to discuss accuracy of the proposed yield function.

  4. Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies That Support Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…

  5. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  6. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  7. The Effect of Book Blogging on the Motivation of 3rd-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…

  8. Education Reform Starts Early: Lessons from New Jersey's PreK-3rd Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This report seeks to describe how New Jersey became a national leader in early education and PreK-3rd, identify its successes and challenges, draw lessons from its experience for policymakers in other states and nationally, and provide recommendations for New Jersey policymakers to translate progress to date into sustained, large scale learning…

  9. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  10. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used…

  11. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hancu, Gabriel; Sasebeşi, Adina; Rusu, Aura; Kelemen, Hajnal; Ciurba, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone) were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 °C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures. PMID:26236661

  13. Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. Educator's Practice Guide. NCEE 2016-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…

  14. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe.

  15. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  16. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  17. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-08-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary study introduces and evaluates a novel technique for pinpointing learners’ misconceptions, namely, one that has learners create and interpret their own photographs (CIP). 27 high-school students and 26 pre-service teacher trainees were asked to assume the role of textbook designers and create a display—photograph plus attached verbal explanation—which, in their opinion, best depicted Newton’s 3rd law. Subsequent analysis of the participants’ photographs yielded the following six misconception categories: 3rd law not depicted; 3rd law depicts a sequence of events; tendency to introduce irrelevant entities in explanations; the word ‘reaction’ used colloquially; tendency to restrict the application of the third law to dynamic situations; and informal explanations in which the word “force” is absent. The findings indicate that, indeed, the CIP method can be effectively employed to elicit, detect, and investigate learners’ misconceptions. The CIP method joins the growing efforts to utilize the yet relatively untapped potential of visual tools for science education purposes.

  19. HARDROC3, a 3rd generation ASIC with zero suppress for ILC Semi Digital Hadronic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulucq, F.; Callier, S.; de La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zoccarato, Y.

    2017-02-01

    HARDROC is the front end chip designed to read out the Resistive Plate Chambers foreseen for the Digital HAdronic CALorimeter (DHCAL) of the future International Linear Collider. The very fine granularity of the calorimeter implies thousands of electronics channels per cubic meter which is a new feature of "imaging" calorimetry. Moreover, for compactness, chips must be embedded inside the detector making crucial the reduction of the power consumption down to 12 μ W per channel. This is achieved using power-pulsing and online zero-suppression. Around 800 HARDROC3 were produced in 2015. The overall performance and production tests will be detailed.

  20. Design and development of a high-performance 3rd-generation handheld thermal camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Negi, Satya S.

    2004-10-01

    A high performance hand held thermal imaging camera has been developed based upon 320 x 256 elements InSb focal plane array (FPA) operating in MWIR region. The primary design goal of this camera was to design a low cost, compact, lightweight and man portable thermal camera with a recognition range of 2 Km. A staring FPA based upon the InSb technology with long and variable integration time provides the answer best suited under these requirements. The system provides the various features such as non-uniformity correction (NUC), bad pixel detection and replacement (BPR), contrast enhancement, histogram equalization and digital scan conversion for CCIR-B compatible output. The design methodology and the performance are presented.

  1. Theoretical Efficiency of 3rd Generation Solar Cells: Comparison between Carrier Multiplication and Down-Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    isolate the chemical potential using the Ruppel and Würfel photon flux method [19], which is a rephrasing of Kirchh- off’s law of radiation [16] using...circuit conditions, using the Ruppel and Würfel relation [19], the outgoing emission equals the incoming absorption (Kirchhoff’s law of radiation...ary that the Ruppel –Würfel photon flux method [19] uses must be Z.R. Abrams et al. / Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells ] (

  2. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  3. Potential Cross-Reactivity Between Penicillin Derivatives and Cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Putland, Stacey J; Soulsby, Natalie R; Ward, Sue M; Alderman, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Allergic reactions to both penicillins and cephalosporins are relatively common. Patients who have had a previous allergic reaction to a penicillin derivative may also be prone to a further reaction if treated with cephalosporins. This case illustrates several important points about potential cross-reactivity between penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins, as well as the benefits of an extended-hours pharmacy service in a longterm care facility.

  4. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  5. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  6. [Modern surgical treatment of breast cancer. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue into the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations.

  7. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area.

  8. Sir Edward Abraham's contribution to the development of the cephalosporins: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Miller, J M

    2000-08-01

    This paper is based on an invited lecture given at the 21st International Congress of Chemotherapy in July 1999, as part of a Symposium entitled '50 years of cephalosporins: their use the next 50 years', (Hamilton-Miller JMT, Cephalosporins: from mould to drug. Sardinia to Oxford and beyond, J Antimicr Chemother 1999;44(A):26). Celebration of this Golden Anniversary was made more poignant by the death of the last major participant, Sir Edward Abraham, in May 1999. This history has been told before, but mainly by Sir Edward, who being a very modest man (to which his obituaries graphically attest) consistently underplayed the role that he and Newton had in the discovery of cephalosporin C, that led to all the cephalosporins now in use. I had the privilege of working at the Dunn School from 1967 to 1970, with Abraham and Newton, where I met Brotzu, Florey and Dorothy Hodgkin, all of whom had important roles in this story. Other workers at the Dunn School at that time, e.g. Heatley, Sanders and Jennings (who became Lady Florey), helped develop penicillin. Such a galaxy of stars of the antibiotic firmament will never again be assembled. "Let us now praise famous men... these were honoured in their generation, and were the glory of their times" - Ecclesiasticus XLIV. vv 1.7.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  10. The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3rd IGMC, 2015): overall activities and outcome highlights.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Dallol, Ashraf; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Kalamegam, Gauthaman; Al-Hamzi, Emad; Shay, Jerry W; Scherer, Stephen W; Agarwal, Ashok; Budowle, Bruce; Gari, Mamdooh; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2016-10-17

    The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3(rd) IGMC) was organised by the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This conference is a continuation of a series of meetings, which began with the first International Genomic Medicine Conference (1(st) IGMC, 2011) followed by the second International Genomic Medicine Conference (2(nd) IGMC, 2013). The 3(rd) IGMC meeting presented as a timely opportunity to bring scientists from across the world to gather, discuss, and exchange recent advances in the field of genomics and genetics in general as well as practical information on using these new technologies in different basic and clinical applications. The meeting undoubtedly inspired young male and female Saudi researchers, who attended the conference in large numbers, as evidenced by the oversubscribed oral and poster presentations. The conference also witnessed the launch of the first content for npj Genomic Medicine, a high quality new journal was established in partnership by CEGMR with Springer Nature and published as part of the Nature Partner Journal series. Here, we present a brief summary report of the 2-day meeting including highlights from the oral presentations, poster presentations, workshops, poster prize-winners and comments from the distinguished scientists.

  11. Editorial: 3rd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy. There is also broad recognition that while these problems extend throughout the population, they disproportionately impact economically disadvantaged populations and other vulnerable populations and represent a major contributor to health disparities. Thus, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing health disparities, which receives special attention in this 3rd Special Issue. We also devote considerable space to the longstanding challenges of reducing cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products in vulnerable populations, obesity, and for the first time food insecurity. Across each of these topics we include contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges. PMID:27693562

  12. 3rd Circuit hints it may reconsider McNemar reasoning.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The [name removed] v. The Disney Store ruling is under criticism and the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals may reconsider its 1996 decision to not allow employees who receive disability benefits to sue under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A panel of 3rd Circuit judges, working on [name removed] v. American Sterilizer Co., asserts that the [name removed] decision should not be used to assume that an individual's ADA claims are barred because of prior representations of disability. [Name removed] is suing American Sterilizer under the retaliation provisions of the ADA. Other courts are criticizing the [name removed] decision, including the District of Columbia Court in [name removed] v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. The [name removed] court assets that a statement made in the context of a disability application does not preclude an ADA claim brought by a worker for illegal discrimination because the ADA and the Social Security Act differ in their statutory intent. AIDS advocates state that the [name removed] decision places a plaintiff in the position of having to choose between asserting a legal right or maintaining an income. Alan Epstein, who represented [name removed], is pleased by the criticism but explains that [name removed], who died this summer, will not be vindicated.

  13. Cefadroxil, a New Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin

    PubMed Central

    Buck, R. E.; Price, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Cefadroxil is a new semisynthetic cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum and a high chemotherapeutic potential when administered orally. The inhibitory activity of this compound was similar to that of cephalexin and cephradine when tested against 602 clinical isolates on Mueller-Hinton medium. In the oral treatment of experimental infections of mice, cefadroxil was more effective than cephalexin against Streptococcus pyogenes, and comparably effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and several gram-negative species. Administered orally to mice, at doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg/kg, cefadroxil attained peak concentrations in the blood similar to those of cephalexin. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, however, higher peak levels were noted with cefadroxil than with cephalexin. In regard to other properties which were investigated, the behavior of cefadroxil compared favorably to that of cephalexin. PMID:848939

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  15. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  16. A two-pulse technique for extracting 3rd harmonic from ultrasound contrast agent echo signal.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-hee; Kim, Sang-min; Song, Tai-kyong

    2008-01-01

    Multi-pulse techniques like CPS (contrast pulse sequence) and TPS (triplet pulse sequence) are the most popular methods for separating the 3rd harmonic signals from received signal. Those two methods, however, transmit a pulse at least three times along each scanline with different phase and amplitude, which results in the frame rate reduction. In this paper, we propose a technique using two pulses whose phase difference is 90 degrees and a simple digital filter. The second harmonic signal is eliminated by summing two received signals as their phase difference becomes 180 degrees and then the fundamental signals are eliminated by using a digital filter. Computer simulations are performed for different values of signal bandwidths and filter specifications. The results show the maximum error is -35.5 dB compared to TPS.

  17. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-11-21

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting.

  18. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  19. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan].

    PubMed

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure.

  20. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  1. Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd Edition (by T. P. Coultate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carandang, Rachelle; Ziegler, Greg

    1998-02-01

    Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd edition, by T. P. Coultate, is an excellent textbook in food chemistry for undergraduates. It is a concise version of the very detailed Food Chemistry by Fennema and similar to, but with advantages over, Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry by Wong and Principles of Food Chemistry by Deman. The book assumes knowledge of biochemistry and basic principles in organic chemistry, but presents very practical examples that allow the student to see the obvious link between theory and practice. The examples are described almost as if the author is performing a demonstration in a classvery vivid to the imagination. This is important because students are expected in the future to perform and put into practice their knowledge of food chemistry.

  2. Retrospective Dosimetry of Vver 440 Reactor Pressure Vessel at the 3RD Unit of Dukovany Npp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Sus, F.; Klupak, V.; Rataj, J.; Hogel, J.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) residual lifetime of the Czech VVER-440 is currently monitored under Surveillance Specimens Programs (SSP) focused on reactor pressure vessel materials. Neutron fluence in the samples and its distribution in the RPV are determined by a combination of calculation results and the experimental data coming from the reactor dosimetry measurements both in the specimen containers and in the reactor cavity. The direct experimental assessment of the neutron flux density incident onto RPV and neutron fluence for the entire period of nuclear power plant unit operation can be based on the evaluation of the samples taken from the inner RPV cladding. The Retrospective Dosimetry was also used at Dukovany NPP at its 3rd unit after the 18th cycle. The paper describes methodology, experimental setup for sample extraction, measurement of activities, and the determination of the neutron flux and fluence averaged over the samples.

  3. Novel Cephalosporins Selectively Active on Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report two series of novel cephalosporins that are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis alone of the pathogens tested, which only kill M. tuberculosis when its replication is halted by conditions resembling those believed to pertain in the host, and whose bactericidal activity is not dependent upon or enhanced by clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. The two classes of cephalosporins bear an ester or alternatively an oxadiazole isostere at C-2 of the cephalosporin ring system, a position that is almost exclusively a carboxylic acid in clinically used agents in the class. Representatives of the series kill M. tuberculosis within macrophages without toxicity to the macrophages or other mammalian cells. PMID:27144688

  4. Penicillin and cephalosporin drug allergies: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    Medication hypersensitivity is a constant variable that podiatric physicians face during their professional day. To avoid potential patient harm, an understanding of penicillin and cephalosporin hypersensitivities as it pertains to podiatric medicine needs to be achieved. To accomplish this, a narrative describing the signs, symptoms, and immunologic mechanisms for the basis of penicillin and cephalosporin drug hypersensitivities is presented. Second, specific medical literature serving as clinical-based evidence to support the prescribing of cephalosporins in patients with documented penicillin allergy is presented. Finally, a review of the medical and legal literature describing health-care provider liability regarding subsequent drug hypersensitivity is presented. The information contained in this review allows for the evolving paradigm that permits the prescribing of selective cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy as long as the allergic symptoms were not serious or life-threatening.

  5. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  6. History of antibiotics. From salvarsan to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Zaffiri, Lorenzo; Gardner, Jared; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-04-01

    Infections have represented for a long time the leading cause of death in humans. During the 19th century, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrhea and diphtheria were considered the main causes of death in children and adults. Only in the late 19th century did it become possible to correlate the existence of microscopic pathogens with the development of various diseases. Within a few years the introduction of antiseptic procedures had begun to reduce mortality due to postsurgical infections. Sanitation and hygiene played a significant role in the reduction of the mortality due to several infectious diseases. The introduction of the first compounds with antimicrobial activity succeeded in conquering many diseases. In this review we analyzed, from a historical perspective, the development of antibiotics and the circumstances that led to their discovery. The first compound with antimicrobial activity was introduced in 1911 by Erlich. He focused his research activity on the discovery of a "magic bullet" to treat syphilis. Afterwards, Foley and colleagues brought penicillin to the forefront. Streptomycin represents the first drug discovered for the treatment of tuberculosis, and its development included the first use of clinical trials. Finally, with the development of cephalosporins, the introduction of new antimicrobial compounds with broad activity against gram-positive and also some gram-negative bacteria began.

  7. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  8. Geysers Characteristics before and after Landslide of June 3-rd, 2007 (Geysers Valley, Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droznin, V. A.; Kiryukhin, A. V.; Muraviev, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1990 cycling characteristics of five geysers (Maly, Bolshoy, Shel, Velican, Troynoy) were contentiously monitoring using automatic telemetric system (V A Drosnin, http://www.ch0103.emsd.iks.ru/ ). The most powerful geyser Velikan erupted steam clouds at 300 m height. 1:20 UTC June 3-rd, 2007 lower basin of the Geysers Valley was in a few minutes buried under 10 mln m3 of mud, debris, and blocks of rocks. Some indications were found, that landslide triggered by steam eruption in the upstream area of Vodopadny creek. As a result of this three famous geysers (Pervenets, Sakharny,Troynoy) located at lower elevations were sealed under 10-30 m thick caprock as well as Vodopadny hot creek, a rock dumb trap Geysernaya river and lifted water into 20 m deep lake, which flooded three famous geysers (Conus, Bolshoy and Maly) terminating their cycling activity. Nevertheless Bolshoy and Maly activity continues in a form of discharge of water circulated in the former geysers channels and a clear plume at a lake surface above exits observed. Shortly after landslide continuous monitoring of the cycling characteristics of the upper basin geysers, including Velikan and lake level, accomplished by temperature loggers - restarted. There are some indications time periods of the geysers cycling decrease.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  10. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Debuyst, R; Fattibene, P; Meghzifene, A; Onori, S; Bayankin, S N; Blackwell, B; Brik, A; Bugay, A; Chumak, V; Ciesielski, B; Hoshi, M; Imata, H; Ivannikov, A; Ivanov, D; Junczewska, M; Miyazawa, C; Pass, B; Penkowski, M; Pivovarov, S; Romanyukha, A; Romanyukha, L; Schauer, D; Scherbina, O; Schultka, K; Shames, A; Sholom, S; Skinner, A; Skvortsov, V; Stepanenko, V; Tielewuhan, E; Toyoda, S; Trompier, F

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose.

  11. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  12. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  13. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  14. Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…

  15. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  16. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  17. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  18. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  19. A Program Evaluation of ClassScape Used in 3rd Grade Classes in a Rural County in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Misha Neely

    2012-01-01

    The research study will examine the impact of using the ClassScape program and targeted interventions on 3rd grade reading levels of performance. The conceptual and theoretical framework for the study suggests the need to connect formative, benchmark, and summative assessments in North Carolina. Furthermore, the review of the literature will…

  20. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) focuses on the earliest stages of human development, and provides a novel paradigm to complement other strategies for lifelong prevention of common chronic health conditions. The 3rd International Congress on DOHaD, held in 2005, retained the most ...

  1. Visual Arts Teaching in Kindergarten through 3rd-Grade Classrooms in the UAE: Teacher Profiles, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…

  2. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  3. A collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Sands, Dawn; Whitton, Colin M; Merton, R Elizabeth; Longstaff, Colin

    2002-08-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to replace the 2nd International Standard (IS) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The 2nd IS for tPA (86/670) was used to calibrate the replacement Standard, which was selected from two candidate materials included in the collaborative study. Participants were provided with five sets of four samples (A, B, C, D) and asked to use sample A (2nd IS, 86/670, 850 IU/ml) to determine the activity of B (86/624, approximately 850 IU/ml), C and D (coded duplicates of the same material, 98/714 approximately 11,000 IU/ml). A total of 14 laboratories returned results from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, providing data from 60 independent assays. Four laboratories used a reference method based on a published monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia for Alteplase for Injection, 1998, and the remaining 10 used their own method. Fibrin was used as promoter of tPA activity by 12 out of the 14 laboratories, the remaining two used kits where fibrinogen fragments were the promoter. Data from this collaborative study and the previous study to establish the 2nd IS for tPA show that tPA from melanoma cells and recombinant tPA from CHO cells are both suitable materials as International Standards. It was agreed that sample C, D, recombinant tPA, 98/714, be established as the 3rd International Standard for tPA with a potency of 10,000 IU per ampoule, calculated as the mean value from laboratories using fibrin as a promoter of tPA activity. The standard was established by WHO in November 2000.

  4. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  5. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  7. Modified Deacetylcephalosporin C Synthase for the Biotransformation of Semisynthetic Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nataraj; Ganesan, Sadhasivam; Rajasekaran, Padma; Rajendran, Lingeshwaran; Teddu, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deacetylcephalosporin C synthase (DACS), a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase synthesized by Streptomyces clavuligerus, transforms an inert methyl group of deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) into an active hydroxyl group of deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) during the biosynthesis of cephalosporin. It is a step which is chemically difficult to accomplish, but its development by use of an enzymatic method with DACS can facilitate a cost-effective technology for the manufacture of semisynthetic cephalosporin intermediates such as 7-amino-cephalosporanic acid (7ACA) and hydroxymethyl-7-amino-cephalosporanic acid (HACA) from cephalosporin G. As the native enzyme showed negligible activity toward cephalosporin G, an unnatural and less expensive substrate analogue, directed-evolution strategies such as random, semirational, rational, and computational methods were used for systematic engineering of DACS for improved activity. In comparison to the native enzyme, several variants with improved catalytic efficiency were found. The enzyme was stable for several days and is expressed in soluble form at high levels with significantly higher kcat/Km values. The efficacy and industrial scalability of one of the selected variants, CefFGOS, were demonstrated in a process showing complete bioconversion of 18 g/liter of cephalosporin G into deacetylcephalosporin G (DAG) in about 80 min and showed reproducible results at higher substrate concentrations as well. DAG could be converted completely into HACA in about 30 min by a subsequent reaction, thus facilitating scalability toward commercialization. The experimental findings with several mutants were also used to rationalize the functional conformation deduced from homology modeling, and this led to the disclosure of critical regions involved in the catalysis of DACS. IMPORTANCE 7ACA and HACA serve as core intermediates for the manufacture of several semisynthetic cephalosporins. As they are expensive, a cost-effective enzyme

  8. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  9. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  11. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  13. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  14. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid: meeting summary of the 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin 2013, Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC.

  15. Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA Project Leader Larry D. Welch, IDA David L...3693 Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA...Welch on “ Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security for the United States and China.” Also included are presentations by Senior Colonel Jiang

  16. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  17. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    A new version of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) is being compiled in the framework of cooperation between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This initiative aims at mapping the global land degradation and desertification, as well as introducing the reader with complex interactions of geo-physical, socio-economic, and political aspects that affect the environmental sustainability. Recurrent extreme events resulting from climate change, such as more severe droughts, combined with non-adapted land use practices can affect the resilience of ecosystems tipping them into a less productive state. Thus, to describe the effects of climatological hazards on land degradation and desertification processes, we computed a World drought climatology that will be part of the 3rd edition of the WAD and will replace and update to 2010 the results presented in the 2nd edition in 1997. This paper presents the methodology used to compute three parameters included in the WAD drought climatology, i.e. drought frequency, intensity and duration, and discusses their spatio-temporal patterns both at global and continental scales. Because drought is mainly driven and triggered by a rainfall deficit, we chose the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as the drought indicator to estimate our climatological parameters. The SPI is a statistical precipitation-based drought indicator widely used in drought-related studies. We calculated the SPI on three different accumulation periods: 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6), and 12 months (SPI-12), in order to take into account meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought-related features. Each quantity has been calculated on a monthly basis using the baseline period between January 1951 and December 2010. As data input, we used the Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 (0.5˚x0.5˚) of gridded monthly precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation

  18. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  19. Dual-Action Cephalosporin Utilizing a Novel Therapeutic Principle

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D.; O'Grady, F.

    1976-01-01

    A new cephalosporin is described that overcomes, in a novel way, the general susceptibility of this group of agents to enterobacterial β-lactamases. The new compound carries a substituent that is released on cleavage of the β-lactam ring and then exhibits antibacterial activity in its own right. The possible therapeutic benefits of such an antibiotic are discussed. PMID:791095

  20. EDITORIAL: Photonica 2011: 3rd International School and Conference on Photonics Photonica 2011: 3rd International School and Conference on Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stepić, Milutin; Hadžievski, Ljupčo

    2012-04-01

    Photonics is a rapidly growing discipline of physics that investigates properties of light and its interaction with matter and develops devices based on these properties. Due to both the fundamental and applied nature of photonics research, it pervades many branches of modern technology: quantum mechanics, material science, electronics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, material processing, etc. The borders between these subjects are being erased, generating new research areas such as silicon photonics, biophotonics and quantum photonics. Diverse branches of photonics are united in a common effort to further miniaturize photonic devices, integrate them with existing technologies and develop new technologies. The International School and Conference on Photonics—Photonica—is a biennial forum for the education of young scientists, exchanging new knowledge and ideas, and fostering collaboration between scientists working in photonic science and technology. Conference topics cover a broad range of research activities in optical materials, metamaterials and plasmonics, nonlinear optics, lasers, laser spectroscopy, biophotonics, optoelectronics, optocommunications, photonic crystals, holography, quantum optics and related topics in atomic physics. The aim of the organizers is to provide a platform for discussing new developments, concepts and future trends of various disciplines of photonics by bringing together researchers from academia, government and industrial laboratories. The educational element of Photonica—a series of tutorials and keynote talks—enables students and young researchers to better understand the fundamentals and their use on a route to applications, and informs both young and experienced scientists of new directions of research. The introductory lectures that are directly related to the state-of-the-art are followed by presentations and discussions on recent results during oral and vibrant poster presentations. This Topical Issue is

  1. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  2. Susceptibility to cephalosporins of bacteria causing intramammary infections in dairy cows with a high somatic cell count in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wente, N; Zoche-Golob, V; Behr, M; Krömker, V

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins of the first (cefalonium and cefapirin) and fourth generation (cefquinome) against bacteria isolated from intramammary infections in dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts in Germany. Additionally, possible regional differences of the minimal inhibitory concentrations within Germany should be evaluated. In total, 6936 quarter milk samples from cows with a somatic cell count >200,000cells/ml were taken in 43 herds. The concentrations of the first generation cephalosporins inhibiting at least 90% of the isolates of a pathogen (MIC90) were ≥64μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria and enterococci whereas the respective MIC90 against the other Gram-positive bacteria were ≤4μg/ml. The MIC90 of cefquinome were ≥16μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria, bacilli and enterococci, and ≤2μg/ml against the other Gram-positive bacteria. Only the minimal inhibitory concentrations against coagulase-negative staphylococci differed significantly between regions in parametric survival models with shared frailties for the herds. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of cefquinome against staphylococci were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the tested cephalosporins of the first generation. Therefore, cefquinome should not be the first choice to treat staphylococcal mastitis in dairy cows.

  3. Dissemination of Cephalosporin Resistance Genes between Escherichia coli Strains from Farm Animals and Humans by Specific Plasmid Lineages

    PubMed Central

    de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Fluit, Ad C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E

  4. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis B.

    2015-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments.

  5. Tunnelling of the 3rd kind: A test of the effective non-locality of quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Simon A.; Gies, Holger; Jaeckel, Joerg; Wallace, Chris J.

    2013-03-01

    Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this letter we argue that tunnelling of the 3rd kind —where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance— provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.

  6. Improved method for recovery of organic solids from diluted swine manure in 3rd generation treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-liquid separation of the raw manure increases the capacity of decision making and opportunities for treatment. The high-rate separation up-front using flocculants allows recovery of most of the organic compounds, which can be used for manufacture of high-quality compost materials. However, t...

  7. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  8. What is waveform library? Advances in EPG science made possible by the 3rd generation AC-DC universal monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, most Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) studies have emphasized small-bodied sternorrhynchans, auchenorrhynchans, and thrips. EPG holds the potential to significantly improve research on a wider array of species, such as large heteropterans and blood-sucking vectors of medical/veteri...

  9. Cefuroxime, a New Cephalosporin Antibiotic: Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, Cynthia H.; Sykes, R. B.; Griffiths, A.; Thornton, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Cefuroxime is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with increased stability to β-lactamases. This stability, although no absolute in all cases, has the effect of widening the antibacterial spectrum of the compound so that many organisms resistant to the established cephalosporins are susceptible to cefuroxime. It is active against gram-positive organisms, including penicillinase-producing staphylococci, but it is less active against methicillin-resistant strains. In addition to its high activity against non-β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria, cefuroxime effectively inhibits the growth of many β-lactamase-producing strains, including Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and indole-positive Proteus spp. It is highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and also Haemophilus influenzae, including ampicillin-resistant strains. Cefuroxime is rapidly bactericidal and induces the formation and subsequent lysis of filamentous forms over a small concentration range. PMID:1259407

  10. The ENCCA-WP7/EuroSarc/EEC/PROVABES/EURAMOS 3rd European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting/Joint Workshop of EU Bone Sarcoma Translational Research Networks; Vienna, Austria, September 24-25, 2015. Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Kager, Leo; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hassan, Bass; Anninga, Jakob; Bennister, Lindsey; Bovée, Judith V M G; Brennan, Bernadette; Broto, Javier M; Brugières, Laurence; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Copland, Christopher; Dutour, Aurélie; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Stefano; Fiocco, Marta; Fleuren, Emmy; Gaspar, Nathalie; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerrand, Craig; Gerß, Joachim; Gonzato, Ornella; van der Graaf, Winette; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Herrero-Martín, David; Klco-Brosius, Stephanie; Kovar, Heinrich; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lancia, Carlo; LeDeley, Marie-Cecile; McCabe, Martin G; Metzler, Markus; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela; Picci, Piero; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Reinke, Denise; Rutkowski, Piotr; Scotlandi, Katia; Strauss, Sandra; Thomas, David; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Vassal, Gilles; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3rd Joint ENCCA-WP7, EuroSarc, EEC, PROVABES, and EURAMOS European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting, which was held at the Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna, Austria on September 24-25, 2015. The joint bone sarcoma network meetings bring together European bone sarcoma researchers to present and discuss current knowledge on bone sarcoma biology, genetics, immunology, as well as results from preclinical investigations and clinical trials, to generate novel hypotheses for collaborative biological and clinical investigations. The ultimate goal is to further improve therapy and outcome in patients with bone sarcomas.

  11. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-09-18

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term.

  12. Recombinant Acremonium chrysogenum strains for the industrial production of cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Díez, B; Mellado, E; Fouces, R; Rodríguez, M; Barredo, J L

    1996-09-01

    Conventional strain improvement programs based on random mutagenesis and rational screening have meant valuable results to the antibiotic producing companies. The development of recombinant DNA techniques and their applications to the industrially-used cephalosporin-producing fungus Acremonium chrysogenum has provided a new tool, complementary to classical mutation, promoting the design of alternative biosynthetic pathways making it possible to obtain new antibiotics and to improve cephalosporin production. Yield increases have been achieved by increasing the dosage of the biosynthetic genes cefEF (deacetoxycephalosporin C expandase/hydroxylase) and cefG (deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) or enhancing the oxygen uptake by expressing a bacterial oxygen-binding heme protein (Vitreoscilla hemoglobin). New biosynthetic capacities such as the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or penicillin G have been achieved through the expression of the foreign genes dao (D-amino acid oxidase) coupled with cephalosporin acylase or penDE(acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase) respectively. Confined manipulation of the above-mentioned recombinant strains must be performed according to standing rules.

  13. [Ceftaroline, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin in the era of multiresistance].

    PubMed

    Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Cantón, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has increased during the last few years, representing a public health concern. Among Gram-positive organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are paradigms of resistance and of the dispersion of multiresistant clones. Ceftaroline, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin that includes MRSA and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, is the first β-lactam antibiotic useful in infections due to MRSA. Phase-III clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and in skin and soft tissue infections, which are the current indications for ceftaroline. Due to its microbiological and pharmacological (PK/PD) profiles, these indications could be expanded to include bacteremia, endocarditis, and even osteoarticular infections. Another notable feature is the activity of this drug against Gram-negative bacilli susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, indicating that ceftaroline could be useful when these organisms are suspected or demonstrated in polymicrobial infections. Clinical follow-up of ceftaroline use will more clearly define future ceftaroline indications.

  14. International Conference on Future Energy Concepts, 3rd, London, England, January 27-30, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Electric cars are considered along with questions regarding solar energy as alternative or complementary energy concept, aspects of high temperature heat storage, wind turbine response and system integration, the development of the coal fired combined cycle and gas turbine cycle for power generation, the performance characteristics of a variable speed heat pump, and the economics of satellite solar power system operation. Attention is also given to the generation and transmission of electricity from wave energy schemes, the effect of building construction on the value of solar radiation to reduce heat needs, the performance optimization of photovoltaic converters using a microprocessor, power transmission from offshore wind generation systems, and the properties of the polyol fuel cell. Other subjects explored are related to the performance of a Wells turbine for use in a wave energy system, the combustion of low-grade fuels in a fluidized bed, coal gasification for combined cycle power generation, the cost of power recovery from waste heat, and energy from biomass.

  15. Specimen Examinations for Merchant Marine Engineer Licenses (2nd and 3rd Assistant).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    valves being not fully seated. D. moisture entrained in the steam . 5. Double helically cut gears are used for main reduction and pinion gears to A...A faulty coil in the solenoid valve -21- EXAMINATION SPECIFICATIONS SECOND ASSISTANT ENGINEER SUBJECT STEAM MOTOR I. Boilers, Fuel Oil & Combustion...engine back pressure. C. increase engine cycle efficiency. D. increase turbocharger efficiency. 2. A common method of varying the steam generating rate

  16. 3rd congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Costa da Caparica, Portugal, February 2016).

    PubMed

    Cueva, Miguel

    2017-03-25

    The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications. With the aid of synthetic biology, production costs of chemicals, metabolites and food products are expected to decrease, by generating sustainable biochemical production of such resources. Also, such synthetic biological advances could be applied for medical purposes, as in pharmaceuticals and for biosensors. Recurrent, linked themes throughout the meeting were the shortage of resources, the world's transition into a bioeconomy, and how synthetic biology is helping tackle these issues through cutting-edge technologies. While there are still limitations in synthetic biology research, innovation is propelling the development of technology, the standardisation of synthetic biological tools and the use of suitable host organisms. These developments are laying a foundation to providing a future where cutting-edge research could generate potential solutions to society's pressing issues, thus incentivising a transition into a bioeconomy.

  17. Thymidylate Limitation Potentiates Cephalosporin Activity toward Enterococci via an Exopolysaccharide-Based Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2016-06-17

    Multidrug resistant enterococci are major causes of nosocomial infections. Prior therapy with cephalosporins increases the risk of developing an enterococcal infection due to the intrinsic resistance of enterococci to these antibiotics. While progress has been made toward understanding the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance, available data indicate that as-yet-unidentified resistance factors must exist. Here, we describe results of a screen to identify small molecules capable of sensitizing enterococci to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. We found that both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were sensitized to broad and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins when thymidylate production was impaired, whether by direct inhibition of thymidylate synthase, or by limiting production of cofactors required for its activity. Cephalosporin potentiation is the result of altered exopolysaccharide production due to reduced dTDP-glucose synthesis. Hence, exopolysaccharide production is a previously undescribed contributor to the intrinsic cephalosporin resistance of enterococci and serves as a new target for antienterococcal therapeutics.

  18. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  19. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  20. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  1. Palaeocommunity dynamics across the Lower to Middle Miocene 3rd order sequence boundary of the Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd order sequence boundary from the Lower to the Middle Miocene of the Paratethys is characterized by a well-known major change of the molluscan fauna. This change was mainly studied based on regional species lists, which suggest a transition from low-diversity Karpatian (Upper Burdigalian) to highly diverse Badenian (Langhian and Lower Serravallian) assemblages. Here, we present quantitative data from 4 Karpatian and 6 Badenian localities to capture the anatomy of this faunal transition by comparing species-abundance patterns of local assemblages. 223 bulk samples, comprising more than 65,000 shells, were taken from shell beds; all molluscs > 1mm were studied quantitatively and sorted into 496 species. Independent sources (e.g., palaeogeographic position of localities and environmental data from foraminifera) suggest a water depth ranging from the intertidal to several tens of meters for the studied assemblages. Ordination methods indicate that benthic assemblages in the study area developed along the same depth-related environmental gradient across the 3rd order sequence boundary. Due to strong facies shifts at the boundary, the Karpatian faunas are mostly preserved in nearshore settings, but the Badenian faunas range from intertidal to shelf depth. Statistical analyses indicate that differences between the total of Karpatian and the total of Badenian assemblages are smaller than any differences among individual localities. The striking differences among the studied localities are most likely due to heterogeneous environments present on the Lower and Middle Miocene shelf of the Central Paratethys. Clearly, the immigration of several thermophilic molluscan families and superfamilies (e.g., Strombidae, Tonnoidea, Isognomonidae, and Carditidae) reflects climatic changes at the onset of the Langhian transgression. Our quantitative approach, however, favours the strong facies shift at the Lower / Middle Miocene boundary as the main reason for the pretended faunal

  2. 77 FR 735 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalosporin Drugs; Extralabel Animal Drug Use; Order of Prohibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ..., and diabetic foot infections. Approved indications for newer cephalosporins include the treatment of... interdigital necrobacillosis (foot rot) and acute bovine metritis; (3) the control of bovine...

  3. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  4. Early acute antibody-mediated rejection of a negative flow crossmatch 3rd kidney transplant with exclusive disparity at HLA-DP.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M; Baum, Caitlin E; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-08-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA.

  5. Myocardial dysplasia in a 3rd-trimester fetus. An ultrasound and pathologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Paladini, D; Russo, M; Palmieri, S; Pacileo, G; Caruso, G; Ianniruberto, A; Martinelli, P; Calabrò, R

    1997-01-01

    Arrested myocardial development, often described as spongiosum heart, has been reported in association with obstructive semilunar valve disease and, much more rarely, as a primary disease in adolescents and adults. To our knowledge, this condition has never been diagnosed in utero. We describe the echocardiographic and pathoanatomic findings of the 1st case of myocardial dysplasia detected in utero by ultrasound. A 28-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1, was referred to our unit at 34 weeks of gestation due to severe fetal hydrops. On echocardiography, we observed gross fetal cardiomegaly (particularly of the septal and ventricular myocardium), an unusually bright myocardial echostructure, thick trabeculations in both ventricular chambers, and severe loss of myocardial contraction. There were normal ventriculoarterial connections and no signs of obstructive semilunar valve disease. After fetal death, necropsy confirmed the presence of spongiosum heart and the diagnosis of myocardial dysplasia--which term best describes this disorder in its various temporal expressions. Because this condition has never before been observed prenatally, no consideration has been given to intrauterine management. We recommend that fetal cardiac function be monitored echocardiographically whenever a pregnant patient has a positive family history of this disease. There is a possibility that the life of the affected fetus might be prolonged beyond the gestational period by avoiding intrauterine cardiac decompensation, through early delivery. We recommend further that the parents of these children be advised of the risks associated with future pregnancies. Little is known about the pattern of inheritance of myocardial dysplasia, but the disorder appears to be familial. Therefore, the possibility that it may recur within the same generation must be taken into account. Images PMID:9068140

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Based on the use of laser as a coherent and intense light source, the photo-acoustics originated from the discovery made by Alexander Graham Bell was extended to laser-ultrasonics (LU), and it has been applied to wide area of ultrasonics, optics, material characterization and nondestructive inspection. In 1996, a research group for LU was started in the Japanese Society for Nondestructive Inspection (JSNDI), and researches on LU and related topics such as noncontact measurements and elastic wave theories were discussed. Similar activities were pursued also in North America and in Europe. The international symposium on LU was started in Montreal, Canada in 2008 by Jean Pierre Monchalin in order to offer a forum for involved with basic researches and industrial applications of LU. In the second symposium in Bordeaux, France nearly 120 papers were presented. It is our honor to have organized the third symposium, LU2013 on 25-28 June in Yokohama, Japan. The articles published here provide a sample of achievements presented there. In LU2013, we focused on the laser generation and/or detection of acoustic waves, application to nondestructive testing, ultrafast-optoacoustics and innovative instruments. Research achievements in biomedical applications, advanced sensing including noncontact, micro/nanoscale or nonlinear measurements, as well as theory and simulation of ultrasound were also included, considering the interdisciplinary nature of this field. We enjoyed very excellent and informative 3 plenary talks, 11 invited talks, 81 oral and 41 poster presentations with 168 attendees. According to requests, we organized a post deadline poster session to give an opportunity to present recent achievements after the deadline. Contributions of the participants, the scientific and organizing committees are highly appreciated. The conference tour was a dinner cruise to the Tokyo bay, and we hope this experience will remain as a pleasant memory in attendees. As decided in the

  7. Resistance of Shigella strains to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Isfahan province

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Nasser; Bighamian, Moein; Mobasherizade, Sina; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. in Isfahan, (Iran) from 2010 to 2015. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on Shigella isolates in four tertiary care hospitals. The process of bacterial isolation and determination of susceptibility was performed by standard microbiological guidelines. The patients were categorized into three age groups of under 5, 5-15 and over 15 years. Results: Among 45 isolates, S. sonnei (63.6%) was the predominant species, followed by S. flexneri (34.1%), and S. dysenteriae (2.3%). Substantial resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefixime was observed. Over 94% of the isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility of isolates was similar between all age groups. Conclusion: Significant resistance to third generation cephalosporins precludes the use of these agents for empirical treatment of shigellosis in our population. Ciprofloxacin is an appropriate option; however, susceptibility tests should be performed before prescription. PMID:28210593

  8. FOREWORD: 3rd Symposium on Large TPCs for Low Energy Event Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, Igor G.; Colas, Paul; Gorodetzky, Phillippe

    2007-05-01

    The Third International Symposium on large TPCs for low-energy rare-event detection was held at Carré des sciences, Poincaré auditorium, 25 rue de la Montagne Ste Geneviève in Paris on 11 12 December 2006. This prestigious location belonging to the Ministry of Research is hosted in the former Ecole Polytechnique. The meeting, held in Paris every two years, gathers a significant community of physicists involved in rare event detection. Its purpose is an extensive discussion of present and future projects using large TPCs for low energy, low background detection of rare events (low-energy neutrinos, dark matter, solar axions). The use of a new generation of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) appears to be a promising way to reach this goal. The program this year was enriched by a new session devoted to the detection challenge of polarized gamma rays, relevant novel experimental techniques and the impact on particle physics, astrophysics and astronomy. A very particular feature of this conference is the large variety of talks ranging from purely theoretical to purely experimental subjects including novel technological aspects. This allows discussion and exchange of useful information and new ideas that are emerging to address particle physics experimental challenges. The scientific highlights at the Symposium came on many fronts: Status of low-energy neutrino physics and double-beta decay New ideas on double-beta decay experiments Gamma ray polarization measurement combining high-precision TPCs with MPGD read-out Dark Matter challenges in both axion and WIMP search with new emerging ideas for detection improvements Progress in gaseous and liquid TPCs for rare event detection Georges Charpak opened the meeting with a talk on gaseous detectors for applications in the bio-medical field. He also underlined the importance of new MPGD detectors for both physics and applications. There were about 100 registered participants at the symposium. The successful

  9. PREFACE: 3rd Italian-Pakistani Workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics (IPWRA2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paolis, Francesco; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2012-03-01

    The Third Italian-Pakistani Workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics was held at the Rectorate of the University of Salento in Lecce on June 20-22, 2011. It follows the first two editions of this Workshop held at the Department of Physics of the University of Salento on 20-22 June 2007 and at ICRA (International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics) in Pescara on 8-10 July 2009. The Proceedings of the first two editions of this Workshop have been published in two special issues of Nuovo Cimento B [1] and General Relativity and Gravitation [2], respectively. The workshop series, whose aim is that of discussing the different aspects (both theoretical and observational) of Relativistic Astrophysics, follows the signature, in 2006, of an agreement between the University of Salento, Italy and the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan, and aims at promoting scientific and academic cooperation between the parties. The organizing committee of this Workshop has decided to dedicate the present workshop's edition to the celebration of the 65th birthday of the founder of this series of meetings, Prof. Asghar Qadir, one of the greatest Pakistani scientists of any time and a renowned world expert in the theory of general relativity. Many of the Workshop's participants have either been students or collaborators of Asghar Qadir, or both. In Pakistan the words Relativity and Asghar Qadir are synonymous. It would not be entirely wrong to say that anybody who has anything to do with relativity in Pakistan is either his student or a student of one of his students. Asghar Qadir has inspired generations of researchers and teachers, and continues to be a source of inspiration for hard work and dedication. He is a mentor of Pakistani scientists and the equivalent in Pakistan of what John Archibald Wheeler has been in the US. Qadir and Wheeler An autographed picture of John Archibald Wheeler with a young Asghar Qadir Asghar had the rare privilege of being introduced

  10. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Abdelmageed, Osama H.; Attia, Tamer Z.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 μg mL−1 and 5–25 μg mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  11. Enhancing effect of serum ultrafiltrate on the activity of cephalosporins against gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, J E; Craig, W A

    1989-01-01

    A few studies have suggested that the inhibitory effect of serum on activity of broad-spectrum cephalosporins is less than that predicted by the degree of protein binding. Microdilution MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, moxalactam, and ceftizoxime were therefore determined against ATCC and clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller-Hinton broth containing either human albumin (as 0, 2.5, or 5% solution) or heat-inactivated human serum (as 0, 25, 50, or 95% solution). Arithmetic linear dilutions were used to improve accuracy. For standard bacterial strains, MICs in the presence of 5% albumin were higher than in broth alone by multiples of 10.9 to 21 for ceftriaxone, 5.5 to 16.4 for cefoperazone, 1.9 to 3.7 for moxalactam, and 1.1 to 1.4 for ceftizoxime, as expected by their protein binding. MICs in the presence of 95% serum were similar to those in 5% albumin for all four drugs against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but were 2.2- to 4.8-fold lower (P less than 0.001) against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Similar findings were observed at lower protein concentrations and with clinical isolates, except that for some strains of P. aeruginosa MICs were lower in serum than in albumin. Individual sera from five subjects gave comparable results. The addition of serum ultrafiltrate to albumin-containing solutions reduced MICs of ceftriaxone and cefoperazone 1.6- to 7.4-fold against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) but did not alter the MICs for S. aureus. Serum may contain an ultrafiltrable component(s) that enhances the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against many gram-negative bacilli. PMID:2496656

  12. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  13. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  14. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  15. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  16. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  17. "Elderly Deafblindness." Proceedings of the European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network (3rd, Marcelli di Numana, Italy, October 2-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deafblind International, London (England).

    This text includes all of the plenary presentations from the 3rd European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network. This international conference was the first to focus specifically on older people with dual sensory impairment. Presentations addressed the awareness of the needs of older people with deafblind or dual…

  18. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  19. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice.

  20. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  1. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  3. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  4. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult.

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  6. A Low Distortion 3rd-Order Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for a Worldwide Digital TV-Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Koji; Matsukawa, Kazuo; Mitani, Yosuke; Takayama, Masao; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Sakiyama, Shiro; Dosho, Shiro

    This paper presents a low distortion 3rd-order continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for a worldwide digital TV-receiver whose peak SNDR is 69.8dB and SNR is 70.2dB under 1V power supply. To enhance SNDR performance, the mechanisms to occur harmonic distortions at feedback current-steering DAC and flash ADC have been analyzed. A low power tuning system using RC-relaxation oscillator has been developed in order to achieve high yield against PVT variations. A 3rd-order modulator with modified single opamp resonator contributes to cost reduction by realizing a very compact circuit. Reduction schemes of the distortions enabled the modulator to achieve FOM of 0.18pJ/conv-step.

  7. The temperature field and heat transfer in the porthole of the Space Shuttle - Outer surface under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Heping; Yu, Qizheng; Zhang, Jizhou

    In this paper, the transient combined heat transfer in the silicon glass porthole of Space Shuttle is studied by control volume method, ray tracing method and spectral band model. The temperature field in the silicon glass and heat flux entering the space cabin are given under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition. The computational results show, if the radiation in the silicon glass is omitted, the errors for temperature fields are not too evident, but for heat flux are quite large.

  8. The potential of using enzyme-linked immunospot to diagnose cephalosporin-induced maculopapular exanthems.

    PubMed

    Tanvarasethee, Boonthorn; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong

    2013-01-01

    There is no reliable test to diagnose cephalosporin-induced maculopapular exanthems (MPE). This study aimed to evaluate the role of enzyme-linked immunospot assay in the diagnosis of cephalosporin-induced MPE compared with skin testing. A total of 25 patients with a history of cephalosporin-induced MPE were skin tested and the frequencies of cephalosporin-specific interferon-γ-, interleukin-5-, and interleukin-10-releasing cells/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured after stimulating with the culprit drug, compared with 20 non-allergic controls. Values greater than means+2 standard deviations of the values in non-allergic controls were considered diagnostic. The study showed that the combination of interferon-γ and interleukin-5 enzyme-linked immunospot assays was more sensitive than skin testing to diagnose cephalosporin allergy (40% vs. 8%, p = 0.008) and sensitivity increased to 57.1% when the test was performed within 2 years of the drug reaction. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay is a promising tool for confirming the diagnosis of cephalosporin-induced MPE.

  9. Cephalothin is not a reliable surrogate marker for oral cephalosporins in susceptibility testing of Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    López, Itziar Angulo; Montes, Jorge Calvo; Álvarez, Mar Justel; Mazarrasa, Carlos Fernández; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux) is a widely used commercial antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) system. AST-N244 card includes cephalothin as first-generation cephalosporin. We compared the cephalothin susceptibility results obtained with Vitek® 2 AST-N244 to those obtained by broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion (DD) for 212 urinary Enterobacteriaceae. We also evaluated the differences between cefazolin and cephalothin susceptibility results. The overall performance of Vitek® 2 for cephalothin testing was 74.5% and 76.4% category agreement compared to BMD and DD, respectively; 84.4% essential agreement; very major errors 15.2% and 11.1% compared to BMD and DD; major errors 0% compared to both methods; and minor errors 22.2% and 21.7% compared to BMD and DD. Regarding correlation between cephalothin and cefazolin, the differences observed were statistically significant (P<0.0001) for the 167 Escherichia coli included (39.5% cephalothin susceptible versus 92.2% cefazolin susceptible by BMD; 41.9% cephalothin susceptible versus 93.4% cefazolin susceptible by DD). Vitek® 2 should provide cefazolin instead of cephalothin as a surrogate marker for oral cephalosporins on the urinary AST-244 cards in order to follow the CLSI (2016) recommendations.

  10. Impact of treatment strategies on cephalosporin and tetracycline resistance gene quantities in the bovine fecal metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Neena; Scott, H. Morgan; Norby, Bo; Loneragan, Guy H.; Vinasco, Javier; Cottell, Jennifer L.; Chalmers, Gabhan; Chengappa, Muckatira M.; Bai, Jianfa; Boerlin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effects of two treatment regimens on quantities of ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance genes in feedlot cattle. The two regimens were ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) administered to either one or all steers within a pen and subsequent feeding/not feeding of therapeutic doses of chlortetracycline. A 26-day randomized controlled field trial was conducted on 176 steers. Real-time PCR was used to quantify blaCMY-2, blaCTX-M, tet(A), tet(B), and 16S rRNA gene copies/gram of feces from community DNA. A significant increase in ceftiofur resistance and a decrease in tetracycline resistance elements were observed among the treatment groups in which all steers received CCFA treatment, expressed as gene copies/gram of feces. Subsequent chlortetracycline administration led to rapid expansion of both ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance gene copies/gram of feces. Our data suggest that chlortetracycline is contraindicated when attempting to avoid expansion of resistance to critically important third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:24872333

  11. Risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter species in adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Kyungmin; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Jungok; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of Enterobacter infection is complicated due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. Medical records of 192 adults with cancer who had Enterobacter bacteremia were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the risk factors for and the treatment outcomes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia in adults with cancer. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 192 patients, 53 (27.6%) had bloodstream infections caused by ESC-resistant Enterobacter species. Recent use of a third-generation cephalosporin, older age, tumor progression at last evaluation, recent surgery, and nosocomial acquisition were associated with ESC-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the resistant group. Multivariate analysis showed that respiratory tract infection, tumor progression, septic shock at presentation, Enterobacter aerogenes as the culprit pathogen, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for mortality. ESC resistance was significantly associated with mortality in patients with E. aerogenes bacteremia, although not in the overall patient population.

  12. Cephalosporin Induced Disulfiram-Like Reaction: A Retrospective Review of 78 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shiyan; Cao, Yuxia; Zhang, Xiuwei; Jiao, Shichen; Qian, Songyi; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant ingestion of alcohol and cephalosporin may cause a disulfiram-like reaction; however its fatal outcomes are not commonly known. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients who had cephalosporin induced disulfiram-like reaction (CIDLR). The patients who had a negative skin test to cephalosporin prior to intravenous antibiotics were included, and those who were allergic to either alcohol or antibiotics were excluded. The average age of 78 patients was 37.8±12.2 (21–60) years. Of the 78 patients, 93.58% of the patients were males, 70.51% of the patients consumed alcohol after use of antibiotics, and 29.49% patients consumed alcohol initially, followed by intravenous antibiotics; however, no significant difference of morbidity was observed in these two groups. All patients were administered antibiotics intravenously. Five of 78 patients (6.41%) developed severe CIDLR too urgently to be rescued successfully. In conclusion, it is important for clinicians to educate patients that no alcohol should be used if one is taking cephalosporin. Also, clinicians should keep in mind that cephalosporin should not be prescribed for any alcoholics. PMID:24670024

  13. MurAA Is Required for Intrinsic Cephalosporin Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Vesić, Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a low-GC Gram-positive bacterium that is intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins, antibiotics that target cell wall biosynthesis. To probe the mechanistic basis for intrinsic resistance, a library of transposon mutants was screened to identify E. faecalis strains that are highly susceptible to ceftriaxone, revealing a transposon mutant with a disruption in murAA. murAA is predicted to encode a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyl transferase that catalyzes the first committed step in peptidoglycan synthesis: phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent conversion of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvate. In-frame deletion of murAA, but not its homolog in the E. faecalis genome (murAB), led to increased susceptibility of E. faecalis to cephalosporins. Furthermore, expression of murAA enhanced cephalosporin resistance in an E. faecalis mutant lacking IreK (formerly PrkC), a key kinase required for cephalosporin resistance. Further genetic analysis revealed that MurAA catalytic activity is necessary but not sufficient for this role. Collectively, our data indicate that MurAA and MurAB have distinct roles in E. faecalis physiology and suggest that MurAA possesses a unique property or activity that enables it to enhance intrinsic resistance of E. faecalis to cephalosporins. PMID:22290954

  14. Porin Involvement in Cephalosporin and Carbapenem Resistance of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Aunkham, Anuwat; Schulte, Albert; Winterhalter, Mathias; Suginta, Wipa

    2014-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bps) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes frequently lethal melioidosis, with a particularly high prevalence in the north and northeast of Thailand. Bps is highly resistant to many antimicrobial agents and this resistance may result from the low drug permeability of outer membrane proteins, known as porins. Principal Findings Microbiological assays showed that the clinical Bps strain was resistant to most antimicrobial agents and sensitive only to ceftazidime and meropenem. An E. coli strain defective in most porins, but expressing BpsOmp38, exhibited considerably lower antimicrobial susceptibility than the control strain. In addition, mutation of Tyr119, the most prominent pore-lining residue in BpsOmp38, markedly altered membrane permeability, substitution with Ala (mutant BpsOmp38Y119A) enhanced uptake of the antimicrobial agents, while substitution with Phe (mutant BpsOmp38Y119F) inhibited uptake. Channel recordings of BpsOmp38 reconstituted in a planar black lipid membrane (BLM) suggested that the higher permeability of BpsOmp38Y119A was caused by widening of the pore interior through removal of the bulky side chain. In contrast, the lower permeability of BpsOmp38Y119F was caused by introduction of the hydrophobic side chain (Phe), increasing the ‘greasiness’ of the pore lumen. Significantly, liposome swelling assays showed no permeation through the BpsOmp38 channel by antimicrobial agents to which Bps is resistant (cefoxitin, cefepime, and doripenem). In contrast, high permeability to ceftazidime and meropenem was observed, these being agents to which Bps is sensitive. Conclusion/Significance Our results, from both in vivo and in vitro studies, demonstrate that membrane permeability associated with BpsOmp38 expression correlates well with the antimicrobial susceptibility of the virulent bacterium B. pseudomallei, especially to carbapenems and cephalosporins. In addition, substitution of the residue Tyr119 affects

  15. High resolution three-dimensional (256 to the 3rd) spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Werner J. A.; Buch, Kenneth A.

    Results from highly resolved three-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field zeta(x,t) in a turbulent shear flow. Each of these experiments consists of 256 to the 3rd individual point measurements of the local instantaneous conserved scalar value in the flow. The spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements reach beyond the local Kolmogorov scale and resolve the local strain-limited molecular diffusion scale in the flow. The results clearly show molecular mixing occurring in thin strained laminar diffusion layers in a turbulent flow.

  16. Efficacy studies of Vectobac 12as and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small plot field studies.

    PubMed

    Floore, T G; Petersen, J L; Shaffer, K R

    2004-12-01

    Efficacy studies were conducted with VectoBac 12AS and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small field test plots. The products were obtained off the shelf from distributors and had different lot numbers. They were evaluated over a 2-year period in spring 2002 and 2003. Application rates were 0.29, 0.58, and 1.10 liter/ha and evaluations were made 24 and 48 h after treatment. Both products performed well in these studies, with VectoBac 12AS being more effective at the 0.29 liter/ha rate.

  17. Structural and mechanistic insights into NDM-1 catalyzed hydrolysis of cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han; Ding, Jingjin; Zhu, Deyu; Liu, Xuehui; Xu, Xueyong; Zhang, Ying; Zang, Shanshan; Wang, Da-Cheng; Liu, Wei

    2014-10-22

    Cephalosporins constitute a large class of β-lactam antibiotics clinically used as antimicrobial drugs. New Dehli metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) poses a global threat to human health as it confers on bacterial pathogen resistance to almost all β-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Here we report the first crystal structures of NDM-1 in complex with cefuroxime and cephalexin, as well as NMR spectra monitoring cefuroxime and cefixime hydrolysis catalyzed by NDM-1. Surprisingly, cephalosporoate intermediates were captured in both crystal structures determined at 1.3 and 2.0 Å. These results provide detailed information concerning the mechanism and pathways of cephalosporin hydrolysis. We also present the crystal structure and enzyme assays of a D124N mutant, which reveals that D124 most likely plays a more structural than catalytic role.

  18. The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: an update on the rising problem of resistance

    PubMed Central

    Stoltey, Juliet E; Barry, Pennan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over the last several years, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins worldwide. Areas covered Gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programs in multiple regions have documented the rise in N. gonorrhoeae isolates’ minimum inhibitory concentrations to cephalosporins, and the first cases of ceftriaxone treatment failures have been reported. These developments have prompted the use of the term “superbug,” and concerns about the emergence of untreatable gonococcal infections. In response to this threat, a variety of treatment strategies have been proposed, including increasing the dose or providing multiple doses of cephalosporins, multidrug therapy, rotating therapeutic regimens, and individualized treatment based on susceptibility testing. Expert opinion A robust public health response is needed, and includes better diagnosis and treatment of pharyngeal gonorrhea, improved surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, informed treatment approaches, and reduction of the global burden of gonococcal infections. PMID:22646654

  19. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  20. beta-Lactamase hydrolysis of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; McCaffrey, C

    1994-01-01

    The beta-lactam hydrolysis of five cephalosporin 3'-quinolones (dual-action cephalosporins) by three gram-negative beta-lactamases was examined. The dual-action cephalosporins tested were the ester Ro 23-9424; the carbamates Ro 25-2016, Ro 25-4095, and Ro 25-4835; and the tertiary amine Ro 25-0534. Also tested were cephalosporins with similar side chains (cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cephalothin, cephacetrile, and Ro 09-1227 [SR 0124]) and standard beta-lactams (penicillin G, cephaloridine). The beta-lactamases used were the plasmid-mediated TEM-1 and TEM-3 enzymes and the chromosomal AmpC. The cephacetrile-related compounds Ro 25-4095 and Ro 25-4835 were hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases with catalytic efficiencies (relative to penicillin G) ranging from approximately 5 (TEM-1, AmpC) to approximately 25 (TEM-3). The cephalothin-related Ro 25-2016 was also hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases, particularly the AmpC enzyme (relative catalytic efficiency, 110). The cefotaxime-related compounds Ro 25-0534 and Ro 23-9424 were hydrolyzed to any significant extent only by the TEM-3 enzyme (relative catalytic efficiencies, 1.2 and 4.7, respectively. PMID:8067776

  1. Susceptibility of Respiratory Tract Anaerobes to Orally Administered Penicillins and Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David F.; Kureshi, Lubna Afzal; Sutter, Vera L.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1976-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria recovered from airway-related infections were tested by agar dilution against selected penicillins and cephalosporins available for oral administration. Against 136 isolates, penicillins G and V showed comparable activity, particularly when pharmacological differences were considered. Although many isolates were exquisitely susceptible to the penicillins, only 55% of the Bacteroides species and 72% of all isolates were inhibited at 0.5 μg of penicillin G per ml. Results for penicillin V at 1 μg/ml were similar (59 and 73%). The two cephalosporins were more active at achievable levels, inhibiting 94 to 95% of Bacteroides and 95 to 96% of all isolates at 8 μg/ml. These levels represent approximately 50% of the reported peak serum levels after oral administration of 625 mg of the penicillins and 500 mg of the cephalosporins. Dicloxacillin and nafcillin were tested against 50 isolates. The two were comparably active on a weight basis; dicloxacillin was more active when pharmacological differences were considered, but did not match the other penicillins or the cephalosporins. PMID:984805

  2. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2014-02-21

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed and simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.

  3. Determination of acid dissociation constants (pKa) of cephalosporin antibiotics: Computational and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alyson R; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-02-01

    Cefapirin (CEPA) and ceftiofur (CEF) are two examples of widely used veterinarian cephalosporins presenting multiple ionization centers. However, the acid dissociation constants (pKa) of CEF are missing and experimental data about CEPA are rare. The same is true for many cephalosporins, where available data are either incomplete or even wrong. Environmentally relevant biotic and abiotic processes depend primordially on the antibiotic pH-dependent speciation. Consequently, this physicochemical parameter should be reliable, including the correct ionization center identification. In this direction, two experimental techniques, potentiometry and spectrophotometry, along with two well-known pKa predictors, Marvin and ACD/Percepta, were used to study the macro dissociation constants of CEPA and CEF. Additionally, the experimental dissociation constants of 14 cephalosporins available in the literature were revised, compiled and compared with data obtained in silico. Only one value was determined experimentally for CEF (2.68 ± 0.05), which was associated to the carboxylic acid group deprotonation. For CEPA two values were obtained experimentally: 2.74 ± 0.01 for the carboxylic acid deprotonation and 5.13 ± 0.01 for the pyridinium ring deprotonation. In general, experimentally obtained values agree with the in silico predicted data (ACD/Percepta RMSE: 0.552 and Marvin RMSE: 0.706, n = 88). However, for cephalosporins having imine and aminothiazole groups structurally close, Marvin presented problems in pKa predictions. For the biological and environmental fate and effect discussion, it is important to recognize that CEPA and CEF, as well as many other cephalosporins, are present as anionic species in the biologic and environmentally relevant pH values of 6-7.5.

  4. Cephalosporin C production by immobilized Cephalosporium acremonium cells in a repeated batch tower bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio J G; Pan, Tai; Giordano, Roberto C; Araujo, Maria Lucia G C; Hokka, Carlos O

    2004-01-05

    The industrial production of antibiotics with filamentous fungi is usually carried out in conventional aerated and agitated tank fermentors. Highly viscous non-Newtonian broths are produced and a compromise must be found between convenient shear stress and adequate oxygen transfer. In this work, cephalosporin C production by bioparticles of immobilized cells of Cephalosporium acremonium ATCC 48272 was studied in a repeated batch tower bioreactor as an alternative to the conventional process. Also, gas-liquid oxygen transfer volumetric coefficients, k(L)a, were determined at various air flow-rates and alumina contents in the bioparticle. The bioparticles were composed of calcium alginate (2.0% w/w), alumina ( < 44 micra), cells, and water. A model describing the cell growth, cephalosporin C production, oxygen, glucose, and sucrose consumption was proposed. To describe the radial variation of oxygen concentration within the pellet, the reaction-diffusion model forecasting a dead core bioparticle was adopted. The k(L)a measurements with gel beads prepared with 0.0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% alumina showed that a higher k(L)a value is attained with 1.5 and 2.0%. An expression relating this coefficient to particle density, liquid density, and air velocity was obtained and further utilized in the simulation of the proposed model. Batch, followed by repeated batch experiments, were accomplished by draining the spent medium, washing with saline solution, and pouring fresh medium into the bioreactor. Results showed that glucose is consumed very quickly, within 24 h, followed by sucrose consumption and cephalosporin C production. Higher productivities were attained during the second batch, as cell concentration was already high, resulting in rapid glucose consumption and an early derepression of cephalosporin C synthesizing enzymes. The model incorporated this improvement predicting higher cephalosporin C productivity.

  5. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  6. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  7. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  8. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  9. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-03-12

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms.

  10. Towards 3rd generation organic tandem solar cells with 20% efficiency: Accelerated discovery and rational design of carbon-based photovoltaic materials through massive distributed volunteer computing

    SciTech Connect

    Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2016-11-04

    Clean, affordable, and renewable energy sources are urgently needed to satisfy the 10s of terawatts (TW) energy need of human beings. Solar cells are one promising choice to replace traditional energy sources. Our broad efforts have expanded the knowledge of possible donor materials for organic photovoltaics, while increasing access of our results to the world through the Clean Energy Project database (www.molecularspace.org). Machine learning techniques, including Gaussian Processes have been used to calibrate frontier molecular orbital energies, and OPV bulk properties (open-circuit voltage, percent conversion efficiencies, and short-circuit current). This grant allowed us to delve into the solid-state properties of OPVs (charge-carrier dynamics). One particular example allowed us to predict charge-carrier dynamics and make predictions about future hydrogen-bonded materials.

  11. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  12. Real Time In Situ Observations of Equiaxed Dendrite Coherency in Al-Cu Alloys Using High-Brilliance, 3rd Generation Synchrotron Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Andrew G.; Browne, David J.; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade synchrotron X-ray sources have fast become the tool of choice for performing in-situ high resolution imaging during alloy solidification. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, using a Bridgman furnace, to monitor phenomena during solidification of Al-Cu alloys - specifically the onset of equiaxed dendrite coherency. Conventional experimental methods for determining coherency involve measuring the change in viscosity or measuring the change in thermal conductivity across the solidifying melt Conflicts arise when comparing the results of these experimental techniques to find a relationship between cooling rate and coherency fraction. It has been shown that the ratio of average velocity to the average grain diameter has an inversely proportional relationship to coherency fraction. In-situ observation therefore makes it possible to measure these values directly from acquired images sequences and make comparisons with published results.

  13. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  14. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  15. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  16. Convenient solid phase extraction of cephalosporins in milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; Claude, Bérengère; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; Morin, Philippe

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for cephalosporin molecules (cephalexin (CFL) and cephapirin (CFP)), was prepared by non covalent molecular imprinting approach and applied to solid phase extraction (SPE). For MIP synthesis, a tributylammonium cefadroxil salt (TBA-CFD) was used as template with methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomer and cross-linker, respectively, in acetone-methanol 92/8 (v/v) mixture. The selectivity of MIP versus non imprinted polymer (NIP) was confirmed for CFL, CFD and CFP in standard solutions as well as in milk samples. The efficiency of the synthesized MIP was evaluated by means of the application of the proposed MIP-SPE procedure to spiked milk samples previous to the HPLC method for the detection of cephalosporins. The MIP-SPE recoveries were higher than 60% for the three target analytes in spiked milk.

  17. A novel sensor for cephalosporins based on electrocatalytic oxidation by poly(o-anisidine)/SDS/Ni modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Ojani, Reza; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Zamani, Saeed

    2010-06-15

    In this work for first time, the electrocatalytic oxidations of some cephalosporins were carried out by poly(o-anisidine)/SDS/Ni modified carbon paste electrode using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry methods. At first, poly(o-anisidine) was formed by cyclic voltammetry in monomer solution containing sodium dodesyl sulfate (SDS), on carbon paste electrode surface. Then, Ni(II) ions were incorporated to electrode by immersion of the polymeric modified electrode having amine group in 0.1molL(-1) Ni(II) ion solution. A good redox behavior was observed for the Ni(OH)(2)/NiOOH couple on the surface of this electrode. Cephalosporins were successfully oxidized on the surface of this nickel ions dispersed poly(o-anisidine) modified carbon paste electrode. The electrocatalytic oxidation peak currents of cephalosporins were linearly dependent on their concentration. Electrode was successfully applied to determine cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  19. Metabolic engineering of β-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Tânia; Gombert, Andreas K; Landes, Nils; Verhoeven, Maarten D; Kiel, Jan A K W; Krikken, Arjen M; Nijland, Jeroen G; Touw, Hesselien; Luttik, Marijke A H; van der Toorn, John C; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in cephalosporin-related products, but used as an additional carbon and energy source for growth. This low efficiency of side-chain precursor incorporation provides an economic incentive for studying and engineering the metabolism of adipic acid in P. chrysogenum. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis in the presence and absence of adipic acid confirmed that adipic acid metabolism in this fungus occurs via β-oxidation. A set of 52 adipate-responsive genes included six putative genes for acyl-CoA oxidases and dehydrogenases, enzymes responsible for the first step of β-oxidation. Subcellular localization of the differentially expressed acyl-CoA oxidases and dehydrogenases revealed that the oxidases were exclusively targeted to peroxisomes, while the dehydrogenases were found either in peroxisomes or in mitochondria. Deletion of the genes encoding the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase Pc20g01800 and the mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Pc20g07920 resulted in a 1.6- and 3.7-fold increase in the production of the semi-synthetic cephalosporin intermediate adipoyl-6-APA, respectively. The deletion strains also showed reduced adipate consumption compared to the reference strain, indicating that engineering of the first step of β-oxidation successfully redirected a larger fraction of adipic acid towards cephalosporin biosynthesis.

  20. Engineering the stereochemistry of cephalosporin for specific detection of pathogenic carbapenemase-expressing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haibin; Cheng, Yunfeng; Lee, Kyung Hyun; Luo, Robert F; Banaei, Niaz; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-07-28

    Reported herein is the design of fluorogenic probes specific for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and they were designed based on stereochemically modified cephalosporin having a 6,7-trans configuration. Through experiments using recombinant β-lactamase enzymes and live bacterial species, these probes demonstrate the potential for use in the specific detection of carbapenemases, including metallo-β-lactamases in active bacterial pathogens.

  1. Screening for cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae with the Kirby-Bauer disk susceptibility test.

    PubMed

    Friedland, I R; Shelton, S; McCracken, G H

    1993-06-01

    Kirby-Bauer disk susceptibility tests with five standard cephalosporin disks were performed on 23 penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for which ceftriaxone MICs were 0.125 to 4 micrograms/ml. Cefuroxime disk inhibition zone diameters distinguished clearly isolates for which ceftriaxone MICs were > or = 2 micrograms/ml from more susceptible strains, whereas cephalothin, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone disks distinguished these isolates less clearly than the cefuroxime disk did.

  2. Effectiveness of Cephalosporins in the Sputum of Patients with Nosocomial Bronchopneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Klekner, Almos; Bagyi, Kinga; Bognar, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila; Andrasi, Melinda; Szabo, Judit

    2006-01-01

    Nosocomial bronchopneumonia is a frequent complication in patients with chronic intratracheal intubation. Despite targeted antibiotic treatment, production of abundant bronchial secretion containing pathogen bacteria often tends to be chronic, and so mortality drastically increases. This problem led to an investigation of the penetration of five cephalosporin antibiotics into the sputum. Serum and sputum were collected from 24 chronically intubated patients having purulent nosocomial bronchopneumonia treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients received the following doses intravenously every 24 h: five received 70 mg/kg of body weight cefuroxime, four received 110 mg/kg cefamandole, six received 80 mg/kg ceftriaxone, four received 80 mg/kg ceftazidime, and five received 80 mg/kg cefepime. Antibiotic concentrations in the serum and sputum were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. MICs were determined for bacteria isolated from the purulent bronchial secretions. The mean levels of the cephalosporins in the sputum did not reach the MICs for the bacteria isolated from the same samples. Ceftriaxone was the only one of the investigated five cephalosporins that had a measurable concentration in the sputum (1.4 ± 1.2 mg/liter). The low concentration of antibiotics in the purulent tracheobronchial secretion can be one of the many reasons for ineffective therapy of nosocomial bronchopneumonia in intubated patients in the ICUs. In the case of intubated or mechanically ventilated patients having chronic bronchopneumonia, determination of drug concentration in the bronchial secretion might be considered when selecting an antibiotic for treatment. PMID:16954290

  3. Phototransformation of cephalosporin antibiotics in an aqueous environment results in higher toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2012-11-20

    Photodegradation may be the most important elimination process for cephalosporin antibiotics in surface water. Cefazolin (CFZ) and cephapirin (CFP) underwent mainly direct photolysis (t(1/2) = 0.7, 3.9 h), while cephalexin (CFX) and cephradine (CFD) were mainly transformed by indirect photolysis, which during the process a bicarbonate-enhanced nitrate system contributed most to the loss rate of CFX, CFD, and cefotaxime (CTX) (t(1/2) = 4.5, 5.3, and 1.3 h, respectively). Laboratory data suggested that bicarbonate enhanced the phototransformation of CFD and CFX in natural water environments. When used together, NO(3)(-), HCO(3)(-), and DOM closely simulated the photolysis behavior in the Jingmei River and were the strongest determinants in the fate of cephalosporins. TOC and byproducts were investigated and identified. Direct photolysis led to decarboxylation of CFD, CFX, and CFP. Transformation only (no mineralization) of all cephalosporins was observed through direct photolysis; byproducts were found to be even less photolabile and more toxic (via the Microtox test). CFZ exhibited the strongest acute toxicity after just a few hours, which may be largely attributed to its 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol moiety. Many pharmaceuticals were previously known to undergo direct sunlight photolysis and transformation in surface waters; however, the synergistic increase in toxicity caused by this cocktail (via pharmaceutical photobyproducts) cannot be ignored and warrants future research attention.

  4. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  5. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  6. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  7. Trends in the nature of provision in ophthalmology services and resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing: 3rd National UK survey.

    PubMed

    Czuber-Dochan, Wladyslawa J; Waterman, Christine G; Waterman, Heather A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade in the United Kingdom (UK), the roles of nurses have become increasingly specialised to support a more efficient and effective health service. In ophthalmology, the changes are most visible in the growing number of patients being treated as day case and the greater nursing contribution to patient outcomes. To support this change there is a continuing need for educational institutions to create opportunities to meet the training needs of nurses working in both specialised areas and at the advance level of practice. This article reports on a 3rd national survey the aims of which were to investigate trends in the nature and provision of ophthalmic services and the resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing. The results demonstrate that over the three surveys there has been a significant increase of pre-operative assessment units and a significant decrease of designated ophthalmic wards. Between the second and third survey, the results indicate fewer difficulties with funding but there has been an increase of respondents stating a lack of training institutions offering ophthalmic courses. The survey shows that at a time when nurses need to acquire ophthalmic nursing skills and knowledge there appear to be fewer opportunities for them to access ophthalmic courses.

  8. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  9. The origin of anomalous 3rd neighbor exchange in 2D triangular magnets (NiGa2S4 and others)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Igor

    2008-03-01

    2D magnetic materials with triangular lattices have been attracting much interest. Among them one finds the parent compound of an exotic superconductor, NaxCoO2.yH2O, A-type antiferromagnets like NaNiO2, in-plane antiferromagnetism (LiCrO2), spin-liquid type materials (NiGa2S4), charge-order (AgNiO2). The main structural motif in all of them is the AB2 plane, where A is a transition metal and B is oxygen or sulfur. Experiments and calculations inevitably find anomalously strong 3rd neighbor exchange coupling in all these triangular planes, despite different band fillings and different magnetic ground states. I will explain why this happens, why this effect is so universal, and why it can be understood entirely on a one-electron level. I will use as an example NiGa2S4, with a reference to NaxCoO2 as well.

  10. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  11. Mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolated from food animals.

    PubMed

    Lalak, Anna; Wasyl, Dariusz; Zając, Magdalena; Skarżyńska, Magdalena; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Samcik, Ilona; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-15

    Resistance to β-lactams is considered one of the major global problems and recently it became the most frequently studied topic in the area of antimicrobial resistance. The study was focused on phenotypic and genetic characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli), including those producing cephalosporinases, isolated from gut flora of healthy slaughter animals. E. coli were cultured simultaneously on MacConkey agar (MCA) and cefotaxime supplemented MCA. The isolates were confirmed with ONPG and indol tube tests as well as PCR targeting uspA gene. Microbroth dilution method was applied for determination of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations and interpreted according to EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values. Cephalosporin resistance phenotypes were defined by E-tests (BioMerieux) and relevant gene amplicons from selected strains were sequenced. A total of 298 E. coli isolates with cephalosporin resistance (ESC) found in 99 ones, were obtained from 318 cloacal or rectal swabs deriving from broilers, layers, turkeys, pigs and cattle. Both extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and ampC-cephalosporinase resistance phenotypes were noted in all tested animal species but cattle. At least one of the analysed genes was identified in 90 out of 99 cephalosporin-resistant isolates: blaTEM (n=44), blaCMY (n=38), blaCTX-M (n=33) and blaSHV (n=12). None of the phenotypes was identified in nine isolates. Sequencing of PCR products showed occurrence of ESBL-genes: blaCTX-M-1/-61, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1,-52/-92,-135 and ampC-gene blaCMY-2. They were located on numerous and diverse plasmids and resistance transferability was proved by electroporation of blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1/-61 located on X1 plasmids. Detection of cephalosporin resistant E. coli confirms the existence of resistance genes reservoir in farm animals and their possible spread (i.e. via IncX1 plasmids) to other bacteria including human and animal pathogens. The identified genetic background indicates on

  12. Does 3rd age plus 3rd world equal 3rd class?

    PubMed

    Tout, K

    1992-04-01

    The patterns of care of the aged population are being influenced by demographic changes, migration, and industrialization in developing countries. There is no longer a secure place for the elders in the community as chiefs, sages, or useful members of the household. In very large mega-cities the aged living in an extended family are more prone to psychological problems than in a lone living situation. There are many variations in the degree of abandonment or loss of dignity, which are described in examples from Vilcabamba, Potosi, Lima, and Belize. For example in Belize, there are no cities to migrate to so people leave to seek their fortunes in the US or the UK. Solutions are possible within the community. The experiences of HelpAge International are reported for Pro Vida, Colombia; India; and Sri Lanka. In Colombia efforts were made to acquire a bakery so that the elderly could be employed in bread baking, donating loaves to institutions, and selling half the loaves on the street. Other projects involved improving living conditions for lone old people in shanty towns and training social workers. The institutional aim was to concentrate on a locale. Attention was given to providing instruction in classrooms to enlighten youth about the needs of the elderly. HelpAge in India concentrated on eye problems of the elderly in remote areas through awareness and fundraising campaigns. HelpAge Sri Lanka has set up seminars and training programs which have been models for similar programs in Thailand. Shared experience with the problems of aged beggars suggests that funding must come from nongovernmental agencies. The cultivation and sale of herbs by the elderly was promoted in Vilcabamba; in Jamaica a memory bank was established for preserving cultural traditions. Abandoned industries have been revived. The needs of the organizers, who are primarily volunteers, are organization skills. Governments can supplement meager funds by enhancing traditional life, by removing obstacles to foreign aid, and by avoiding spending on prestige projects and questionable projects imported from Western countries. Reinforcement of families and of local community groups is needed.

  13. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  14. A colorimetric assay for the determination of acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C acetyl esterase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, cephalosporin C, or acetylated xylan as substrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Montoro-García, Silvia; Lozada-Ramírez, José Daniel; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2007-10-15

    A bromothymol blue-based colorimetric assay has been devised to screen for acetyl xylan esterase or cephalosporin C (CPC) deacetylase activities using 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), CPC, or acetylated xylan as substrate. These enzymes are not screened with their natural substrates because of the tedious procedures available previously. Acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilus CECT 5072 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), and characterized using this assay. Similar K(M) values for 7-ACA and CPC were obtained when compared with those described using HPLC methods. The assay is easy to perform and can be carried out in robotic high-throughput colorimetric devices normally used in directed evolution experiments. The assay allowed us to detect improvements in activity at a minimum of twofold with a very low coefficient of variance in 96-well plates. This method is significantly faster and more convenient to use than are known HPLC and pH-stat procedures.

  15. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  16. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  17. Use of Hypoprothrombinemia-Inducing Cephalosporins and the Risk of Hemorrhagic Events: A Nationwide Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Tsay, Woei; Hung, Chien-Ching; Lin, Shu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Existing data regarding the risk of hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins are limited by the small sample size. This population-based study aimed to examine the association between exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and hemorrhagic events using National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Design A nationwide nested case-control study. Setting National Health Insurance Research database. Participants We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of 6191 patients who received hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins and other antibiotics for more than 48 hours. Multivariable conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hemorrhagic events associated with exposure to hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins (overall, cumulative dose measured as defined daily dose (DDD), and individual cephalosporins). Results Within the cohort, we identified 704 patients with hemorrhagic events and 2816 matched controls. Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins was associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.42–2.06), which increased with higher cumulative doses (<3 DDDs, aOR 1.62; 3–5 DDDs, aOR 1.78; and >5 DDDs, aOR 1.89). The aOR for individual cephalosporin was 2.88 (95% CI, 2.08–4.00), 1.35 (1.09–1.67) and 4.57 (2.63–7.95) for cefmetazole, flomoxef, and cefoperazone, respectively. Other risk factors included use of anticoagulants (aOR 2.08 [95% CI, 1.64–2.63]), liver failure (aOR 1.69 [1.30–2.18]), poor nutritional status (aOR 1.41 [1.15–1.73]), and history of hemorrhagic events (aOR 2.57 [1.94–3.41]) 6 months prior to the index date. Conclusions Use of hypoprothrombinemia-inducing cephalosporins increases risk of hemorrhagic events. Close watch for hemorrhagic events is recommended when prescribing these cephalosporins, especially in

  18. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Desbonnet, Charlene; Tait-Kamradt, Amelia; Garcia-Solache, Monica; Dunman, Paul; Coleman, Jeffrey; Arthur, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins”) is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps) PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2) of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP). Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system. PMID:27048803

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of TOC-50, a new parenteral cephalosporin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Nomura, S; Hanaki, H; Unemi, N

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro activity of TOC-50, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was assessed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). TOC-50 showed excellent activity, which was stronger than that of methicillin, cloxacillin, the cephalosporins tested, imipenem, gentamycin, minocycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against MRSA and had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) comparable to that of vancomycin (the MICs of TOC-50 and vancomycin for growth inhibition of 90% of the strains tested were 3.13 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively). Against MRSE, TOC-50 exhibited excellent activity, which was stronger than that of methicillin, ampicillin, the cephalosporins tested and imipenem, and was twice as active as vancomycin. In terms of the bactericidal effect against MRSA, TOC-50 was superior to vancomycin.

  20. Expression of the transporter encoded by the cefT gene of Acremonium chrysogenum increases cephalosporin production in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Kovalchuk, Andriy; van den Berg, Marco A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-10-01

    By introduction of the cefEF genes of Acremonium chrysogenum and the cmcH gene of Streptomyces clavuligerus, Penicillium chrysogenum can be reprogrammed to form adipoyl-7-amino-3-carbamoyloxymethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (ad7-ACCCA), a carbamoylated derivate of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid. The cefT gene of A. chrysogenum encodes a cephalosporin C transporter that belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Introduction of cefT into an ad7-ACCCA-producing P. chrysogenum strain results in an almost 2-fold increase in cephalosporin production with a concomitant decrease in penicillin by-product formation. These data suggest that cephalosporin production by recombinant P. chrysogenum strains is limited by the ability of the fungus to secrete these compounds.

  1. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  2. In vitro activity of U-63196E, a new cephalosporin, against clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Eliopoulos, G M; Gardella, A; DeGirolami, P; Moellering, R C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of U-63196E, a new cephalosporin, was compared with those of other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and penicillins against clinical bacterial isolates. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the activity of U-63196E was comparable to those of cefoperazone and piperacillin, each of which inhibited 90% of strains at concentrations of less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml. The new drug also demonstrated activity against a variety of other bacterial species, but it was generally less active than cefotaxime, moxalactam, and cefoperazone against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci. The presence of any 1 of 10 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases in a series of otherwise isogenic laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa resulted in a significant reduction in the activity of U-63196E in comparison with its activity against the parent strain, which lacks these enzymes. Combinations of U-63196E with tobramycin demonstrated bacteriostatic synergism against 11 of 20 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. PMID:6610385

  3. Novel Method for Detection of β-Lactamases by Using a Chromogenic Cephalosporin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, Cynthia H.; Morris, A.; Kirby, Susan M.; Shingler, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    A new cephalosporin with a highly reactive β-lactam ring was found to give an immediate color change in the presence of β-lactamases from many bacteria, including staphylococci, Bacillus species, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas. The reaction is confined to organisms producing β-lactamases, but it is sufficiently sensitive to indicate the presence of this enzyme is small amounts in strains previously considered not to produce it. The compound has an unusual ultraviolet spectrum, and the color change can be followed quantitatively by measuring changes in absorption which occur in the 380- to 500-nm region, where cephalosporins normally have no absorption. The development of color is thought to be a consequence of the β-lactam ring being unusually highly conjugated with the 3-substituent. Although in the bacteria only β-lactamases produce this color change, it was found that serum and tissues from experimental animals also rapidly produced the colored breakdown product, which was then excreted in the urine. The mechanism of the mammalian breakdown was considered to be different from that found in bacteria. PMID:4208895

  4. Cloning and characterization of the genes for two distinct cephalosporin acylases from a Pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, A; Matsuyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Ichikawa, S; Komatsu, K

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain SE83 converts cephalosporin C and 7 beta-(4-carboxybutanamido)cephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7ACA). A DNA library of this strain was constructed in Escherichia coli and screened for the ability to deacylate GL-7ACA to 7ACA. Apparently, two distinct genes, designated acyI and acyII, were cloned on 4.8- and 6.0-kilobase-pair BglII fragments, respectively. The enzymes encoded by the two genes showed different substrate specificities, and the acyII-encoded enzyme was found to yield 7ACA from cephalosporin C by direct deacylation. Expression of the two genes in E. coli was strongly dependent on a promoter of the vector. The coding regions for acyI and acyII were localized on the 2.5- and 2.8-kilobase-pair fragments, respectively, by subcloning experiments, and high expression of both genes was obtained by placing them under the control of the lacUV5 promoter. The acyII-encoded enzyme was purified and shown to be composed of two nonidentical subunits with molecular weights of 26,000 and 57,000. Maxicell analysis revealed three acyII-specific polypeptides, two of which corresponded to the above subunits. The third polypeptide with a molecular weight of 83,000 was suggested to be the precursor of both subunits. Images PMID:2824449

  5. Modeling and simulation of cephalosporin C production in a fed-batch tower-type bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R M; Cruz, A J; Araujo, M L; Giordano, R C; Hokka, C O

    2001-01-01

    Immobilized cell utilization in tower-type bioreactor is one of the main alternatives being studied to improve the industrial bioprocess. Other alternatives for the production of beta-lactam antibiotics, such as a cephalosporin C fed-batch process in an aerated stirred-tankbioreactor with free cells of Cephalosporium acremonium, or a tower-type bioreactor with immobilized cells of this fungus, have proven to be more efficient than the batch process. In the fed-batch process, it is possible to minimize the catabolite repression exerted by the rapidly utilization of carbon sources (such as glucose) in the synthesis of antibiotics by utilizing a suitable flow rate of supplementary medium. In this study, several runs for cephalosporin C production, each lasting 200 h, were conducted in a fed-batch tower-type bioreactor using different hydrolyzed sucrose concentrations. For this study's model, modifications were introduced to take into account the influence of supplementary medium flow rate. The balance equations considered the effect of oxygen limitation inside the bioparticles. In the Monod-type rate equations, cell concentrations, substrate concentrations, and dissolved oxygen were included as reactants affecting the bioreaction rate. The set of differential equations was solved by the numerical method, and the values of the parameters were estimated by the classic nonlinear regression method following Marquardt's procedure with a 95% confidence interval. The simulation results showed that the proposed model fit well with the experimental data, and based on the

  6. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  7. Rosse, 3rd Earl of [William Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1800-67) and Rosse, 4th Earl of [Laurence Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1840-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Irish astronomer and landowner, the 3rd Lord Rosse was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and Oxford as a mathematician. He became interested in astronomy and made at the family castle in Birr a 36 in reflector with the same design as William Herschel's (see HERSCEL FAMILY). Mapped the Moon, and observed nebulae with the intent to resolve them into stars. He developed the technology at Birr Cast...

  8. Cephalosporins inhibit human metallo β-lactamase fold DNA repair nucleases SNM1A and SNM1B/apollo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook Y; Brem, Jürgen; Pettinati, Ilaria; Claridge, Timothy D W; Gileadi, Opher; Schofield, Christopher J; McHugh, Peter J

    2016-05-10

    Bacterial metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are involved in resistance to β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins. Human SNM1A and SNM1B are MBL superfamily exonucleases that play a key role in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links, which are induced by antitumour chemotherapeutics, and are therefore targets for cancer chemosensitization. We report that cephalosporins are competitive inhibitors of SNM1A and SNM1B exonuclease activity; both the intact β-lactam and their hydrolysed products are active. This discovery provides a lead for the development of potent and selective SNM1A and SNM1B inhibitors.

  9. Impact of the Use of β-Lactam Antimicrobials on the Emergence of Escherichia coli Isolates Resistant to Cephalosporins under Standard Pig-Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Solà-Ginés, Marc; Moreno, Miguel A.; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the treatments with ceftiofur and amoxicillin are risk factors for the emergence of cephalosporin resistant (CR) E. coli in a pig farm during the rearing period. One hundred 7-day-old piglets were divided into two groups, a control (n = 50) group and a group parenterally treated with ceftiofur (n = 50). During the fattening period, both groups were subdivided in two. A second treatment with amoxicillin was administered in feed to two of the four groups, as follows: group 1 (untreated, n = 20), group 2 (treated with amoxicillin, n = 26), group 3 (treated with ceftiofur, n = 20), and group 4 (treated with ceftiofur and amoxicillin, n = 26). During treatment with ceftiofur, fecal samples were collected before treatment (day 0) and at days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 posttreatment, whereas with amoxicillin, the sampling was extended 73 days posttreatment. CR E. coli bacteria were selected on MacConkey agar with ceftriaxone (1 mg/liter). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), MICs of 14 antimicrobials, the presence of cephalosporin resistance genes, and replicon typing of plasmids were analyzed. Both treatments generated an increase in the prevalence of CR E. coli, which was statistically significant in the treated groups. Resistance diminished after treatment. A total of 47 CR E. coli isolates were recovered during the study period; of these, 15 contained blaCTX-M-1, 10 contained blaCTX-M-14, 4 contained blaCTX-M-9, 2 contained blaCTX-M-15, and 5 contained blaSHV-12. The treatment with ceftiofur and amoxicillin was associated with the emergence of CR E. coli during the course of the treatment. However, by the time of finishing, CR E. coli bacteria were not recovered from the animals. PMID:25548055

  10. Impact of the use of β-lactam antimicrobials on the emergence of Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cephalosporins under standard pig-rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Solà-Ginés, Marc; Moreno, Miguel A; Fraile, Lorenzo; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the treatments with ceftiofur and amoxicillin are risk factors for the emergence of cephalosporin resistant (CR) E. coli in a pig farm during the rearing period. One hundred 7-day-old piglets were divided into two groups, a control (n = 50) group and a group parenterally treated with ceftiofur (n = 50). During the fattening period, both groups were subdivided in two. A second treatment with amoxicillin was administered in feed to two of the four groups, as follows: group 1 (untreated, n = 20), group 2 (treated with amoxicillin, n = 26), group 3 (treated with ceftiofur, n = 20), and group 4 (treated with ceftiofur and amoxicillin, n = 26). During treatment with ceftiofur, fecal samples were collected before treatment (day 0) and at days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 posttreatment, whereas with amoxicillin, the sampling was extended 73 days posttreatment. CR E. coli bacteria were selected on MacConkey agar with ceftriaxone (1 mg/liter). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), MICs of 14 antimicrobials, the presence of cephalosporin resistance genes, and replicon typing of plasmids were analyzed. Both treatments generated an increase in the prevalence of CR E. coli, which was statistically significant in the treated groups. Resistance diminished after treatment. A total of 47 CR E. coli isolates were recovered during the study period; of these, 15 contained blaCTX-M-1, 10 contained blaCTX-M-14, 4 contained blaCTX-M-9, 2 contained blaCTX-M-15, and 5 contained blaSHV-12. The treatment with ceftiofur and amoxicillin was associated with the emergence of CR E. coli during the course of the treatment. However, by the time of finishing, CR E. coli bacteria were not recovered from the animals.

  11. HP 0.35, a cephalosporin degradation product is a specific inhibitor of lentiviral RNAses H.

    PubMed Central

    Hafkemeyer, P; Neftel, K; Hobi, R; Pfaltz, A; Lutz, H; Lüthi, K; Focher, F; Spadari, S; Hübscher, U

    1991-01-01

    Penicillins, cephalosporins and other betalactam antibiotics are widely used antibacterial drugs. Recently it was found that some of them also have effects on proliferating eukaryotic cells (Neftel, K.A. and Hübscher, U. (1987) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 1657-1661), and one such effect was shown to be the inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha (Huynh Do,U., Neftel, K.A., Spadari, S. and Hübscher, U. (1987) Nucl. Acids Res. 15, 10495-10506). The data suggested that degradation products of betalactam antibiotics were responsible for the inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha. There is some confirmation at the structural level, since we found that penicillin binding proteins, the natural target of the cephalosporins, share amino-acid homologies to DNA polymerases and also to reverse transcriptase from HIV1 (Hafkemeyer, P., Neftel, K.A. and Hübscher, U. Meth. Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 12, 43-46, 1990). We have purified and determined the structure of one product from the cephalosporin Ceftazidim and found one molecule (HP 0.35) that did not interfere with eukaryotic cell proliferation but rather had a specific inhibitory effect on the RNase H activity of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) reverse transcriptases, while the DNA polymerising activity of these enzymes was not affected. RNases H from HeLa cells, calf thymus and Escherichia coli on the other hand were much less affected by HP 0.35. The inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) was more than 10 times lower compared to those of all cellular RNases H. We therefore tested the effect of HP 0.35 on in vitro lentivirus infection as exemplified by FIV-infection of CD(4+)-cat lymphocytes in cell culture. Under conditions where cell proliferation was absolutely unaffected, HP 0.35 was able to inhibit FIV-infection in CD(4+)-cat lymphocytes. Moreover, preincubation of these lymphocytes with HP 0.35 rendered the cells completely unsusceptible to FIV-infection. These

  12. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  13. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  14. Cephalosporin Resistance among Non-Typhi Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaboration among the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Here we report on decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins ...

  15. A broadly applicable approach to prepare monoclonal anti-cephalosporin antibodies for immunochemical residue determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Bremus, Anna; Dietrich, Richard; Dettmar, Lars; Usleber, Ewald; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    A simple, efficient and rapid method for the synthesis of cephalosporin-protein conjugates was established. These conjugates were used as immunogens to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and as solid phase antigens in competitive indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). With this generic approach, a novel set of monoclonal antibodies for cephalosporins was prepared, including ceftiofur and cephalexin as well as, reported here for the first time, cefoperazone, cefquinome and cephapirin. All 5 EIAs were highly sensitive, with standard curve IC(50) values of 0.7 (ceftiofur), 1.1 (cefquinome), 5.2 (cephalexin), 13.8 (cefoperazone) and 40.3 ng mL(-1) (cephapirin). Detection limits (IC(30)) ranged from 0.3 (ceftiofur mAb 1D7) to 17.2 ng mL(-1) (cephapirin mAb 2F10). Specificity studies revealed that cephalosporin-antibody binding was strongly determined by the side chain residues of the cephem nucleus. Therefore all mAbs, to some extent, recognized other beta-lactam antibiotics with similar side chain residues. Within the group of cephalosporins approved for use in veterinary medicine, however, the final EIAs were highly selective for their respective antigen, except for the ceftiofur EIA which showed cross-reactions with cefquinome. The applicability of the five assays for drug residue testing in milk was demonstrated. In each EIA the target drug could be determined in milk with high accuracy and precision at concentrations far below the European Union maximum residue limits.

  16. Natural evolution of skin-test sensitivity in patients with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Romano, A; Gaeta, F; Valluzzi, R L; Zaffiro, A; Caruso, C; Quaratino, D

    2014-06-01

    There are studies demonstrating that skin-test sensitivity to penicillins can decrease over time and that allergic patients may lose sensitivity if the responsible compounds are avoided. With regard to subjects with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, however, such studies are lacking. We evaluated prospectively in a 5-year follow-up 72 cephalosporin-allergic patients. After the first evaluation, patients were classified into two groups according to their patterns of allergologic-test positivity: to both penicillins and cephalosporins (group A), or only to cephalosporins (group B). Skin tests and serum-specific IgE assays were repeated 1 year later and, in case of persistent positivity, 3 and 5 years after the first allergologic examination. Seven (43.7%) of the 16 subjects of group A and 38 (67.8%) of the 56 patients of group B became negative; one was lost to follow-up. Patients of group B became negative sooner and more frequently than group A subjects.

  17. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTIOFUR CRYSTALLINE FREE ACID, A LONG-ACTING CEPHALOSPORIN, IN AMERICAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Cox, Sherry K; Backues, Kay A

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic usage is a vital component of veterinary medicine but the unique anatomy of some species can make administration difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA), a long-acting cephalosporin antibiotic, after parenteral administration in American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ). A dose of 10 mg/kg of CCFA was administered intramuscularly to 11 birds and blood was collected at various time points from 0 to 192 hr. Pharmacokinetic parameters for ceftiofur equivalents were determined and reached levels above minimum inhibitory concentrations of various bacterial organisms in other avian species through 96 hr in 9/11 birds. Based on these findings and comparison to other avian studies, ceftiofur crystalline free acid appears to be a long-acting antibiotic option for American flamingos. Administration of this antibiotic should be utilized in conjunction with culture and sensitivity of suspected pathogens.

  18. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods.

    PubMed Central

    Heifets, L B; Iseman, M D; Cook, J L; Lindholm-Levy, P J; Drupa, I

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis. PMID:3920957

  19. Synergism between aminoglycosides and cephalosporins with antipseudomonal activity: interaction index and killing curve method.

    PubMed Central

    Hallander, H O; Dornbusch, K; Gezelius, L; Jacobson, K; Karlsson, I

    1982-01-01

    Combinations of gentamicin with cefotaxime, moxalactam, and ceftazidime were tested against 43 bacterial strains, most of them blood isolates. With an interaction index of less than or equal to 0.5 as borderline, synergism was demonstrated against 30 to 40% of the strains by the fractional inhibitory concentration index and against 50 to 70% by the fractional bactericidal concentration index. The reproducibility of the index was within +/- 0.2 for two-thirds of 40 repetitive assays and within +/- 0.4 to 0.5 for all of these assays. Similar results were obtained when netilmicin was substituted for gentamicin. The killing curve system for studying antibiotic synergism was standardized to give results comparable to those obtained with the interaction index. This was achieved when one-half of a previously determined minimum bactericidal concentration was used for single drugs and the amount of antibiotic was at least halved again when drugs were used in combination. An initial bacterial concentration of 10(5) to 10(6) colony-forming units per ml is recommended. Given these conditions, synergism could be defined as a 2-log 10 or more decrease in viable count given by both drugs together, as compared with the more active of the pair after 24 h. Prediction of killing curve results could then be obtained with the fractional bactericidal concentration index. When cephalosporins and gentamicin were combined from the start, the beta-lactam antibiotics were less susceptible to inactivation, as demonstrated in time-killing assays. If one of the antibiotics were added after 24 h, synergism was not demonstrable. The results indicate that the new cephalosporins may be advantageously combined with aminoglycosides. PMID:7181485

  20. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-Transpeptidase LdtMt1 by Carbapenems and Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt1 by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of LdtMt1, which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited LdtMt1, with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM−1 min−1. The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (<0.1 min−1) in comparison to the acylation rate constant (3.1 min−1). The covalent adduct resulting from enzyme acylation was stable, with a hydrolysis rate constant of 1.0 × 10−3 min−1. Variations in the carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient LdtMt1 inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with LdtMt1, although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:22615283

  1. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S. W.; Martin, I.; Demczuk, W.; Bharat, A.; Hoang, L.; Wylie, J.; Allen, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Tyrrell, G.; Horsman, G.; Haldane, D.; Garceau, R.; Wong, T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results. PMID:25878350

  2. In vitro activity of E-1040, a 3-substituted cephalosporin, against pathogens from cystic fibrosis sputum.

    PubMed

    Stutman, H R; Akaniro, J C; Vidaurre, C E; Marks, M I

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of preliminary in vitro data, we evaluated E-1040, a new cephalosporin, against 188 cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum isolates obtained from 26 CF centers in the United States. These isolates included mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli. In addition to MICs measured under standard conditions, selected isolates were tested at various pH values, inoculum sizes, and diluent (CF serum and sputum) conditions. E-1040 activities (MICs for 50 and 90% of the strains) against the isolates were as follows: P. aeruginosa (mucoid and nonmucoid), 1 and 4 micrograms/ml; P. cepacia, 4 and 16 micrograms/ml; S. aureus, 8 and 8 micrograms/ml; H. influenzae, 1 and 4 micrograms/ml; and E. coli, less than or equal to 0.12 and less than or equal to 0.12 microgram/ml. E-1040 activity against mucoid P. aeruginosa was 4-fold greater than that of aztreonam, 16-fold greater than that of ceftazidime, and 32-fold greater than that of piperacillin. E-1040 was similar to other broad-spectrum cephalosporins against S. aureus, H. influenzae, and E. coli. Bactericidal activity was less than or equal to 1 dilution of MIC for 88% of the strains, although kinetic studies with mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrated effective killing only at eight times the MIC. Variations in pH from 5 to 8, in inoculum size from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml, and in diluent (CF serum or CF sputum) did not affect E-1040 activity.

  3. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt₁ by carbapenems and cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel

    2012-08-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase Ldt(Mt1) by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of Ldt(Mt1), which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited Ldt(Mt1), with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM(-1) min(-1). The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (<0.1 min(-1)) in comparison to the acylation rate constant (3.1 min(-1)). The covalent adduct resulting from enzyme acylation was stable, with a hydrolysis rate constant of 1.0 × 10(-3) min(-1). Variations in the carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient Ldt(Mt1) inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with Ldt(Mt1), although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis.

  4. Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Chung, Phillip; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Denisuik, Andrew; Schweizer, Frank; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Walkty, Andrew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2014-01-01

    plasma protein binding (20 %), is primarily eliminated via urinary excretion (≥92 %), and may require dose adjustments in patients with a creatinine clearance <50 mL/min. Time-kill experiments and animal infection models have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic index that is best correlated with ceftolozane's in vivo efficacy is the percentage of time in which free plasma drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of a given pathogen (%fT >MIC), as expected of β-lactams. Two phase II clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate ceftolozane ± tazobactam in the settings of cUTIs and cIAIs. One trial compared ceftolozane 1,000 mg every 8 h (q8h) versus ceftazidime 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cUTI, including pyelonephritis, and demonstrated similar microbiologic and clinical outcomes, as well as a similar incidence of adverse effects after 7-10 days of treatment, respectively. A second trial has been conducted comparing ceftolozane/tazobactam 1,000/500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg q8h versus meropenem 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cIAI. A number of phase I and phase II studies have reported ceftolozane to possess a good safety and tolerability profile, one that is consistent with that of other cephalosporins. In conclusion, ceftolozane is a new cephalosporin with activity versus MDR organisms including P. aeruginosa. Tazobactam allows the broadening of the spectrum of ceftolozane versus β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli including ESBLs. Potential roles for ceftolozane/tazobactam include empiric therapy where infection by a resistant Gram-negative organism (e.g., ESBL) is suspected, or as part of combination therapy (e.g., with metronidazole) where a polymicrobial infection is suspected. In addition, ceftolozane/tazobactam may represent alternative therapy to the third-generation cephalosporins after treatment failure or for documented infections due to Gram-negative bacilli producing ESBLs

  5. Response of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli to cephalosporins in an in vitro model simulating conditions of bacterial growth in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D.; O'Grady, F.

    1975-01-01

    Five ampicillin resistant strains of Escherichia coli were exposed to cephalosporins in an in vitro model which simulates the hydrokinetic features of the urinary bladder. Although the strains showed substantial zones of inhibition when tested against cephalosporins by the disc diffusion method, the results in the bladder model suggest that, in conditions where the antibiotic concentration is being reduced by dilution and micturition as well as enzymic hydrolysis by the organism, activity of this group of agents may be insufficient to eradicate infection. It is suggested that the results warrant a closer investigation into the efficacy of cephalosporins against ampicillin resistant Gram negative bacilli in vivo. PMID:1106751

  6. The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Science and the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning, the science symposium of Arctic Science Summit Week 2015 (ISAR-4/ICARPIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, Peter; Kodama, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Research (ISAR-4) with the theme of "Rapid change of the Arctic climate system and its global influence" was held as the science symposium of the Arctic Science Summit Week 2015, together with the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII) with the theme of "Integrating Arctic Research: a Roadmap for the Future," in Toyama, Japan, from April 27 to April 30, 2015. There were 340 oral and 177 poster presentations, totalling 511 presentations. Among them, 38 papers were submitted to this special issue and 30 were accepted. 16 sessions in which those accepted papers were presented are described.

  7. Type 1 Diabetes and NKT Cells: A Report on the 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation, September 2004, Heron Island, QLD, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Julie M.; Jordan, Margaret A.; Baxter, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    NKT cells play a major role in regulating the vigor and character of a broad range of immune responses. Defects in NKT cell numbers and function have been associated with type 1 diabetes, especially in the NOD mouse model. The 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation provided an opportunity for researchers in the field of NKT cell biology to discuss their latest results, many of which have direct relevance to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:17491677

  8. Relation of β-Lactamase Activity and Cellular Location to Resistance of Enterobacter to Penicillins and Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Harold C.; Winshell, Elaine B.

    1972-01-01

    The Enterobacter species E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, and E. hafnia were examined for resistance to penicillin and cephalosporin derivatives. All were resistant to benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, 6 [d(−)α-amino-p-hydroxyphenylacetamido] penicillanic acid, cephaloridine, cephalothin, and cephalexin. A significant number were sensitive to carbenicillin and 6 [d(−)α-carboxy-3-thienylacetamido] penicillanic acid. No differences among the three species were noted. The β-lactamase activity was cell-bound, and was not released by osmotic shock, toluene treatment, or diphenylamine treatment. It was rarely released into the growth medium. The β-lactamase activity was primarily directed against cephalosporin derivatives. Synthesis of β-lactamase was chromosomally mediated. Resistance to ampicillin seemed to be partly related to entry of the molecule into the bacteria since exposure to ethylenediaminetetraacetate lowered the minimal inhibitory concentration. PMID:4218941

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (3rd) Held in Southampton, England on 18-22 July 1988. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    t ) y( t );~ h tM x( t ) - signal generator output h( t ) - acceleration generating system (i.e. power ...EDGES F SOUND)) u 50Ffk 75000 3000 - t , Static 0OBuckled, U4 u I 0 .. 2 .3 OFau0 c Time, sec. 1000 / C-2 Vibratory p in/in 300- n. c --- ~ 5000 100 0-0...this stage. 700 - -700 1800 o 0 1-. . . .. . 0 0 0 00 OP ERROR OP ERROR OP ERROR 3000 - - 1000 T .... I iFig. 8 Z Z Ia) error distribution A 1

  10. Cephalosporin-NO-donor prodrug PYRRO-C3D shows β-lactam-mediated activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms.

    PubMed

    Allan, Raymond N; Kelso, Michael J; Rineh, Ardeshir; Yepuri, Nageshwar R; Feelisch, Martin; Soren, Odel; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sanjita; Salib, Rami J; Stoodley, Paul; Clarke, Stuart C; Webb, Jeremy S; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Faust, Saul N

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial biofilms show high tolerance towards antibiotics and are a significant problem in clinical settings where they are a primary cause of chronic infections. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to improve anti-biofilm efficacy and support reduction in antibiotic use. Treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to modulate bacterial signaling and metabolic processes that render biofilms more susceptible to antibiotics. We previously reported on cephalosporin-3'-diazeniumdiolates (C3Ds) as NO-donor prodrugs designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites following reaction with β-lactamases. With structures based on cephalosporins, C3Ds could, in principal, also be triggered to release NO following β-lactam cleavage mediated by transpeptidases/penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), the antibacterial target of cephalosporin antibiotics. Transpeptidase-reactive C3Ds could potentially show both NO-mediated anti-biofilm properties and intrinsic (β-lactam-mediated) antibacterial effects. This dual-activity concept was explored using Streptococcus pneumoniae, a species that lacks β-lactamases but relies on transpeptidases for cell-wall synthesis. Treatment with PYRRO-C3D (a representative C3D containing the diazeniumdiolate NO donor PYRRO-NO) was found to significantly reduce viability of planktonic and biofilm pneumococci, demonstrating that C3Ds can elicit direct, cephalosporin-like antibacterial activity in the absence of β-lactamases. While NO release from PYRRO-C3D in the presence of pneumococci was confirmed, the anti-pneumococcal action of the compound was shown to arise exclusively from the β-lactam component and not through NO-mediated effects. The compound showed similar potency to amoxicillin against S. pneumoniae biofilms and greater efficacy than azithromycin, highlighting the potential of C3Ds as new agents for treating pneumococcal infections.

  11. The differential importance of mutations within AmpD in cephalosporin resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Babouee Flury, Baharak; Ellington, Matthew J; Hopkins, Katie L; Turton, Jane F; Doumith, Michel; Woodford, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms leading to carbapenem and cephalosporin resistance were sought in Enterobacter aerogenes isolates that were highly resistant to carbapenems but had no known carbapenemase. Results were compared with recent work examining carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant E. aerogenes were screened for known β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes, and novel carbapenemases were sought in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the three most resistant isolates. For all isolates, ampC, ampR, ampD and the porin genes omp35 and omp36 were investigated by Sanger sequencing or from available WGS data. Expression of ampC and porin genes was measured in comparison with cephalosporin- and carbapenem-susceptible control strains by reverse transcriptase PCR, with porin translation also detected by SDS-PAGE. Loss of Omp35, primarily due to decreased transcription (up to 250×), was observed in ertapenem-resistant isolates (MICs ≥ 2 mg/L), whereas meropenem resistance (MICs ≥ 4 mg/L) was observed in those isolates also showing decreased or no production of Omp36. Loss of Omp36 was due to combinations of premature translation termination or reduced transcription. In contrast to E. cloacae, cephalosporin resistance in E. aerogenes was not associated with lesions in AmpD. High-level cefepime resistance (MIC = 32 mg/L) was caused by a novel modification in the H-10 helix of AmpC in one isolate. The differential importance of AmpD lesions in cephalosporin resistance in E. cloacae and E. aerogenes underlines the differences between these contrasting members of the Enterobacter genus. Porin loss resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance with gradual loss of Omp36, which led to high-level meropenem resistance.

  12. [Solid-state stability and preformulation study of a new parenteral cephalosporin antibiotics (E1040)].

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, K; Uchikawa, K; Hattori, T; Ishibashi, Y; Miyake, Y; Sato, T

    1990-03-01

    In designing the dosage form, one major factor controlling their physicochemical properties is solid forms of the drug powder. The method for improving the physicochemical stability of unstable beta-lactam antibiotics is very important. E1040 is a novel parenteral 3-betaine type cephalosporin which has a broad antibacterial spectrum and potent activities against Citrobacter, freundii, Enterobacter cloacase, and glucose-non-fermentative bacteria, including P. aeruginosa. The present study was intended to provide the solid-state chemical stability of perenteral steril dry dosage form of E1040. The chemical stability differences among the various solid forms, dry amorphous, additive freeze dried amorphous solid and crystalline powder, were evaluated as a function of temperature by thermo stress tests. Freeze dried anhydrous amorphous form was the first steril dry dosage form investigated during the preformulation study. However, this compound is chemically unstable, in the titer of them, reduction are observed in the freeze dried amorphous solid. In order to select the most suitable solid form of E1040, two methods were used. One was crystalline solid and the other was NaCl additive freeze-dried formulation. Through our experiments, the solid-state chemical stabilization can be achieved by these two methods (effect of crystal structure and effect of NaCl additive).

  13. Siderophore Cephalosporin Cefiderocol Utilizes Ferric Iron Transporter Systems for Antibacterial Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Toru; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Sato, Takafumi; Nakamura, Rio; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Cefiderocol (S-649266) is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin conjugated with a catechol moiety at the third-position side chain. The in vitro activity of cefiderocol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was enhanced under iron-depleted conditions, whereas that of ceftazidime was not affected. The monitoring of [thiazole-14C]cefiderocol revealed the increased intracellular accumulation of cefiderocol in P. aeruginosa cells incubated under iron-depleted conditions compared with those incubated under iron-sufficient conditions. Cefiderocol was shown to have potent chelating activity with ferric iron, and extracellular iron was efficiently transported into P. aeruginosa cells in the presence of cefiderocol as well as siderophores, while enhanced transport of extracellular ferric iron was not observed when one of the hydroxyl groups of the catechol moiety of cefiderocol was replaced with a methoxy group. We conclude that cefiderocol forms a chelating complex with iron, which is actively transported into P. aeruginosa cells via iron transporters, resulting in potent antibacterial activity of cefiderocol against P. aeruginosa. PMID:27736756

  14. Human Salmonella and Concurrent Decreased Susceptibility to Quinolones and Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Kathryn; Stevenson, Jennifer E.; Joyce, Kevin J.; Cooper, Kara L.; Omondi, Michael; Medalla, Felicita; Jacoby, George A.; Barrett, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System monitors susceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae in humans in the United States. We studied isolates exhibiting decreased susceptibility to quinolones (nalidixic acid MIC >32 µg/mL or ciprofloxacin MIC >0.12 µg/mL) and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ceftiofur or ceftriaxone MIC >2 µg/mL) during 1996–2004. Of non-Typhi Salmonella, 0.19% (27/14,043) met these criteria: 11 Senftenberg; 6 Typhimurium; 3 Newport; 2 Enteridis; and 1 each Agona, Haifa, Mbandaka, Saintpaul, and Uganda. Twenty-six isolates had gyrA mutations (11 at codon 83 only, 3 at codon 87 only, 12 at both). All Senftenberg isolates had parC mutations (S80I and T57S); 6 others had the T57S mutation. The Mbandaka isolate contained qnrB2. Eight isolates contained blaCMY-2; 1 Senftenberg contained blaCMY-23. One Senftenberg and 1Typhimurium isolate contained blaSHV-12; the Mbandaka isolate contained blaSHV-30. Nine Senftenberg isolates contained blaOXA-1; 1 contained blaOXA-9. Further studies should address patient outcomes, risk factors, and resistance dissemination prevention strategies. PMID:18217551

  15. Interpretive accuracy of the disk diffusion method for testing newer orally administered cephalosporins against Morganella morganii.

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N; Erwin, M E

    1993-01-01

    Eight newer orally administered cephems (cefdinir, cefetamet, cefixime, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, and loracarbef) were tested against 100 clinical strains of Morganella morganii to determine the extent of serious interpretive very major (false-susceptible) errors when current criteria for the disk diffusion test are applied. Agar dilution MICs and disk diffusion tests were performed as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (Villanova, Pa.) (NCCLS), and the methods were compared by regression analysis using the method of least squares and by error rate bounding. The following results are listed in the order of increasing error rates: cefdinir, loracarbef, and cefprozil, < or = 1% very major error; ceftibuten, 8% minor errors; cefuroxime, 21% minor errors; cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefetamet, very major errors of 15, 24, and 36%, respectively. M. morganii produces unacceptable rates of test error with cefuroxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefetamet. The latter two cephalosporins currently have NCCLS table footnote warnings covering the problem observed with this organism. The inclusion of cefuroxime and cefixime in the NCCLS table footnote is strongly recommended. PMID:8253998

  16. In Vitro Activities of Cephalosporins and Quinolones against Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Diarrheic Dairy Calves

    PubMed Central

    Orden, José Antonio; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José Antonio; García, Silvia; Cid, Dolores; de la Fuente, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

  17. Advanced treatment of cephalosporin pharmaceutical wastewater by nano-coated electrode and perforated electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zuo, Jiane; Gan, Lili; Yu, Xin; Liu, Fenglin; Tang, Xinyao; Wang, Yajiao

    2014-09-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the degradation of nonbiodegradable organic pollutants in biologically cephalosporin pharmaceutical wastewater using different electrodes such as non-nano-scale electrode (traditional coated), nano-scale (nano-coated) electrode, and perforated electrode after biotreatment. The traditional coated electrode plate, nano-coated electrode plate, and two different perforated titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode plates with an average pore size of 10 μm and 20 μm were chosen as the anode. The results demonstrated that traditional coated electrode, nano-scale electrode, and perforated electrode could effectively remove nonbiodegradable organic pollutants from pharmaceutical wastewater. The perforated electrode with an average pore size of 10 μm exhibited the best degradation effect with a 90 % decrease in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (COD content reduced from 320 mg L(-1) to 32 mg L(-1)). During catalytic degradation, the electrical conductivity of pharmaceutical wastewater increased and the pH increased and finally reached equilibrium. It was also found that the perforated TiO2 electrode produced relatively large amounts of dissolved oxygen during the catalytic oxidation process, reaching above 4 mg L(-1), whereas the nano-coated electrode produced little dissolved oxygen. The biotoxicities of all wastewater samples increased firstly then decreased slightly during the electrical catalytic oxidation, but the final biotoxicities were all higher than initial ones.

  18. Removal of cephalosporin antibiotics 7-ACA from wastewater during the cultivation of lipid-accumulating microalgae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wan-Qian; Zheng, He-Shan; Li, Shuo; Du, Juan-Shan; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Yin, Ren-Li; Wu, Qing-Lian; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using lipid-accumulating microalgae to remove cephalosporin antibiotics 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) from wastewater with the additional benefit of biofuels production. Three isolated microalgal strains (namely, Chlorella sp. Cha-01, Chlamydomonas sp. Tai-03 and Mychonastes sp. YL-02) were cultivated under 7-ACA stress and their biomass productivity, lipid production and N-NO3(-) consumption were monitored. It was found that 7-ACA had slight inhibition effects on the microalgal growth at the ratio of 12.0% (Cha-01), 9.6% (YL-02), 11.7% (Tai-03). However, lipid accumulation in the three microalgae was not influenced by the presence of 7-ACA. The investigation on the 7-ACA removal mechanisms during microalgal growth shows that 7-ACA was mainly removed by microalgae adsorption as well as hydrolysis and photolysis reactions. This study demonstrates that using microalgae to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater is promising due to the potential of simultaneous antibiotic removal and biofuel production.

  19. Two-step immobilized enzyme conversion of cephalosporin C to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.

    PubMed

    Conlon, H D; Baqai, J; Baker, K; Shen, Y Q; Wong, B L; Noiles, R; Rausch, C W

    1995-06-20

    The first large-scale production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7ACA) from cephalosporin C (CPC) using a wholly enzymatic synthesis method is reported here. We produced 7ACA from CPC in as high a molar yield as 85% using the immobilized enzymes D-amino acid oxidase (D-AOD) and glutaryl-7-ACA acylase (GL-acylase). In the first reactor, CPC is converted to keto-adipyl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (keto-7ACA) using an immobilized D-AOD isolated from a yeast, Trigonopsis variabilis. The keto-7ACA is then spontaneously converted to glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) via a chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is also a product of the D-AOD reaction. Near quantitative conversion of the keto-7ACA to GL-7ACA was observed. The second reactor converts GL-7ACA to 7ACA using an immobilized GL-acylase, which was isolated from a recombinant Escherichia coli. The final 7ACA crystalline product is a high quality product. The reactions are conducted under very mild aqueous conditions: pH 8.0 and 20 degrees to 25 degrees C. The production of desacetyl side products is minimal. This process is currently being implemented on an industrial scale to produce 7ACA.

  20. Enhanced Enzymatic Synthesis of a Cephalosporin, Cefadroclor, in the Presence of Organic Co-solvents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Li, Sha; Pang, Xiao; Xu, Zheng; Li, Dengchao; Xu, Hong

    2016-11-05

    In this study, we investigated the enzymatic synthesis of a semi-synthetic cephalosporin, cefadroclor, from 7-aminodesacetoxymethyl-3-chlorocephalosporanic acid (7-ACCA) and p-OH-phenylglycine methyl ester (D-HPGM) using immobilized penicillin G acylase (IPA) in organic co-solvents. Ethylene glycol (EG) was employed as a component of the reaction mixture to improve the yield of cefadroclor. EG was found to increase the yield of cefadroclor by 15-45%. An investigation of altered reaction parameters including type and concentration of organic solvents, pH of reaction media, reaction temperature, molar ratio of substrates, enzyme loading, and IPA recycling was carried out in the buffer mixture. The best result was a 76.5% conversion of 7-ACCA, which was obtained from the reaction containing 20% EG (v/v), D-HPGM to 7-ACCA molar ratio of 4:1 and pH 6.2, catalyzed by 16 IU mL(-1) IPA at 20 °C for 10 h. Under the optimum conditions, no significant loss of IPA activity was found after seven repeated reaction cycles. In addition, cefadroclor exhibited strong inhibitory activity against yeast, Bacillus subtilis NX-2, and Escherichia coli and weaker activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefadroclor is a potential antibiotic with activity against common pathogenic microorganisms.

  1. Cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli among Summer Camp Attendees with Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Mirelis, Beatriz; Miró, Elisenda; Navarro, Ferran; Llovet, Teresa; Johnson, James R.; Camps, Neus; Domínguez, Ángela; Salleras, Lluis

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak involving >100 persons at a summer camp in Girona, Spain, in June 2002 led to the detection of Salmonella and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCREC). Stool cultures were performed for 22 symptomatic campers, three asymptomatic food handlers, and 10 healthy household members. Of the 22 campers, 19 had Salmonella enterica, 9 had an ESCREC strain carrying an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and 2 had a second ESCREC strain carrying a plasmidic cephamycinase. Related ESCREC were detected in two (salmonella-negative) asymptomatic food handlers and in none of the healthy household members. Fecal ESCREC and its β-lactamases and plasmids were extensively characterized. Three of the five ESCREC clones were recovered from multiple hosts. The apparent dissemination of ESCREC suggests a food or water vehicle. The observed distribution of resistance plasmids and β-lactamase genes in several clones indicates a high degree of horizontal transfer. Heightened vigilance and increased efforts must be made to discover the reservoirs and vehicles for community dissemination of ESCREC. PMID:14609463

  2. The intrinsic cephalosporin resistome of Listeria monocytogenes in the context of stress response, gene regulation, pathogenesis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Balska, A; Markiewicz, Z

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsic resistance to antibiotics is a serious therapeutic problem in the case of many bacterial species. The Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is intrinsically resistant to broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotics, which are commonly used in therapy of bacterial infections. Besides three penicillin-binding proteins the intrinsic cephalosporin resistome of L. monocytogenes includes multidrug resistance transporter transporters, proteins involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and modification, cell envelope proteins with structural or general detoxification function, cytoplasmic proteins with unknown function and regulatory proteins. Analysis of the regulation of the expression of genes involved in the intrinsic resistance of L. monocytogenes to cephalosporins highlights the high complexity of control of the intrinsic resistance phenotype. The regulation of the transcription of the intrinsic resistome determinants involves the activity of eight regulators, namely LisR, CesR, LiaR, VirR, σ(B) , σ(H) , σ(L) and PrfA, of which the most prominent role play LisR, CesR and σ(B) . Furthermore, the vast majority of the intrinsic resistome determinants contribute to the tolerance of different stress conditions and virulence. A study indicates that O-acetyltransferase OatA is the most promising candidate for co-drug development since an agent targeting OatA should sensitize L. monocytogenes to certain antibiotics, therefore improving the efficacy of listeriosis treatment as well as food preservation measures.

  3. Cephalosporins. II. 7-(O-Aminomethyl-phnylacetamido) cephalosporanic acids with six membered heterocycles in the C-3 side chain.

    PubMed

    Naito, T; Okumura, J; Kasai K-I; Masuko, K; Hoshi, H

    1977-09-01

    7-(o-Aminomethylphenylacetamido)cephalosporanic acids with six-membered heterocycles in the C-3 side chain were prepared by nucleophillic substitution of 7-ACA at the C-3 acetoxy group followed by N-acylation of the 7-amino group. The 7-side chain acid, o-aminomethylphenylacetic acid (5), was prepared by two new convenient routes, which involved Schmidt reaction of indanone (2) followed by cleavage of the lactam ring or reduction of o-cyanophenylacetic acid (10) starting from o-nitrotoluene. The antibacterial activity of the cephalosporins in this series depends on the heterocycle in the C-3 side chain. In general pyridazines gave cephalosporin derivatives possessing better activity than those with a pyridine or pyrimidine ring. The most active member of the new cephalosporins was 7-(o-aminomethylphenylacetamido)-3-(6-hydroxypyridazin-3-ylthilmethyl)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (BB-S 150) (1g) which has in vitro antibacterial activity superior to cephalothin and cefazolin against both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. The in vitro activity of BB-S 150 determined in mice was superior to cephalothin and comparable to cefazolin.

  4. [Fuzzy cluster for analysis of the relationship between the structure of cephalosporins and immune cross-reaction].

    PubMed

    Hu, C Q; Jin, S H; Sun, X L; Ren, M D

    1990-09-01

    Six parameters (molecular negentropy, acidic group number, basic group number, proton donor group number, proton acceptor group number, and a ratio of C atomic group number to total atomic group number) for characterizing the structure of an antibody combining site in a R1 chain of cephalosporins were selected. Although 12 parameters characterized the site A and site B in a R1 chain were used in fuzzy cluster, Fischer weighting ratio (Fi) indicated that only 5 parameters, 4 of them characterized the structure of site A, play an important part in the cluster. Therefore it was speculated that the site A was the major combining site in the antigen-antibody interaction. According to the similarity of the R1 chains, cephalosporins could be clustered into 4 groups among which less cross-reaction took place. Using the "relative Hamming distance" of the R1 chains for description of their similarity, we found that the intensity of the cross-reaction assayed by immune tests had a close correlation with the "relative Hamming distance", so the distance was used for prediction of the intensity of the cross-reaction of cephalosporins.

  5. Personality of Teacher in Advanced Socialist Society. Collection of Papers from the Conference of Educationalists of Socialist Countries (3rd, Warsaw, Poland, June 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tmej, K., Ed.; Petracek, S., Ed.

    A need for concerted efforts in devising a more profound socialist education for the younger generation, and a strengthening of ideological ties joining the socialist nations was revealed in conference papers on: (1) the conference's significance (K. Tmej); (2) inaugural address (J. Kuberski); (3) Marxism-Leninism on the task of schools and…

  6. The Significance of Parents' and Grandparents' Role. Proceedings of the Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (3rd, Lahti, Finland, July 11-13, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliopuska, Mirja, Ed.

    The third Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology covered four main concepts: the historical roots and development of social competence through three generations, parent-child interaction, parenthood, and the development of socio-cognitive competence through childhood and adolescence. A series of papers was presented addressing the…

  7. The Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics (3rd) Held in Paris, France on 16-19 June 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    d (x,yl) O (14) - v cose) + coso (u coso + v Sine)) where Here I cos + v sin 0 is the velocity compoonent norma l to the phase curve of tb flog...The pressure say be critten as to the th degree of freedom. , is the gen- tuh son of frre-surface and body-induced eralized norma ’, At is th. panel...the poten- wake harmonic at order A are annulled by the flow generated by each ApA distribution on eachtial, the panel width has to be small with re

  8. Ceftazidime/avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jose A; Vinluan, Celeste M; Antony, Nishaal

    2016-01-01

    There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P. aeruginosa and avibactam is a novel nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. Avycaz®, the trade name for this new combination antibiotic, restores the activity of ceftazidime against some of the previously resistant pathogens. Avycaz was approved in 2015 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and complicated intra-abdominal infections with the addition of metronidazole in patients with little to no other treatment options. This review article assesses the clinical trials and data that led to the approval of this antibiotic, in addition to its spectrum of activity and limitations. PMID:27528799

  9. Cephalosporin-induced alteration in hepatic glutathione redox state. A potential mechanism for inhibition of hepatic reduction of vitamin K1,2,3-epoxide in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, M C; Mallat, A; Lipsky, J J

    1990-01-01

    Hypoprothrombinemia is a serious adverse effect of antimicrobial therapy that occurs after administration of some second- and third-generation cephalosporins which contain the methyltetrazole-thiol (MTT) group. Previous studies have shown that in vitro MTT directly inhibits microsomal gamma-carboxylation of a synthetic pentapeptide. Since MTT is a thiocarbamide, a type of compound that can increase oxidation of glutathione, the present studies were carried out to determine whether alterations in hepatic glutathione redox state might interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Dose-related increases in biliary efflux and hepatic concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) occurred after intravenous administration of MTT or MTT-containing antibiotics to rats. This finding suggested that these compounds could alter the hepatic glutathione redox state in vivo. Microsomal reduction of vitamin K epoxide occurred in the presence of 100 microM dithiothreitol (DTT), but was inhibited by preincubation with GSSG at concentrations as low as 10 microM. At higher concentrations of DTT (1.0 mM) inhibition by GSSG persisted, but higher concentrations were required, suggesting that the thiol/disulfide ratio, rather than the absolute concentration of GSSG was important. By contrast, GSSG did not effect microsomal gamma-carboxylation of a pentapeptide, using either vitamin K1 or its hydroquinone as a cofactor. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the hypoprothrombinemia occurring after administration of MTT-containing antibiotics. PMID:1978724

  10. Characteristics of ciprofloxacin and cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from turkeys in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Randall, L P; Mueller-Doblies, D; Lemma, F L; Horton, R A; Teale, C J; Davies, R H

    2013-01-01

    1. A field study was performed to investigate the presence and characteristics of ciprofloxacin-resistant, extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC Escherichia coli from turkeys in Great Britain. E. coli were isolated from ~9000 boot swab samples from 27 different farms owned by four different companies. Between 1 and 14 visits were made to each farm (mean 3) at between 0 and 15 m intervals (mean ~5 m). 2. CHROMagar ECC with and without ciprofloxacin or cephalosporin antibiotics was used as selective isolation media. Representative isolates with different phenotypes were tested for mutations in gyrA and for: qnrA, B, S, qepA and aac(6')-Ib genes, for ESBL phenotype, the presence of bla genes and plasmid type, and for ampC genes Representative ciprofloxacin-resistant and CTX-M isolates were further tested for serotype and PFGE type. On ciprofloxacin selective media 55% of samples yielded ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli and of those further analysed, most had ciprofloxacin MICs >4 mg/l and mutations in gyrA. 3. For the different companies, the mean number of samples per farm with cefoxitin- or cefotaxime-resistant isolates ranged from 1·0% to 61·9% and 4·7% to 31·7% respectively. Cefotaxime-resistance was most commonly associated with an ESBL phenotype, a CTX-M-1 or CTX-M-14 sequence type and an I1-γ or K plasmid inc type. The mechanism of cefoxitin resistance was not determined for most isolates, but where determined it was bla . 4. PFGE and serotyping showed clonally-related isolates persisting over multiple visits suggesting both more prudent use of antibiotics and improved farm hygiene are needed to address the issue of antimicrobial resistance in isolates from turkeys.

  11. Asexual cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum carries a functional mating type locus.

    PubMed

    Pöggeler, Stefanie; Hoff, Birgit; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the pharmaceutically relevant beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C, is classified as asexual because no direct observation of mating or meiosis has yet been reported. To assess the potential of A. chrysogenum for sexual reproduction, we screened an expressed sequence tag library from A. chrysogenum for the expression of mating type (MAT) genes, which are the key regulators of sexual reproduction. We identified two putative mating type genes that are homologues of the alpha-box domain gene, MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2, encoding an HPG domain protein defined by the presence of the three invariant amino acids histidine, proline, and glycine. In addition, cDNAs encoding a putative pheromone receptor and pheromone-processing enzymes, as well as components of a pheromone response pathway, were found. Moreover, the entire A. chrysogenum MAT1-1 (AcMAT1-1) gene and regions flanking the MAT region were obtained from a genomic cosmid library, and sequence analysis revealed that in addition to AcMAT1-1-1 and AcMAT1-1-2, the AcMAT1-1 locus comprises a third mating type gene, AcMAT1-1-3, encoding a high-mobility-group domain protein. The alpha-box domain sequence of AcMAT1-1-1 was used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of A. chrysogenum to other ascomycetes. To determine the functionality of the AcMAT1-1 locus, the entire MAT locus was transferred into a MAT deletion strain of the heterothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina (the PaDeltaMAT strain). After fertilization with a P. anserina MAT1-2 (MAT(+)) strain, the corresponding transformants developed fruiting bodies with mature ascospores. Thus, the results of our functional analysis of the AcMAT1-1 locus provide strong evidence to hypothesize a sexual cycle in A. chrysogenum.

  12. Comparative kinetic analysis on thermal degradation of some cephalosporins using TG and DSC data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The thermal decomposition of cephalexine, cefadroxil and cefoperazone under non-isothermal conditions using the TG, respectively DSC methods, was studied. In case of TG, a hyphenated technique, including EGA, was used. Results The kinetic analysis was performed using the TG and DSC data in air for the first step of cephalosporin’s decomposition at four heating rates. The both TG and DSC data were processed according to an appropriate strategy to the following kinetic methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman, and NPK, in order to obtain realistic kinetic parameters, even if the decomposition process is a complex one. The EGA data offer some valuable indications about a possible decomposition mechanism. The obtained data indicate a rather good agreement between the activation energy’s values obtained by different methods, whereas the EGA data and the chemical structures give a possible explanation of the observed differences on the thermal stability. A complete kinetic analysis needs a data processing strategy using two or more methods, but the kinetic methods must also be applied to the different types of experimental data (TG and DSC). Conclusion The simultaneous use of DSC and TG data for the kinetic analysis coupled with evolved gas analysis (EGA) provided us a more complete picture of the degradation of the three cephalosporins. It was possible to estimate kinetic parameters by using three different kinetic methods and this allowed us to compare the Ea values obtained from different experimental data, TG and DSC. The thermodegradation being a complex process, the both differential and integral methods based on the single step hypothesis are inadequate for obtaining believable kinetic parameters. Only the modified NPK method allowed an objective separation of the temperature, respective conversion influence on the reaction rate and in the same time to ascertain the existence of two simultaneous steps. PMID:23594763

  13. Emergence of decreased susceptibility and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyukmin; Unemo, Magnus; Kim, Hyo Jin; Seo, Younghee; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern globally; however, no comprehensive AMR data for gonococcal isolates cultured after 2006 in Korea have been published internationally. We determined the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2011–13, the mechanism of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance and the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal strains in Korea. Methods In 2011–13, 210 gonococcal isolates were collected in Korea and their AMR profiles were examined by the agar dilution method. The penA, mtrR, penB, ponA and pilQ genes were sequenced in 25 isolates that were resistant to ESCs and 70 randomly selected isolates stratified by year. For molecular epidemiology, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing and MLST were performed. Results None of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates was susceptible to penicillin G and most were resistant to tetracycline (50%) and ciprofloxacin (97%). The rates of resistance to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, cefpodoxime and cefixime were 3%, 5%, 8% and 9%, respectively. However, all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Twenty-one (84%) of the 25 ESC-resistant isolates contained the non-mosaic PBP2 XIII allele; however, the remaining 4 (16%) possessed the mosaic PBP2 X allele, which has been previously associated with ESC resistance including treatment failures. Conclusions In Korea, susceptibility to spectinomycin remains high. However, the recent emergence of ESC-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, including strains possessing the PBP2 mosaic X and non-mosaic XIII alleles, is a major concern and enhanced AMR surveillance is necessary to prevent transmission of these strains. PMID:26084303

  14. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  15. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    PubMed

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  16. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    PubMed Central

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  17. The cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae are mechanosensitive but have no profound effect on ongoing feeding related motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The anterior segments of cyclorraphous Diptera larvae bear various sense organs: the dorsal- and terminal organ located on the cephalic lobes, the ventral- and labial organs associated with the mouthplate and the internal labral organ which lies on the dorsal surface of the esophagus. The sense organs are connected to the brain via the antennal nerve (dorsal- and labral organ) or the maxillary nerve (terminal-, ventral-, labial organ). Although their ultrastructure suggests also a mechanosensory function only their response to olfactory and gustatory stimuli has been investigated electrophysiologically. Here we stimulated the individual organs with step-, ramp-, and sinusoidal stimuli of different amplitude while extracellulary recording their afferents from the respective nerves. The external organs show a threshold of approximately 2 microm. All organs responded phasically and did not habituate to repetitive stimuli. The low threshold of the external organs combined with their rhythmically exposure to the substrate suggested a putative role in the temporal coordination of feeding. We therefore repetitively stimulated individual organs while simultaneously monitoring the centrally generated motor pattern for food ingestion. Neither the dorsal-, terminal- or ventral organ afferents had an obvious effect on the ongoing motor rhythm. Various reasons explaining these results are discussed.

  18. Antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria from ceftiofur-treated and nonantimicrobial-treated comingled beef cows at a cow-calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the occurrences of 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr ), tetracycline-resistant (TETr) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr ) Escherichia coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica and erythromycin-resistant (ERYr) enterococci from ...

  19. Occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the beef cattle production and processing continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific concerns have been raised that 3rd-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) Escherichia coli, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COTr) E. coli, 3GCr Salmonella enterica, and nalidixic acid-resistant (NALr) S. enterica, may be present in cattle production environments, persist through...

  20. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-02

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded.

  1. PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2005-12-01

    One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. • Mechanical properties of

  2. Mixing and turbulent mixing in fluids, plasma and materials: summary of works presented at the 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.

    2013-07-01

    was held in the summer of 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes, and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The collection includes regular research papers, a few research briefs and review papers. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Six papers are devoted to canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. Baumert presents a theory of shear-generated turbulence, which is based on a two-fluid concept. Gampert et al investigate the problem of adequate representation of turbulent structures by applying a decomposition of the field of the turbulent kinetic energy into regions of compressive and extensive strain. Paul and Narashima consider the dynamics of a temporal mixing layer using a vortex sheet model. Schaefer et al analyse the joint statistics and conditional mean strain rates of streamline segments in turbulent flows. Sirota and Zybin deepen their discussion of the connection between Lagrangian and Eulerian velocity structure functions in hydrodynamic turbulence. Talbot et al investigate the heterogeneous mixing by considering gases of very nearly equal densities and very different viscosities. Wall-bounded flows. Three papers are dedicated to wall-bounded flows. Mok et al use the Bayesian spectral density approach to identify the dominant free surface fluctuation frequency downstream of an oscillating hydraulic jump. Tejada-Martinez et al employ large eddy numerical simulations to study wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (parallel counter rotating vortices). Wu et al re-evaluate the Karman constant based on a multi-layer analytical theory of Prandtl's mixing length function. Non-equilibrium processes. This theme is represented by two papers. Chasheckhin and Zagumennyi consider non-equilibrium processes

  3. [Recombinant cephalosporin-acid synthesase: optimisation of expression in E.coli cells, immobilisation and application for biocatalytic cefazolin synthesis].

    PubMed

    Eldarov, M A; Sklyarenko, A V; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Jgoun, A A; Satarova, J E; Sidorenko, A I; Emperian, A S; Yarotsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    Cephalosporin acid synthetase (CASA) is responsible for specific to synthesis of cephalosporin-acids, its expression in Escherichia coli cells is accompanied by accumulation of unprocessed insoluble precursor. In order to optimize conditions of recombinant CASA production we have studied the effects of several parameters of strain cultivation, including growth media composition, temperature, and inoculation dose. Also plasmids for production of CASA variants with the signal sequence of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ansCASA) and "leaderless" CASA were created in search of more efficient expression constructs. Removal of the N-terminal secretion signal sequence reduced the production of functionally active CASA more than 10-fold and inhibited strain growth. Insertion of the L-asparaginase signal sequence increased the specific enzyme activity in the resultant recombinant strain. The ansCASA producing strain was used to develop the method of immobilization of the recombinant enzyme on an epoxy-activated macroporous acrylic support. The resultant biocatalyst performed effective synthesis of cefazolin from 3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-il)-thiomethyl]-7- aminocephalosporanic acid (MMTD-7-ACA) and methyl ester of 1(H)-tetrazolilacetic acid (МETzAA), under mild conditions a transformation level of MMTD-7-ACA to cefazolin of 95% is reached.

  4. A recent evaluation of empirical cephalosporin treatment and antibiotic resistance of changing bacterial profiles in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Yakar, Tolga; Güçlü, Mustafa; Serin, Ender; Alişkan, Hikmet; Husamettin, Erdamar

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the recent changes in microorganisms causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients, antibiotic resistance, and response to empirical cephalosporin therapy. A total of 218 patients with ascites secondary to cirrhosis were enrolled. Parenteral cefotaxime or cefepime was given to patients who had a neutrophil count of 250/mm(3) or more or a positive bacterial culture of ascitic fluid. Antibiotic failure was defined by an absence of clinical improvement and an insufficient decrease in neutrophil count of ascites (<25% of initial value) by the third day of therapy. Of all the patients, 44.6% had culture-negative neutrocytic ascites, 24.8% had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and 10.1% had monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites. Growth in culture was observed in 76 patients (34.9%). The two most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (33.8%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS; 19.7%). The two cephalosporins were effective against E. coli (82%) and but not against CoNS (44%), while levofloxacin showed reasonable activity against both E. coli (71%) and CoNS (90%) in vitro. We confirmed a recent increased incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Levofloxacin seems to be a good alternative treatment for patients with uncomplicated spontaneous ascites infections.

  5. Genomic Epidemiology of Gonococcal Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Macrolides, and Fluoroquinolones in the United States, 2000–2013

    PubMed Central

    Grad, Yonatan H.; Harris, Simon R.; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Green, Anna G.; Marks, Debora S.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Trees, David; Lipsitch, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is empirical and based on population-wide susceptibilities. Increasing antimicrobial resistance underscores the potential importance of rapid diagnostic tests, including sequence-based tests, to guide therapy. However, the usefulness of sequence-based diagnostic tests depends on the prevalence and dynamics of the resistance mechanisms. Methods. We define the prevalence and dynamics of resistance markers to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones in 1102 resistant and susceptible clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 2000 to 2013 via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. Results. Reduced extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility is predominantly clonal and associated with the mosaic penA XXXIV allele and derivatives (sensitivity 98% for cefixime and 91% for ceftriaxone), but alternative resistance mechanisms have sporadically emerged. Reduced azithromycin susceptibility has arisen through multiple mechanisms and shows limited clonal spread; the basis for resistance in 36% of isolates with reduced azithromycin susceptibility is unclear. Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae has arisen multiple times, with extensive clonal spread. Conclusions. Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and reduced cefixime susceptibility appear amenable to development of sequence-based diagnostic tests, whereas the undefined mechanisms of resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin underscore the importance of phenotypic surveillance. The identification of multidrug-resistant isolates highlights the need for additional measures to respond to the threat of untreatable gonorrhea. PMID:27638945

  6. Carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible: a worrisome phenotype among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campana, Eloiza Helena; Xavier, Danilo Elias; Petrolini, Fernanda Villas-Boas; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Araujo, Maria Rita Elmor de; Gales, Ana Cristina

    The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility, were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays. The mRNA transcription level of oprD was assessed by qRT-PCR and the outer membrane proteins profile was evaluated by SDS-PAGE. Genetic relationship among P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by PFGE. Carbapenems hydrolysis was not detected by carbapenemase assay in the carbapenem-resistant and cephalosporin-susceptible P. aueruginosa clinical isolates. OprD decreased expression was observed in all P. aeruginosa isolates by qRT-PCR. The outer membrane protein profile by SDS-PAGE suggested a change in the expression of the 46kDa porin that could correspond to OprD porin. The isolates were clustered into 17 genotypes without predominance of a specific PFGE pattern. These results emphasize the involvement of multiple chromosomal mechanisms in carbapenem-resistance among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, alert for adaptation of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates under antimicrobial selective pressure and make aware of the emergence of an uncommon phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

  7. Class C β-Lactamases Operate at the Diffusion Limit for Turnover of Their Preferred Cephalosporin Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bulychev, Alexey; Mobashery, Shahriar

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that class C β-lactamases have evolved to carry out a metabolic reaction other than hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics. It is demonstrated in the present study that the class C β-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99 has reached the diffusion limit in its ability to hydrolyze its preferred cephalosporin substrates. The increase in the solution viscosity by addition of a microviscogen (sucrose) caused the decline in the parameter kcat/Km for hydrolysis of cephaloridine and cephalosporin C (approximately 2.5-fold at a relative viscosity of 2.9). A similar increase in viscosity has no effect on the turnover rate of the poorer substrates cefepime and penicillin G. Addition of a macroviscogen (polyethylene glycol) to the reaction mixture did not change the rate of turnover for any of the substrates tested because in this case the viscogen would not interfere with the motion of small molecules, as was expected. Therefore, it would appear that the driving force behind the evolution of this class C β-lactamase and, in principle, other enzymes of this class is indeed the functional reaction of this enzyme as a drug resistance factor. PMID:10390233

  8. Trapping of nonhydrolyzable cephalosporins by cephalosporinases in Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a possible resistance mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Then, R L; Angehrn, P

    1982-01-01

    Resistance to cefotaxime (CTA) and ceftriaxone (CTR) in Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in several strains which are susceptible or resistant to these agents. All strains produced a chromosomally mediated cephalosporinase of the Richmond type 1. beta-Lactamases in susceptible strains were inducible, whereas resistant strains produced the enzymes constitutively. CTA and CTR were very poor substrates but potent inhibitors of all enzymes. Binding to, rather than hydrolysis by, beta-lactamases was assumed to be a major reason for resistance, and combination experiments supported this assumption. Dicloxacillin, which did not inhibit the growth and which was a poor inducer but a strong inhibitor of these beta-lactamases, exerted strong synergistic activity when combined with CTA or CTR in strains which produced large amounts of beta-lactamase constitutively. Cefoxitin, on the other hand, poorly active alone, but a good inducer, strongly antagonized CTA or CTR in susceptible strains producing inducible enzymes. In marked contrast to CTA and CTR were the findings with cefsulodin. Cefsulodin was active against CTA- and CTR-resistant Pseudomonas, and its activity was hardly influenced by dicloxacillin or cefoxitin. Since cefsulodin was found to have a very low affinity for all cephalosporinases, these findings corroborate the assumption that binding of nonhydrolyzable cephalosporins, rather than hydrolysis by cephalosporinases, may play an important role in resistance to these agents and other newer cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae, as well as in other gram-negative bacteria. PMID:6808912

  9. Increased structural flexibility at the active site of a fluorophore-conjugated beta-lactamase distinctively impacts its binding toward diverse cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Ting; Chan, Kwok-Chu; So, Pui-Kin; Yap, Hong-Kin; Chung, Wai-Hong; Leung, Yun-Chung; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Zhao, Yanxiang

    2011-09-09

    The Ω-loop at the active site of β-lactamases exerts significant impact on the kinetics and substrate profile of these enzymes by forming part of the substrate binding site and posing as steric hindrance toward bulky substrates. Mutating certain residues on the Ω-loop has been a general strategy for molecular evolution of β-lactamases to expand their hydrolytic activity toward extended-spectrum antibiotics through a mechanism believed to involve enhanced structural flexibility of the Ω-loop. Yet no structural information is available that demonstrates such flexibility or its relation to substrate profile and enzyme kinetics. Here we report an engineered β-lactamase that contains an environment-sensitive fluorophore conjugated near its active site to probe the structural dynamics of the Ω-loop and to detect the binding of diverse substrates. Our results show that this engineered β-lactamase has improved binding kinetics and positive fluorescence signal toward oxyimino-cephalosporins, but shows little such effect to non-oxyimino-cephalosporins. Structural studies reveal that the Ω-loop adopts a less stabilized structure, and readily undergoes conformational change to accommodate the binding of bulky oxyimino-cephalosporins while no such change is observed for non-oxyimino-cephalosporins. Mutational studies further confirm that this substrate-induced structural change is directly responsible for the positive fluorescence signal specific to oxyimino-cephalosporins. Our data provide mechanistic evidence to support the long-standing model that the evolutionary strategy of mutating the Ω-loop leads to increased structural flexibility of this region, which in turn facilitates the binding of extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The oxyimino-cephalosporin-specific fluorescence profile of our engineered β-lactamase also demonstrates the possibility of designing substrate-selective biosensing systems.

  10. Combination of cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin enhances antibacterial effect of glycopeptides against heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and VISA

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chi-Chung; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Tang, Hung-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Eight heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (h-VISA) and seven VISA clinical isolates confirmed by the population analysis profile/area under the curve ratio (PAP/AUC) were collected. We further performed the PAP/AUC, time-killing methods and MIC tests using vancomycin/teicoplanin alone or combination with susceptible breakpoint concentrations of cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime for these isolates. The PAP/AUC MIC curve shifted left after addition of cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin for both h-VISA and VISA isolates. With the combination of different cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin, the AUC/Mu3 AUC ratio decreased to <0.9 for the standard Mu3 isolate which are compatible with the definition of vancomycin susceptible S. aureus. These decreases ranged between 1.81–2.02 and 2.37–2.85-fold for h-VISA treated with cephalosporins and vancomycin or teicoplanin, and 2.05–4.59, and 2.93–4,89-fold for VISA treated with cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin. As measured by time-killing assays, the combinations of different cephalosporins with vancomycin concentrations at 1/2 and 1/4 MIC, exhibited a bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect in VISA. The mean fold of MIC decline for vancomycin base combinations ranged from 1.81–3.83 and 2.71–9.33 for h-VISA and VISA, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated the enhanced antibacterial activity of vancomycin/teicoplanin after adding cephalosporins against clinical h-VISA/VISA isolates. PMID:28139739

  11. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  12. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  13. Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, Eric G.

    2004-08-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an updated and expanded section on computer applications in radiation therapy and electron beam therapy, and features enhanced user-friendliness and visual appeal with a new, easy-to-follow format, including sidebars and a larger trim size. With its user-friendly presentation and broad, comprehensive coverage of radiotherapy physics, this Third Edition doubles as a medical text and handy professional reference.

  14. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  15. Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought into a new sequence. 5. The umbrella function of WRB aims to allow the allocation of soil classes existing in a national classification system within the WRB. Characteristics that in a national system are regarded to be important must be considered in WRB - not necessarily at the highest level, but at least somewhere. The third edition of WRB allows a better accommodation of soil types, e.g., of the Australian and the Brazilian system. 6. Some environments or even ecoregions had not been well represented in WRB. The third edition allows a better accommodation of soils of ultra-continental permafrost regions, acid-sulphate soils and Technosols. 7. How to explain complicated sets of characteristics? For the third edition, efforts were made to give better structured definitions that can be more easily grasped. The editors of the third edition are convinced that the new WRB allows a more precise classification of soils including both, a better naming of pedons and a better elaboration of soil map legends.

  16. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  17. Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham

    2003-03-01

    Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.

  18. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Physics, 3rd edn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, David

    1999-09-01

    The number of broadly based physics texts written at a level corresponding to second year and above of UK physics degrees is limited. This is such a book thoroughly updated in a third edition, the first edition having been published 20 years ago. The book is unusual in that the reader is referred to the Freeman website www.whfreeman.com/physics for some additional sections. It will be interesting to see whether this proves to be an attractive feature. The coverage reflects the US emphasis on topics and contains both theoretical and experimental details. It should not be regarded as an introductory text although it is clearly written. Thus the first two chapters take the reader straight into relativity, concentrating mainly on special relativity but going on to general relativity. From here the reader is led to ideas of quantization of charge, light and energy, followed by an exploration of the nuclear atom, wavelike properties of particles and Schrödinger's equation. Solution of this equation for the hydrogen atom introduces a section on spectroscopy. The next chapter on statistical physics includes Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and brings to a close Part 1, which concentrates on the theoretical groundwork. Consistent with its title, the book does not cover traditional aspects of thermodynamics and electromagnetic theory. Part 2 is entitled `Applications' and begins with a chapter on molecular structure and spectra. Lasers and masers are included here but geometrical, physical and nonlinear optics get limited or no coverage. Solid state physics follows but, despite the title of the book, there is little on modern devices, although the section on superconductivity mentions high temperature materials. The chapters on nuclear physics, fission, fusion reactors and medical applications and a chapter on particle physics are comprehensive. Finally a chapter on astrophysics and cosmology is referred to, but the reader must find this at the website. As this is an attractive chapter it is a pity that it is not printed within the book. Although viewing the chapter on the Web gives the benefit of full colour, it is not easy to read the textual information off the screen. Within the printed material, there are good diagrams with the addition of a single colour, burgundy, a colour that is wasted on those of us who are red-green colour-blind! Each chapter is provided with an impressive number of graded problems (it is not easy to provide such a comprehensive range of problems at this level) and numerical answers are given in the back for every third problem. There is a student solution manual available for these problems and a complete instructor's solution manual has also been produced. It is therefore a useful book for both students and lecturers.

  20. Cerebral computed tomography, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, L.; Nice, C.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the utilization of computed tomography in evaluating patients with intracranial and orbital disorders. It features clinical correlations and provides an overview of general principles, performance, and normal anatomy of CT. It covers evaluation of specific neurologic signs and symptoms, including stroke, metastatic disease, increased intracranial pressure, head injury, pediatric conditions, and more.

  1. Peace Corps. 3rd Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the third year of the Peace Corps. An introduction comments on returning volunteers and presents regional maps with tables for Latin America, Africa, Near East and South Asia, and Far East. Section 1 contains letters and reports from volunteers in Peru, Ivory Coast,…

  2. 3RD Symposium on Applied Surface Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    lithium -- a condition which occurs during under-potential discharge. The surface studies of lithium on carbon showed lithium to be much more mobile in...of surface chemistry. The talk will begin with a summary of results for carbon monoxide chemisorbed on supported Rh as studied by transmission... lithium anode and the high surface-area Shawinigan Black current collector of the Li-LiAsF6 -AN-SO2 battery system have been ana- lyzed by XPS, SAM and

  3. DDN New User Guide, 3rd Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-05

    incomplete or incorrect address is returned to the sender with an error message. If a mail message is undeliverable due to network or machine problems, most... mail programs try to resend it several times before returning it to the sender . Many mail programs allow you to use a local text editor to revise or...username and password. These may be entered in either upper or lowercase. After a successful login, InfoMail notifies user of mail in his " Inbox ." INBOX

  4. Ceftazidime-avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Lawson, Christopher D; Adam, Heather; Schweizer, Frank; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Denisuik, Andrew; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2013-02-01

    -lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli that are not inhibited by ceftazidime alone.Clinical trials to date have reported that ceftazidime-avibactam is as effective as standard carbapenem therapy in complicated intra-abdominal infection and complicated urinary tract infection, including infection caused by cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative isolates. The safety and tolerability of ceftazidime-avibactam has been reported in three phase I pharmacokinetic studies and two phase II clinical studies. Ceftazidime-avibactam appears to be well tolerated in healthy subjects and hospitalized patients, with few serious drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events reported to date.In conclusion, avibactam serves to broaden the spectrum of ceftazidime versus ß-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli. The exact roles for ceftazidime-avibactam will be defined by efficacy and safety data from further clinical trials. Potential future roles for ceftazidime-avibactam include the treatment of suspected or documented infections caused by resistant Gram-negative-bacilli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and/or AmpC ß-lactamases. In addition, ceftazidime-avibactam may be used in combination (with metronidazole) for suspected polymicrobial infections. Finally, the increased activity of ceftazidime-avibactam versus P. aeruginosa may be of clinical benefit in patients with suspected or documented P. aeruginosa infections.

  5. Costs, affordability, and feasibility of an essential package of cancer control interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Gelband, Hellen; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Horton, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin O; Bray, Freddie; Cleary, James; Dare, Anna J; Denny, Lynette; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C; Jaffray, David A; Knaul, Felicia; Levin, Carol; Rabeneck, Linda; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sullivan, Terrence; Trimble, Edward L; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-05-21

    Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades.

  6. Enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C using whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis within a "cross-flow filter-reactor".

    PubMed

    Vicenzi, J T; Hansen, G J

    1993-04-01

    An economical process for the enzymatic oxidation of cephalosporin C to glutaryl-7-ACA was developed at a pilot plant scale. The process utilized nonviable whole cells of the yeast Triginopsis variabilis containing high levels of D-amino acid oxidase. Prior to use, the whole cells were permeabilized with a 25% acetone/water solution which enhanced their apparent activity by 20- to 50-fold. After permeabilization, the whole cells were incubated at pH 11, which served to selectively deactivate catalase which was present in very large quantities. Deactivation of catalase was critical to achieving high reaction yields. The whole cells were utilized within a "cross-flow filter-reactor" which allowed easy and economical recycle of the cells for repeated use. The overall yield of glutaryl-7-ACA from cephalosporin C was 90-95%. The overall productivity of the yeast was 13 kg cephalosporin C oxidized per kilogram yeast (dry basis). The reaction was run at a concentration of 40 g cephalosporin CL-1 and the overall reactor productivity was 11 g glutaryl-7-ACA l-1 h-1. The process has been thoroughly demonstrated on a 35-l scale, and it should be directly scaleable to 10,000 l or more.

  7. Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, is commonly used in both adults and child...

  8. Cloning of a Streptomyces clavuligerus DNA fragment encoding the cephalosporin 7 alpha-hydroxylase and its expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, X; Hintermann, G; Häusler, A; Barker, P J; Foor, F; Demain, A L; Piret, J

    1993-01-01

    A 26-mer DNA probe was designed from N-terminal sequence data for the cephalosporin 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CH) of Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and used to screen a DNA library from this organism. The library was constructed in the lambda GEM-11 phage system. After plaque purification and reprobing, positive recombinant phages were chosen for further analysis. Characterization of the cloned DNA by restriction mapping and Southern hybridization showed that a 1.5-kb SalI fragment hybridized to the probe. Polymerase chain reaction assays using this fragment as a template and the probe as a primer indicated that the fragment carries the entire putative CH gene (cmcI). This was confirmed through the expression of CH enzymatic activity when the fragment was introduced into Streptomyces lividans. A putative beta-lactamase activity was detected in S. lividans. Images PMID:8431021

  9. Expression of cefF significantly decreased deacetoxycephalosporin C formation during cephalosporin C production in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    An, Yang; Dong, Hailing; Liu, Gang

    2012-02-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) is not only the precursor but also one of the by-products during cephalosporin C (CPC) biosynthesis. One enzyme (DAOC/DAC synthase) is responsible for the two-step conversion of penicillin N into deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC) in Acremonium chrysogenum, while two enzymes (DAOC synthase and DAOC hydroxylase) were involved in this reaction in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Amycolatopsis lactamdurans (Nocardia lactamdurans). In this study, the DAOC hydroxylase gene cefF was cloned from Streptomyces clavuligerus and introduced into Acremonium chrysogenum through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. When cefF was expressed under the promoter of pcbC, the ratio of DAOC/CPC in the fermentation broth significantly decreased. These results suggested that introduction of cefF could function quite well in Acremonium chrysogenum and successfully reduce the content of DAOC in the CPC fermentation broth. This work offered a practical way to improve the CPC purification and reduce its production cost.

  10. Cefuroxime, a New Parenteral Cephalosporin: Collaborative In Vitro Susceptibility Comparison with Cephalothin Against 5,887 Clinical Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ronald N.; Fuchs, Peter C.; Gavan, Thomas L.; Gerlach, E. Hugh; Barry, A. L.; Thornsberry, Clyde

    1977-01-01

    Cefuroxime, a new parenteral cephalosporin was compared with cephalothin by broth microdilution susceptibility testing against 5,887 routine clinical bacterial isolates in four large clinical laboratories. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefuroxime against the Enterobacteriaceae were consistently lower than those of cephalothin. This was most striking among the Enterobacter species, which were generally susceptible to cefuroxime (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml), but resistant to cephalothin. Similar results occurred with Haemophilus species, Acinetobacter anitratus, meningococci, and Aeromonas hydrophilia, but Pseudomonas species and enterococci were resistant to high concentrations of both drugs. Streptococci showed slightly greater susceptibility to cefuroxime than to cephalothin. By contrast, staphylococci were more susceptible to cephalothin. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to cefuroxime, but other anaerobes were generally susceptible. PMID:883818

  11. Virulence Genes in Expanded-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant and -Susceptible Escherichia coli Isolates from Treated and Untreated Chickens.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Delannoy, S; Bougeard, S; Larvor, E; Jouy, E; Balan, O; Fach, P; Kempf, I

    2015-12-14

    This study investigated antimicrobial resistance, screened for the presence of virulence genes involved in intestinal infections, and determined phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolates from untreated poultry and poultry treated with ceftiofur, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin. Results show that none of the 76 isolates appeared to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli or enteropathogenic E. coli. All isolates were negative for the major virulence factors/toxins tested (ehxA, cdt, heat-stable enterotoxin [ST], and heat-labile enterotoxin [LT]). The few virulence genes harbored in isolates generally did not correlate with isolate antimicrobial resistance or treatment status. However, some of the virulence genes were significantly associated with certain phylogenetic groups.

  12. Voltammetric analysis of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Zn (II) complexes and their cyclic voltammetry with several cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Maali, N; Osman, A H; Aly, A A M; Al-Hazmi, G A A

    2005-02-01

    Both osteryoung square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry have been utilized to elucidate and confirm the possible complexation reaction that occur between the various cephalosporin antibiotics and either the toxic, non-essential metal ion, viz. Cd (II), or the essential but toxic (when their concentration exceeds certain level in serum) metal ions, viz. Cu (II) and Zn (II). Voltammetric measurements indicated the existence of 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio (as in cephalexin and cephapirin complexes), 1:2 ratio (such as in cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime complexes) and 2:1 ratio in case of ceftazidime complexes. Adsorption behavior was evidenced for Cu (II)-cefuroxime or ceftazidime complexes as well as for those for Zn (II)-cephalexin or cephapirin. This phenomenon could be used for the determination of either the antibiotic or the metal ion using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Detection limits down to 7x10(-10) M have been easily achieved.

  13. Comparative susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens to newer cephalosporins, alone and in combination with various aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S M; Sibilla, D J

    1980-01-01

    We examined 100 clinically significant isolates of Serratia marcescens for susceptibility to newer cephalosporin and cephamycin antibiotics, alone and in combination with various aminoglycosides. Moxalactam and cefotaxime were the most effective agents; all isolates were inhibited by 25 and 50 micrograms/ml, respectively. All strains were susceptible to amikacin at concentrations safely achievable in serum, whereas gentamicin, netilmicin, and tobramycin inhibited 63, 63, and 16% of the isolates, respectively. Moxalactam, cefotaxime, and amikacin were active against gentamicin-susceptible and gentamicin-resistant strains. Studies of synergy revealed that moxalactam and cefotaxime, in combination with netilmicin or amikacin, were often synergistic and infrequently antagonistic against cephalothin- and gentamicin-resistant strains. These results suggest that moxalactam and cefotaxime, alone or in combination, may be efficacious in treating infections due to multiply antibiotic-resistant S. marcescens. PMID:7004344

  14. A septation related gene AcsepH in Acremonium chrysogenum is involved in the cellular differentiation and cephalosporin production.

    PubMed

    Long, Liang-Kun; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    T-DNA inserted mutants of Acremonium chrysogenum were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). One mutant 1223 which grew slowly was selected. TAIL-PCR and sequence analysis indicated that a putative septation protein encoding gene AcsepH was partially deleted in this mutant. AcsepH contains nine introns, and its deduced protein AcSEPH has a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain at its N-terminal region. AcSEPH shows high similarity with septation H proteins from other filamentous fungi based on the phylogenetic analysis of S_TKc domains. In sporulation (LPE) medium, the conidia of AcsepH mutant was only about one-seventh of the wild-type, and more than 20% of conidia produced by the mutant contain multiple nuclei which were rare in the wild-type. During fermentation, the AcsepH disruption mutant grew slowly and its cephalosporin production was only about one quarter of the wild-type, and the transcription analysis showed that pcbC expression was delayed and the expressions of cefEF, cefD1 and cefD2 were significantly decreased. The vegetative hyphae of AcsepH mutant swelled abnormally and hardly formed the typical yeast-like cells. The amount of yeast-like cells was about one-tenth of the wild-type after fermentation for 5days. Comparison of hyphal viabilities revealed that the cells of AcsepH mutant died easily than the wild-type at the late stage of fermentation. Fluorescent stains revealed that the absence of AcsepH in A. chrysogenum led to reduction of septation and formation of multinucleate cells. These data indicates that AcsepH is required for the normal cellular septation and differentiation of A. chrysogenum, and its absence may change the cellular physiological status and causes the decline in cephalosporin production.

  15. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high.

  16. Whole-Genome Phylogenomic Heterogeneity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility Collected in Canada between 1989 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tarah; Martin, Irene; Van Domselaar, Gary; Graham, Morag; Bharat, Amrita; Allen, Vanessa; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tyrrell, Greg; Horsman, Greg; Haldane, David; Garceau, Richard; Wylie, John; Wong, Tom; Mulvey, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale, whole-genome comparison of Canadian Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with high-level cephalosporin MICs was used to demonstrate a genomic epidemiology approach to investigate strain relatedness and dynamics. Although current typing methods have been very successful in tracing short-chain transmission of gonorrheal disease, investigating the temporal evolutionary relationships and geographical dissemination of highly clonal lineages requires enhanced resolution only available through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenomic cluster analysis grouped 169 Canadian strains into 12 distinct clades. While some N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types (NG-MAST) agreed with specific phylogenomic clades or subclades, other sequence types (ST) and closely related groups of ST were widely distributed among clades. Decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC-DS) emerged among a group of diverse strains in Canada during the 1990s with a variety of nonmosaic penA alleles, followed in 2000/2001 with the penA mosaic X allele and then in 2007 with ST1407 strains with the penA mosaic XXXIV allele. Five genetically distinct ESC-DS lineages were associated with penA mosaic X, XXXV, and XXXIV alleles and nonmosaic XII and XIII alleles. ESC-DS with coresistance to azithromycin was observed in 5 strains with 23S rRNA C2599T or A2143G mutations. As the costs associated with WGS decline and analysis tools are streamlined, WGS can provide a more thorough understanding of strain dynamics, facilitate epidemiological studies to better resolve social networks, and improve surveillance to optimize treatment for gonorrheal infections. PMID:25378573

  17. Mutations in β-Lactamase AmpC Increase Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates to Antipseudomonal Cephalosporins

    PubMed Central

    Berrazeg, M.; Jeannot, K.; Ntsogo Enguéné, Véronique Yvette; Broutin, I.; Loeffert, S.; Fournier, D.

    2015-01-01

    Mutation-dependent overproduction of intrinsic β-lactamase AmpC is considered the main cause of resistance of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antipseudomonal penicillins and cephalosporins. Analysis of 31 AmpC-overproducing clinical isolates exhibiting a greater resistance to ceftazidime than to piperacillin-tazobactam revealed the presence of 17 mutations in the β-lactamase, combined with various polymorphic amino acid substitutions. When overexpressed in AmpC-deficient P. aeruginosa 4098, the genes coding for 20/23 of these AmpC variants were found to confer a higher (2-fold to >64-fold) resistance to ceftazidime and ceftolozane-tazobactam than did the gene from reference strain PAO1. The mutations had variable effects on the MICs of ticarcillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, aztreonam, and cefepime. Depending on their location in the AmpC structure and their impact on β-lactam MICs, they could be assigned to 4 distinct groups. Most of the mutations affecting the omega loop, the R2 domain, and the C-terminal end of the protein were shared with extended-spectrum AmpCs (ESACs) from other Gram-negative species. Interestingly, two new mutations (F121L and P154L) were predicted to enlarge the substrate binding pocket by disrupting the stacking between residues F121 and P154. We also found that the reported ESACs emerged locally in a variety of clones, some of which are epidemic and did not require hypermutability. Taken together, our results show that P. aeruginosa is able to adapt to efficacious β-lactams, including the newer cephalosporin ceftolozane, through a variety of mutations affecting its intrinsic β-lactamase, AmpC. Data suggest that the rates of ESAC-producing mutants are ≥1.5% in the clinical setting. PMID:26248364

  18. Immobilization and stabilization of cephalosporin C acylase on aminated support by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and further modifying with aminated macromolecules.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Wei, Yanmei; Luo, Hui; Li, Xi; Wang, Xiaona; Liang, Chen; Chang, Yanhong; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, cephalosporin C acylase (CA), a heterodimeric enzyme of industrial potential in direct hydrolysis of cephalosporin C (CPC) to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), was covalently immobilized on the aminated support LX1000-HA (HA) with two different protocols. The stability of CA adsorbed onto the HA support followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (HA-CA-glut) was better than that of the CA covalently immobilized on the glutaraldehyde preactivated HA support (HA-glut-CA). The thermostabilization factors (compared with the free enzyme) of these two immobilized enzymes were 11.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. In order to improve the stability of HA-CA-glut, a novel strategy based on postimmobilization modifying with aminated molecules was developed to take advantage of the glutaraldehyde moieties left on the enzyme and support. The macromolecules, such as polyethyleneimine (PEI) and chitosan, had larger effects than small molecules on the thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme perhaps due to crosslinking of the enzymes and support with each other. The quaternary structure of the CA could be much stabilized by this novel approach including physical adsorption on aminated support, glutaraldehyde treatment, and macromolecule modification. The HA-CA-glut-PEI20000 (the HA-CA-glut postmodified with PEI Mw = 20,000) had a thermostabilization factor of 20-fold, and its substrate affinity (Km = 14.3 mM) was better than that of HA-CA-glut (Km = 33.4 mM). The half-life of the immobilized enzymes HA-CA-glut-PEI20000 under the CPC-catalyzing conditions could reach 28 cycles, a higher value than that of HA-CA-glut (21 cycles).

  19. Trends in Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Dutch Clinical Isolates, from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, Matthijs; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; van der Bij, Akke K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated time trends in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different patient settings in The Netherlands from 2008–2012. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from blood and urine samples of patients > = 18 years were selected from the Dutch Infectious Disease Surveillance System-Antimicrobial Resistance (ISIS-AR) database. We used multivariable Poisson regression to study the rate per year of blood stream infections by susceptible and resistant isolates, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) log-binomial regression for trends in the proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Susceptibility data of 197,513 E. coli and 38,244 K. pneumoniae isolates were included. The proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from urine and blood samples increased in all patient settings, except for K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to intensive care units. For K. pneumoniae, there was a different time trend between various patient groups (p<0.01), with a significantly higher increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from patients attending a general practitioner than in isolates from hospitalized patients. For E. coli, the increasing time trends did not differ among different patient groups. This nationwide study shows a general increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. However, differences in trends between E. coli en K. pneumoniae underline the importance of E. coli as a community-pathogen and its subsequent influence on hospital resistance level, while for K. pneumoniae the level of resistance within the hospital seems less influenced by the resistance trends in the community. PMID:26381746

  20. Trends in Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Dutch Clinical Isolates, from 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Matthijs; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van der Bij, Akke K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated time trends in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different patient settings in The Netherlands from 2008-2012. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from blood and urine samples of patients > = 18 years were selected from the Dutch Infectious Disease Surveillance System-Antimicrobial Resistance (ISIS-AR) database. We used multivariable Poisson regression to study the rate per year of blood stream infections by susceptible and resistant isolates, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) log-binomial regression for trends in the proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Susceptibility data of 197,513 E. coli and 38,244 K. pneumoniae isolates were included. The proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from urine and blood samples increased in all patient settings, except for K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to intensive care units. For K. pneumoniae, there was a different time trend between various patient groups (p<0.01), with a significantly higher increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from patients attending a general practitioner than in isolates from hospitalized patients. For E. coli, the increasing time trends did not differ among different patient groups. This nationwide study shows a general increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. However, differences in trends between E. coli en K. pneumoniae underline the importance of E. coli as a community-pathogen and its subsequent influence on hospital resistance level, while for K. pneumoniae the level of resistance within the hospital seems less influenced by the resistance trends in the community.

  1. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  2. First Demonstration of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Technique for Short-Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne

    2010-08-25

    We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique which holds great promise for generation of high power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonic of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the EEHG technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.

  3. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numantia and Ciadueña, 3rd-1st centuries BC). Implications on the fidelity of the Iberian paleointensity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Catanzariti, G.; Jimeno, A.; Campuzano, S. A.; Benito-Batanero, J. P.; Tabernero-Galán, C.; Roperch, P.

    2016-11-01

    Variations of geomagnetic field in the Iberian Peninsula prior to roman times are poorly constrained. Here we report new archaeomagnetic results from four ceramic collections and two combustion structures recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archaeological sites in central Spain. The studied materials have been dated by archaeological evidences and supported by five radiocarbon dates. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the characteristic remanent manetization (ChRM) is carried by a low coercivity magnetic phase with Curie temperatures of 530-575 °C, most likely Ti-poor titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency. Two magnetic behaviours were depicted during the laboratory treatment. Black potsherds and poor heated samples from the kilns, presented two magnetization components, alterations or curved Arai plots and were therefore rejected. In contrast, well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kilns) show one single well defined component of magnetization going through the origin and linear Arai plots providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was systematically investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. In some cases, differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values reached up to 86 %. The mean intensity values obtained from three selected set of samples were 64.3 ± 5.8 μT; 56.8 ± 3.8 and 56.7 ± 4.6 μT (NUS2, CI2 and CIA, respectively), which contribute to better understand the evolution of the palaeofield intensity in central Iberia during the 3rd-1st centuries BC. The direction of the field at first century BC has also been determined from oriented samples from CIA kilns (D = 357

  4. Community-Onset Escherichia coli Infection Resistant to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Low-Prevalence Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Paul R.; Runnegar, Naomi; Pitman, Matthew C.; Freeman, Joshua T.; Athan, Eugene; Havers, Sally M.; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Jones, Mark; Gunning, Earleen; De Almeida, Mary; Styles, Kaylene; Paterson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    By global standards, the prevalence of community-onset expanded-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli remains low in Australia and New Zealand. Of concern, our countries are in a unique position, with high extramural resistance pressure from close population and trade links to Asia-Pacific neighbors with high ESC-R E. coli rates. We aimed to characterize the risks and dynamics of community-onset ESC-R E. coli infection in our low-prevalence region. A case-control methodology was used. Patients with ESC-R E. coli or ESC-susceptible E. coli isolated from blood or urine were recruited at six geographically dispersed tertiary care hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Epidemiological data were prospectively collected, and bacteria were retained for analysis. In total, 182 patients (91 cases and 91 controls) were recruited. Multivariate logistic regression identified risk factors for ESC-R among E. coli strains, including birth on the Indian subcontinent (odds ratio [OR] = 11.13, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.17 to 56.98, P = 0.003), urinary tract infection in the past year (per-infection OR = 1.430, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.82, P = 0.003), travel to southeast Asia, China, the Indian subcontinent, Africa, and the Middle East (OR = 3.089, 95% CI = 1.29 to 7.38, P = 0.011), prior exposure to trimethoprim with or without sulfamethoxazole and with or without an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (OR = 3.665, 95% CI = 1.30 to 10.35, P = 0.014), and health care exposure in the previous 6 months (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.54 to 6.46, P = 0.02). Among our ESC-R E. coli strains, the blaCTX-M ESBLs were dominant (83% of ESC-R E. coli strains), and the worldwide pandemic ST-131 clone was frequent (45% of ESC-R E. coli strains). In our low-prevalence setting, ESC-R among community-onset E. coli strains may be associated with both “export” from health care facilities into the community and direct “import” into the community from high-prevalence regions. PMID

  5. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  6. Rapid Detection of β-Lactamase-Hydrolyzing Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae by Use of the New Chromogenic βLacta Test

    PubMed Central

    Morosini, María Isabel; García-Castillo, María; Tato, Marta; Gijón, Desirèe; Valverde, Aránzazu; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The chromogenic βLacta test developed for the rapid detection of β-lactamase-hydrolyzing extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae revealed good performance with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers (97.5% true-positive results). However, false-negative results occurred with chromosomal AmpC hyperproducers and plasmid AmpC producers, whereas uninterpretable results were mostly due to VIM-1 carbapenemase producers and possibly low levels of expressed ESBLs. PMID:24574293

  7. Rapid detection of the mosaic structure of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae penA Gene, which is associated with decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Susumu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of the penA gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 2 [PBP 2]), which is composed of fragments of the penA genes from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, has been significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae by real-time PCR. This assay successfully detected the mosaic penA gene of N. gonorrhoeae, and its sensitivity was >or=10(1) copies/reaction. Six hundred twenty-one clinical strains were examined by this assay for the presence of mosaic PBP 2, which was detected in 85 (39.4%) of 216 strains from 2002, 69 (40.6%) of 170 strains from 2003, 71 (44.4%) of 160 strains from 2004, and 31 (41.3%) of 75 strains from 2005. The MICs of cephalosporins for strains with the mosaic PBP 2 detected by the assay were statistically higher than those for strains without the mosaic PBP 2. One hundred sixty-six (64.8%) of 256 strains with the mosaic PBP 2 exhibited cefixime MICs of >or=0.5 microg/ml. The emergence and spread of strains with mosaic PBP 2 could be a threat to the cefixime treatment of gonorrhea. This real-time PCR assay for the detection of mosaic PBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae is thus useful in the prediction of decreased susceptibilities to oral cephalosporins.

  8. Extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in West Norway during 2006-2013; a prospective surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, Haima; Kolstad, Helge; Breistein, Rebecca Irene; Lind, Grete; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0.7%. ESBLA in Klebsiella pneumoniae had similar prevalence in 2006 (0.6%) and 2013 (4.4%), but in between it peaked to 3.9% in 2008 and to 9.3% in 2011. Within the other species, the numbers of clinically relevant isolates and isolates-producing ESBLA were much lower. An increasing resistance due to hyperproduction of AmpC enzymes was seen in Enterobacter and Citrobacter, with prevalence increasing from 18% and 12.2% in 2006 to 27.5% and 26.1% in 2013, respectively. Hyperproduction of KOXY enzyme in Klebsiella oxytoca remained below 9.5% and did not show an increasing trend. The overall increase in the proportions of isolates-producing ESBLA in E. coli/K. pneumoniae and hyperproduction of AmpC in Enterobacter/Citrobacter necessitates measures to hinder the spread of resistant bacteria and vigilant antibiotic stewardship.

  9. [Enzymatic conversion of cephalosporin C to glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid using whole cells of the yeast Trigonopsis variabilis FA10].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Zhu, T B; Zhang, Y F; Yang, Y L; Jiao, R S

    2001-03-01

    A process for the production of glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7ACA) from cephalosporin C(CPC) using permeabilized cells of yeast Trigonopsis variabilis FA10 containing D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is described. It was found that the bioconversion of CPC to GL-7ACA was interfered by the catalase activity presented in the cells that hydrolyzed the hydrogen peroxide and resulted in the accumulation of alpha-keto-adipyl-7-ACA (AKA-7ACA) and decrease of GL-7ACA yield. the methods to overcome this problem including the addition of extra H2O2 and use of catalase inhibitor, NaN3, were developed and the rate of GL-7ACA from CPC were 73% and 70.1%, respectively. Another alternative method was to incubate the permeabilized FA10 cells at pH10.5-11.0 for 30 minutes at 20 degrees C which served to selectively inactivate the catalase. In the bioconversion of CPC to GL-7ACA using pH10.5-treated cells without catalase activity, the high reaction yield of GL-7ACA(84%) was achieved.

  10. Radiosterilization of fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins: assessment of radiation damage on antibiotics by changes in optical property and colorimetric parameters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babita; Parwate, D V; Shukla, S K

    2009-01-01

    A most common problem encountered in radiosterilization of solid drugs is discoloration or yellowing. By pharmacopoeia method, discoloration can be assessed by measuring absorbance of solutions of irradiated solid samples at 450 nm. We propose to evaluate discoloration of solid samples directly by recording their diffuse reflectance spectra. Further, the reflectance spectrum is used to compute various color parameters: CIE XYZ tristimulus value, CIE Lab, DeltaE*(ab) (color difference), yellowness index (YI), dominant wavelength, and excitation purity by CIE method. The investigation of difference reflectance spectra and color parameters revealed that for fluoroquinolones, e-beam was more damaging than gamma radiation, whereas for cephalosporins, trend was reversed. The quantum of discoloration with gamma radiation and e-beam is found to be nearly equal when assessed by pharmacopeia method, and it is therefore inadequate to assess small color differences. The color parameters DeltaE*(ab) and DeltaYI are found to be reliable indicators of discoloration. The tolerance limits proposed in terms of DeltaE*(ab) and DeltaYI are +/-2 and +/-10 U, respectively. The dominant wavelength for all compounds has shifted to higher values indicating change in hue but defining color tolerance limit with this parameter requires adjunct excitation purity value.

  11. OXA-163, an OXA-48-related class D β-lactamase with extended activity toward expanded-spectrum cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Laurent; Castanheira, Mariana; Carrër, Amélie; Rodriguez, Carla Parada; Jones, Ronald N; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-06-01

    Two bla(OXA-48)-like-positive isolates (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae) were recovered in Argentina in 2008 as part of a large-scale survey focused on multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In both cases, sequencing identified β-lactamase OXA-163, differing from OXA-48 by a single amino substitution and a 4-amino-acid deletion. OXA-163 hydrolyzed penicillins, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime, whereas OXA-48 did not. However, OXA-163 had a much lower ability to hydrolyze carbapenems than OXA-48, therefore barely being considered a carbapenemase. In both isolates, the bla(OXA-163) gene was located on plasmids that differed in structure and size. However, a detailed genetic analysis revealed a similar genetic context in those isolates, with the bla(OXA-163) gene being bracketed by novel transposase genes, making this genetic environment different from that reported for the bla(OXA-48) gene. This study identified the first class D β-lactamase compromising both extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem activities.

  12. Assessing the Contributions of the LiaS Histidine Kinase to the Innate Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to Nisin, Cephalosporins, and Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Barry; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Listeria monocytogenes LiaSR two-component system (2CS) encoded by lmo1021 and lmo1022 plays an important role in resistance to the food preservative nisin. A nonpolar deletion in the histidine kinase-encoding component (ΔliaS) resulted in a 4-fold increase in nisin resistance. In contrast, the ΔliaS strain exhibited increased sensitivity to a number of cephalosporin antibiotics (and was also altered with respect to its response to a variety of other antimicrobials, including the active agents of a number of disinfectants). This pattern of increased nisin resistance and reduced cephalosporin resistance in L. monocytogenes has previously been associated with mutation of a second histidine kinase, LisK, which is a predicted regulator of liaS and a penicillin binding protein encoded by lmo2229. We noted that lmo2229 transcription is increased in the ΔliaS mutant and in a ΔliaS ΔlisK double mutant and that disruption of lmo2229 in the ΔliaS ΔlisK mutant resulted in a dramatic sensitization to nisin but had a relatively minor impact on cephalosporin resistance. We anticipate that further efforts to unravel the complex mechanisms by which LiaSR impacts on the antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes could facilitate the development of strategies to increase the susceptibility of the pathogen to these agents. PMID:22327581

  13. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Anesi, Judith A; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Nachamkin, Irving; Garrigan, Charles; Bilker, Warren B; Wheeler, Mary; Tolomeo, Pam; Han, Jennifer H

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for and molecular characteristics of community-onset extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae (EB) urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a US health system. DESIGN Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS All patients presenting to the emergency department or outpatient practices with EB UTIs from December 21, 2010, through April 22, 2013, were included. Case patients had ESC-R EB UTIs. Control patients had ESC-susceptible EB UTIs and were matched 1:1 on study year. METHODS Risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI were assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. A subset of case isolates was evaluated for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. RESULTS A total of 302 patients with community-onset EB UTI were included, of which 151 were cases. On multivariable analysis, risk factors for ESC-R EB UTI included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use in the prior 6 months (odds ratio, 2.40 [95% CI, 1.22-4.70]; P=.01), older age (1.03 [1.01-1.04]; P<.001), diabetes (2.91 [1.32-6.41]; P=.008), and presentation to the emergency department ( 2.42 [1.31-4.46]; P=.005). The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among 120 case isolates was 52% CTX-M, 29% TEM, 20% OXA, and 13% SHV. The prevalence of AmpC was 25%. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the CTX-M Escherichia coli isolates showed no distinct clusters. CONCLUSIONS Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, older age, diabetes, and presentation to the emergency department were associated with community-onset ESC-R EB UTI. There was a high prevalence of CTX-M among our community isolates. Further studies are needed to determine strategies to limit emergence of these organisms in the community. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1433-1439.

  14. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, for Dose Adjustment Based on Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takayuki; Wajima, Toshihiro; Ishibashi, Toru; Arjona Ferreira, Juan Camilo; Echols, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. Since cefiderocol is excreted primarily via the kidneys, this study was conducted to develop a population pharmacokinetics (PK) model to determine dose adjustment based on renal function. Population PK models were developed based on data for cefiderocol concentrations in plasma, urine, and dialysate with a nonlinear mixed-effects model approach. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA) of fraction of time during the dosing interval where the free drug concentration in plasma exceeds the MIC (Tf>MIC) for an MIC range of 0.25 to 16 μg/ml. For the simulations, dose regimens were selected to compare cefiderocol exposure among groups with different levels of renal function. The developed models well described the PK of cefiderocol for each renal function group. A dose of 2 g every 8 h with 3-h infusions provided >90% PTA for 75% Tf>MIC for an MIC of ≤4 μg/ml for patients with normal renal function, while a more frequent dose (every 6 h) could be used for patients with augmented renal function. A reduced dose and/or extended dosing interval was selected for patients with impaired renal function. A supplemental dose immediately after intermittent hemodialysis was proposed for patients requiring intermittent hemodialysis. The PK of cefiderocol could be adequately modeled, and the modeling-and-simulation approach suggested dose regimens based on renal function, ensuring drug exposure with adequate bactericidal effect.

  15. β-Lactamases Responsible for Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis Isolates Recovered in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, J. D. D.; Thomson, K. S.; Hanson, N. D.; Ehrhardt, A. F.; Moland, E. S.; Sanders, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Although resistance to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible β-lactamases occurs virtually worldwide, little is known about this problem among isolates recovered in South Africa. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from patients in various parts of South Africa over a 3-month period were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion and agar dilution procedures. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases was evaluated by using the double-disk test, and the β-lactamases were characterized by spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays and an isoelectric focusing overlay technique which simultaneously determined isoelectric points and general substrate or inhibitor characteristics. DNA amplification and sequencing were performed to confirm the identities of these enzymes. The P. mirabilis and E. coli isolates were found to produce TEM-26-type, SHV-2, and SHV-5 extended-spectrum β-lactamases. An AmpC-related enzyme which had a pI of 8.0 and which conferred resistance to cefoxitin as well as the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was found in a strain of K. pneumoniae. This is the first study which has identified organisms producing different extended-spectrum β-lactamases from South Africa and the first report describing strains of P. mirabilis producing a TEM-26-type enzyme. The variety of extended-spectrum β-lactamases found among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from major medical centers in South Africa is troubling and adds to the growing list of countries where these enzymes pose a serious problem for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:9624474

  16. In vitro evaluation of pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline cephalosporin, a new diagnostic chromogenic reagent, and comparison with nitrocefin, cephacetrile, and other beta-lactam compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R N; Wilson, H W; Novick, W J

    1982-01-01

    Pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylanaline cephalosporin (PADAC), a chromogenic reagent which is purple and changes to yellow upon cleavage of its beta-lactam ring, was evaluated in comparison with other chromogenic cephalosporins. PADAC exhibited little antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria, but did have good activity (minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.12 to 0.5 microgram/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus, a quality comparable to nitrocefin. Nitrocefin, however, demonstrated an unexpected and uniquely potent activity against Streptococcus faecalis (minimum inhibitory concentration, less than or equal to 0.06 to 0.12 microgram/ml) The relative hydrolysis rate of PADAC when subjected to six different beta-lactamases was substantially greater than that of cephacetrile, but less than that of nitrocefin. The relative hydrolysis rates of PADAC and nitrocefin were comparable with type IIIa beta lactamase and the derived from Bacillus cereus. The inhibition of beta-lactamase hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin substrates by six enzyme-stable inhibitors was generally greater with PADAC than with nitrocefin. Unlike nitrocefin, PADAC mixed with 50% human serum or various broth culture media showed no evidence of color change or degradation over several hours. The subsequent enzyme hydrolysis rates of such mixtures were the same as in phosphate buffer. Beta-lactamase-containing bacterial suspensions and clinical specimens containing such bacteria produced positive visual and spectrophotometric color changes when mixed with PADAC or nitrocefin. Although color changes occurred more slowly with PADAC than with nitrocefin, PADAC was not adversely influenced (non-enzyme-related color change) by the protein content of specimens. PADAC appears to be a promising alternative for beta-lactamase diagnostic testing in the clinical and research microbiology laboratory. PMID:6978350

  17. Multiresidue analysis of cephalosporin antibiotics in bovine milk based on molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A N; Urraca, J L; Chamorro, R; Orellana, G; Castellari, M; Moreno-Bondi, M C

    2016-11-25

    This work reports the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) selective to cephalosporin (CF) antibiotics, and their application as molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbents for the determination of these antimicrobials in milk samples. Several functional monomers and cross-linkers have been screened to select the best combination that provides high selectivity for the simultaneous multiresidue extraction of cefthiofur (THIO), cefazolin (AZO), cefquinome (QUI), cephapirin (API), cephalexin (ALE) and cephalonium (ALO) from the samples. The novel MIPs were prepared by a non-covalent imprinting approach in the form of spherical microparticles using the synthetic surrogate molecule sodium 7-(2-biphenylylcarboxamido)-3-methyl-3-cepheme-4-carboxylate, N-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N'-4-vinylphenyl urea (VPU) as functional monomer, and divinylbenzene (DVB) as crosslinking agent in a 1:2:20 molar ratio. The optimized MISPE method allowed the extraction of the target antimicrobials from raw cow milk samples using a selective washing with 5mL methanol/2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (0.1M, pH 7.5) (2:98, v/v) to remove the non-specifically retained compounds, followed by elution with 1mL of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in methanol (0.1:99.9, v/v). The extracts have been analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS and the analytical method has been validated according to EU guideline 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantification (S/N=10) were in the 1.7-12.5μgkg(-1) range, well below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) currently established for the quantified cephalosporins in milk samples. The developed MIP allows mutiresidual determination of the six cephalosporin antibiotics mentioned above, significantly broadening the application to food analysis of MISPE methods.

  18. Silica-based 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1,3-propanediol hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phase for separating cephalosporins and carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Cheng, Lingping; Chai, Huihui; Guo, Ruiqiang; Liu, Renhua; Chu, Changhu; Palasota, John A; Cai, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    A silica-based stationary phase bearing both hydrophilic hydroxyl and amino groups was developed by covalently bonding a small molecular N,N-dimethylamino 1,3-propanediol moiety onto silica beads via copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC). This new stationary phase showed good HILIC characteristics and high column efficiency (the theoretical plate number is up to 37000 plates m(-1) in the case of inosine) in the separation of polar compounds, such as nucleosides and bases, organic acids, cephalosporins, and carbapenems.

  19. Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Smith, Matthew G; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Letellier, Ann; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution with time of ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from pigs in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 2012 with respect to pathotypes, clones and antimicrobial resistance. Eighty-five ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli. The most prevalent pathovirotypes were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC):F4 (40%), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (16.5%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC):F18 (8.2%). Susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed a high prevalence of resistance to 13 antimicrobials, with all isolates being multidrug-resistant. blaCMY-2 (96.5%) was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene, followed by blaTEM (49.4%) and blaCTX-M (3.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applied to 45 representative E. coli isolates revealed that resistance to ceftiofur is spread both horizontally and clonally. In addition, the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates carrying blaCTX-M was observed in 2011 and 2012 in distinct clones. The most predominant plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups were IncFIB, IncI1, IncA/C and IncFIC. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol as well as the frequency of blaTEM and IncA/C significantly decreased over the study period, whereas the frequency of IncI1 and multidrug resistance to seven antimicrobial categories significantly increased. These findings reveal that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant porcine E. coli isolates in Québec belong to several different clones with diverse antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids. Furthermore, blaCMY-2 was the major β-lactamase gene in these isolates. From 2011, we report the emergence of blaCTX-M in distinct clones.

  20. Trend of antibiotic resistance in children with first acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Amira, Peco-Antic; Dusan, Paripovic; Brankica, Spasojevic-Dimitrijeva; Svetlana, Buljugic

    2011-10-01

    There have been many recent reports of increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens. In this study, we reviewed medical records of children (<18 yr age) with first acute pyelonephritis admitted to our Institution between January 2005 to December 2009. 411 children (189 girls) were studied and increasing trend in bacterial resistance toward co-trimoxazole, 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins and gentamicin were observed.

  1. Co-occurrence of ACSSuT and cephalosporin resistance phenotypes is mediated by int1-associated elements in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica from human infections in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeño, Lorena; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Herrera-León, Silvia; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A screening of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants has been performed on 300 Salmonella enterica isolates collected during 2004-2008 from human infections in Spain. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were the major serotypes, which were found with similar frequencies covering 80% of the bacterial collection. Salmonella Typhimurium isolates frequently shared low susceptibility to antimicrobials of the penta-resistance phenotype (ACSSuT) and/or cephalosporin resistance. The ACSSuT profile was found closely linked to int1-associated gene cassettes, with major elements carrying DNA fragments of 1.0 Kb (aadA2 gene) plus 1.2 Kb (blaPSE-1 gene) or 2.0 Kb (aadA1 and blaOXA-1 genes). Among these, ACSSuT and cephalosporin resistances were associated in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates expressing the blaOXA gene. β-lactamase activities were also detected from isolates carrying blaTEM, blaCMY, or blaSHV, although only the two last genes expressed extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The clonal analysis of S. enterica strains suggests that both horizontal and vertical transfer mechanisms are involved in the wide dissemination of their antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Comparative study of the susceptibilities of major epidemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin and to the new broad-spectrum cephalosporin ceftobiprole.

    PubMed

    Chung, Marilyn; Antignac, Aude; Kim, Choonkeun; Tomasz, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus continue to increase in frequency worldwide, both in hospitals and in the community, raising serious problems for the chemotherapy of staphylococcal disease. Ceftobiprole (BPR; BAL9141), the active constituent of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril (BAL5788), is a new cephalosporin which was already shown to have powerful activity against a number of bacterial pathogens, including S. aureus. In an effort to test possible limits to the antibacterial spectrum and efficacy of BPR, we examined the susceptibilities of the relatively few pandemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones that are responsible for the great majority of cases of staphylococcal disease worldwide. We also included in the tests the highly oxacillin-resistant subpopulations that are present with low frequencies in the cultures of these clones. Such subpopulations may represent a natural reservoir from which MRSA strains with decreased susceptibility to BPR may emerge in the future. We also tested the efficacy of BPR against MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and against MRSA strains carrying the enterococcal vancomycin resistance gene complex. BPR was shown to be uniformly effective against all these resistant MRSA strains, and the mechanism of superb antimicrobial activity correlated with the strikingly increased affinity of the cephalosporin against penicillin-binding protein 2A, the protein product of the antibiotic resistance determinant mecA.

  3. Development and validation of a reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method for the determination of five cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ehab F; Abbas, Samah S

    2011-01-01

    A new, simple, rapid, and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the determination of five cephalosporins, namely, cefalexin, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime. The method has been applied successfully for simultaneous determination of cefalexin in a binary mixture with sodium benzoate in a suspension, and cefoperazone in a binary mixture with sulbactam in vials. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters microBondapak C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 10 pm particle size) using the mobile phase monobasic potassium phosphate (50 mM, pH 4.6)-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v) with UV detection. A flow rate of 1 mL/min was applied. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 30-300, 3-30, and 15-120 microg/mL for the studied cephalosporins, sodium benzoate, and sulbactam, respectively. The optimized method proved to be specific, robust, and accurate for QC of the cited drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  4. Clinical usefulness of the 2010 clinical and laboratory standards institute revised breakpoints for cephalosporin use in the treatment of bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nam Su; Chung, Hae-Sun; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Kim, June Myung; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the clinical usefulness of the revised 2010 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Of 2,623 patients with bacteremia caused by E. coli or Klebsiella spp., 573 who had been treated appropriately with cephalosporin based on the CLSI 2009 guidelines were enrolled. There were no differences in the rates of treatment failure or mortality between the appropriately and inappropriately treated groups according to the CLSI 2010 guidelines. Additionally, in the matched case-control analysis, the treatment failure rate was higher in bacteremic patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing but cephalosporin-susceptible organisms than in those with ESBL-nonproducing isolates when patients with urinary tract infections were excluded (44% and 0%, resp., P = 0.026). In patients with bacteremia caused by E. coli or Klebsiella spp., the revised CLSI 2010 guidelines did not lead to poorer outcomes. However, ESBL production appeared to be associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with bacteremia from sources other than the urinary tract.

  5. A two-protein component 7 alpha-cephem-methoxylase encoded by two genes of the cephamycin C cluster converts cephalosporin C to 7-methoxycephalosporin C.

    PubMed Central

    Coque, J J; Enguita, F J; Martín, J F; Liras, P

    1995-01-01

    Two genes, cmcI and cmcJ, corresponding to open reading frames 7 and 8 (ORF7 and ORF8) of the cephamycin C cluster of Nocardia lactamdurans encode enzymes that convert cephalosporin C to 7-methoxycephalosporin C. Proteins P7 and P8 (the products of ORF7 and ORF8 expressed in Streptomyces lividans) introduce the methoxyl group at C-7 of the cephem nucleus. Efficient hydroxylation at C-7 and transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine require both proteins P7 and P8, although P7 alone shows weak C-7 hydroxylase activity and strong cephalosporin-dependent NADH oxidase activity. Both P7 and P8 appear to be synthesized in a coordinated form by translational coupling of cmcI and cmcJ. Protein P7 contains domains that correspond to conserved sequences in cholesterol 7 alpha-monooxygenases and to the active center of O-methyltransferases by comparison with the crystal structure of catechol-O-methyltransferase. Protein P8 may act as a coupling protein for efficient hydroxylation at C-7 in a form similar to that of the two-component system of Pseudomonas putida p-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase. PMID:7721717

  6. Development and validation of an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in milk.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ting

    2013-07-15

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Samples were directly purified through HLB cartridge after dilution with 50mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 8.5). Then the eluate was dried under nitrogen and the residue was redissolved in mobile phase. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column with gradient elution. The samples were quantified using ceftiofur-D3 as internal standard. The proposed method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The CCα values were 111, 0.04, 140, 55, 55, 67, 23, 23, 68, 0.10 and 113μg/kg for cefalexin, cefradine, cefacetrile, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefapirin, cefalonium, cefquinome, desacetylcefapirin, cefotaxime and ceftiofur, respectively. The mean recoveries, repeatability (expressed as coefficient of variation, CVr), and reproducibility (CVR) varied from 94.6% to 117.1%, from 5.6% to 13.6% (CVr), and from 5.9% to 27.9% (CVR), respectively. The method is demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of 10 cephalosporins and desacetylcefapirin in bovine milk. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 40min.

  7. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction of cephalosporins in biological samples with ionic liquid-coated magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianrong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xiao, Deli; Chuong, Pham-Huy; He, Jia; He, Hua

    2016-07-08

    A novel mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction based on magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4/GO) and ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of trace cephalosporins in spiked human urine. The high surface area and excellent adsorption capacity of the graphene oxide after modification with1-hexadecyl-3-methylmidazoliumbromide(C16mimBr) were utilized adequately in the solid phase extraction(SPE) process. A comprehensive study of the parameters affecting the extraction recovery, such as the zeta-potential of magnetic graphene oxide, amounts of magnetic graphene oxide and surfactant, pH of solution, ionic strength, extraction time, and desorption condition were optimized. A comparative study on the use of different surfacant-coated Fe3O4/GO NPs as sorbents was presented. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9987) for all calibration curves was obtained. The LODs were ranged between 0.6 and 1.9ng mL(-1) for the cephalosporins and the LOQs were 1.5 to 5.5, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries(84.3% to 101.7%)and low relative standard deviations from 1.7% to 6.3% in biological matrices were achieved. The mixed hemimicelles magnetic SPE (MSPE) method based on ILs and Fe3O4/GO NPs magnetic separation has ever been successfully used for pretreatment of complex biological samples.

  8. Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (3rd, Dublin, Ireland, November 11-12, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer, Ed.; Griffin, Carrie, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The third annual conference of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) was held at Trinity College Dublin on 11-12 November 2009, and was attended by over 300 delegates. The theme--"Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy"--was timely and generated some fascinating papers, workshops and…

  9. Diabetes risk in older Mexican Americans: effects of language acculturation, generation and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Afable-Munsuz, Aimee; Gregorich, Steven E; Markides, Kyriakos S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2013-09-01

    The effect of language acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and immigrant generation on development of diabetes among Mexican Americans was evaluated in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (HEPESE). HEPESE is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,050 non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged 65 years at baseline (1993-1994) from 5 Southwestern states. Diabetes incidence was ascertained in 4 follow-up surveys to 2004-05 by respondent self-reported physician-diagnosis of diabetes, high blood glucose, or sugar in the urine. Language of interview, immigrant generation, gender, age, education, family history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol use, health insurance type and self-reported height and weight were assessed. High socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by high school graduation and non-Medicaid insurance. Cox's proportional hazards models were fit to evaluate the effects of language acculturation, generation and SES on incident diabetes. 845 of 3,050 (27.7%) Mexican Americans had diabetes at baseline and were younger, more educated, and more likely to have health insurance than those without diabetes. Risk of developing diabetes increased for Spanish-speaking respondents with low SES from 1st to 3rd generation (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03) and from 2nd to 3rd generation (HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.20-3.84). Among English-speaking, high SES participants, generation had a protective effect on developing diabetes: HR = 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22-0.91) when comparing 3rd versus 1st generation. The effect of language acculturation and immigrant generation on incident diabetes is moderated by SES status in HEPESE participants.

  10. Emergence of clonally related multidrug resistant Haemophilus influenzae with penicillin-binding protein 3-mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, Norway, 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Skaare, D; Anthonisen, I L; Kahlmeter, G; Matuschek, E; Natås, O B; Steinbakk, M; Sundsfjord, A; Kristiansen, B E

    2014-12-11

    Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first stage substitution (R517H or N526K). The third stage L389F substitution is present in some high-rPBP3 strains. High-rPBP3 H. influenzae are considered rare outside Japan and Korea. In this study, 30 high-rPBP3 isolates from Norway, collected between 2006 and 2013, were examined by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ftsI sequencing, detection of beta-lactamase genes and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were interpreted according to clinical breakpoints from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Respiratory isolates predominated (proportion: 24/30). The 30 isolates included one serotype f isolate, while the remaining 29 lacked polysaccharide capsule genes. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefixime, 29 isolates/30 isolates; cefepime, 28/30; cefotaxime, 26 /30; ceftaroline, 26/30; ceftriaxone, 14/30), beta-lactamase production (11/30) and co-resistance to non-beta-lactams (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 13/30; tetracycline, 4/30; chloramphenicol, 4/30; ciprofloxacin, 3/30) was frequent. The N526K substitution in PBP3 was present in 23 of 30 isolates; these included a blood isolate which represents the first invasive S385T + N526K isolate reported from Europe. The L389F substitution, present in 16 of 30 isolates, coincided with higher beta-lactam MICs. Non-susceptibility to meropenem was frequent in S385T + L389F + N526K isolates (8/12). All 11 beta-lactamase positive isolates were TEM-1. Five clonal groups of two to 10 isolates with identical MLST-ftsI allelic profiles were observed, including the first reported high-rPBP3

  11. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Rota, N; Locatelli, C; Colombo, L; Pollera, C; Giacinti, G; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Arpinelli, A; Brossette, V; Facchi, M; Patelli, A; Ruggeri, A; Barberio, A; Potenza, G; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The study objective was to compare 2 commercial dry cow mastitis products at the quarter level, with concurrent internal teat sealant application, evaluating the cure risk difference, odds of a cure, odds of a new intramammary infection (NIMI) during the dry period, and risk for a clinical mastitis (CM) case between calving and 60d in milk (DIM). A total of 590 cows (2,360 quarters) from 8 commercial dairy herds in Italy were enrolled and randomized to 1 of the 2 treatments at dry off: Cefovet A (CF; 250mg of cephazoline; Merial Italia SpA, Milan, Italy), and Cepravin (CP; 250mg of cephalonium dehydrate MSD Animal Health Srl, Segrate, Italy). Quarter milk samples were collected before dry cow therapy treatment at dry off, 2 to 9 DIM, and 10 to 17 DIM. Quarter milk samples from CM cases were collected during the first 60 DIM. Noninferiority analysis was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on the risk difference of a bacteriological cure during the dry period, the primary outcome. The odds of cure, developing a NIMI during the dry period, and the risk of a CM event within 60 DIM were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression and hazard analysis, respectively. The overall crude quarter-level prevalence of NIMI at dry off was 15.3%. The most common pathogen isolated from milk samples at dry-off was coagulase-negative staphylococci. Noninferiority analysis showed no effect of treatment on the risk difference for a cure between dry off and both postpartum samples, difference was 0.013. The least squares means from the multivariable model evaluating the odds of cure was 94% for CF and 95%for CP. We observed no effect of treatment on the odds for the presence of a NIMI at 2 to 9 DIM (least squares means: CF=0.09 and CP=0.07), nor did we note a difference in risk of experiencing a CM event between calving and 60 DIM (hazard ratio=0.8). In conclusion, no difference was observed between the 2 products evaluated when assessing the aforementioned outcomes in quarters also receiving an internal teat sealant.

  12. Abstracts on the International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems (7th) and the International Conference on 1/f Noise (3rd) Held at Montpellier, France on 17-20 May 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-20

    oxide thickness X0 = 2000 A* ; gate metaLLisation :chro-aim;trans conductance gm%5 x 10-6 A/V electron mobl ty tLnV9OO cm2 IV.S. The X ray generator was...with a large number of particles .3 lNork performed while visiting the Tokyo Institute of Technology , * Japan. 1. V. Chuag, Plays. Nov. 3140. 1110...Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology , Japan Qluantum I/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of elementary cross sections and

  13. Influence of therapeutic ceftiofur treatments of feedlot cattle on fecal and hide prevalences of commensal Escherichia coli resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States the bla**CMY-2** gene contained within incompatibility type A/C (IncA/C) plasmids is frequently identified in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCr) from both human and cattle sources. Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of ceftiofur in catt...

  14. Solid phase extraction using magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of cephalosporins in milk by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Zhao, Meiyan; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2014-05-01

    A fast and effective extraction method has been developed for measuring the residue of cephalosporins (cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone) in milk by using magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls (C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2) as adsorbent. With no need for any protein precipitation procedure, the cephalosporins were directly adsorbed onto the C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres through hydrophobic interaction with C18-groups (Octadecyl functional groups) functionalized in the interior walls of mesopore channels while the abundant proteins in milk sample were excluded out of the channel due to the size exclusion effect. Thereafter, the cephalosporins-absorbed C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres were rapidly isolated by placing a magnet, and followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis after eluted by methanol. Various parameters which could affect the extraction performance were optimised. The newly developed extraction method was successfully applied in determination of cephalosporin residues in milk samples, offering a valuable alternative to simplify and speed up the sample preparation step.

  15. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-07-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase.

  16. Regulatory properties of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase of Cephalosporium acremonium: evidence of an isoenzyme and its importance in cephalosporin C biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Döbeli, H; Nüesch, J

    1980-01-01

    O-Acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine from H2S and O-acetyl-L-serine in the fungus Cephalosporsium acremonium, a cephalosporin C-producing organism. We separated this enzyme from the closely related but less specific O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase and showed that O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase also catalyzes the formation of cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and H2S. The expression of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase was regulated by exogenous methionine. In addition, this enzyme was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid. The inhibition of both S-adenosyl-L-methionine and 5-formylpteroyl monoglutamic acid was noncompetitive. Results obtained with gel filtraton experiments in various buffer systems indicate an association-dissociation behavior of O-acetyl-L-serine sulfhydrylase. PMID:7191238

  17. Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014.

    PubMed

    Ampofo, William K; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bashir, Uzma; Cox, Nancy J; Fasce, Rodrigo; Giovanni, Maria; Grohmann, Gary; Huang, Sue; Katz, Jackie; Mironenko, Alla; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Sasono, Pretty Multihartina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siqueira, Marilda; Waddell, Anthony L; Waiboci, Lillian; Wood, John; Zhang, Wenqing; Ziegler, Thedi

    2015-08-26

    Despite long-recognized challenges and constraints associated with their updating and manufacture, influenza vaccines remain at the heart of public health preparedness and response efforts against both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses. Globally coordinated virological and epidemiological surveillance is the foundation of the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. Although national influenza surveillance and reporting capabilities are being strengthened and expanded, sustaining and building upon recent gains has become a major challenge. Strengthening the vaccine virus selection process additionally requires the continuation of initiatives to improve the timeliness and representativeness of influenza viruses shared by countries for detailed analysis by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Efforts are also continuing at the national, regional, and global levels to better understand the dynamics of influenza transmission in both temperate and tropical regions. Improved understanding of the degree of influenza seasonality in tropical countries of the world should allow for the strengthening of national vaccination policies and use of the most appropriate available vaccines. There remain a number of limitations and difficulties associated with the use of HAI assays for the antigenic characterization and selection of influenza vaccine viruses by WHOCCs. Current approaches to improving the situation include the more-optimal use of HAI and other assays; improved understanding of the data produced by neutralization assays; and increased standardization of serological testing methods. A number of new technologies and associated tools have the potential to revolutionize influenza surveillance and response activities. These include the increasingly routine use of whole genome next-generation sequencing and other high-throughput approaches. Such approaches could not only become key elements in outbreak

  18. Ion-paired extraction of cephalosporins in acetone prior to their analysis by capillary liquid chromatography in environmental water and meat samples.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2013-10-15

    Ion-pair extraction of cephalosporins from aqueous solution into acetone by the addition of ammonium sulfate to a 1:2 (v/v) acetone-water solvent was carried out followed by their determination using reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography. The analytes included are cephoperazone, cefquinome, cephalexin, cephapirin, cephaloniun, cephamandole, cephazolin and cephadroxile. In order to form the ion-pair, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was selected as cationic ion-pairing agent at a concentration of 0.9 mM using 10mM phosphate buffer at pH 8 as the optimum condition for the aqueous solution. The applied methodology, named salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction (SALLE) involves the use of 1.25 g of ammonium sulfate as salting-out agent. The separation of cephalosporins using a Luna C18 (150 mm × 0.3mm, 5 µm, 100 Å) column was achieved under the following conditions: a gradient program combining solvent A (0.1% formic acid in water, pH 4) and solvent B (acetonitrile-methanol (50:50, v/v)), at a flow rate of 20 µl min(-1), column temperature 35°C and injection volume 7 µl with UV detection at 250 nm. The limits of quantification for the studied compounds were between 4.3 and 22.7 μg/L for water samples and 4.1 and 73.3 μg/kg in the case of beef samples, lower than the maximum residue limits permitted by the EU for this kind of food. The developed methodology has demonstrated its suitability for the analysis of these widely applied antibiotics in environmental water and meat samples, including beef and pork muscle, with high sensitivity, precision and satisfactory recoveries.

  19. Genetic-Biochemical Analysis and Distribution of the Ambler Class A β-Lactamase CME-2, Responsible for Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin Resistance in Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum

    PubMed Central

    Bellais, Samuel; Poirel, Laurent; Naas, Thierry; Girlich, Delphine; Nordmann, Patrice

    2000-01-01

    In vitro synergy between extended-spectrum cephalosporins and either clavulanic acid or cefoxitin was found for Chryseobacterium meningosepticum isolates during a double-disk assay on an agar plate. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene from a C. meningosepticum clinical isolate was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B. Its protein conferred resistance to most β-lactams including extended-spectrum cephalosporins but not to cephamycins or to imipenem. Its activity was strongly inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam, as well as by cephamycins and imipenem. Sequence analysis of the cloned DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 891 bp with a G+C content of 33.9%, which lies close to the expected range of G+C contents of members of the Chryseobacterium genus. The ORF encoded a precursor protein of 297 amino acids, giving a mature protein with a molecular mass of 31 kDa and a pI value of 9.2 in E. coli. This gene was very likely chromosomally located. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that this β-lactamase, named CME-2 (C. meningosepticum ESBL), is a novel ESBL of the Ambler class A group (Bush functional group 2be), being weakly related to other class A β-lactamases. It shares only 39 and 35% identities with the ESBLs VEB-1 from E. coli MG-1 and CBL-A from Bacteroides uniformis, respectively. The distribution of blaCME-2 among unrelated C. meningosepticum species isolates showed that blaCME-2-like genes were found in the C. meningosepticum strains studied but were absent from strains of other C. meningosepticum-related species. Each C. meningosepticum strain produced at least two β-lactamases, with one of them being a noninducible serine ESBL with variable pIs ranging from 7.0 to 8.5. PMID:10602714

  20. Flight evaluation of advanced third-generation midwave infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chyau N.; Donn, Matthew

    1998-08-01

    In FY-97 the Counter Drug Optical Upgrade (CDOU) demonstration program was initiated by the Program Executive Office for Counter Drug to increase the detection and classification ranges of P-3 counter drug aircraft by using advanced staring infrared sensors. The demonstration hardware is a `pin-for-pin' replacement of the AAS-36 Infrared Detection Set (IRDS) located under the nose radome of a P-3 aircraft. The hardware consists of a 3rd generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor integrated into a three axis-stabilized turret. The sensor, when installed on the P- 3, has a hemispheric field of regard and analysis has shown it will be capable of detecting and classifying Suspected Drug Trafficking Aircraft and Vessels at ranges several factors over the current IRDS. This paper will discuss the CDOU system and it's lab, ground, and flight evaluation results. Test targets included target templates, range targets, dedicated target boats, and targets of opportunity at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and at operational test sites. The objectives of these tests were to: (1) Validate the integration concept of the CDOU package into the P-3 aircraft. (2) Validate the end-to-end functionality of the system, including sensor/turret controls and recording of imagery during flight. (3) Evaluate the system sensitivity and resolution on a set of verified resolution targets templates. (4) Validate the ability of the 3rd generation MWIR sensor to detect and classify targets at a significantly increased range.

  1. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  2. Chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms among broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from companion animals in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Bashar W.; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L.; Boothe, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and investigate mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase genes that may contribute to increased fluoroquinolone resistance in canine and feline Escherichia coli isolates in the USA that displayed reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. This study was undertaken because previous epidemiological studies identified a potential correlation between extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolone resistance. Methods Isolates (n = 54) with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime or cefotaxime were screened by PCR for the presence of PMQR determinants and gyrase and topoisomerase genes were sequenced. Isolates were further characterized by conjugation and phylogenetic analyses. Results PMQR determinants aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrS and qepA were identified in 30, 23 and 5 isolates, respectively. Multiple mutations were identified in the quinolone resistance-determining region, including the novel substitutions of Glu-84 → Ala and Leu-88 → Gln in ParC and Arg-432 → Ser and Glu-460 → Val in ParE. The isolate that exhibited the highest level of enrofloxacin resistance (MIC > 256 mg/L) had a double mutation in gyrA (Ser-83 → Leu and Asp-87 → Asn) and a triple mutation in parC (Ser-80 → Ile, Glu-84 → Gly and a novel mutation, Leu-88 → Gln). The presence of PMQR genes increased the ciprofloxacin MIC values 4-fold to 8-fold in transconjugants relative to the recipient strain. Approximately 39% of the isolates belonged to phylogenetic group D and 30% to group B2, which typically contain an increased number of virulence determinants compared with other groups. Conclusions Novel mutations in topoisomerase genes and PMQR determinants aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qnrS and qepA genes were detected among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli in the USA. PMID:23302578

  3. The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Greater Philadelphia Bioinformatics Alliance (GPBA) 3rd Annual Retreat 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    annotations: Stem cells populations were annotated with a controlled vocabulary describing stem cell differentiation stages (multipotent, totipotent ...A modular analysis of a stem cells populations compendium. Ghislain Bidaut and Christian J. Stoeckert Jr...92 70 PI. A modular analysis of a stem cells populations compendium. Ghislain Bidaut and Christian J

  5. Machining Data Handbook. 3rd Edition. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    1-2 2 .065 210 3-10 1 .065 240 Hot 11-19 1 060 275 M2, M7 150 Rolled. 20-48 1 .050 285 to Normalized, 48 & Finer 1 .030 320 200 Annealed 13r R...250 Annealedor Cold & -==-- i. Drawn - \\- Medium Carbon Leaded 1-2 2 .060 2001L53-10 1 .060 210 2 10L45 Hot 11-19 1 .060 225 M2. M7 10150 o 11137 125...060 210 M2, M7 175 Rolled. 20-48 1 .050 225 to Normalized, 48 & Finer 1 .030 240 225 AnnealeaacowI d R or Cold ;1-2 2 .060 180 Hot Rolled, 3-10 1

  6. [Infant Mortality in Argentina: reducibility criteria, 3rd review].

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Juliana Zoe; Duhau, Mariana; Abeyá Gilardon, Enrique; Ferrario, Claudia; Speranza, Ana; Asciutto, Carolina; Marconi, Élida; Guevel, Carlos; Fernández, María de las Mercedes; Martínez, María Laura; Santoro, Adrián; Loiacono, Karina; Lomuto, Celia

    2015-08-01

    The infant mortality rate is an indicator of quality of life, development, and quality and accessibility of health care. Improvements in science, technology and better access to health care have contributed to a major decrease in the infant mortality rate in Argentina. Since the 1980s, infant deaths have been classified based on the opportunities for reducibility yielded by scientific knowledge and available technologies, in order to obtain a basis for the monitoring and implementation of health policies. The last review of this classification was in 2011. In 2012, a total of 5,541 neonatal deaths (less than 28 days of life) were registered and, under this new classification, over 61% were reducible mainly by the improvement of perinatal health care and adequate and timely treatment of the at-risk newborn. In 2012, a total of 2,686 post-neonatal deaths (from 28 days of life to a year) were registered and, under this new classification, over 66.8% were reducible by improving prevention strategies and providing adequate and timely treatment. This new analysis demonstrates the need to improve the opportunity, accessibility and quality of perinatal care starting at pregnancy, guaranteeing quality care at delivery and reinforcing prevention and timely treatment of common diseases in childhood over the first year of life.

  7. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 3rd Quarter 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles will build and deploy 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  8. Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide, 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Caffarella, Rosemary S.; Baumgartner, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    In this updated landmark book, the authors have gathered the seminal work and most current thinking on adult learning into one volume. This book addresses a wide range of topics including: Who are adult learners? How do adults learn? Why are adults involved in learning activities? How does the social context shape the learning that adults are…

  9. Conference on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory (3rd)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-23

    LEARNING AND MEMORY V. Aleman Dept. do Farnacologla y Toxicologia y Dept. do Fisiologia y Neurociencias CINVESTAV-IPN y Division do Neuroclenci a Inst...Vancouver, BC CANADA V6T 1W5 Dr. Victor Aleman Dr. Ronald L. Alkana Dept de Neurociencias School of Pharmacy CINVESTAV-IPN Univ. of Southern California Ave

  10. Orbital motion (3rd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A. E.

    The fundamental principles of celestial mechanics are discussed in an introduction for students of astronomy, aerospace engineering, and geography. Chapters are devoted to the dynamic structure of the universe, coordinate and timekeeping systems, the reduction of observational data, the two-body problem, the many-body problem, general and special perturbations, and the stability and evolution of the solar system. Consideration is given to lunar theory, artificial satellites, rocket dynamics and transfer orbits, interplanetary and lunar trajectories, orbit determination and interplanetary navigation, binaries and other few-body systems, and many-body systems of stars. Diagrams, graphs, tables, and problems with solutions are provided.

  11. The 1991 3rd NASA Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the symposium are presented from the following sessions: (1) featured presentations 1; (2) very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit design; (3) VLSI architecture 1; (4) featured presentations 2; (5) neural networks; (6) VLSI architectures 2; (7) featured presentations 3; (8) verification 1; (9) analog design; (10) verification 2; (11) design innovations 1; (12) asynchronous design; and (13) design innovations 2.

  12. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 62, 3rd Quarter, July 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    effective- ness demands institutional physical and psychological separateness from society that no other profession matches, transcending vocation to...con- siderably upon his biology, psychology , and the accidents of time and place that provided the unique contexts, perhaps the strategic moments...is so much a gestalt that the rela- tions among policy, grand strategy, military strategy, operations, and tactics need to be understood to be

  13. Studies on Metadiscourse Since the 3rd Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Jing; Li, Yan; Zhou, Ting; Gong, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Metadiscourse refer to linguistic resources that are used to refer to the act and the context of writing about some subject matter. Study of metadiscourse provides a gateway for understanding interactional features of texts or speech, looking beyond the ideational dimension of texts at how writers characterize the world and function…

  14. Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

  15. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual SCOLE Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: modeling and controlling the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configurations; slewing maneuvers; mathematical models; vibration damping; gravitational effects; structural dynamics; finite element method; distributed parameter system; on-line pulse control; stability augmentation; and stochastic processes.

  16. The Handbook of Research Impact Assessment. 3rd Edition - Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    Vol 18, Iss 1, pp 18-20 Debeurs-E Vandyck-R Vanbalkom-AJLM Lange-A Koele-P, "Assessing the Clinical-Significance of Outcome in Agoraphobia ...an Outcome Measure in Agoraphobia Research - Latent Effects of Exposure on Panic," JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS 1993, Vol 7, Iss 4, pp 307-319

  17. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 54, 3rd Quarter 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    undergone over 40 surgeries and perseveres through an arduous regimen of therapy H ndupress .ndu.edu issue 54, 3 d quarter 2009 / JFQ 9 MULLEN...which there has never been an accounting. In addition to the extreme repression of its citizenry—no kites, no music , no female education, execu...that verdict as premature , yet it is interest- ing to note that the turnaround in Iraq involved the emergence of an admittedly unusual external

  18. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 42, 3rd Quarter, July 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Millett  17  A Prescription for Protecting the Southern Approach by John A. Cope 22   The State Partnership Program: Vision to Reality by Pablo Pagan  26...An Interview with Terry J. Pudas, Acting Director, Department of Defense Office of Force Transformation 36  Implementing the Transformation Vision ...tion in an interview with the office’s acting director, Terry Pudas, who offers insight into the current vision of transformation. In this feature

  19. NS&T Management Observations - 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Gianotto, David

    2014-07-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOVIET CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH (3RD),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The USSR symposium on crystal growth covered basic theories and methods for crystal growth, testing and determination. Discussions were made on...crystal growth theories, the water-heating crystal growing method , the flame melting crystal growing method , the effects of environmental conditions on...crystal growth, methods for semi-conductor crystal growth, methods for metallic single crystal growth, etching and formation of imperfections, crystal

  1. Progress Report from the Chairman, Metallurgical Advisory Board (3rd)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-12-01

    held November 27, 1951. gJJU PKOPr*^ 2,14.. 4 ..1 The Bureau of Ordnance selected a 3 " pun mount for study by the special Metallurgical Advisory...mussn REPORT NO. - MAB-16-M 1^ 3 COPY NO. —• *-> o 0*D?y **af* °0l>? THIRD PROGRESS REPORT <S> From the CHAIRMAN, METALLURGICAL ADVISORY BOARD...Board, Chairman Copy No, 3 - Dr, D, W, ErorJc, President, national Acudemy of. Sciences Copy No, A - Professor C, R. Soderberg, Chairman, Division of

  2. Parent Involvement in 3rd Grade Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate how parent involvement impacts student motivation in third grade special education. The study was conducted at Allen Elementary in Genoa, Ohio during the spring of 2011. After reviewing recent literature, it acknowledges the importance of parent participation on student academic education, the effects of…

  3. Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Perry, M.D.; Shore, B.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-08-09

    The baseline design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) calls for sampling gratings to provide third-harmonic energy diagnostics in the highly constrained area of the target chamber. These 40 {times} 4O cm transmission gratings are to diffract at (order +1) nominally 0.3% of the incident 351 run light at a small angle on to a focusing mirror and into a calorimeter. The design calls for a plane grating of 500 lines/mm, and approximately 30 run deep, etched into a fused silica focusing lens and subsequently overcoated with a solgel anti reflective coating. Gratings of similar aperture and feature size have been produced for other applications by ion etching processes, but, in an effort to reduce substantially the cost of such optics, we are studying the feasibility of making these gratings by wet chemical etching techniques. Experimentation with high-quality fused silica substrates on 5 and 15 cm. scale has led to a wet etching process which can meet the design goals and which offers no significant scaleup barriers to full sized optics. The grating is produced by holographic exposure and a series of processing steps using only a photoresist mask and a final hydrofluoric acid etch. Gratings on 15 cm diameter test substrates exhibit absolute diffraction efficiencies from 0.2--0.4% with a standard deviation of about 15% of the mean over the full aperture. The efficiency variation is due to variation in linewidth caused by spatial nonuniformities in exposure energy. Uniformity improvements can be realized by using a smaller, more uniform portion of the exposure beam and exposing for longer times. The laser damage threshold for these gratings has been measured at LLNL and found to be identical to that of the fused silica substrate.

  4. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Infrared Plasma Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. B.; Röpcke, Jürgen; Hempel, Frank

    2009-07-01

    This volume containsd a selection of papers from the third Infrared Plasma Spectroscopy (IPS) Workshop held in Greifswald, Germany in July 2008. Although not all the contributions have been written up in time for the deadline for this volume, nevertheless the 12 contributions presented here give a fair representation of the conference topics. The conference comprised four different types of contribution. Firstly, four invited lectures focussed on the prime areas of interest. Secondly, eight shorter contributed talks, grouped as closely as possible with the appropriate invited lecture. These contributed talks covered topics in both pure and applied infrared plasma spectroscopy. A feature of the two previous IPS conferences has been a contribution from commercial organisations namely those involved in manufacturing devices, detectors and spectrometers. This group of participants formed the third part of the conference programme and gave five oral presentations covering topics like QCL and detector/detection developments and novel spectrometer designs. The fourth contributing group comprised 27 poster presentations. It should be mentioned that some of the latter were poster versions of contributed talks. The conference was remarkable for the wide spread of topics covered in a relatively small meeting, consisting of 44 participants. The participants were made up of 34 scientists from within Europe and 4 from the rest of the world. It is interesting to reflect on changes that have occurred since the previous meeting just a year earlier. Two clear developments which have occurred are the emergence of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) and their use in Cavity Ring Down (CRD) spectroscopy. A major shift from cw lead salt diode lasers to cw and pulsed QCL in both pure and applied projects now seems to be well under way. The topics covered in the earlier conferences focussed more on applying infrared spectroscopy to plasma monitoring and control. When choosing the topics to cover the scientific committee felt that this time it would be useful to emphasise new spectroscopic developments as well as covering applications. This might serve as a guide as to where the subject of infrared spectroscopy in combination with plasma sources might be heading in the future i.e. to emphasize pure infrared spectroscopy developments. The first invited lecture (G Guelachvili and N Picque) and the last invited lecture (F K Tittel, Y Bakhirkin, R Curl, A Kosterev, R Lewicki, D Thomasz and S So) were chosen to set the scene and realise this objective. The second (R Engeln, R Zijlmans, S Welzel, O Gabriel, J-P van Helden, J Röpcke and D Schram) and third (X Aubert, C Lazzaroni, D Marinov, O Guaitella, S Welzel, A Pipa, J Röpcke and A Rousseau) invited talks focussed on the application of the IR laser techniques with particular emphasis on the role of surfaces in plasmas and the relevance of plasma surface interactions. Surface plasma interactions did not feature strongly in the two earlier meetings and so this topic too, along with the emphasis on novel infrared spectroscopy techniques, represents a new direction for the conference. Paul B Davies and Jürgen Röpcke International Scientific Committee P B Davies, Cambridge, UK: Chair J Röpcke, Greifswald, Germany: Co-Chair R Engeln, Eindhoven, Netherlands G Hancock, Oxford, U K M Hori, Nagoya, Japan H Linnartz, Leiden, Netherlands R Martini, New York, USA J Meichsner, Greifswald, Germany A Rousseau, Paris, France Local Organizing Committee J Röpcke (INP: Chair) F Hempel (INP: Secretary) J Meichsner (IfP, University of Greifswald) N Lang (INP) L Glawe (INP) C Krcka (INP) B Lindemann (INP) Conference photograph

  6. Mathematics in Early Years Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…

  7. Developmental Surface and Phonological Dysgraphia in German 3rd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…

  8. Basic imaging in congenital heart disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Swischuk, L.E.; Sapire, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The book retains its previous format with chapters on embryology, plain film interpretation, classification of pulmonary vascular patterns, cardiac malpositions and vascular anomalies, and illustrative cases. The book is organized with an abundance of illustrative figures, diagrams, and image reproductions. These include plain chest radiographs, angiograms, echocardiograms, and MR images. The authors present the pathophysiology and imaging of congenital heart lesions.

  9. Donations Increase for 3rd Year in a Row

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a report on fund-raising campaign done by universities and colleges to support their educational programs. According to the "Voluntary Support of Education" annual report released by the Council for Aid to Education, alumni and other individual donors gave just more than half of the total amount raised. The country's…

  10. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  11. Airfield construction (3rd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goretskii, Leonid I.; Boguslavskii, Adol'f. M.; Serebrenikov, Vadim A.; Barzdo, V. I.; Leshchitskaia, T. P.; Polosin-Nikitin, S. M.

    The principal engineering aspects of airfield construction are discussed. In particular, attention is given to the fundamental principles and organizational aspects of airfield construction; excavation work and airfield layout; construction of drainage systems; foundations and pavements; and quality control and safety engineering. The discussion also covers the operation of various support plants, including concrete production and mixing, production of asphalt-concrete mixtures and organic binders, production of structural steel and reinforced concrete components, and operation of stone quarries and gravel pits.

  12. Joint Force Quarterly (JFQ). Issue 50, 3rd Quarter, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Richard L. Russell 92 Integration of Coalition Forces into the USCENTCOM Mission By John F. Couture 98 Battling Misperceptions: Challenges to...Army/ Russell Lee Klika); Navy damage control seamen taking samples of simulated anthrax during chemical, biological, radiological drill aboard USS...Instincts and the Dangers of Nuclear Weapons in Iranian Hands Dr. Richard L. Russell is a Professor of National Security Affairs in the Near East

  13. 3rd Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    The Space Science and Astrobiology Division at NASA Ames Research Center consists of over 50 civil servants and more than 110 contractors, co-­-ops, post-­-docs and associates. Researchers in the division are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology and astrophysics. In addition, division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions including (but not limited to) Kepler, SOFIA, LADEE, JWST, and New Horizons. With such a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among three branches in at least 5 different buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientists within the division, and to give center management and other ARC researchers and engineers an opportunity to see what scientific research and science mission work is being done in the division. We are also continuing the tradition within the Space Science and Astrobiology Division to honor one senior and one early career scientist with the Pollack Lecture and the Early Career Lecture, respectively. With the Pollack Lecture, our intent is to select a senior researcher who has made significant contributions to any area of research within the space sciences, and we are pleased to honor Dr. William Borucki this year. With the Early Career Lecture, our intent is to select a young researcher within the division who, by their published scientific papers, shows great promise for the future in any area of space science research, and we are pleased to honor Dr. Melinda Kahre this year

  14. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 38, 3rd Quarter, July 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    anthropologists such as Gregory Bateson served the war effort directly, first conduct- ing intelligence opera- tions in Burma for the Office of...leaders such as General James L. Jones, Jr., USMC, Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, and Admi- ral Gregory G. Johnson, USN, combatant com- mander, Joint

  15. Proceedings: 3rd EPRI Optical Sensor Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    These are the proceedings of the third Optical Sensor System Workshop, part of an ongoing effort by EPRI to support development of optical sensor technology, to identify benefits for utility users, and to position EPRI members as more ''informed buyers'' and users.

  16. JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 3rd Microelectronics Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cu system Alcosink, with characteristics equivalent to those of A1 20 3 , has already been marketed . However, special care is necessary in the...copper film and to improve the adhesion strength of the copper film. The thickness was adjusted to 5 pm by an Ni-P marketed bath (pH 6.5, 70°C). The AlN...ZnS layer was realized by controlling the air valve and shutter with a computer. N,. 4P C’ 0*C Figure 3. Schematic Diagram of Metallo-Organic Molecular

  17. Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Jerry M.; Dulcan, Mina K.

    The third edition of this textbook continues its tradition of integrating clinical wisdom and scientific research to improve patient care and advocacy for children and families. Each of the 56 chapters presents a summary of a core topic, blending clinical experience with evidence-based practices in assessment and treatment. Divided into 10 parts,…

  18. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 3rd Grade - Grassflat Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade three prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area.…

  19. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Fiona J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Students in the field, as well as experienced practitioners and administrators, will herein find an up-to-date and in-depth study of the major student affairs functions of a comprehensive campus program. Within its covers, the graduate student will find chapters describing everything the person new to student affairs needs to know about the major…

  20. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 70, 3rd Quarter, July 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    and future. Our compensation system strives to reflect the unique sacrifices our families make—the birthdays missed, friends left behind, and loved...working together to set up a system where pay remains competitive, health care becomes sustainable, and retire- ment stays solvent. Bonds of trust Our...Control System aircraft crew force based nearby at Tinker Air Force Base, my family and I have lasting memories of the power of tornadoes and their

  1. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 74, 3rd Quarter, July 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Nicholas Rostow presents his article on the legal , political, and strategy implications of the practice of targeted killing of terrorists. Cyber...be disagreements between the American public and the Services as to what is right, appropriate, legal , and illegal on any given incident because...We have an education system, a training system, and a legal system. We have people who care and are engaged to help. We’ve got victim care, medical

  2. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 58, 3rd Quarter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    that there are certifications or licenses to “defend,” “fight,” or “wage war” that are comparable to licenses to “practice medicine ,” “pass the bar...to medical workers granting them the right to practice medicine in the military, Indian clinics, mental hospitals, and prisons, but not to...Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005). 54 Huntington, 62. 55 Ole Holsti, “A Widening Gap between the US Military and Civilian Society

  3. Discipline with Dignity, 3rd Edition: New Challenges, New Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwin, Richard L.; Mendler, Allen N.; Mendler, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1988, this landmark publication has given thousands of teachers timeless advice on not only how to prevent and solve discipline problems but also how to teach discipline as an affirming approach that promotes respect for self and others. Now this expanded 20th Anniversary Edition extends the authors' wisdom to new principles for coping with…

  4. [3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference - Surgery Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue in the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 2nd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations.

  5. Advanced Aircrew Display Symposium (3rd), 19-20 May.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    unique attributes of these displays. We are not at the cross roads where the man, with his tremendous innovative and adaptive capabilities, may be the... accidents , increased training requirements and mission ineffectiveness from the aircrew’s inability to assimilate, evaluate, react to, and judge cockpit...Enhancement of safety c. Minimum for mission accomplishment d. Enhancement of mission, accomplishment B. How it is to be displayed 1. By sensory channel a

  6. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book (3rd Edition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    Aluminum ( 2219 T-87 and 2024 T-37) Stainless steel (AMS 355) Titanium-6A14V POD curves added in the Second Edition Data Book for specific applications...Lack of Penetration Defects in Aluminum Alloy GTA Welds Longitudinal and Transverse Fatigue Cracks in Welds with Crowns Longitudinal and Transverse...with some N I)l’ procedures. The detection capability measured is thus specific to a given crack type (fatigue, stress corrosion , tear, etc.). It is thus

  8. Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring [TM]. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MENTOR, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As a strategy for helping young people succeed in school, work and life, mentoring works. It helps give young people the confidence, resources and support they need to achieve their potential. The fact is this: these positive outcomes are only possible when young people are engaged in high-quality mentoring relationships. The "Elements of…

  9. Legal Concepts in Sport: A Primer. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Linda Jean

    2008-01-01

    When most people think of legal issues in sport, they think about negligence. However, most professionals will face a much broader range of issues. For instance, topics such as sexual harassment, corporal punishment, drug testing, transportation, and hazing are all of special importance today. Also anti-discrimination laws and the concepts…

  10. 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2013-07-01

    1. Introduction 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB) is the programme established for scientists, by scientists. It is merit-based, and is shaped by requirements of academic credentials, and novelty and quality of information. The goals of this programme are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, in which the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The programme was founded in 2007 with the support of the international scientific community and of the US National Science Foundation, the US Air Force Office of the Scientific Research and its European Office for Research and Development in the UK, the UNESCO-IAEA International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique in France, the US Department of Energy and the Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan, and the University of Chicago in the USA. The International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond provides opportunities to bring together researchers from the areas, which include but are not limited to, fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and communications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium turbulent processes. 2. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to atomistic scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion discs, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples to list. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or acceleration. Their scaling, spectral and invariant properties differ substantially from those of classical Kolmogorov turbulence. At atomistic and meso-scales, the non-equilibrium dynamics depart dramatically from a standard scenario given by Gibbs statistic ensemble average and quasi-static Boltzmann equation. The singular aspect and the similarity of the non-equilibrium dynamics at macroscopic scales are interplayed with the fundamental properties of the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations and with the problem sensitivity to the boundary conditions at discontinuities. The state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multi-phase flows suggest new methods for predictive modelling of the multi-scale non-equilibrium dynamics in fluids and plasmas, for error estimates and uncertainty quantifications, as well as for novel data assimilation techniques. 3. International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' The First and Second International Conferences on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond found that: (i) TMB-related problems have in common a set of outstanding research issues; (ii) their solution has a potential to significantly advance a variety of disciplines in science, technology and mathematics; (iii) TMB participants conduct highly innovative research and their interactions strengthen the community's might. Based on the success of the first and second conferences and on the recommendations of the conference round table discussions, and in response to the inquiry of the community, the Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond was organized. The Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond, TMB-2011, was held on 21-28 August 2011 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. This was a highly informative and exciting meeting, and it strengthened and reaffirmed the success of TMB-2009 and 2007. The objectives of the Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond were to: (i) focus the integration of theory, experiments, large-scale numerical simulations and state-of-the-art technologies on the exploration of physical mechanisms of non-equilibrium dynamics, from micro to macro-scales, in both high and low energy density regimes; (ii) foster the application of innovative approaches for tackling the fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing problems and for understanding and further extending the range of applicability of canonical considerations; (iii) encourage the development of new approaches and stimulate the application of advanced data analysis techniques for unified characterization of experimental and numerical data sets, for estimation of their quality and information capacity, and for transforming data to knowledge; (iv) further develop the 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' community via organizing a positive and constructive collaborative environment, maintaining the quality of information flux in the community and sharing research methodologies, tools and data among the community members. The objectives were accomplished at TMB-2011. 4. Programme of TMB-2011 TMB-2011 brought together 150 participants, ranging from students to members of National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their careers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry, from developed and developing countries across five continents. The success of TMB-2011 consisted from the successful work of the conference participants, who were responsible professionals caring for the quality of their research and sharing their scientific vision. The level of presentations was high, and 205 presentations included about 50 invited lectures, nearly 70 oral talks (3500 min of talks in total), some 90 posters and one round table. The special course on 'Turbulence and Waves' was organized at TMB-2011 with the support of the US Office of Naval Research Global, and included nearly 40 lectures and talks (960 minutes of talks in total). TMB-2011 covered 16 different topics, maintaining the scope and the interdisciplinary character of the meeting and at the same time keeping the focus on a fundamental scientific problem of non-equilibrium processes and on the conference objectives. The topics included: • Canonical turbulent and turbulent mixing: invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports, convection. • Wall-bounded flows: structure and fundamentals, non-canonical turbulent boundary layers, including unsteady and transitional flows, supersonic and hypersonic flows, shock-boundary layer interactions. • Non-equilibrium processes: unsteady, multiphase and shock-driven turbulent flows, anisotropic non-local dynamics, connection of continuous description at macro-scales to kinetic processes at atomistic scales. • Interfacial dynamics: the instabilities of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Richtmyer-Meshkov, Landau-Darrieus, Saffmann-Taylor. • High energy density physics: inertial confinement and heavy-ion fusion, Z-pinches, light-material and laser-plasma interaction, non-equilibrium heat transfer. • Material science: material transformation under high strain rates, equation of state, impact dynamics, mixing at nano- and micro-scales. • Astrophysics: supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic-microwave background, accretion discs. • Magneto-hydrodynamics: magnetic fusion and magnetically confined plasmas, magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, dynamo. • Canonical plasmas: coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere. • Physics of atmosphere: environmental fluid dynamics, forecasting, turbulent flows in stratified media and atmosphere. • Geophysics and Earth science: mantle-lithosphere tectonics, oceanography, turbulent convection under rotation, planetary interiors. • Combustion: dynamics of flames and fires, deflagration-to-detonation transition, blast waves and explosions, flows with chemical reactions, reactive flows in jet engines. • Theoretical aspects of non-equilibrium dynamics: vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness, continuous transports out of thermodynamic equilibrium. • Stochastic processes and probabilistic description: long-tail distributions and anomalous diffusion, data assimilation and processing methodologies, error estimate and uncertainty quantification, statistically unsteady processes. • Advanced numerical simulations: continuous DNS/LES/RANS, molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo, predictive modelling, validation and verification of numerical models. • Experiments and experimental diagnostics: model experiments in high energy density and low energy density regimes, plasma diagnostics, fluid flow visualizations and control, opto-fluidics, novel optical method, holography, advanced technologies. The abstracts of the 207 accepted presentations of 443 authors were published in Proceedings. Abstracts. The Third International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', 21 -28 August 2011. Copyright (ISBN 92-95003-45-4). All the accepted contributions have been reviewed by the international team of 27 members of the Scientific Committee, with every contribution considered by four to eleven experts. In the majority of cases, the opinions of referees with diverse backgrounds and expertise converged. In 2011, the award 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond for Youth' was issued to Gregory P Bewley (Max Plank Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Germany) and Robert Zimmermann (Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, France) in recognition of their contributions to TMB-related scientific problems. The Best Poster Award was issued by Physica Scripta to Michael Winkler (University of Potsdam, Germany) in recognition of their poster presentation at TMB-2011. 5. Organization and acknowledgments The Third International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond was organized by the following members of the Organizing Committee: • Snezhana I Abarzhi (Chairperson, University of Chicago, USA) • Malcolm J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) • Hiroshi Azechi (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • Vladimir E Fortov (Institute for High Energy Density, Russia) • Boris Galperin (Organizer of the Special Course, University of South Florida, USA) • Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • Christopher J Keane (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) • Joseph J Niemela (Local Organizer, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) • Katepalli R Sreenivasan (New York University, USA) The conference and course were sponsored by several agencies and institutions in the USA, Europe, Russia and Japan. The Organizing Committee of the TMB-2011 gratefully acknowledges support of the: • National Science Foundation (NSF), USA. Programmes: Plasma Physics; Physics Education and Interdisciplinary Research; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Applied Mathematics; Particulate and Multiphase Processes; Combustion, Fire and Plasma Systems • European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), UK, of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), USA • Office of Naval Research Global, UK • Department of Energy, Office of Science, USA • US Department of Energy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA. Programme: National Ignition Facility (NIF) • US Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA • US Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA • The UNESCO- IAEA International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy • Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux énergies Alternatives (CEA), France • The University of Chicago, USA • Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Japan • Joint Institute for High Temperatures (JIHT) of the Academy of Sciences, Russia • Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP), UK • Physica Scripta , the journal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for the Science Academies and the Physical Societies of the Nordic Countries and thank them for making this event possible. We express our gratitude to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee: • S I Abarzhi (University of Chicago, USA) • Y Aglitskiy (Science Applications International Corporation, USA) • H Azechi (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) • S I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) • E Bodenschatz (Max Plank Institute, Germany) • F Cattaneo (University of Chicago, USA) • P Cvitanović (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA) • S Cowley (Imperial College, UK) • S Dalziel (DAMTP, Cambridge, UK) • R Ecke (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) • H J Fernando (University of Notre Dame, USA) • Y Fukumoto (Kyushu University, Japan) • B Galperin (University of South Floorida, USA) • S Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • W Gekelman (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) • G A Glatzmaier (University of California at Santa Cruz, USA) • J Glimm (State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA) • W A Goddard III (California Institute of Technology, USA) • F Grinstein (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) • J Jimenez (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain) • L P Kadanoff (The University of Chicago, USA) • D Q Lamb (The University of Chicago, USA) • D P Lathrop (University of Maryland, USA) • S Lebedev (Imperial College, UK) • P Manneville (Ecole Polytechnique, France) • D I Meiron (California Institute of Technology, USA) • P Moin (Stanford University, USA) • A Nepomnyashchy (Technion, Israel) • J Niemela (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy) • K Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • S S Orlov (Physical Optics Corporation, USA) • N Peters (RWTS, Aachen, Germany) • S B Pope (Cornell, USA) • A Pouquet (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, USA) • B A Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) • R R Rosales (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) • R Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory and University of Chicago, USA) • A J Schmitt (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) • C-W Shu (Brown University, USA) • K R Sreenivasan (New York University, USA) • E Tadmor (University of Maryland, USA) • A L Velikovich (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) • V Yakhot (Boston University, USA) • P K Yeung (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA) • F A Williams (University of California at San Diego, USA) • E Zweibel (University of Wisconsin, USA) We deeply appreciate the work of the Members of Steering Committee for Financial Support: • Snezhana I Abarzhi (University of Chicago, USA) • Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • Joseph J Niemela (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) • Walter Gekelman (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) We thank the members of the Committee for the award 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond for Youth': • Boris Galperin (University of South Florida, USA) • Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • Joseph J Niemela (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) • Katsunobu Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • Katepalli R Sreenivasan (New York University, USA) We greatly acknowledge the effort and dedication of the members of the Committee for Best Poster Award: • Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • Katsunobu Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • Annick Pouquet (National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA) • Walter Gekelman (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) • Graeme Watt (Institute of Physics, UK) We greatly appreciate the work of conference web-master Daniil V Ilyin (University of Chicago, USA). We thank for technical support: • Bhanesh Akula (Texas A & M University, USA) • Ahmad Qamar (University of Chicago, USA) We warmly acknowledge the logistics assistance of the offices and officers of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics: • Conference Support Office, and Ms Katrina Danforth and Ms Daniela Giombi • Financial Office, and Mr Andrej Michelcich and Ms Alessandra Ricci • Visa Office, and Mr Erich Jost and Mr Adriano Maggio • Housing Office, and Ms Tiziana Bottazzi and Ms Dora Photiou • Publications Office, and Mr Guido Comar and Mr Raffaele Corona • Computer Office, and Dr Johannes Grassberger • Science Dissemination Unit, and Dr Enrique Canessa, Dr. Carlo Fonda and Dr Marco Zennaro We gratefully appreciate the support of the members of the Programme Coordination Board: • Snezhana I Abarzhi (University of Chicago, USA) • Malcolm J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) • Sergei I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) • Hiroshi Azechi (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • Vladimir E Fortov (Institute for High Energy Density, Russia) • Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) • Christopher J Keane (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) • Joseph J Niemela (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) • Katsunobu Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) • Sergei S Orlov (Physical Optics Corporation, USA) • Bruce Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) • Robert Rosner (University of Chicago, USA) • Katepalli R Sreenivasan (New York University, USA) • Alexander L Velikovich (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) 6. The Topical Issue This Topical Issue consists of over 70 articles accepted for publication and represents a substantial part of the Conference contributions, including research papers, research briefs and review papers. The papers are in a broad variety of TMB-2011 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each topic. The review papers are published as 'Comments' articles in Physica Scripta . We thank all the authors and the referees for their contributions to this Topical Issue and for offering their expertise, time and effort. To conclude, the TMB programme was organized to serve to advance the state-of-the-art in understanding of fundamental physical properties of non-equilibrium turbulent processes and to have an impact on predictive modelling capabilities, physical description and, ultimately, control of these complex processes. The readers are cordially invited to take a look at this Topical Issue for information on the frontiers of theoretical, numerical and experimental research, and state-of-the-art technology. Welcome to 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond'.

  11. Impact of Revised Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Breakpoints on Susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae Producing AmpC β-Lactamase

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Ho; Chong, Yong Pil; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Lee, Mi Suk; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for broad-spectrum cephalosporins (BSCs) on the susceptibilities of 1,742 isolates of Enterobacter species, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. The 2011 CLSI criteria for cefotaxime and ceftazidime reduced the rates of susceptibility by 2.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The 2014 CLSI criteria for cefepime reduced the rate of susceptibility by 13.9%, and categorized 11.8% isolates as susceptible-dose dependent (SDD) for cefepime. Among 183 isolates with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, implementation of the new criteria reduced the rates of susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime by 2.8%, 14.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The proportion of ESBL phenotype among BSC-susceptible isolates was low (0.9% for cefotaxime, 3.0% for ceftazidime, and 3.3% for cefepime). In summary, implementation of new CLSI criteria led to little change in susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime but a substantial change in susceptibility to cefepime. The recognition of revised CLSI criteria for BSC and SDD will help clinicians to select the optimal antibiotic and dosing regimen. PMID:28271652

  12. Effect of water content on the solid-state stability in two isomorphic clathrates of cephalosporin: cefazolin sodium pentahydrate (alpha form) and FK041 hydrate.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Hisashi; Gato, Katsuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Teruyuki; Kohda, Shigetaka

    2002-06-01

    This study clearly demonstrates that clathrated water molecules can contribute to both chemical stabilization and destabilization of clathrates. The solid-state stabilities for two isomorphic clathrates of cephalosporin, cefazolin sodium and FK041, were investigated in terms of the effects of water content. The isomorphic ranges of water content were estimated to be 3.5-5 mol/mol for alpha-form cefazolin sodium and 2-4 mol/mol for FK041 hydrate. Upon the isomorphic dehydration, alpha-form cefazolin sodium was destabilized as the water content decreased below 4.25 mol/mol owing to the disruption of hydrogen bonding network in lattice channels. In this case, the hydration of clathrated water up to 4.25 mol/mol contributed to the physical and chemical stability of the crystals. On the contrary, the isomorphic hydration in FK041 hydrate contributed to the chemical destabilization owing to the high water activity. The difference in water activity between alpha-form cefazolin sodium and FK041 hydrate could be attributed to the size of water channels.

  13. Achieving High Yield of Lactic Acid for Antimicrobial Characterization in Cephalosporin-Resistant Lactobacillus by the Co-Expression of the Phosphofructokinase and Glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yahui; Li, Tiyuan; Li, Shiyu; Jiang, Zhenyou; Yang, Yan; Huang, Junli; Liu, Zhaobing; Sun, Hanxiao

    2016-06-28

    Lactobacilli are universally recognized as probiotics that are widely used in the adjuvant treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as vaginitis and enteritis. With the overuse of antibiotics in recent years, the lactobacilli in the human body are killed, which could disrupt the microecological balance in the human body and affect health adversely. In this work, cephalosporin-resistant Lactobacillus casei RL20 was obtained successfully from the feces of healthy volunteers, which possessed a stable genetic set. However, the shortage of lactic acid (72.0 g/l at 48 h) by fermentation did not meet the requirement for its use in medicine. To increase the production of lactic acid, the functional genes pfk and glk were introduced into the wild strain. A yield of 144.2 g/l lactic acid was obtained in the transgenic L. casei RL20-2 after fermentation for 48 h in 1 L of basic fermentation medium with an initial glucose concentration of 100 g/l and increasing antibacterial activity. These data suggested that L. casei RL20-2 that exhibited a high yield of lactic acid may be a potential probiotic to inhibit the spread of bacterial infectious diseases and may be used for vaginitis therapy.

  14. Distribution and Relationships of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant or Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Rivers and Sewage Treatment Plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kuroda, Makoto; Fujii, Yuki; Murata, Misato; Lee, Ken-ichi; Joshua, Derrick Ian; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Subramanian, Kaushik; Krishnan, Padma; Munuswamy, Natesan; Sinha, Ravindra K.; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Guruge, Keerthi S.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the distribution and relationship of antimicrobial resistance determinants among extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the aquatic environment in India, water samples were collected from rivers or sewage treatment plants in five Indian states. A total of 446 E. coli isolates were randomly obtained. Resistance to ESC and/or carbapenem was observed in 169 (37.9%) E. coli isolates, which were further analyzed. These isolates showed resistance to numerous antimicrobials; more than half of the isolates exhibited resistance to eight or more antimicrobials. The blaNDM gene was detected in 14/21 carbapenem-resistant E. coli isolates: blaNDM-1 in 2 isolates, blaNDM-5 in 7 isolates, and blaNDM-7 in 5 isolates. The blaCTX-M gene was detected in 112 isolates (66.3%): blaCTX-M-15 in 108 isolates and blaCTX-M-55 in 4 isolates. We extracted 49 plasmids from selected isolates, and their whole-genome sequences were determined. Fifty resistance genes were detected, and 11 different combinations of replicon types were observed among the 49 plasmids. The network analysis results suggested that the plasmids sharing replicon types tended to form a community, which is based on the predicted gene similarity among the plasmids. Four communities each containing from 4 to 17 plasmids were observed. Three of the four communities contained plasmids detected in different Indian states, suggesting that the interstate dissemination of ancestor plasmids has already occurred. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the blaNDM-positive plasmids detected in this study with known sequences of related plasmids suggested that various mutation events facilitated the evolution of the plasmids and that plasmids with similar genetic backgrounds have widely disseminated in India. PMID:26953207

  15. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  16. Decreased Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporin in Escherichia coli from Healthy Broilers at Farms in Japan After Voluntary Withdrawal of Ceftiofur.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Mototaka; Kawanishi, Michiko; Abo, Hitoshi; Kojima, Akemi; Koike, Ryoji; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Asai, Tetsuo

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of broad-spectrum cephalosporin (BSC) resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broilers at farms is a source of grave concern in Japan. In an effort to solve this problem, the off-label use of ceftiofur (CTF) at hatcheries was voluntarily withdrawn around March 2012. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the voluntary withdrawal on the prevalence of BSC resistance in E. coli from healthy broilers at farms. A total of 693 E. coli isolates collected from 362 fecal samples of healthy broilers at farms between 2010 and 2013 were examined to determine their antimicrobial resistance profiles and β-lactamase genes. β-Lactamase genes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. BSC resistance was detected in 84 of the 693 E. coli isolates (12.1%) from healthy broilers between 2010 and 2013. The percentage of BSC-resistant E. coli isolates was significantly decreased: from 16.4% (32/195) in 2010 and 16.8% (27/161) in 2011 to 9.2% (19/206) in 2012 and 4.6% (6/131) in 2013 (2010 versus 2012: p=0.024, 2010 versus 2013: p=0.001, 2011 versus 2012: p=0.038, and 2011 versus 2013: p=0.001). Regarding ß-lactamase genes, 58 of the 84 BSC-resistant E. coli isolates (69.0%) harbored blaCMY-2. The prevalence of BSC resistance in E. coli isolated from healthy broilers at farms was markedly decreased within a year after the voluntary withdrawal from CTF use at hatcheries. This indicates that BSC resistance in E. coli isolates from broilers could be controlled by restricting the use of CTF at the hatchery level.

  17. Distribution and Relationships of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant or Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Rivers and Sewage Treatment Plants in India.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Masato; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kuroda, Makoto; Fujii, Yuki; Murata, Misato; Lee, Ken-Ichi; Joshua, Derrick Ian; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Subramanian, Kaushik; Krishnan, Padma; Munuswamy, Natesan; Sinha, Ravindra K; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution and relationship of antimicrobial resistance determinants among extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the aquatic environment in India, water samples were collected from rivers or sewage treatment plants in five Indian states. A total of 446 E. coli isolates were randomly obtained. Resistance to ESC and/or carbapenem was observed in 169 (37.9%) E. coli isolates, which were further analyzed. These isolates showed resistance to numerous antimicrobials; more than half of the isolates exhibited resistance to eight or more antimicrobials. The blaNDM gene was detected in 14/21 carbapenem-resistant E. coli isolates: blaNDM-1 in 2 isolates, blaNDM-5 in 7 isolates, and blaNDM-7 in 5 isolates. The blaCTX-M gene was detected in 112 isolates (66.3%): blaCTX-M-15 in 108 isolates and blaCTX-M-55 in 4 isolates. We extracted 49 plasmids from selected isolates, and their whole-genome sequences were determined. Fifty resistance genes were detected, and 11 different combinations of replicon types were observed among the 49 plasmids. The network analysis results suggested that the plasmids sharing replicon types tended to form a community, which is based on the predicted gene similarity among the plasmids. Four communities each containing from 4 to 17 plasmids were observed. Three of the four communities contained plasmids detected in different Indian states, suggesting that the interstate dissemination of ancestor plasmids has already occurred. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the blaNDM-positive plasmids detected in this study with known sequences of related plasmids suggested that various mutation events facilitated the evolution of the plasmids and that plasmids with similar genetic backgrounds have widely disseminated in India.

  18. Third-generation naval IRST using the step-and-stare architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouguès, Pierre-Olivier; Baize, Paul; Roland, Flavien; Olivier, Jean-François; Renaudat, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    With large focal plane arrays now widely available, IR detectors have entered their third generation. Performances have increased dramatically with respect to second-generation, line array detectors, due to the longer integration times afforded. For surveillance systems such as InfraRed Search and Track (IRST), however, operational requirements generally impose a very large field of regard in relation to the instantaneous field of view. This characteristic which has traditionally been obtained through scanning motion for second generation line array detectors must now be rethought to obtain staring operation for 3rd generation FPA, lest motion blurring be incurred. This paper presents several approaches considered for naval surveillance systems at Sagem Defense Securite to tackle this challenge. Three techniques are presented and then compared: fully staring systems, step-and-stare systems, and finally a "modified" step-and-stare system.

  19. Three Generations of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaleski, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The current Tracking and Data Relay Satellite configuration consists of nine in-orbit satellites (four first generation, three second generation and two third generation satellites) globally distributed in geosynchronous orbit to provide near continuous data relay service to missions like Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. The 1st generation spacecraft were designed by TRW/Northrop Grumman with their launches of the five spacecraft ranging from 1983 through 1995. The 2nd and 3rd generation spacecraft were designed by Boeing with their launches ranging 2000 - 2002 and 2013 - 2017 respectively. TDRS-3 is now 27 years on orbit, continues to be a capable asset for the TDRS constellation. Lack of need for inclination control combined with large fuel reserves and redundancy on critical elements provides spacecraft that operate well past design life, all of which contributes to expanded TDRS constellation support capabilities. All spacecraft generations have issues. Significant issues will be summarized with the focus on the Boeing related problems. Degradations and failures are continually assessed and provide the foundation for yearly updates to spacecraft reliability models, constellation service projections and deorbit plans (in order to meet NASAs mandate of limiting orbital debris). Even when accounting for degradations and failures, the life expectancy for the Boeing delivered 2nd generation TDRS-8, 9 10 TDRS are anticipated to be 25+ years.

  20. High Prevalence of β-lactamase and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli from Dogs in Shaanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Haixia; Li, Yinqian; Hao, Caiju

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic groups, virulence gene profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to investigate the genetic background of the ESC-R E. coli isolates. Results: Among 40 ESC-R E. coli, the predominant β-lactamase gene was blaCTX−Ms (n = 35), and followed by blaTEM−1 (n = 31), blaSHV−12 (n = 14), blaOXA−48 (n = 8), blaTEM−30 (n = 4), blaCMY−2 (n = 3) and blaDHA−1 (n = 2). The most common specific blaCTX−M gene subtype was blaCTX−M−15 (n = 31), and followed by blaCTX−M−123 (n = 14), blaCTX−M−1 (n = 10), blaCTX−M−14 (n = 10) and blaCTX−M−9 (n = 7). PMQR genes were detected in 32 (80%) isolates, and the predominant PMQR gene was aac(6′)-Ib-cr (n = 26), followed by qnrS (n = 12), qnrD (n = 9), qnrB (n = 8), qepA (n = 4), and all PMQR genes were detected in co-existence with β-lactamase genes. traT (n = 34) and fimH (n = 32) were the most prevalent virulence genes, and virulence genes fimH, iutA, fyuA, malX, iha, and sat were more prevalent in phylogenetic group B2. The 40 ESC-R isolates analyzed were assigned to 22 sequence types (STs), and the clonal lineages ST131 (n = 10) and ST10 (n = 9) were the predominant STs. Conclusion: High prevalence of β-lantamases and PMQR genes were detected among ESC-R E. coli from companion animals. This is also the first description of the co-existence of six

  1. Pharmacodynamics of TD-1792, a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic used against Gram-positive bacteria, in a neutropenic murine thigh model.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Sharath S; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O; Skinner, Robert; Shaw, Jeng-Pyng; Obedencio, Glenmar; Ambrose, Paul G; Blais, Johanne; Bhavnani, Sujata M

    2012-03-01

    TD-1792 is a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer investigational antibiotic that displays potent bactericidal effects against clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TD-1792 in the neutropenic murine thigh infection animal model. TD-1792, dosed subcutaneously (SC), produced dose-dependent reduction in the thigh bacterial burden of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSA, MRSA, MSSE, MRSE, respectively), penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-intermediate-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). In single-dose efficacy studies, the 1-log(10) CFU kill effective dose (ED(1-log kill)) estimates for TD-1792 ranged from 0.049 to 2.55 mg/kg of body weight administered SC, and the bacterial burden was reduced by up to 3 log(10) CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against S. aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), the total 24-h log(10) stasis dose (ED(stasis)) and ED(1-logkill) doses for TD-1792 were 0.53 and 1.11 mg/kg/24 h, respectively, compared to 23.4 and 54.6 mg/kg/24 h for vancomycin, indicating that TD-1762 is 44- to 49-fold more potent than vancomycin. PK-PD analysis of data from single-dose and dose-fractionation studies for MRSA (ATCC 33591) demonstrated that the total-drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve-to-MIC ratio (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best predictor of efficacy (r(2) = 0.826) compared to total-drug maximum plasma concentration of drug-to-MIC ratio (Cmax/MIC ratio; r(2) = 0.715) and percent time that the total-drug plasma drug concentration remains above the MIC (%Time>MIC; r(2) = 0.749). The magnitudes of the total-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net bacterial stasis, a 1-log(10) CFU reduction from baseline and near maximal effect, were 21.1, 37.2, and 51.8, respectively. PK

  2. Comparative virulotyping of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolated from broilers, humans on broiler farms and in the general population and UTI patients.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Stalenhoef, Janneke E; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Franz, Eelco

    2016-10-15

    During the last decade extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli from food-producing animals, especially from broilers, have become a major public health concern because of the potential transmission of these resistant bacteria or their plasmid-encoded resistance genes to humans. The objective of this study was to compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolates from broilers (n=149), humans in contact with these broilers (n=44), humans in the general population (n=63), and patients with a urinary tract infection (UTI) (n=10) with respect to virulence determinants, phylogenetic groups and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/plasmidic-AmpC (pAmpC) genes. The most prevalent ESBL/pAmpC genes among isolates from broilers and individuals on broiler farms were blaCTX-M-1, blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12. In isolates from humans in the general population blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 were found most frequently, whereas in UTI isolates blaCTX-M-15 predominated. The marker for enteroaggregative E. coli, aggR, was only identified in a broiler and human isolates from the general population. The extraintestinal virulence genes afa and hlyD were exclusively present in human isolates in the general population and UTI isolates. Multivariate analysis, based on ESBL/pAmpC resistance genes, virulence profiles and phylogenetic groups, revealed that most UTI isolates formed a clearly distinct group. Isolates from broilers and humans associated with broiler farms clustered together. In contrast, isolates from the general population showed some overlap with the former two groups but primarily formed a separate group. These results indicate than transmission occurs between broilers and humans on broiler farms, but also indicate that the role of broilers as a source of foodborne transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli to the general population and subsequently causative agents of human urinary tract infections is likely relatively small.

  3. Detection of SGI1/PGI1 Elements and Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in Proteae of Animal Origin in France

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Eliette; Cloeckaert, Axel; Doublet, Benoît; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Proteae, and especially Proteus mirabilis, are often the cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. They were reported as carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and recently of carbapenemases, mostly carried by the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). Proteae have also lately become an increasing cause of UTIs in companion animals, but antimicrobial susceptibility data in animals are still scarce. Here, we report the characterization of 468 clinical epidemiologically unrelated Proteae strains from animals collected between 2013 and 2015 in France. Seventeen P. mirabilis strains (3.6%) were positive for SGI1/PGI1 and 18 Proteae (3.8%) were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). The 28 isolates carrying SGI1/PGI1 and/or ESC-resistance genes were isolated from cats, dogs, and horses. ESBL genes were detected in six genetically related P. mirabilis harboring blaV EB-6 on the SGI1-V variant, but also independently of the SGI1-V, in 3 P. mirabilis strains (blaVEB-6 and blaCTX-M-15) and 1 Providencia rettgeri strain (blaCTX-M-1). The AmpC resistance genes blaCMY -2 and/or blaDHA-16 were detected in 9 P. mirabilis strains. One strain presented both an ESBL and AmpC gene. Interestingly, the majority of the ESBL/AmpC resistance genes were located on the chromosome. In conclusion, multiple ESC-resistance genetic determinants are circulating in French animals, even though SGI1-V-carrying P. mirabilis seems to be mainly responsible for the spread of the ESBL gene blaVEB-6 in dogs and horses. These results are of public health relevance and show that companion animals in close contact with humans should be regarded as a potential reservoir of ESC-resistant bacteria as well as a reservoir of ESC-resistance genes that could further disseminate to human pathogens. PMID:28154560

  4. The perimeter generating functions of three-choice, imperfect, and one-punctured staircase polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, M.; van Hoeij, M.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the isotropic perimeter generating functions of three-choice, imperfect, and one-punctured staircase polygons, whose 8th order linear Fuchsian ODEs are previously known. We derive simple relationships between the three generating functions, and show that all three generating functions are joint solutions of a common 12th order Fuchsian linear ODE. We find that the 8th order differential operators can each be rewritten as a direct sum of a direct product, with operators no larger than 3rd order. We give closed-form expressions for all the solutions of these operators in terms of 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions with rational and algebraic arguments. The solutions of these linear differential operators can in fact be expressed in terms of two modular forms, since these 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions can be expressed with two, rational or algebraic, pullbacks. Dedicated to A J Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  5. Microstructure Modeling of Third Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program was to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool was to be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishments achieved during the third year (2009) of the program are summarized. The activities of this year included: Further development of multistep precipitation simulation framework for gamma prime microstructure evolution during heat treatment; Calibration and validation of gamma prime microstructure modeling with supersolvus heat treated LSHR; Modeling of the microstructure evolution of the minor phases, particularly carbides, during isothermal aging, representing the long term microstructure stability during thermal exposure; and the implementation of software tools. During the research and development efforts to extend the precipitation microstructure modeling and prediction capability in this 3-year program, we identified a hurdle, related to slow gamma prime coarsening rate, with no satisfactory scientific explanation currently available. It is desirable to raise this issue to the Ni-based superalloys research community, with hope that in future there will be a mechanistic understanding and physics-based treatment to overcome the hurdle. In the mean time, an empirical correction factor was developed in this modeling effort to capture the experimental observations.

  6. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  7. Cefixime for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infections in children with malformative uropathies: an open study.

    PubMed

    Stranieri, G; Zampogna, S; Ielapi, V; Defilippo, R G; Defilippo, V; Cristofaro, G; Galiano, R; Capillo, S; Madonna, L; Cifalà, S; Ferro, V; Rubino, R

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are often associated with urinary anomalies. An appropriate pharmacologic treatment may prevent, or may at least limit, any kidney damage due to pyelonephritis. The antibiotic prophylaxis plays a role as significant as early surgical therapy, taking into consideration also the present limitative trend for a softer therapeutic regimen. In the past few years a greater bacterial resistance has emerged against some commonly administered antibiotics. Cefixime (3rd generation cephalosporin) has been used on a wide series of patients suffering from urinary infections associated with urinary tract anomalies. A few significative results emerge from the present study. In conclusion, cefixime's effectiveness long-term prophylaxis of urinary infections associated with anomalies.

  8. Ammonia tolerant inocula provide a good base for anaerobic digestion of microalgae in third generation biogas process.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Mancini, Enrico; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the ability of an ammonia-acclimatized inoculum to digest efficiently protein-rich microalgae for continuous 3rd generation biogas production. Moreover, we investigated whether increased C/N ratio could alleviate ammonia toxicity. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of five different algae (Chlorella vulgaris)/manure (cattle) mixtures showed that the mixture of 80/20 (on VS basis) resulted in the highest BMP value (431mLCH4 gVS(-1)), while the BMP of microalgae alone (100/0) was 415mLCH4 gVS(-1). Subsequently, anaerobic digestion of those two substrates was tested in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Despite of the high ammonium levels (3.7-4.2g NH4(+)-NL(-1)), CSTR reactors using ammonia tolerant inoculum resulted in relatively high methane yields (i.e. 77.5% and 84% of the maximum expected, respectively). These results demonstrated that ammonia tolerant inocula could be a promising approach to successfully digest protein-rich microalgae and achieve a 3rd generation biogas production.

  9. Providencia stuartii Isolates from Greece: Co-Carriage of Cephalosporin (blaSHV-5, blaVEB-1), Carbapenem (blaVIM-1), and Aminoglycoside (rmtB) Resistance Determinants by a Multidrug-Resistant Outbreak Clone.

    PubMed

    Oikonomou, Olga; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M; Betts, Jonathan; Mevius, Dik; Wareham, David W

    2016-07-01

    Providencia stuartii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant strain over a 4-month period in a critical care unit in Athens. Molecular typing revealed each of the isolates to be clonally related with coresistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Each isolate contained a 220-kb multi-replicon (IncA/C and IncR) conjugative plasmid encoding TEM-1, SHV-5, VEB-1, and VIM-1 β-lactamases and the 16S rDNA methylase RmtB. Antimicrobial therapy was unsuccessful in 3 of 6 cases, and resistance was readily transmissible to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli by transformation and conjugation. This highlights the clinical importance of P. stuartii and its ability to disseminate critical resistance determinants to other bacterial pathogens.

  10. Membrane-bound dd-carboxypeptidases from Bacillus megaterium KM. General properties, substrate specificity and sensitivity to penicillins, cephalosporins and peptide inhibitors of the activity at pH5

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mauriño, Teresa; Nieto, Manuel; Perkins, Harold R.

    1974-01-01

    1. The membrane from Bacillus megaterium KM contained a dd-carboxypeptidase with optimum activity under the following conditions: pH5.2, bivalent cation, 3mm; ionic strength, 40mm; temperature, 35°C. It was inactivated by treatment with p-chloromercuribenzoate but was fairly insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol. 2. The enzyme was inhibited by penicillins and cephalosporins. The inhibition of this enzyme was partially reversed on dialysis but 0.2m-2-mercaptoethanol could neither prevent nor reverse the inhibition. 3. The enzyme was extremely sensitive to changes in the configuration and size of the side chain of the C-terminal dipeptide of the substrate. An aliphatic side chain of a well-defined length and polarity was required in the residue that precedes the C-terminal dipeptide. 4. The enzyme was inhibited by a wide range of analogues of the peptidic portion of the natural substrate. PMID:4218954

  11. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  12. Generation X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    service or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATION X BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL NEIL YAMASHIRO United States Army National Guard CVI...WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 ■"""" mimmm n USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Generation X by LTC Neil Yamashiro COL Paul...is unlimited. 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Neil Yamashiro TITLE: Generation X FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 7 April 1998 PAGES: 26

  13. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  14. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  15. Reliability of a new 4th generation FloTrac algorithm to track cardiac output changes in patients receiving phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fuhai; Li, Jian; Fleming, Neal; Rose, David; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Phenylephrine is often used to treat intra-operative hypotension. Previous studies have shown that the FloTrac cardiac monitor may overestimate cardiac output (CO) changes following phenylephrine administration. A new algorithm (4th generation) has been developed to improve performance in this setting. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the effects of phenylephrine administration on CO values measured by the 3rd and 4th generation FloTrac algorithms. 54 patients were enrolled in this study. We used the Nexfin, a pulse contour method shown to be insensitive to vasopressor administration, as the reference method. Radial arterial pressures were recorded continuously in patients undergoing surgery. Phenylephrine administration times were documented. Arterial pressure recordings were subsequently analyzed offline using three different pulse contour analysis algorithms: FloTrac 3rd generation (G3), FloTrac 4th generation (G4), and Nexfin (nf). One minute of hemodynamic measurements was analyzed immediately before phenylephrine administration and then repeated when the mean arterial pressure peaked. A total of 157 (4.6 ± 3.2 per patient, range 1-15) paired sets of hemodynamic recordings were analyzed. Phenylephrine induced a significant increase in stroke volume (SV) and CO with the FloTrac G3, but not with FloTrac G4 or Nexfin algorithms. Agreement between FloTrac G3 and Nexfin was: 0.23 ± 1.19 l/min and concordance was 51.1%. In contrast, agreement between FloTrac G4 and Nexfin was: 0.19 ± 0.86 l/min and concordance was 87.2%. In conclusion, the pulse contour method of measuring CO, as implemented in FloTrac 4th generation algorithm, has significantly improved its ability to track the changes in CO induced by phenylephrine.

  16. [Research on HBsAg: comparison between two methods of the third generation, RPHA and IEA].

    PubMed

    Moretti, R; Vujovic, A; Benda, N

    1982-06-01

    Two tests of the 3rd generation were evaluated for the identification of HBsAg: the reverse hemoagglutination and the enzymatic immunoassay. The results of the study, carried out on 2,434 sera of occasional and periodic donors, have been slightly discordant. It was confirmed the greater sensibility of the IEA test over the RHA and there was a high incidence of false positive results of the IEA test probably caused by the presence in the sera of an elevated concentration of lipid and/or Hb. However, we can consider the RHA a useful test adaptable as an emergency test while the IEA method, being more sensible, can be used as a basic screening test.

  17. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Desalvosouza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10(exp -4) was obtained.

  18. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacio, R.; de Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P. . Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan ); Scharlemann, E.T. )

    1989-01-01

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10{sup -4} was obtained. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [Assessment of the impact of GMO of plant origin on rat progeny development in 3 generations].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Zhminchenko, V M; Pashorina, V A; Seliaskin, K E; Saprykin, V P; Utembaeva, N T; Tutel'ian, V A

    2011-01-01

    The publication presents the results of assessment of impact of genetically modified (GM) maize Liberty Link on prenatal and postnatal development of progeny of 3 generations of Wistar rats. A total of 630 adult animals and 2837 pups were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into 5 groups which got the diets with inclusion of maize: the animals of the experimental group got the diet with the GM-maize, animals of the control group - with near isogenic conventional analogue of the GM-maize, animals of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd reference groups - conventional varieties of maize ROSS 144 MV, ROSS 197 MVW, Dokuchayevskaya 250 MV respectively. The maize was included in the diet at maximum possible level not violating the balance of basic nutrients. Analysis of the data obtained during the study did not reveal any impact of GM-maize on rat progeny development.

  20. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.