Science.gov

Sample records for 3rd generation light

  1. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  2. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  3. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  4. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  5. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  6. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  7. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  8. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  9. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  10. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  11. Deployment simulation for 3rd generation solar array GSR3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verne, C.; Rouchon, M.

    1989-01-01

    Deployment tests for different solar arrays are described. The Spacebus solar array deployment is tested in two dimensions. The Spot 4 array deployment is tested in three dimensions. A mock-up deployment test on an air cushion is compared to results obtained using simulation software. The third generation solar array concept equipped with Adele hinges is compared to previous solar array models. The need for greater accuracy and reliability in the deployment analysis of these third generation solar arrays is stressed.

  12. IVHM for the 3rd Generation RLV Program: Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The objective behind the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) project is to develop and integrate the technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Technological areas discussed include: developing, validating, and transfering next generation IVHM technologies to near term industry and government reusable launch systems; focus NASA on the next generation and highly advanced sensor and software technologies; and validating IVHM systems engineering design process for future programs.

  13. Structures for the 3rd Generation Reusable Concept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of NASA is to create an advance space transportation system that provides a safe, affordable highway through the air and into space. The long-term plans are to reduce the risk of crew loss to 1 in 1,000,000 missions and reduce the cost of Low-Earth Orbit by a factor of 100 from today's costs. A third generation reusable concept vehicle (RCV) was developed to assess technologies required to meet NASA's space access goals. The vehicle will launch from Cape Kennedy carrying a 25,000 lb. payload to the International Space Station (ISS). The system is an air breathing launch vehicle (ABLV) hypersonic lifting body with rockets and uses triple point hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellant. The focus of this paper is on the structural concepts and analysis methods used in developing the third generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Member sizes, concepts and material selections will be discussed as well as analysis methods used in optimizing the structure. Analysis based on the HyperSizer structural sizing software will be discussed. Design trades required to optimize structural weight will be presented.

  14. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this initiative, funded by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, is to model, validate, and predict, with high fidelity, the microstructural evolution of third-generation high-refractory Ni-based disc superalloys during heat treating and service conditions. This initiative is a natural extension of the DARPA-AIM (Accelerated Insertion of Materials) initiative with GE/Pratt-Whitney and with other process simulation tools. Strong collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a key component of this initiative and the focus of this program is on industrially relevant disk alloys and heat treatment processes identified by GRC. Employing QuesTek s Computational Materials Dynamics technology and PrecipiCalc precipitation simulator, physics-based models are being used to achieve high predictive accuracy and precision. Combining these models with experimental data and probabilistic analysis, "virtual alloy design" can be performed. The predicted microstructures can be optimized to promote desirable features and concurrently eliminate nondesirable phases that can limit the reliability and durability of the alloys. The well-calibrated and well-integrated software tools that are being applied under the proposed program will help gas turbine disk alloy manufacturers, processing facilities, and NASA, to efficiently and effectively improve the performance of current and future disk materials.

  15. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  16. Recent advances on developing 3rd generation enzyme electrode for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyanki; Das, Madhuri; Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Singha, Irom Manoj; Goswami, Pranab

    2016-05-15

    The electrochemical biosensor with enzyme as biorecognition element is traditionally pursued as an attractive research topic owing to their high commercial perspective in healthcare and environmental sectors. The research interest on the subject is sharply increased since the beginning of 21st century primarily, due to the concomitant increase in knowledge in the field of material science. The remarkable effects of many advance materials such as, conductive polymers and nanomaterials, were acknowledged in the developing efficient 3rd generation enzyme bioelectrodes which offer superior selectivity, sensitivity, reagent less detection, and label free fabrication of biosensors. The present review article compiles the major knowledge surfaced on the subject since its inception incorporating the key review and experimental papers published during the last decade which extensively cover the development on the redox enzyme based 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors. The tenet involved in the function of these direct electrochemistry based enzyme electrodes, their characterizations and various strategies reported so far for their development such as, nanofabrication, polymer based and reconstitution approaches are elucidated. In addition, the possible challenges and the future prospects in the development of efficient biosensors following this direct electrochemistry based principle are discussed. A comparative account on the design strategies and critical performance factors involved in the 3rd generation biosensors among some selected prominent works published on the subject during last decade have also been included in a tabular form for ready reference to the readers. PMID:26735873

  17. SCHOOL LIGHTING APPLICATION DATA. EXCERPTS FROM THE IES LIGHTING HANDBOOK, 3RD EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY.

    THIS PUBLICATION REGARDING SCHOOL LIGHTING WAS PREPARED AS A USEFUL ADDITION TO THE AMERICAN STANDARD GUIDE FOR SCHOOL LIGHTING. THE MATERIAL HAS BEEN EXTRACTED FROM THE IES LIGHTING HANDBOOK TO INCLUDE A MORE DETAILED TREATMENT OF SUBJECTS TO WHICH THE DESIGNER MUST GIVE IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION. THERE IS A MORE EXTENSIVE TREATMENT OF REFLECTED…

  18. Albion: cost-effective 3rd generation high-performance thermal imaging in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Lupton, M.; Lawrence, M.; Knowles, P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Gordon, N. T.; Lees, D. J.; Parsons, J. F.

    2006-09-01

    The first generation of high performance thermal imaging sensors in the UK was based on two axis opto-mechanical scanning systems and small (4-16 element) arrays of the SPRITE detector, developed during the 1970s. Almost two decades later, a 2nd Generation system, STAIRS C was introduced, based on single axis scanning and a long linear array of approximately 3000 elements. This paper addresses the development of the UK's 3rd Generation High Performance Thermal Imaging sensor systems, under a programme known as "Albion". Three new high performance detectors, manufactured in cadmium mercury telluride, operating in both MWIR and LWIR, providing high resolution and sensitivities without need for opto-mechanical scanning systems will be described. The CMT material is grown by MOVPE on low cost substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). All three detectors are designed to fit with existing standard Integrated Detector Cooling Assemblies (IDCAs). The two largest detectors will be integrated with field demonstrator cameras providing MWIR and LWIR solutions that can rapidly be tailored to specific military requirements. The remaining detector will be a LWIR device with a smart ROIC, facilitating integration times much longer than can typically be achieved with focal plane arrays and consequently yield very high thermal sensitivity. This device will be demonstrated in a lab based camera system.

  19. Albion: the UK 3rd generation high-performance thermal imaging programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Lupton, M.; Lawrence, M.; Knowles, P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Gordon, N. T.; Lees, D. J.; Parsons, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    The first generation of high performance thermal imaging sensors in the UK was based on two axis opto-mechanical scanning systems and small (4-16 element) arrays of the SPRITE detector, developed during the 1970s. Almost two decades later, a 2nd Generation system, STAIRS C was introduced, based on single axis scanning and a long linear array of approximately 3000 elements. The UK has now begun the industrialisation of 3 rd Generation High Performance Thermal Imaging under a programme known as "Albion". Three new high performance cadmium mercury telluride arrays are being manufactured. The CMT material is grown by MOVPE on low cost substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). To maintain low production costs, all three detectors are designed to fit with existing standard Integrated Detector Cooling Assemblies (IDCAs). The two largest focal planes are conventional devices operating in the MWIR and LWIR spectral bands. A smaller format LWIR device is also described which has a smart ROIC, enabling much longer stare times than are feasible with conventional pixel circuits, thus achieving very high sensitivity. A new reference surface technology for thermal imaging sensors is described, based on Negative Luminescence (NL), which offers several advantages over conventional peltier references, improving the quality of the Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) algorithms.

  20. New half-film method for measuring Al2O3 film MTF of 3rd generation image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yaojin; Shi, Feng; Bai, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yufeng; Yan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Li, Min

    2012-10-01

    In 3rd generation image intensifier, Al2O3 film on the input of MCP is a serious influence factor on device MTF due to its electron scattering process. There are no reportes about how to measure the MTF of Al2O3 film. In this paper a new Half-film comparssion test method is creatively established for determing the film MTF, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring super thin film less than a few nm. In this way, the MTF curves of 10nm Al2O3 film can be accurately obtained. The measurement results show that 10nm Al2O3 film obviously decay the MTF performance of the 3rd generation image intensifier and take an important role in the improvement work of 3rd generation image intensifier MTF and resolution performances.

  1. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and Mexican)…

  2. [Antidepressives of the 3rd, 4th and 5th generation].

    PubMed

    Svestka, J

    1994-02-01

    Antidepressants are classified into five generations. Preparations of the first generation affect various neurotransmitter systems and are therefore associated with many undesirable effects (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, maprotiline). The second generation of antidepressants is already devoid of anticholinergic action and their adrenolytic and antihistaminic effects are weaker (e.g. mianserine, mirtazapine, trazodone). The antidepressant action of preparations of the third generation is mediated only by one of the three main neurotransmitter systems for depression (5-HT, noradrenaline, dopamine) and does not affect muscarine, histamine and adrenergic cerebral systems (e.g. SSRI, ipsapirone, viloxazine, reboxetine, bupropione). Recently antidepressants of the fourth generation were synthetized which influence only the serotonin, and noradrenaline or dopamine system (e.g. milnacipran, befloxatone). The fifth generation of antidepressants foresees the exclusive action on 5-HT, noradrenaline and dopamine systems of the CNS in varying ratios (e.g. venlafaxine, cericlamine). PMID:8174184

  3. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214. PMID:25725361

  4. Concentrating-solar biomass gasification process for a 3rd generation biofuel.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Zhang, Xiangping

    2009-06-01

    A new concept of producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source is proposed in this paper. The aim of the concept is to obtain an easy to handle fuel with near-zero CO2 emission and reduced land-use requirements compared to first and second generation biofuels. The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomassto a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. H2 from water electrolysis with solar power is used for reverse water gas shift to avoid producing CO2 during the process. In a chemical process simulation, we compare the solar biofuel concept with two other advanced synfuel concepts: second generation biofuel and coal-to-liquid, both using gasification technology and capture and storage of CO2 generated in the fuel production. The solar-driventhird generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO2-neutral fuel cycle. With CO2 capture, second generation biofuel would lead to the removal of 50% of the carbon in the biomass from the atmosphere. There is a trade-off between reduced biomass feed costs and the increased capital requirements for the solar-driven process; it is attractive at intermediate biomass and CO2 prices. PMID:19569353

  5. Safe Life Propulsion Design Technologies (3rd Generation Propulsion Research and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The tasks outlined in this viewgraph presentation on safe life propulsion design technologies (third generation propulsion research and technology) include the following: (1) Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) life prediction methods; (2) Life prediction methods for ultra high temperature polymer matrix composites for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and engine application; (3) Enabling design and life prediction technology for cost effective large-scale utilization of MMCs and innovative metallic material concepts; (4) Probabilistic analysis methods for brittle materials and structures; (5) Damage assessment in CMC propulsion components using nondestructive characterization techniques; and (6) High temperature structural seals for RLV applications.

  6. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  7. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  8. Efficacy of a 3rd generation high-throughput sequencing platform for analyses of 16S rRNA genes from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Bernberg, Erin L; Shevchenko, Olga; Kan, Jinjun; Kaplan, Louis A

    2013-11-01

    Longer sequences of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene could provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions and advance knowledge of population dynamics within complex natural communities. We assessed the accuracy of a Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing based on DNA polymerization, a promising 3rd generation high-throughput technique, and compared this to the 2nd generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform. Amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from a known isolate, Shewanella oneidensis MR1, and environmental samples from two streambed habitats, rocks and sediments, and a riparian zone soil, were analyzed. On the PacBio we analyzed ~500 bp amplicons that covered the V1-V3 regions and the full 1500 bp amplicons of the V1-V9 regions. On the Roche 454 we analyzed the ~500 bp amplicons. Error rates associated with the isolate were lowest with the Roche 454 method (2%), increased by more than 2-fold for the 500 bp amplicons with the PacBio SMRT chip (4-5%), and by more than 8-fold for the full gene with the PacBio SMRT chip (17-18%). Higher error rates with the PacBio SMRT chip artificially inflated estimates of richness and lowered estimates of coverage for environmental samples. The 3rd generation sequencing technology we evaluated does not provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions for studies of microbial ecology. PMID:23999276

  9. [3rd generation's TKI in lung cancer non-small cell EGFR-mutated having acquired a secondary T790M resistance].

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Solenn; Viala, Marie; Varga, Andréa; Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2015-09-01

    Activating EGFR mutations discovery and efficacy of 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as erlotinib or gefitinib, inaugurated the beginning of personalized medicine in the treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, all patients showed a tumor progression of 10 to 16 months after the onset of TKI therapy related to molecular resistance mechanisms as T790M mutation. Till now, patients suffering from EGFR-mutated NSCLC with acquired resistance have conventional treatment options. Two new 3rd generations' TKI, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are currently being studied in phases 1-3 studies. Preliminary results show relevant therapeutic properties in patients with T790M mutated-EGFR NSCLC. This review aims to highlight these new molecules, their effectiveness and their clinical toxicities in the treatment of advanced stages of NSCLC expressing the T790M mutation. PMID:26235419

  10. Passive magnetic bearing in the 3rd generation miniature axial flow pump-the valvo pump 2.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Ishida, Yuya; Yano, Tetsuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    The new miniature axial flow pump (valvo pump 2) that is installed at the base of the ascending aorta consists of a six-phase stator, an impeller in which four neodymium magnets are incorporated, and passive magnetic bearings that suspend the impeller for axial levitation. The impeller is sustained by hydrodynamic force between the blade tip of the impeller and the inner housing of the stator. The passive magnetic bearing consists of a ring neodymium magnet and a columnar neodymium magnet. The ring neodymium magnet is set in the stationary side and the columnar neodymium magnet is incorporated in the impeller shaft. Both neodymium magnets are coaxially mounted, and the anterior and posterior passive magnetic bearings suspend the impeller by repulsion force against the hydrodynamic force that acts to move the impeller in the inflow port direction. The passive magnetic bearing was evaluated by a tensile test, and the levitation force of 8.5 N and stiffness of 2.45 N/mm was obtained. Performance of the axial flow pump was evaluated by an in vitro experiment. The passive magnetic bearing showed sufficient levitation capacity to suspend the impeller in an axial direction. In conclusion, the passive magnetic bearing is promising to be one of levitation technology for the third-generation axial flow blood pump. PMID:25407124

  11. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  12. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples. PMID:24368229

  13. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.

    1996-08-01

    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs.

  14. Image Quality of 3rd Generation Spiral Cranial Dual-Source CT in Combination with an Advanced Model Iterative Reconstruction Technique: A Prospective Intra-Individual Comparison Study to Standard Sequential Cranial CT Using Identical Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Máté E.; Meyer, Mathias; Förster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Flohr, Thomas; Leidecker, Christianne; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively intra-individually compare image quality of a 3rd generation Dual-Source-CT (DSCT) spiral cranial CT (cCT) to a sequential 4-slice Multi-Slice-CT (MSCT) while maintaining identical intra-individual radiation dose levels. Methods 35 patients, who had a non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT examination on a 4-slice MDCT within the past 12 months, underwent a spiral cCT scan on a 3rd generation DSCT. CTDIvol identical to initial 4-slice MDCT was applied. Data was reconstructed using filtered backward projection (FBP) and 3rd-generation iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm at 5 different IR strength levels. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated subjective image quality using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was assessed in white matter and nucleus caudatus with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) being subsequently calculated. Results Subjective image quality of all spiral cCT datasets was rated significantly higher compared to the 4-slice MDCT sequential acquisitions (p<0.05). Mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral compared to sequential cCT datasets with mean SNR improvement of 61.65% (p*Bonferroni0.05<0.0024). Subjective image quality improved with increasing IR levels. Conclusion Combination of 3rd-generation DSCT spiral cCT with an advanced model IR technique significantly improves subjective and objective image quality compared to a standard sequential cCT acquisition acquired at identical dose levels. PMID:26288186

  15. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  16. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  17. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  18. Real-World Use of 3rd Line Therapy for Multiple Myeloma in Austria: An Austrian Myeloma Registry (AMR) Analysis of the Therapeutic Landscape and Clinical Outcomes prior to the Use of Next Generation Myeloma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Willenbacher, Ella; Weger, Roman; Rochau, Ursula; Siebert, Uwe; Willenbacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical trials demonstrate improving survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after treatment. However, it is unclear whether increased survival translates to a similar benefit in a real world setting. Methods We analyzed the overall survival of 347 multiple myeloma patients in Austria by means of a national registry (AMR), focused on results from 3rd and later lines of therapy. This benchmark was chosen to define a baseline prior to the broad application of upcoming 2nd generation drugs (carfilzomib, pomalidomide). Results Projected 10 years survival for patients with MM in Austria is estimated to be 56% in patients diagnosed in between the years 2011–2014, 21% in patients with a diagnosis made between 2000–2005, and 39% in those with a diagnosis made between 2006–2010). For the same intervals a significant increase in the use of both bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide—so called IMiDs (from 2005 onwards) and their simultaneous use in combination therapies (from 2010 onwards) could be shown. The use of autologous transplantation (ASCT) remained more or less constant at ~ 35% of patients in the 1st line setting over the whole period, comparing well to international practice patterns, while the use of 2nd line ASCT increased from 5.5% to 18.7% of patients. Patients in 3rd or later line treatment (n = 105), showed that even in relapsed and refractory disease median survival was 27 months with a considerable proportion of long-term survivors (~20%). Conclusion & Perspective With the expected emergence of additional active anti-myeloma compounds, we aim to assess survival in patients with relapsed and refractory MM. PMID:26937956

  19. Fourth generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1997-05-01

    Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops, have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the 3 kilometer SLAC linac (the first 2 kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 {angstrom} by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

  20. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-04-19

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10-100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  1. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10–100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  2. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  3. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  4. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  5. Contemporary materials for light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we present prospecting single crystal materials for light generation. We describe basic property borates like: Ca4GdO(BO3)3-(GdCOB), Ga4YO(BO3)3-(YCOB), Sr3Y(BO3)3-(BOYS) doped with Yb, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tm. These crystals turn out laser and non linear optical (NLO) properties. We show KY(WO4)2-(KYW) and KGd(WO4)2-(KGW) belonged to double vanadates group, and flourides LiCAlF6-(LiCAF) and LiSrAlF6-(LiSAF), their properties and growth methods. Interesting group of materials which can be used as source of light are organic compounds. Examples of these materials are presented.

  6. Method of generating chemiluminescent light

    DOEpatents

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1986-03-11

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction that generates chemiluminescent light and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  7. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ulrik L.; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating quadrature squeezed light that have been investigated in the last 30 years.

  8. Search for 3rd Generation Vector Leptoquarks in the Di-tau Di-jet Channel in Proton Antiproton Collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Stanley Scott; /UC, Davis

    2006-12-01

    We search for third generation vector leptoquarks (V LQ3) produced in colliding p{bar p} beams operating at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We use 322 pb{sup -1} of data to search for the V LQ3 signal in the di-tau plus di-jet channel. For the first time, the full matrix element is used in the Monte Carlo simulation of this signal. With no events observed in the signal region, we set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the V LQ3 pair production cross section of {sigma} < 344fb, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(V LQ3 {yields} b{tau}) = 1, and a lower limit on the V LQ3 mass of m{sub V LQ3} > 317 GeV=c{sup 2}. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are applied in the least favorable manner the results are {sigma} < 360fb and m{sub V LQ3} > 294 GeV=c{sup 2}. The Minimal coupling V LQ3 result is an upper limit on the cross section of {sigma} < 493fb ({sigma} < 610fb) and the lower limit on the mass is m{sub V LQ3} > 251 GeV=c{sup 2} (m{sub V LQ3} > 223 GeV=c{sup 2}) for the nominal (1{sigma} varied) theoretical expectation.

  9. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacio, R.; de Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P. . Dipt. di Fisica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan ); Scharlemann, E.T. )

    1989-01-01

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10{sup -4} was obtained. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Desalvosouza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

    FEL operation at short wavelength is limited by electron beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators, and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use and FEL amplifier as a resonant frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the 3rd harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial section of wiggler, then using a second section of wiggler resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of electron beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of conversion of electron beam power to 80 nm light of nearly 10(exp -4) was obtained.

  11. Performance of new generation pole light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, K. C.; Karunanithi, S.; Thio, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  13. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  14. National--Alliance for Arts Education; JDR 3rd Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Forbes W.; Bloom, Kathryn

    1978-01-01

    The Alliance for Arts Education is an educational project embracing organizations and individuals at the national, state, and local levels with a mutual commitment to the arts as an integral part of the educational process. The JDR 3rd Fund provides consultant and technical services and, through coordination of the League of Cities for the Arts in…

  15. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  16. Generation of UV light by intense ultrashort laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Ilya; Ting, Antonio; Gordon, Daniel; Briscoe, Eldridge; Penano, Joe; Sprangle, Phillip

    2004-11-01

    The propagation of collimated high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses in air has attracted considerable attention, which may have a variety of important applications including remote sensing and chemical-biological aerosols standoff detection. Sub-millimeter diameter laser filaments can develop without any focusing optics and instead solely from laser self-focusing and plasma formation in air. These filaments can produce ultraviolet radiations in the form of the 3rd harmonic of the fundamental frequency and also through spectral broadening due to self-phase modulation of the laser pulse. Using femtosecond laser pulses produced by a high power Ti:Sapphire laser (0.8 TW, 50 fs, 800 nm) we observed generation of the third harmonic radiation light in air (centered around 267 nm) by the laser filaments. Characterization of the 3rd harmonic generation with respect to the major gas components of the air will be reported. Supported by the ONR and RDECOM. I. Alexeev is NRC/NRL Post-Doc.

  17. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR...: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces a ROD for conversion of the... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to...

  18. 3rd latin american and Caribbean congress on health economics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria; Alvarez Muñiz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    The 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Health Economics took place at Havana Convention Center from 28th to 31st October 2008. The conference was an excellent opportunity for the exchange of personal encounters regarding health economics and its related disciplines from the perspectives of research, teaching and management. Specialists from mostly Latin American countries attended the event. High-ranking specialists from other countries highlighted the importance and popularity of the conference. A total of 313 delegates from 23 countries were present at the congress, 160 of whom were Cuban. PMID:19371176

  19. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Ceramics (ICC3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihara, Koichi; Ohji, Tatsuki; Sakka, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Early in 2005, the American Ceramic Society, the European Ceramic Society and the Ceramic Society of Japan announced a collaborative effort to provide leadership for the global ceramics community that would facilitate the use of ceramic and glass materials. That effort resulted in an agreement to organize a new biennial series of the International Congress on Ceramics, convened by the International Ceramic Federation (ICF). In order to share ideas and visions of the future for ceramic and glass materials, the 1st International Congress on Ceramics (ICC1) was held in Canada, 2006, under the organization of the American Ceramic Society, and the 2nd Congress (ICC2) was held in Italy, 2008, hosted by the European Ceramic Society. Organized by the Ceramic Society of Japan, the 3rd Congress (ICC3) was held in Osaka, Japan, 14-18 November 2010. Incorporating the 23rd Fall Meeting of the Ceramic Society of Japan and the 20th Iketani Conference, ICC3 was also co-organized by the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation, and was endorsed and supported by ICF, Asia-Oceania Ceramic Federation (AOCF) as well as many other organizations. Following the style of the previous two successful Congresses, the program was designed to advance ceramic and glass technologies to the next generation through discussion of the most recent advances and future perspectives, and to engage the worldwide ceramics community in a collective effort to expand the use of these materials in both conventional as well as new and exciting applications. ICC3 consisted of 22 voluntarily organized symposia in the most topical and essential themes of ceramic and glass materials, including Characterization, design and processing technologies Electro, magnetic and optical ceramics and devices Energy and environment related ceramics and systems Bio-ceramics and bio-technologies Ceramics for advanced industry and safety society Innovation in traditional ceramics It also contained the Plenary Session and the

  20. Generation and manipulation of attosecond light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaarde, Mette

    2006-05-01

    Attosecond pulses of light can be generated in the extremely non-linear interactions between an ultrashort, intense laser pulse and a gas of atoms, via the process of high harmonic generation [1,2]. In one approach, a number of odd harmonics of rougly equal strength are combined to form a train of sub-femtosecond pulses. If the harmonics are locked in phase to each other, the train will consist of the emission of one attosecond pulse every half cycle of the driving laser field [1,3]. It is in general not trivial to ensure that the harmonics are phase-locked as they are generated with intrinsically different phases. These phases originate in the strong field dynamics of the light-matter interaction [4].We will discuss different ways of generating and manipulating attosecond pulses via high harmonic generation. We will show how the harmonics can be phase-locked and better synchronized so as to form optimal pulse trains [3]. We will also show that it is possible to generate trains of pulses separated by a full laser cycle, by combining the driving laser field with its second harmonic [5]. The strong field continuum dynamics driven by the two-color field is very different from that of the one-color field and varies strongly with the delay between the two laser fields [6]. (1) P. M. Paul et al, Science 292, 1689 (2001).(2) M. Hentschel et al, Nature 414, 509 (2001).(3) R. Lopez-Martens et al, PRL 94, 033001 (2005).(4) P. Antoine, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, PRL 77, 1234 (1996).(5) J. Mauritsson et al, in preparation (2006).(6) M. B. Gaarde et al, in preparation (2006).

  1. Generating A Strobed Laser Light Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    An optoelectronic system generating synchronous, strobed sheet of laser light developed for use in making visible flow of air about model helicopter rotor. Used in wind-tunnel tests to determine actual locations of vortices for comparison with locations predicted by mathematical models to validate models. Each blade tip produces vortex. By establishing successive vortex locations, researcher determines trajectory of vortex pattern. Light-sheet strobe circuits provide selection of blade positions, strobe-pulse durations, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having two to nine blades. To make flow visible, vaporizing propylene glycol injected upstream of model. System also provides calibrated trigger delay of strobe pulses, adjustable strobe-pulse durations, selectable number of blades, and slip-sync mode to make flow visible as though in slow motion.

  2. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  3. Fiber based generation of azimuthally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocher, Christoph; Jauregui, Cesar; Voigtländer, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Nolte, Stefan; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    We report on a novel approach for the generation of radially and azimuthally polarized light employing a fiber mode filter. The mode filter consists of a Fiber Bragg Grating written in a strongly guiding fiber with lifted modal degeneracy. These kinds of fibers guide radially and azimuthally polarized modes with non-degenerated, i.e. distinct, effective refractive indexes. The Fiber Bragg Grating reflects light only if the Bragg condition is fulfilled. In case of strongly guiding fibers the radially and azimuthally polarized modes are guided with different effective refractive indices and, consequently, the Bragg condition is fulfilled at different wavelengths. If the reflection bandwidth of the Fiber Bragg Grating is narrow enough, the radially and azimuthally polarized modes are spectrally separated. Thus, with such a mode filter it is possible to filter the radially or azimuthally polarized mode. This filter is suitable for its integration in a resonator for stable, compact and high polarization purity azimuthally and radially polarized all-fiber oscillators. In a first experiment an azimuthally polarized mode filter consisting of a commercially available step index fiber and a femtosecond written Fiber Bragg Grating was fabricated. The experimental results are presented and discussed.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2012-03-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph

  5. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    . Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF

  7. An Evidence-Based Approach to Estimating the National and State Costs of PreK-3rd. FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3rd. No.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Goetz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the costs of providing a high-quality PreK-3rd education approach in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Relying on an Evidence-Based approach to school finance adequacy, it identifies the staffing resources needed to offer high-quality integrated PreK-3rd programs and then estimates the costs of those resources. By…

  8. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  9. Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

  10. Two-mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, B. D.; Franke, J. M.; Jones, S. B.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Light sheets generated with either laser or noncoherent sources have found widespread application to flow visualization. Previous light sheet generating systems were usually dedicated to a specific viewing geometry. The technique with the most flexibility is the galvanometer mirror based laser light sheet system. A two-mirrored system was designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to a wide range of applications. The design includes the capability to control the size and location of the laser light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep the sheet repeatedly through a volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation and to rotate single or multiple laser light sheets. The system is capable of producing up to 12 sheets of laser light at an angular divergence of + or - 20 degrees. Maximum scan rate of any one line is 500 Hertz. This system has proven to be uniquely versatile and a patent has been applied for.

  11. Lightcone: Light-cone generating script

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernyk, Max

    2014-03-01

    Lightcone works with simulated galaxy data stored in a relational database to rearrange the data in a shape of a light-cone; simulated galaxy data is expected to be in a box volume. The light-cone constructing script works with output from the SAGE semi-analytic model, but will work with any other model that has galaxy positions (and other properties) saved per snapshots of the simulation volume distributed in time. The database configuration file is set up for PostgreSQL RDBMS, but can be modified for use with any other SQL database.

  12. VLTI: First Light for the Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, J.; Gonté, F.; Abad, J. A.; Abadie, S.; Abuter, R.; Accardo, M.; Acuña, M.; Alonso, J.; Andolfato, L.; Avila, G.; Barriga, P. J.; Beltran, J.; Berger, J.-P.; Bollados, C.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Bristow, P.; Caniguante, L.; Castillo, R.; Conzelmann, R.; Cortes, A.; Delplancke, F.; Dell Valle, D.; Derie, F.; Diaz, A.; Donoso, R.; Duhoux, Ph.; Dupuy, C.; Elao, C.; Egner, S.; Fuenteseca, E.; Fernandez, R.; Gaytan, D.; Glindemann, A.; Gonzales, J.; Guisard, S.; Hagenauer, P.; Haimerl, A.; Heinz, V.; Henriquez, J. P.; van der Heyden, P.; Hubin, N.; Huerta, R.; Jochum, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Leiva, A.; Lévêque, S.; Lizon, J.-P.; Luco, F.; Mardones, P.; Mellado, A.; Mérand, A.; Osorio, J.; Ott, J.; Pallanca, L.; Pavez, M.; Pasquini, L.; Percheron, I.; Pirard, J.-F.; Phan, D. T.; Pineda, J. C.; Pino, A.; Poupar, S.; Ramírez, A.; Reinero, C.; Riquelme, M.; Romero, J.; Rivinius, Th.; Rojas, C.; Rozas, F.; Salgado, F.; Schöller, M.; Schuhler, N.; Siclari, W.; Stephan, C.; Tamblay, R.; Tapia, M.; Tristram, K.; Valdes, G.; de Wit, W.-J.; Wright, A.; Zins, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) stopped operation on 4 March 2015 with the objective of upgrading its infrastructure in preparation for the second generation VLTI instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE. A brief account of the eight bustling months it took our interferometer to metamorphose into its second generation, under the supervision of the VLTI Facility Project, is presented.

  13. International directory of electric utilities, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The book covers 162 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Latin America. It contains hundreds of names of key utility executives, utility addresses, plus telephone, fax, and telex numbers. Power plant construction plants, new T D facilities and lines, names of major plants plus their locations, capacity, fuels, type of generation, etc. are included. It also includes listing of international engineering consultants and key executives, translations of key technical terms, and maps showing key facilities for all countries.

  14. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  15. Generation of Single-Cycle Light Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B C; Jovanovic, I; Armstrong, J P; Pyke, B; Crane, J K; Shuttlesworth, R

    2004-02-13

    Most optical pulses, even at the 10-femtosecond timescale, consist of several oscillations of the electric field. By producing and amplifying an ultra-broadband continuum, single cycle (e 3 fs) or shorter optical pulses may be generated. This requires a very challenging pulse-compression with sub-femtosecond accuracy. Production of these single-cycle pulses will lead to new generations of experiments in the areas of coherent control of chemical excitations and reactions, 0.1-fs high-order harmonic (XUV) generation for probing of materials and fast processes, and selective 3-D micron-scale material removal and modification. We activated the first stage of a planned three-stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA) that would ultimately produce sub-3 fs pulses. Active control with a learning algorithm was implemented to optimize the continuum generated in an argon-filled capillary and to control and optimize the final compressed pulse temporal shape. A collaboration was initiated to coherently control the population of different states upon dissociation of Rb{sub 2}. Except for one final optic, a pulse compressor and diagnostics were constructed to produce and characterize pulses in the 5-fs range from the first OPA stage.

  16. Twin-Mirrored-Galvanometer Laser-Light-Sheet Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple, rotating laser-light sheets generated to illuminate flows in wind tunnels. Designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to wide range of applications. Design includes capability to control size and location of laser-light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep sheet repeatedly through volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation, and to rotate single or multiple laser-light sheets. Includes electronic equipment and laser mounted on adjustable-height platform. Twin-mirrored galvanometer unit supported by tripod to reduce vibration. Other possible applications include use in construction industry to align beams of building. Artistic or display applications also possible.

  17. Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Perry, M.D.; Shore, B.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-08-09

    The baseline design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) calls for sampling gratings to provide third-harmonic energy diagnostics in the highly constrained area of the target chamber. These 40 {times} 4O cm transmission gratings are to diffract at (order +1) nominally 0.3% of the incident 351 run light at a small angle on to a focusing mirror and into a calorimeter. The design calls for a plane grating of 500 lines/mm, and approximately 30 run deep, etched into a fused silica focusing lens and subsequently overcoated with a solgel anti reflective coating. Gratings of similar aperture and feature size have been produced for other applications by ion etching processes, but, in an effort to reduce substantially the cost of such optics, we are studying the feasibility of making these gratings by wet chemical etching techniques. Experimentation with high-quality fused silica substrates on 5 and 15 cm. scale has led to a wet etching process which can meet the design goals and which offers no significant scaleup barriers to full sized optics. The grating is produced by holographic exposure and a series of processing steps using only a photoresist mask and a final hydrofluoric acid etch. Gratings on 15 cm diameter test substrates exhibit absolute diffraction efficiencies from 0.2--0.4% with a standard deviation of about 15% of the mean over the full aperture. The efficiency variation is due to variation in linewidth caused by spatial nonuniformities in exposure energy. Uniformity improvements can be realized by using a smaller, more uniform portion of the exposure beam and exposing for longer times. The laser damage threshold for these gratings has been measured at LLNL and found to be identical to that of the fused silica substrate.

  18. A twin-mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1988-01-01

    A galvanometer mirror-based laser light sheet system has been developed for use in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel at NASA Langley. This system generates and positions single or multiple light sheets over aeronautical research models being tested in the low speed tunnel. This report describes a twin mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator and shows typical light sheet arrangements in use. With this system, illumination of smoke entrained in the flow over a delta wing model reveals the vortical flow produced by the separation of the flow at the leading edge of the model. The light sheet system has proven to be very adaptable and easy to use in sizing and positioning light sheets in wind tunnel applications.

  19. Influence of solar eclipse of November 3rd, 2013 on the total ozone column over Badajoz, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, D.; Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The hybrid eclipse of November 3rd, 2013 was observed as partial with a magnitude equal to 0.126 from Badajoz (38° 53‧ N, 6° 58‧ W). The evolution of the total ozone column (TOC) values for 4 h was monitored using a Solar Light Microtops-II manual sun-photometer. Before the eclipse, TOC remained invariable ~280 Dobson Units (DU) for one hour and a half. Once the eclipse was started, a clear decrease in TOC occurred. After the eclipse maximum (with TOC=273 DU), a rapid TOC recovery was observed. When the eclipse was over, TOC came back to values ~280 DU.

  20. 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2013-07-01

    1. Introduction 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB) is the programme established for scientists, by scientists. It is merit-based, and is shaped by requirements of academic credentials, and novelty and quality of information. The goals of this programme are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, in which the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The programme was founded in 2007 with the support of the international scientific community and of the US National Science Foundation, the US Air Force Office of the Scientific Research and its European Office for Research and Development in the UK, the UNESCO-IAEA International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique in France, the US Department of Energy and the Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan, and the University of Chicago in the USA. The International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond provides opportunities to bring together researchers from the areas, which include but are not limited to, fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and communications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium turbulent processes. 2. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to atomistic scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and

  1. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. 1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 3rd International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Keane, Christopher J.; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2013-07-01

    1. Introduction 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' (TMB) is the programme established for scientists, by scientists. It is merit-based, and is shaped by requirements of academic credentials, and novelty and quality of information. The goals of this programme are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, in which the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The programme was founded in 2007 with the support of the international scientific community and of the US National Science Foundation, the US Air Force Office of the Scientific Research and its European Office for Research and Development in the UK, the UNESCO-IAEA International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique in France, the US Department of Energy and the Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan, and the University of Chicago in the USA. The International Conference on Turbulent Mixing and Beyond provides opportunities to bring together researchers from the areas, which include but are not limited to, fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and communications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium turbulent processes. 2. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to atomistic scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and

  6. The 4th Generation Light Source at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Albert Grippo; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Shukui Zhang; Gwyn Williams

    2007-04-25

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab. Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  7. The 4th generation light source at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S.; Biallas, G.; Boyce, J.; Bullard, D.; Coleman, J.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, F.; Evans, R.; Evtushenko, P.; Grippo, A.; Gould, C.; Gubeli, J.; Hardy, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jordan, K.; Klopf, J. M.; Moore, W.; Neil, G.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Sexton, D.; Shinn, M.; Tennant, C.; Walker, R.; Zhang, S.; Williams, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab (JLab). Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  8. Optical pulse generator using liquid crystal light valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical optical computing is discussed. A design for an optical pulse generator using a Hughes Liquid crystal light valve and intended for application as an optical clock in a numerical optical computer is considered. The pulse generator is similar in concept to the familiar electronic multivibrator, having a flip-flop and delay units.

  9. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  10. The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloni, Enrico; Conte, Andrea; De Laurentis, Martina; Naticchioni, Luca; Puppo, Paola; Ricci, Fulvio

    2016-07-01

    POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.

  11. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  12. Light pollution generated by laser guide star at Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Fuensalida, Jesus J.

    2004-11-01

    A new generation of instrument using a launching laser is been developed to correct the atmospheric image blurring and to establish optical communication with space. Then, light pollution generated by laser will be a serious operational problem in next years. This laser could affect astronomical works of adjacent telescopes when the laser lay across the field of view of the observing telescope, this is a kind of light pollution. This could be avoided with an adequate operational politic to detect possible interference between the laser and the astronomical telescopes. In this paper is analysed the mathematical probability of a cross-event happen.

  13. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  14. Fifth-Generation Free-Electron Laser Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2011-03-02

    During the past few years, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) have demonstrated the outstanding capability of free-electron lasers (FELs) as sources of coherent radiation in the soft and hard x-ray region. The high intensity, tens of GW, short pulses (few to less than 100 femtoseconds, and the unique transverse coherence properties are opening a new window to study the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. The LCLS, FLASH, and the other FELs now under construction are only the beginning of the development of these light sources. The next generations will reach new levels of performance: terawatt, atto-second, ultra-small line-width, high repetition rate, full longitudinal and transverse coherence. These future developments and the R&D needed to successfully build and operate the next generation of FEL light sources will be discussed.

  15. Light-curing polymers for laser plasma generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, E. Y.; Protasov, Y. S.; Protasov, Y. Y.; Telekh, V. D.

    2015-07-01

    Solid rather than liquid media are used in pulsed laser plasma generators despite sophisticated transportation and dosing system need for a long-term operation. Liquid media could be more preferable due to transfer and dosing (down to 10-14 L) being well developed, but plasma generation of those results in intense droplet formation and kinetic energy losses. Combination of liquids transportation advantages and solids plasma generation efficiency might resolve this trade-off. Liquid-to-solid transition can be induced by cooling down to sublimation temperature, thermo-, photo- or electron induced polymerization (curing). Light cured polymers seem to be very useful as active media for plasma generators, since they can be solidified very fast (ca. 30 ms) just before impact. We considered experimentally several UV- curing polymer and mixtures ablation regimes and supply schemes for laser plasma generation. The best results were obtained for liquid polymer at high-power pulsed irradiation matching curing optimum wavelength.

  16. Real-time Image Generation for Compressive Light Field Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzstein, G.; Lanman, D.; Hirsch, M.; Raskar, R.

    2013-02-01

    With the invention of integral imaging and parallax barriers in the beginning of the 20th century, glasses-free 3D displays have become feasible. Only today—more than a century later—glasses-free 3D displays are finally emerging in the consumer market. The technologies being employed in current-generation devices, however, are fundamentally the same as what was invented 100 years ago. With rapid advances in optical fabrication, digital processing power, and computational perception, a new generation of display technology is emerging: compressive displays exploring the co-design of optical elements and computational processing while taking particular characteristics of the human visual system into account. In this paper, we discuss real-time implementation strategies for emerging compressive light field displays. We consider displays composed of multiple stacked layers of light-attenuating or polarization-rotating layers, such as LCDs. The involved image generation requires iterative tomographic image synthesis. We demonstrate that, for the case of light field display, computed tomographic light field synthesis maps well to operations included in the standard graphics pipeline, facilitating efficient GPU-based implementations with real-time framerates.

  17. Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.

    2001-09-01

    Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.

  18. Digital phantoms generated by spectral and spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Bonghwan; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Lee, Ji Youn; Allen, David W.; Rice, Joseph P.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2015-12-01

    A hyperspectral image projector (HIP) based on liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators is explained and demonstrated to generate data cubes. The HIP-constructed data cubes are three-dimensional images of the spatial distribution of spectrally resolved abundances of intracellular light-absorbing oxyhemoglobin molecules in single erythrocytes. Spectrally and spatially resolved image data indistinguishable from the real scene may be used as standard data cubes, so-called digital phantoms, to calibrate image sensors and validate image analysis algorithms for their measurement quality, performance consistency, and interlaboratory comparisons for quantitative biomedical imaging applications.

  19. Digital phantoms generated by spectral and spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Chon, Bonghwan; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Lee, Ji Youn; Allen, David W; Rice, Joseph P; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2015-01-01

    A hyperspectral image projector (HIP) based on liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators is explained and demonstrated to generate data cubes. The HIP-constructed data cubes are three-dimensional images of the spatial distribution of spectrally resolved abundances of intracellular light-absorbing oxyhemoglobin molecules in single erythrocytes. Spectrally and spatially resolved image data indistinguishable from the real scene may be used as standard data cubes, so-called digital phantoms, to calibrate image sensors and validate image analysis algorithms for their measurement quality, performance consistency, and interlaboratory comparisons for quantitative biomedical imaging applications. PMID:26361340

  20. Digital phantoms generated by spectral and spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Chon, Bonghwan; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Lee, Ji Youn; Allen, David W; Rice, Joseph P; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2015-12-01

    A hyperspectral image projector (HIP) based on liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators is explained and demonstrated to generate data cubes. The HIP-constructed data cubes are three-dimensional images of the spatial distribution of spectrally resolved abundances of intracellular light-absorbing oxyhemoglobin molecules in single erythrocytes. Spectrally and spatially resolved image data indistinguishable from the real scene may be used as standard data cubes, so-called digital phantoms, to calibrate image sensors and validate image analysis algorithms for their measurement quality, performance consistency, and interlaboratory comparisons for quantitative biomedical imaging applications. PMID:26502383

  1. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  2. PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? Policy to Action Brief. No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    2009-01-01

    In an era of intense fiscal pressures, educators are focusing on those investments most likely to lift student achievement. They are also trying to make more strategic use of existing resources. To achieve these goals, a growing number of policymakers are considering integrated PreK-3rd approaches. Increasingly, they are recognizing that the first…

  3. Patient protection at risk in IEC 60601-1 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Dybdahl, K

    2009-09-01

    Engineers developing medical electrical equipment in accordance with IEC 60601-1 3rd edition are in immediate need of short- and long-term solutions to avoid potentially hazardous designs as a result of misinterpretation of the requirements. Several options are described to ensure consistency and safety of devices. PMID:19852179

  4. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to…

  5. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  6. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  7. AL State Profile. Alabama: Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE), 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…

  8. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Linking Learning: The PreK-3rd Path to School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Giving children high-quality preschool is the first step in the journey to school success. The next steps--kindergarten through 3rd grade--are equally important. Advocates for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) is working on several fronts to help school districts across the state build strong early learning programs, which can significantly improve…

  10. 78. VIEW OF 3RD TEE, TAKEN FROM SOUTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF 3RD TEE, TAKEN FROM SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER, FACING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX (LEFT), SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST FRONT OF PUMPHOUSE (RIGHT), AND RESTROOMS IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. Simplified Generation of High-Angular-Momentum Light Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Grudinin, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    A simplified method of generating a beam of light having a relatively high value of angular momentum (see figure) involves the use of a compact apparatus consisting mainly of a laser, a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) resonator, and optical fibers. The method also can be used to generate a Bessel beam. ( Bessel beam denotes a member of a class of non-diffracting beams, so named because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have high values of angular momentum.) High-angular-momentum light beams are used in some applications in biology and nanotechnology, wherein they are known for their ability to apply torque to make microscopic objects rotate. High-angular-momentum light beams could also be used to increase bandwidths of fiber-optic communication systems. The present simplified method of generating a high-angular-momentum light beam was conceived as an alternative to prior such methods, which are complicated and require optical setups that include, variously, holograms, modulating Fabry-Perot cavities, or special microstructures. The present simplified method exploits a combination of the complex structure of the electromagnetic field inside a WGM resonator, total internal reflection in the WGM resonator, and the electromagnetic modes supported by an optical fiber. The optical fiber used to extract light from the WGM resonator is made of fused quartz. The output end of this fiber is polished flat and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The input end of this fiber is cut on a slant and placed very close to the WGM resonator at an appropriate position and orientation. To excite the resonant whispering- gallery modes, light is introduced into the WGM resonator via another optical fiber that is part of a pigtailed fiber-optic coupler. Light extracted from the WGM resonator is transformed into a high-angular- momentum beam inside the extraction optical fiber and this beam is emitted from the

  12. Coherent Light Generation Using Four-Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Erik; Alderson, Laura

    2013-05-01

    Four-wave mixing can be used to generate coherent, diffraction limited output beams, with frequencies difficult to acquire in commercial lasers. Here a narrow ECDL locked to the two photon 5s-5d transition in Rubidium, combined with a tapered amplifier system, generates a high power cw beam at 778 which is used to generate coherent light at 420 nm through parametric four-wave mixing. By controlling both the intensity and frequency of the incoming beam, this process has been optimized, and the frequency dependence analyzed. The efficiency of the process is limited when on resonance, and further investigations are underway to increase efficiency and characterize the frequency of the generated beam.

  13. Prospects for Next-Generation Storage Ring Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Storage ring light sources are among the most productive large-scale scientific user facilities in existence, owing to a combination of broad tunability, mature technology, high capacity, remarkable reliability, and high performance. The most commonly-used performance measure is the photon beam brightness, which is proportional to the flux per unit volume in six-dimensional phase space. The brightness is generally maximized by minimizing the transverse phase space area, or emittance, of the electron beam that generates the photons. Since the 1990's, most storage ring light sources have used a variant of the Chasman-Green, or double-bend-achromat (DBA), lattice, which produces transverse emittances of several nanometers. Presently, several light sources are under construction based on more challenging multi-bend-achromat (MBA) concepts, which promise an order of magnitude reduction in the emittance. Somewhat larger reductions are contemplated for upgrades of the largest facilities. This talk briefly surveys the relevant concepts in light source design, then explains both the mechanism and challenge of achieving next-generation emittances. Other factors, such as improved radiation-emitting devices, are also described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  15. Design and Experimental Evaluation of a 3rd Generation Addressable CMOS Piezoresistive Stress Sensing Test Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.

    1999-04-13

    Piezoresistive stress sensing chips have been used extensively for measurement of assembly related die surface stresses. Although many experiments can be performed with resistive structures which are directly bonded, for extensive stress mapping it is necessary to have a large number of sensor cells which can be addressed using CMOS logic circuitry. Our previous test chip, the ATC04, has 100 cells, each approximately 0.012 in. on a side, on a chip with a side dimension of 0.45 in. When a cell resistor is addressed, it is connected to a four terminal measurement bus through CMOS transmission gates. In theory, the gate resistances do not affect the measurement. In practice, there may be subtle effects which appear when very high accuracy is required. At high temperatures, gate leakage can increase to a point at which the resistor measurement becomes inaccurate. For ATC04 this occurred at or above 50 C. Here, we report on the first measurements obtained with a new prototype test chip, the ATC06. This prototype was fabricated in a 0.5 micron feature size silicided CMOS process using the MOSIS prototyping facility. The cell size was approximately 0.004 in. on a side. In order to achieve piezoresistive behavior for the implanted resistors it was necessary to employ a non-standard silicide ''blocking'' process. The stress sensitivity of both implanted and polysilicon blocked resistors is discussed. Using a new design strategy for the CMOS logic, it was possible to achieve a design in which only 5 signals had to be routed to a cell for addressing vs. 9 for ATC04. With our new design, the resistor under test is more effectively electrically isolated from other resistors on the chip, thereby improving high temperature performance. We present data showing operation up to 140 C.

  16. JLab CW Cryomodules for 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert; Bundy, Richard; Cheng, Guangfeng; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clemens, William; Daly, Edward; Henry, James; Hicks, William; Kneisel, Peter; Manning, Stephen; Manus, Robert; Marhauser, Frank; Preble, Joseph; Reece, Charles; Smith, Karl; Stirbet, Mircea; Turlington, Larry; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine

    2008-01-23

    Fourth generation light sources hold the prospect of unprecedented brightness and optical beam quality for a wide range of scientific applications. Many of the proposed new facilities will rely on large superconducting radio frequency (SRF) based linacs to provide high energy, low emittance CW electron beams. For high average power applications there is a growing acceptance of energy recovery linac (ERL) technology as the way to support large recirculating currents with modest RF power requirements. CW SRF and high current ERLs are two core competencies at Jefferson Lab. JLab has designed and built a number of CW cryomodules of several different types starting with the original CEBAF design, with variations for higher current in the two generations of JLab’s free-electron laser (FEL), through two intermediate prototypes to the final high-performance module for the 12 GeV upgrade. Each of these represent fully engineered and tested configurations with a variety of specifications that could be considered for possible use in fourth generation light sources. Furthermore JLab has been actively pursuing advanced concepts for highcurrent high-efficiency cryomodules for next generation ERL based FEL’s. These existing and proposed designs span the range from about 1mA single-pass to over 100 mA energy recovered current capability. Specialized configurations also exist for high-current non-energy recovered sections such as the injector region where very high RF power is required. We discuss the performance parameters of these existing and proposed designs and their suitability to different classes of fourth generation light sources.

  17. Correlates and Phenomenology of 1st and 3rd Person Memories

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Robins, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present research addressed fundamental questions about the visual perspective of autobiographical memories: Are stable personality characteristics associated with visual perspective? Does visual perspective influence the memory's phenomenological qualities? Participants in Study 1 (N = 1,684) completed individual-difference measures and indicated the perspective from which they generally retrieve memories. Participants in Study 2 (N = 706) retrieved a memory from their natural or manipulated perspective, rated its phenomenology, and completed the same individual-difference measures. Dissociation and anxiety were associated with 3rd person retrieval style; the Big Five personality traits were primarily unrelated to perspective. Compared to 3rd person memories, naturally-occurring 1st person memories were higher on Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Sensory Detail, Emotional Intensity, and Time Perspective and lower on Distancing; manipulating perspective eliminated these differences. Visual perspective is associated with clinically-relevant constructs and, although associated with the memory's phenomenology, perspective does not shape it. PMID:20665336

  18. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe. PMID:22185271

  19. Light Emitting Diode-Generated Blue Light Modulates Fibrosis Characteristics: Fibroblast Proliferation, Migration Speed, and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation

    PubMed Central

    Mamalis, Andrew; Garcha, Manveer; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum that does not generate harmful DNA adducts associated with skin cancer and photoaging, and may represent a safer therapeutic modality for treatment of keloid scars and other fibrotic skin diseases. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that light-emitting diode (LED) red and infrared light inhibits proliferation of skin fibroblasts. Moreover, different wavelengths of light can produce different biological effects. Furthermore, the effects of LED blue light (LED-BL) on human skin fibroblasts are not well characterized. This study investigated the effects of LED-BL on human skin fibroblast proliferation, viability, migration speed, and reactive oxygen-species (ROS) generation. Methods and Materials Irradiation of adult human skin fibroblasts using commercially-available LED-BL panels was performed in vitro, and modulation of proliferation and viability was quantified using the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, migratory speed was assessed using time-lapse video microscopy, and intracellular ROS generation was measured using the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Statistical differences between groups were determined by ANOVA and Student s t-test. Results Human skin fibroblasts treated with LED-BL fluences of 5, 30, 45, and 80 J/cm2 demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in relative proliferation of 8.4%, 29.1%, 33.8%, 51.7%, and 55.1%, respectively, compared to temperature and environment matched bench control plates, respectively. LED-BL fluences of 5, 30, 45 and 80 J/cm2 decreased fibroblast migration speed to 95 ± 7.0% (p = 0.64), 81.3 ± 5.5% (p = 0.021), 48.5 ± 2.7% (p < 0.0001), and 32.3 ± 1.9% (p < 0.0001), respectively, relative to matched controls. LED fluences of 5, 10, 30, and 80 J/cm2 resulted in statistically significant increases in reactive oxygen species of 110.4%, 116.6%, 127.5%, and 130%, respectively, relative to bench controls. Conclusion At

  20. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible. PMID:18282121

  1. Higher order modes of a 3rd harmonic cavity with an increased end-cup iris

    SciTech Connect

    T. Khabibouline; N. Solyak; R. Wanzenberg

    2003-05-19

    The cavity design for a 3rd harmonic cavity for the TTF 2 photoinjector has been revised to increase the coupling between the main coupler and the cavity cells. The iris radius of the end cup of the cavity has been increased to accomplish a better coupling. The basic rf-parameters and the higher order modes of the modified design are summarized in this report.

  2. What is FirstSchool? Issues in PreK-3rd Education. Number One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Sharon; Maxwell, Kelly; Clifford, Richard

    2009-01-01

    FirstSchool is part of a national PreK-3rd movement of schools, districts, educators and universities seeking to improve how children from ages 3 to 8 learn and develop in schools. While these different projects use a variety of names, all are working to connect high-quality PreK programs with high-quality elementary schools. FirstSchool is…

  3. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  5. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE 1/3rd RADIUS USING A NEW DESKTOP ULTRASONIC BONE DENSITOMETER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Emily M.; Rosete, Fernando; Young, Polly; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; McMahon, Donald J.; Luo, Gangming; Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Shane, Elizabeth; Siffert, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a novel ultrasound device to clinically estimate bone mineral density (BMD) at the 1/3rd radius. The device rests on a desktop and is portable, and permits real-time evaluation of the radial BMD. The device measures two (2) net time delay (NTD) parameters, NTDDW and NTDCW. NTDDW is defined as the difference between the transit time of an ultrasound pulse to travel through soft-tissue, cortex and medullary cavity, and the transit time through soft tissue only of equal overall distance. NTDCW is defined as the difference between the transit time of an ultrasound pulse to travel through soft-tissue and cortex only, and the transit time through soft tissue only again of equal overall distance. The square root of the product of these two parameters is a measure of the radial BMD at the 1/3rd location as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A clinical IRB-approved study measured ultrasonically sixty adults at the 1/3rd radius. BMD was also measured at the same anatomical site and time using DXA. A linear regression using NTD produced a linear correlation coefficient of 0.93 (P<0.001). These results are consistent with previously reported simulation and in vitro studies. In conclusion, although x-ray methods are effective in bone mass assessment, osteoporosis remains one of the largest undiagnosed and under-diagnosed diseases in the world today. The research described here should enable significant expansion of diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis through a desktop device that ultrasonically assesses bone mass at the 1/3rd radius. PMID:23312957

  6. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  7. Spatial multimode structure of atom-generated squeezed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mi; Lanning, R. Nicholas; Xiao, Zhihao; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of quantum fluctuations in a squeezed vacuum field, generated via polarization self-rotation (PSR) interaction of an ensemble of Rb atoms and a strong near-resonant linearly polarized laser field. We found that the noise suppression is greatly effected by the transverse profile of a spatial mask, placed in both the squeezed field and the local oscillator, as well as its position along the focused beam near the focal point. These observations indicate the spatial multimode structure of the squeezed vacuum field. We have developed a theoretical model that describes the generation of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes as a result of PSR light-atom interaction. The prediction of this model is in a good qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements.

  8. Spectrum of second-harmonic radiation generated from incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Stabinis, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Tamosauskas, G.; Piskarskas, A.

    2011-10-15

    We report on the development of the theory of second-harmonic generation by an incoherent pump with broad angular and frequency spectra. We show that spatial as well as temporal walk-off effects in a nonlinear crystal result in angular dispersion of the second-harmonic radiation. We demonstrate that the acceptance angle in second-harmonic generation by incoherent light is caused by the width of the pump angular spectrum and the resulting angular dispersion of second-harmonic radiation but does not depend on crystal length. In this case the frequency spectrum of second-harmonic radiation is determined by its angular dispersion and the pump angular spectrum. The theory is supported by an experiment in which a LiIO{sub 3} crystal was pumped by a tungsten halogen lamp.

  9. Nonlocality-driven supercontinuum white light generation in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, A. V.; Ginzburg, P.; Wurtz, G. A.; Zayats, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Structured plasmonic metals are widely employed for achieving nonlinear functionalities at the nanoscale due to their ability to confine and enhance electromagnetic fields and strong, inherent nonlinearity. Optical nonlinearities in centrosymmetric metals are dominated by conduction electron dynamics, which at the nanoscale can be significantly affected by the nonlocal effects. Here we show that nonlocal corrections, being usually small in the linear optical response, define nonlinear properties of plasmonic nanostructures. Using a full non-perturbative time-domain hydrodynamic description of electron plasma under femtosecond excitation, we numerically investigate harmonic generation in metallic Archimedean nanospirals, revealing the interplay between geometric and nonlocal effects. The quantum pressure term in the nonlinear hydrodynamic model results in the emergence of fractional nonlinear harmonics leading to broadband coherent white-light generation. The described effects present a novel class of nonlinear phenomena in metallic nanostructures determined by nonlocality of the electron response.

  10. Nonlocality-driven supercontinuum white light generation in plasmonic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Krasavin, A. V.; Ginzburg, P.; Wurtz, G. A.; Zayats, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Structured plasmonic metals are widely employed for achieving nonlinear functionalities at the nanoscale due to their ability to confine and enhance electromagnetic fields and strong, inherent nonlinearity. Optical nonlinearities in centrosymmetric metals are dominated by conduction electron dynamics, which at the nanoscale can be significantly affected by the nonlocal effects. Here we show that nonlocal corrections, being usually small in the linear optical response, define nonlinear properties of plasmonic nanostructures. Using a full non-perturbative time-domain hydrodynamic description of electron plasma under femtosecond excitation, we numerically investigate harmonic generation in metallic Archimedean nanospirals, revealing the interplay between geometric and nonlocal effects. The quantum pressure term in the nonlinear hydrodynamic model results in the emergence of fractional nonlinear harmonics leading to broadband coherent white-light generation. The described effects present a novel class of nonlinear phenomena in metallic nanostructures determined by nonlocality of the electron response. PMID:27157982

  11. Nonlocality-driven supercontinuum white light generation in plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Krasavin, A V; Ginzburg, P; Wurtz, G A; Zayats, A V

    2016-01-01

    Structured plasmonic metals are widely employed for achieving nonlinear functionalities at the nanoscale due to their ability to confine and enhance electromagnetic fields and strong, inherent nonlinearity. Optical nonlinearities in centrosymmetric metals are dominated by conduction electron dynamics, which at the nanoscale can be significantly affected by the nonlocal effects. Here we show that nonlocal corrections, being usually small in the linear optical response, define nonlinear properties of plasmonic nanostructures. Using a full non-perturbative time-domain hydrodynamic description of electron plasma under femtosecond excitation, we numerically investigate harmonic generation in metallic Archimedean nanospirals, revealing the interplay between geometric and nonlocal effects. The quantum pressure term in the nonlinear hydrodynamic model results in the emergence of fractional nonlinear harmonics leading to broadband coherent white-light generation. The described effects present a novel class of nonlinear phenomena in metallic nanostructures determined by nonlocality of the electron response. PMID:27157982

  12. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  13. Production of VUV coherent light by harmonic generation with the optical klystron of super-ACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prazeres, R.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Ortega, J. M.; Billardon, M.; Jaroszynski, D.

    1991-04-01

    The aim of the experiment presented was to develop a usable source of coherent light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range (200-50 nm) using the Super-ACO storage ring. A presentation is made of the most recent results where coherent photons have been produced at the 3rd (177 nm) and 5th (106 nm) harmonics of the incident laser. The better performance of the new machine and the laser, compared to the older ACO, is largely offset by experimental difficulties. The number of photons is, however. larger than that obtained with the ACO, but it is approximately one order of magnitude below the expected rate. This seems to be due to positron beam instabilities. The authors believe that the extremely critical alignment of the whole experiment, from the injection laser to the monochromator, does not appear to be compatible with a user facility.

  14. NURSING EMERGING. ANA Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, (2015) 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    AHNA Past-President Carla Mariano recently had the privilege of serving on the American Nurses Association's (ANA) Nursing Scope and Standards Revision Workgroup. Representing the specialty practice of holistic nursing, Carla's presence within this workgroup contributed greatly to the inclusion of holistic principles and values throughout the new 2015 Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd edition, the foundational document that informs and guides professional nursing practice within the United States. This is a significant step forward for holistic nursing and an indicator of our growing influence as specialty practice. PMID:27305802

  15. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  16. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  17. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  19. 77 FR 56637 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On August 30, 2007, the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, licensee for the Scotland... annual license for Project No. 2662 ] is issued to the FirstLight Hydro Generating Company for a...

  20. Light bulb heat exchanger for magnetohydrodynamic generator applications - Preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Hwang, C. C.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The light-bulb heat-exchanger concept is investigated as a possible means of using a combustion heat source to supply energy to an inert gas MHD power generator system. In this concept, combustion gases flow through a central passage which consists of a duct with transparent walls through which heat is transferred by radiation to a radiation receiver which in turn heats the inert gas by convection. The effects of combustion-gas emissivity, transparent-wall-transmissivity, radiation-receiver emissivity, and the use of fins in the inert gas coolant passage are studied. The results indicate that inert gas outlet temperatures of 2500 K are possible for combustion temperatures of 3200 K and that sufficient energy can be transferred from the combustion gas to reduce its temperature to approximately 2000 K. At this temperature more conventional heat exchangers can be used.

  1. Generation of infrared entangled light in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Li-Li; Huang, Pei

    2010-12-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve two-mode CV entanglement with the frequencies of entangled modes in the infrared range in an asymmetric semiconductor double-quantum-wells (DQW), where the required quantum coherence is obtained by inducing the corresponding intersubband transitions (ISBTs) with a classical field. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the entanglement period can be prolonged via enhancing the intensity of classical field, and the generation of entanglement doesn't depend intensively on the initial condition of system in our scheme. Moreover, we also show that a bipartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in our scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve infrared entangled light in the semiconductor nanostructure, which may have significant impact on the progress of solid-state quantum information theory.

  2. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  3. White light generation from Dy3+ doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damak, Kamel; Yousef, El Sayed; Rüssel, Christian; Maâlej, Ramzi

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral results of Dy3+ (1.0 mol%) ions-doped TeO2-ZnO-PbO-PbF2-Na2O (TZPPN) glass. Raman spectrum measurements, differential thermal analysis (DTA) profiles of this rare-earth ion-doped glass were carried out. From the DTA thermogram, glass transition (Tg), crystallization (Tc) and melting (Tm) temperatures were evaluated. Direct and indirect optical band gaps were calculated based on the glasses UV absorption spectra. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters, Ωk, were calculated. Using J-O intensity parameters, several radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), radiative branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) were determined for the excitation level 4F9/2. From the emission spectra, a strong yellow emission at 574 nm (4F9/2→6H13/2) was observed and it also showed a combination of blue and red emission bands for this glass. The stimulated emission cross-section σ(λp) was also evaluated for the 4F9/2→6HJ (J=11/2, 13/2, and 15/2) transitions. This study indicates that 1 mol% Dy2O3-doped tellurite glass can be considered for white light generation with the excitation of blue light (454 nm).

  4. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  5. Treatment of 3rd molar-induced periodontal defects with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oxford, G E; Quintero, G; Stuller, C B; Gher, M E

    1997-07-01

    Recent reports provide evidence of increased attachment levels when using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques for the treatment of periodontal defects. Periodontal defects frequently occur at the distal aspect of mandibular 2nd molars which are next to mesioangular impacted 3rd molars that have oral communication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of GTR can enhance probing attachment levels (PALs) following extraction of mesioangular impacted third molars. 12 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular 3rd molars entered this split mouth study. After extractions, the previously exposed distal root surface of the 2nd molars were debrided. The defects on the randomly selected experimental sites were covered with expanded polytetraflouro-ethylene (e-PTFE) membrane and the tissue was replaced to cover the membrane. Membranes were removed after 6 weeks. Control sites were treated identically except no membrane was placed. GI, P1I, PD, PAL and BOP records were obtained at 0, 3 and 6 months. The use of barrier material did not provide statistically-significant differences in PAL when comparing experimental versus control sites. Nevertheless, PAL gain was consistently greater at 3 and 6 months when GTR techniques were used in sites with deep impactions. PMID:9226386

  6. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007–2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3rd-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4th grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. PMID:20975982

  7. Super-luminescent jet light generated by femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhijun; Zhu, Xiaonong; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Jiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena of nonlinear light-matter interaction that occur during the propagation of intense ultrashort laser pulses in continuous media have been extensively studied in ultrafast optical science. In this vibrant research field, conversion of the input laser beam into optical filament(s) is commonly encountered. Here, we demonstrate generation of distinctive single or double super-luminescent optical jet beams as a result of strong spatial-temporal nonlinear interaction between focused 50 fs millijoule laser pulses and their induced micro air plasma. Such jet-like optical beams, being slightly divergent and coexisting with severely distorted conical emission of colored speckles, are largely different from optical filaments, and obtainable when the focal lens of proper f-number is slightly tilted or shifted. Once being collimated, the jet beams can propagate over a long distance in air. These beams not only reveal a potentially useful approach to coherent optical wave generation, but also may find applications in remote sensing. PMID:24463611

  8. Light absorption properties of laboratory-generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2016-01-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type that is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC), which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g., organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study, we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up, which generate pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as the size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory-generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84 - 0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum, these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have

  9. Light absorption properties of laboratory generated tar ball particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, A.; Tóth, A.; Nyirő-Kósa, I.; Pósfai, M.; Gelencsér, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tar balls (TBs) are a specific particle type which is abundant in the global troposphere, in particular in biomass smoke plumes. These particles belong to the family of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) which can absorb light in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Albeit TBs are typically present as individual particles in biomass smoke plumes, their absorption properties have been only indirectly inferred from field observations or calculations based on their electron energy-loss spectra. This is because in biomass smoke TBs coexist with various other particle types (e.g. organic particles with inorganic inclusions and soot, the latter is emitted mainly during flaming conditions) from which they cannot be physically separated; thus, a direct experimental determination of their absorption properties is not feasible. Very recently we have demonstrated that TBs can be generated in the laboratory from droplets of wood tar that resemble atmospheric TBs in all of their observed properties. As a follow-up study we have installed on-line instruments to our laboratory set-up generating pure TB particles to measure the absorption and scattering, as well as size distribution of the particles. In addition, samples were collected for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and total carbon (TC) analysis. The effects of experimental parameters were also studied. The mass absorption coefficients of the laboratory generated TBs were found to be in the range of 0.8-3.0 m2 g-1 at 550 nm, with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 2.7 and 3.4 (average 2.9) in the wavelength range 467-652 nm. The refractive index of TBs as derived from Mie calculations was about 1.84-0.21i at 550 nm. In the brown carbon continuum these values fall closer to those of soot than to other light-absorbing species such as humic-like substances (HULIS). Considering the abundance of TBs in biomass smoke and the global magnitude of biomass burning emissions, these findings may have substantial

  10. Proceedings - 3rd joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference proceedings contains 53 papers. Topics covered include: carbon dioxide flooding; high solubilization of brine and oil recovery; seismic imaging; monitoring method for carbon dioxide flooding; LPG flood evaluation; tertiary oil recovery; chemical enhancement of oil production; in-situ combustion; measuring steam quality; downhole steam generator; oxygen combustion process for heavy oil recovery; fracture-assisted steam flood; polymers for enhanced oil recovery; sealing of linear and pattern chemical floods; interfacial light scattering in microemulsion; and well injection. All papers are abstracted separately.

  11. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  13. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; Bono, Hubert; Templier, François

    2016-03-01

    LED have become the main light sources of the future as they open the path for intelligent use of light in time, intensity and color. In many usages, strong energy economy is done by adjusting these properties. The smart lighting has three dimensions, energy efficiency brought by GaN blue emitting LEDs, integration of electronics, sensors, microprocessors in the lighting system and development of new functionalities and services provided by the light. Monolithic LED arrays allow two major innovations, the spatial control of light emission and the adjustment of the electrical properties of the source.

  14. EDITORIAL: Photonica 2011: 3rd International School and Conference on Photonics Photonica 2011: 3rd International School and Conference on Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stepić, Milutin; Hadžievski, Ljupčo

    2012-04-01

    Photonics is a rapidly growing discipline of physics that investigates properties of light and its interaction with matter and develops devices based on these properties. Due to both the fundamental and applied nature of photonics research, it pervades many branches of modern technology: quantum mechanics, material science, electronics, telecommunications, biology, medicine, material processing, etc. The borders between these subjects are being erased, generating new research areas such as silicon photonics, biophotonics and quantum photonics. Diverse branches of photonics are united in a common effort to further miniaturize photonic devices, integrate them with existing technologies and develop new technologies. The International School and Conference on Photonics—Photonica—is a biennial forum for the education of young scientists, exchanging new knowledge and ideas, and fostering collaboration between scientists working in photonic science and technology. Conference topics cover a broad range of research activities in optical materials, metamaterials and plasmonics, nonlinear optics, lasers, laser spectroscopy, biophotonics, optoelectronics, optocommunications, photonic crystals, holography, quantum optics and related topics in atomic physics. The aim of the organizers is to provide a platform for discussing new developments, concepts and future trends of various disciplines of photonics by bringing together researchers from academia, government and industrial laboratories. The educational element of Photonica—a series of tutorials and keynote talks—enables students and young researchers to better understand the fundamentals and their use on a route to applications, and informs both young and experienced scientists of new directions of research. The introductory lectures that are directly related to the state-of-the-art are followed by presentations and discussions on recent results during oral and vibrant poster presentations. This Topical Issue is

  15. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  16. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting. PMID:24257515

  17. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting. PMID:24257515

  18. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  19. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" firearm safety lesson for 3rd-graders.

    PubMed

    Liller, Karen D; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B; Gonzalez, Robin R

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to determine the effectiveness of the class in increasing student knowledge about firearm safety. The results revealed a significant increase in the mean scores on the posttest compared with the pretest. Qualitative findings showed the lesson was positively received by both students and teachers, and 65% of responding students reported discussing the lesson with family members. School nurses are encouraged to take a leading role in promoting firearm injury prevention to students. PMID:14622039

  20. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  1. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion. PMID:12349764

  2. Detection and clinical evolution of scrapie in sheep by 3rd eyelid biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Francisco; Luján, Lluís; Bolea, Rosa; Monleón, Eva; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Fernández, Antonio; De Blas, Ignacio; Badiola, Juan José

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this article was to characterize the clinical evolution of scrapie in naturally affected sheep. Eighteen sheep with scrapie diagnosed by examination of 3rd eyelid biopsy and 12 control ewes were studied throughout the duration of their disease. Diagnosis was confirmed postmortem by histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analysis of nervous tissue. Complete clinical examinations were performed every 2 weeks for each animal, of which 3 clinical examinations per animal are reported. Those clinical signs that showed a significant frequency within the corresponding clinical examination were considered representative of each stage of the disease (ie, early, middle, and late). The representative clinical signs for the early stage were hypoesthesia in the limbs, alteration of mental status, and a body condition score <3. Remarkably, hypoesthesia in the limbs was one of the 1st signs appearing during the early clinical stage in the affected animals, even before the appearance of other signs. For the middle stage, representative signs were the same as those for the early stage, together with hyporreflexia in the limbs, cardiac arrhythmia, pruritus/wool loss, and the appearance of the nibbling reflex. Representative clinical signs for the late stage were the same as those for the early and middle stage, together with head tremors, hyperexcitability to external stimuli, ataxia or gait abnormalities, and teeth grinding. On the basis of these results, we propose the calculation of an objective clinical index that allows the differentiation among clinical stages and that could be useful for further studies. The usefulness of 3rd eyelid lymphoid tissue biopsies for sequential clinical studies in naturally scrapie-affected sheep is demonstrated. PMID:16496940

  3. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  4. Next Generation Luminaires: Recognizing Innovative, Energy-Efficient Commercial Lighting Luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    Fact sheet that describes the Next Generation Luminaires SSL lighting design competition, which recognizes excellence in technical innovation and design of high-quality, energy-efficient commercial lighting, both indoor and outdoor.

  5. Suppression of white light generation (supercontinuum) in biological media: a pilot study using human salivary proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Alti, K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Mathur, D.

    2007-02-01

    Propagation of ultrashort pulses of intense, infrared light through transparent medium gives rise to a visually spectacular phenomenon known as supercontinuum (white light) generation wherein the spectrum of transmitted light is very considerably broader than that of the incident light. We have studied the propagation of ultrafast (<45 fs) pulses of intense infrared light through biological media (water, and water doped with salivary proteins) which reveal that white light generation is severely suppressed in the presence of a major salivary protein, α-amylase.

  6. Next Generation Lighting Technologies (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Siminovittch, Micheal

    2014-05-06

    For the past several years, Michael Siminovittch, a researcher in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has worked to package efficient lighting in an easy-to-use and good-looking lamp. His immensely popular "Berkeley Lamp" has redefined how America lights its offices.

  7. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  8. Effects of notetaking instruction on 3rd grade student's science learning and notetaking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.

  9. Resurgence of duckweed research and applications: report from the 3rd International Duckweed Conference.

    PubMed

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Sree, K Sowjanya; Fakhoorian, Tamra; Lam, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Duckweed, flowering plants in the Lemnaceae family, comprises the smallest angiosperms in the plant kingdom. They have some of the fastest biomass accumulation rates reported to date for plants and have the demonstrated ability to thrive on wastewater rich in dissolved organic compounds and thus could help to remediated polluted water resources and prevents eutrophication. With a high quality genome sequence now available and increased commercial interest worldwide to develop duckweed biomass for renewables such as protein and fuel, the 3rd International Duckweed Conference convened at Kyoto, Japan, in July of 2015, to update the community of duckweed researchers and developers on the progress in the field. In addition to sharing results and ideas, the conference also provided ample opportunities for new-comers as well as established workers in the field to network and create new aliances. We hope this meeting summary will also help to disseminate the key advances and observations that have been presented in this conference to the broader plant biology community in order to encourage increased cross-fertilization of ideas and technologies. PMID:26506824

  10. Measuring the cascade rate in anisotropic turbulence through 3rd order structure functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Von-Karman-Howart-Yaglom-Politano-Poquet (KHYPP)law, to compute the cascade rate by means of 3rd order structure functions in homogeneous, forced, DNS at high resolution. We consider first the isotropic case (no guide field) and verify that the cascade rate is consistent with the dissipation rate. Then we consider an anisotropic case (with guide field) for which the isotropic KHYPP law does not apply. We compute the parallel and perpendicular cascade rates and find that the latter basically accounts for the total dissipation rate, as expected for anisotropic turbulence. Also, the cascade rate derived from the isotropic law is found to be a good approximation for the total cascade rate. Recent works have shown that the hypothesis of stationary turbulence must be probably relaxed in the solar wind. We present preliminary results on the measure of the cascade rate in the expanding solar wind, obtained with DNS of MHD turbulence in the expanding box model. Such model incorporates the basic physic of expansion thus inducing anisotropies driven by both the magnetic field and expansion, along with an energy decrease due to the conservation of linear invariants (angular momentum and magnetic flux). The correction due to non-stationary conditions is found to be important and to become negligible only at small scales, thus suggesting that solar wind measurements over- estimate the actual cascade rate.

  11. Report from the 3rd AIDS Impact Conference: culture, community, empowerment.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, P

    1997-10-01

    Presentations made at the 3rd AIDS Impact Conferences in June 1997 in Melbourne, Australia are summarized. The presentations focused on the importance of local beliefs, practices, and sexual cultures as factors that impact HIV risk. The three dominant themes of this conference were a concern for community, an emphasis on culture, and empowerment for the most vulnerable groups. Speakers illustrated the importance of culture as a factor in the form, context, and meaning of sex among young men and women in Thailand, Australia, Italy, Cambodia, and the United States. Studies conducted in correctional facilities illustrate how the culture of sex and substance use can intensify the HIV risk. Papers examined the sexual revolution in China and the experiences of indigenous people in Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand. The presentations also highlighted drug use cultures among gay men in Australian and German cities and introduced new research methodologies for the analysis of these processes and issues. The closing presentation considered the politics of HIV and their relationship to national and international processes of negative societal responses to HIV diseases. PMID:11364796

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  13. Effect of 3rd-degree gravity harmonics and Earth perturbations on lunar artificial satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzirti, S.; Tsiganis, K.; Varvoglis, H.

    2010-12-01

    In a previous work we studied the effects of (I) the J 2 and C 22 terms of the lunar potential and (II) the rotation of the primary on the critical inclination orbits of artificial satellites. Here, we show that, when 3rd-degree gravity harmonics are taken into account, the long-term orbital behavior and stability are strongly affected, especially for a non-rotating central body, where chaotic or collision orbits dominate the phase space. In the rotating case these phenomena are strongly weakened and the motion is mostly regular. When the averaged effect of the Earth’s perturbation is added, chaotic regions appear again for some inclination ranges. These are more important for higher values of semi-major axes. We compute the main families of periodic orbits, which are shown to emanate from the ‘frozen eccentricity’ and ‘critical inclination’ solutions of the axisymmetric problem (‘ J 2 + J 3’). Although the geometrical properties of the orbits are not preserved, we find that the variations in e, I and g can be quite small, so that they can be of practical importance to mission planning.

  14. Measurement and correction of the 3rd order resonance in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    At Fermilab Tevatron BPM system has been recently upgraded resulting much better accuracy of beam position measurements and improvements of data acquisition for turn-by-turn measurements. That allows one to record the beam position at each turn for 8000 turns for all BPMs (118 in each plane) with accuracy of about 10-20 {micro}m. In the last decade a harmonic analysis tool has been developed at CERN that allows relating each FFT line derived from the BPM data with a particular non-linear resonance in the machine. In fact, one can even detect the longitudinal position of the sources of these resonances. Experiments have been performed at the Tevatron in which beams have been kicked to various amplitudes to analyze the 3rd order resonance. It was possible to address this rather large resonance to some regular machine sextupoles. An alternative sextupole scheme allowed the suppression of this resonance by a good factor of 2. Lastly, the experimental data are compared with model calculations.

  15. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  16. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  17. Generation of an incident focused light pulse in FDTD

    PubMed Central

    Çapoğlu, İlker R.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward procedure is described for accurately creating an incident focused light pulse in the 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulation of the image space of an aplanatic converging lens. In this procedure, the focused light pulse is approximated by a finite sum of plane waves, and each plane wave is introduced into the FDTD simulation grid using the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) approach. The accuracy of our results is demonstrated by comparison with exact theoretical formulas. PMID:19582013

  18. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  19. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  20. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  1. A mechanism to explain the generation of earthquake lights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Explanations of how earthquake lights might arise have failed to show how large charge densities can be concentrated and sustained in a conductive Earth. A physical model is proposed, based on frictional heating of the fault, that solves this and related problems. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  3. Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…

  4. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  5. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  6. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  7. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  8. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) focuses on the earliest stages of human development, and provides a novel paradigm to complement other strategies for lifelong prevention of common chronic health conditions. The 3rd International Congress on DOHaD, held in 2005, retained the most ...

  9. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  10. Visual Arts Teaching in Kindergarten through 3rd-Grade Classrooms in the UAE: Teacher Profiles, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…

  11. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  12. Superconducting light generator for large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, S.; Arlaban, T.; Manzanas, R.; Tropeano, M.; Funke, R.; Kováč, P.; Yang, Y.; Neumann, H.; Mondesert, B.

    2014-05-01

    Offshore wind market demands higher power rate and reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational cost. These requests are difficult to overcome with conventional generator technologies due to a significant weight and cost increase with the scaling up. Thus superconducting materials appears as a prominent solution for wind generators, based on their capacity to held high current densities with very small losses, which permits to efficiently replace copper conductors mainly in the rotor field coils. However the state-of-the-art superconducting generator concepts still seem to be expensive and technically challenging for the marine environment. This paper describes a 10 MW class novel direct drive superconducting generator, based on MgB2 wires and a modular cryogen free cooling system, which has been specifically designed for the offshore wind industry needs.

  13. Illuminating Solar Decathlon Homes: Exploring Next Generation Lighting Technology - Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-05-22

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the US Department of Energy Building Technologies Program, Solid-State Lighting Program. The report will be provided to teams of university students who are building houses for the 2009 Solar Decathlon, a home design competition sponsored in part by DOE, to encourage teams to build totally solar powered homes. One aspect of the competition is lighting. This report provides the teams with information about LED lighting that can help them determine how they incorporate LED lighting into their homes. The report provides an overview of LED technology, a status of where LED technology is today, questions and answers about lighting quality, efficiency, lifetime etc.; numerous examples of LED products; and several weblinks for further research.

  14. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  15. Light Generation and Harvesting in a van der Waals Heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are a new type of materials under intense study because of their interesting physical properties and wide range of potential applications from nanoelectronics to sensing and photonics. Monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2 or WSe2 have been proposed as promising channel materials for field-effect transistors. Their high mechanical flexibility, stability, and quality coupled with potentially inexpensive production methods offer potential advantages compared to organic and crystalline bulk semiconductors. Due to quantum mechanical confinement, the band gap in monolayer MoS2 is direct in nature, leading to a strong interaction with light that can be exploited for building phototransistors and ultrasensitive photodetectors. Here, we report on the realization of light-emitting diodes based on vertical heterojunctions composed of n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type silicon. Careful interface engineering allows us to realize diodes showing rectification and light emission from the entire surface of the heterojunction. Electroluminescence spectra show clear signs of direct excitons related to the optical transitions between the conduction and valence bands. Our p–n diodes can also operate as solar cells, with typical external quantum efficiency exceeding 4%. Our work opens up the way to more sophisticated optoelectronic devices such as lasers and heterostructure solar cells based on hybrids of 2D semiconductors and silicon. PMID:24601517

  16. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  17. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  18. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  19. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  20. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  1. Generation of isolated asymmetric umbilics in light's polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Enrique J.; Rojec, Brett L.; Kumar, Vijay; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2014-03-01

    Polarization-singularity C points, a form of line singularities, are the vectorial counterparts of the optical vortices of spatial modes and fundamental optical features of polarization-spatial modes. Their generation in tailored beams has been limited to so-called "lemon" and "star" C points that contain symmetric dislocations in state-of-polarization patterns. In this Rapid Communication we present the theory and laboratory measurements of two complementary methods to generate isolated asymmetric C points in tailored beams, of which symmetric lemon and star patterns are limiting cases; and we report on the generation of so-called "monstar" patterns, an asymmetric C point with characteristics of both lemons and stars.

  2. Coherent Generation of Nonclassical Light on Chip via Detuned Photon Blockade.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai; Rundquist, Armand; Fischer, Kevin A; Sarmiento, Tomas; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Kelaita, Yousif A; Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; del Valle, Elena; Laussy, Fabrice P; Vučković, Jelena

    2015-06-12

    The on-chip generation of nonclassical states of light is a key requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such nonclassical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon tunneling) or diminish (photon blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Here, we demonstrate that detuning the cavity and quantum-dot resonances enables the generation of high-purity nonclassical light from strongly coupled systems. For specific detunings we show that not only the purity but also the efficiency of single-photon generation increases significantly, making high-quality single-photon generation by photon blockade possible with current state-of-the-art samples. PMID:26196801

  3. Cylindrical plasmas generated by an annular beam of ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Allen, J. E.

    2015-07-15

    We investigate a cylindrical plasma system with ionization, by an annular beam of ultraviolet light, taking place only in the cylinder's outer region. In the steady state, both the outer and inner regions contain a plasma, with that in the inner region being uniform and field-free. At the interface between the two regions, there is an infinitesimal jump in ion density, the magnitude approaching zero in the quasi-neutral (λ{sub D} → 0) limit. The system offers the possibility of producing a uniform stationary plasma in the laboratory, hitherto obtained only with thermally produced alkali plasmas.

  4. The Generation of Lighting in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey; Desch, S. J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The process that melted and formed the chondrules, mm-sized glassy beads within meteorites, has not been conclusively identified. Origin by lightning in the solar nebula is consistent with many features of chondrules, but no viable model of lightning has yet been advanced. We present a model demonstrating how lightning could be generated in the solar nebula which differs from previous models in three important aspects. First, we identify a new', powerful charging mechanism that is based on the differences in contact potentials between particles of different composition, a form of triboelectric charging. In the presence of fine silicate grains and fine iron metal grains, large silicate particles (the chondrules) can acquire charges of +10(exp 5) e. Second, we assume that the chondrule precursor particles are selectively concentrated in clumps 1 - 100 km in size by the turbulent concentration mechanism described by Cuzzi et al. (1996). The concentration of these highly charged particles into clumps, in a background of negatively charged metal grains, is what generates the strong electric fields. Third, we make refinements in the estimates of the breakdown electric field and the ionization rate. We calculate that electric fields large enough to trigger breakdown easily could have existed over regions large enough (approx. 100km) to generate very large discharges of electrical energy (approx. 10(exp 16)erg). The discharges would have been sufficiently energetic and frequent to have formed the chondrules. We place constraints on the generation of lightning and conclude that it could not be generated if the abundance of Al-26 in chondrules was as high as the level in the CAls. This conclusion is consistent with isotopic analyses of chondrules. This possibly implies that Al-26 was non-uniformly distributed in the solar nebula or that the chondrules formed several Myr after the CAIs.

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Based on the use of laser as a coherent and intense light source, the photo-acoustics originated from the discovery made by Alexander Graham Bell was extended to laser-ultrasonics (LU), and it has been applied to wide area of ultrasonics, optics, material characterization and nondestructive inspection. In 1996, a research group for LU was started in the Japanese Society for Nondestructive Inspection (JSNDI), and researches on LU and related topics such as noncontact measurements and elastic wave theories were discussed. Similar activities were pursued also in North America and in Europe. The international symposium on LU was started in Montreal, Canada in 2008 by Jean Pierre Monchalin in order to offer a forum for involved with basic researches and industrial applications of LU. In the second symposium in Bordeaux, France nearly 120 papers were presented. It is our honor to have organized the third symposium, LU2013 on 25-28 June in Yokohama, Japan. The articles published here provide a sample of achievements presented there. In LU2013, we focused on the laser generation and/or detection of acoustic waves, application to nondestructive testing, ultrafast-optoacoustics and innovative instruments. Research achievements in biomedical applications, advanced sensing including noncontact, micro/nanoscale or nonlinear measurements, as well as theory and simulation of ultrasound were also included, considering the interdisciplinary nature of this field. We enjoyed very excellent and informative 3 plenary talks, 11 invited talks, 81 oral and 41 poster presentations with 168 attendees. According to requests, we organized a post deadline poster session to give an opportunity to present recent achievements after the deadline. Contributions of the participants, the scientific and organizing committees are highly appreciated. The conference tour was a dinner cruise to the Tokyo bay, and we hope this experience will remain as a pleasant memory in attendees. As decided in the

  6. Light-Mediated Sulfenic Acid Generation from Photocaged Cysteine Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia; Carroll, Kate S

    2015-12-18

    S-Sulfenylation is a post-translational modification with a crucial role in regulating protein function. However, its analysis has remained challenging due to the lack of facile sulfenic acid models. We report the first photocaged cysteine sulfenic acid with efficient photodeprotection and demonstrate its utility by generating sulfenic acid in a thiol peroxidase after illumination in vitro. These caged sulfoxides should be promising for site-specific incorporation of Cys sulfenic acid in living cells via genetic code expansion. PMID:26641493

  7. Optics, Diagnostics and Applications for Fourth-Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A; Barbee, T; Bionta, R; Chapman, H; Ditmire, T; Dyer, G; Kuba, J; Jankowski, A; London, R; Ryutov, R; Shepherd, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Toor, A

    2003-02-05

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL), proposed for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC). The photon output consists of high brightness, transversely coherent pulses with duration < 300 fs, together with a broad spontaneous spectrum with total power comparable to the coherent output. The output fluence, and pulse duration, pose special challenges for optical component and diagnostic designs. We first discuss the specific requirements for the initial scientific experiments, and our proposed solutions. We then describe the supporting research and development program that includes: (1) radiation field modeling, (2) experimental and theoretical material damage studies, (3) high resolution, high fluence-tolerant optical design, fabrication, and testing, (including material manufacturing), and (4) diagnostic design and testing.

  8. Decoupling illumination from isosurface generation using 4D light transport.

    PubMed

    Banks, David C; Beason, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    One way to provide global illumination for the scientist who performs an interactive sweep through a 3D scalar dataset is to pre-compute global illumination, resample the radiance onto a 3D grid, then use it as a 3D texture. The basic approach of repeatedly extracting isosurfaces, illuminating them, and then building a 3D illumination grid suffers from the non-uniform sampling that arises from coupling the sampling of radiance with the sampling of isosurfaces. We demonstrate how the illumination step can be decoupled from the isosurface extraction step by illuminating the entire 3D scalar function as a 3-manifold in 4-dimensional space. By reformulating light transport in a higher dimension, one can sample a 3D volume without requiring the radiance samples to aggregate along individual isosurfaces in the pre-computed illumination grid. PMID:19834238

  9. Decoupling Illumination from Isosurface Generation Using 4D Light Transport

    PubMed Central

    Banks, David C.; Beason, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    One way to provide global illumination for the scientist who performs an interactive sweep through a 3D scalar dataset is to pre-compute global illumination, resample the radiance onto a 3D grid, then use it as a 3D texture. The basic approach of repeatedly extracting isosurfaces, illuminating them, and then building a 3D illumination grid suffers from the non-uniform sampling that arises from coupling the sampling of radiance with the sampling of isosurfaces. We demonstrate how the illumination step can be decoupled from the isosurface extraction step by illuminating the entire 3D scalar function as a 3-manifold in 4-dimensional space. By reformulating light transport in a higher dimension, one can sample a 3D volume without requiring the radiance samples to aggregate along individual isosurfaces in the pre-computed illumination grid. PMID:19834238

  10. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    A new version of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) is being compiled in the framework of cooperation between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This initiative aims at mapping the global land degradation and desertification, as well as introducing the reader with complex interactions of geo-physical, socio-economic, and political aspects that affect the environmental sustainability. Recurrent extreme events resulting from climate change, such as more severe droughts, combined with non-adapted land use practices can affect the resilience of ecosystems tipping them into a less productive state. Thus, to describe the effects of climatological hazards on land degradation and desertification processes, we computed a World drought climatology that will be part of the 3rd edition of the WAD and will replace and update to 2010 the results presented in the 2nd edition in 1997. This paper presents the methodology used to compute three parameters included in the WAD drought climatology, i.e. drought frequency, intensity and duration, and discusses their spatio-temporal patterns both at global and continental scales. Because drought is mainly driven and triggered by a rainfall deficit, we chose the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as the drought indicator to estimate our climatological parameters. The SPI is a statistical precipitation-based drought indicator widely used in drought-related studies. We calculated the SPI on three different accumulation periods: 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6), and 12 months (SPI-12), in order to take into account meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought-related features. Each quantity has been calculated on a monthly basis using the baseline period between January 1951 and December 2010. As data input, we used the Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 (0.5˚x0.5˚) of gridded monthly precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation

  11. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  12. Modular approach to achieving the next-generation X-ray light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Freund, H. P.

    2001-12-01

    A modular approach to the next-generation light source is described. The "modules" include photocathode, radio-frequency, electron guns and their associated drive-laser systems, linear accelerators, bunch-compression systems, seed laser systems, planar undulators, two-undulator harmonic generation schemes, high-gain harmonic generation systems, nonlinear higher harmonics, and wavelength shifting. These modules will be helpful in distributing the next-generation light source to many more laboratories than the current single-pass, high-gain free-electron laser designs permit, due to both monetary and/or physical space constraints.

  13. Generation of high-power laser light with Gigahertz splitting.

    PubMed

    Unks, B E; Proite, N A; Yavuz, D D

    2007-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of two high-power laser beams whose frequencies are separated by the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in (87)Rb. The system uses a single master diode laser appropriately shifted by high frequency acousto-optic modulators and amplified by semiconductor tapered amplifiers. This produces two 1 W laser beams with a frequency spacing of 6.834 GHz and a relative frequency stability of 1 Hz. We discuss possible applications of this apparatus, including electromagnetically induced transparency-like effects and ultrafast qubit rotations. PMID:17764314

  14. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental..., for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-31 and DPR-41, issued to Florida Power & Light Company (the... quantity of non- radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination...

  15. Optical Pumping Experiments on Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Scott, H; Chung, H K; Lee, R W

    2004-07-29

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 22}cm{sup -3} as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility(TTF) at DESY(Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE(self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 10{sup 13} photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from {approx} 6nm to 100nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can easily be monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  16. Mechanical design and engineering of the 3.9 GHZ, 3rd harmonic SRF system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Don Mitchell et al.

    2004-08-05

    The mechanical development of the 3.9 GHz, 3rd Harmonic SRF System is summarized to include: the development of a full scale copper prototype cavity structure; the design of the niobium 3 cell and niobium 9 cell structures; the design of the helium vessel and cryostat; the HOM coupler design; and a preliminary look at the main coupler design. The manufacturing processes for forming, rolling, and e-beam welding the HOM coupler, cavity cells, and end tubes are also described. Due to the exotic materials and manufacturing processes used in this type of device, a cost estimate for the material and fabrication is provided. The 3rd harmonic design is organized via a web-based data management approach.

  17. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  18. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  19. High-order harmonic generation enhanced by XUV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2011-09-01

    The combination of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with resonant XUV excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process is investigated theoretically. In this setup, the first electron performs a HHG three-step process, whereas the second electron Rabi flops between the core and the valence vacancy. The modified HHG spectrum due to recombination with the valence and the core is determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d→4p resonance in the ion. We assume an 800nm laser with an intensity of about 1014Wcm2 and XUV radiation from the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) with an intensity in the range 1013--1016Wcm2. Our prediction opens perspectives for nonlinear XUV physics, attosecond x rays, and HHG-basedspectroscopy involving core orbitals.

  20. High-order harmonic generation enhanced by XUV light

    SciTech Connect

    Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2012-03-19

    The combination of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with resonant XUV excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process is investigated theoretically. In this setup, the first electron performs a HHG three-step process, whereas the second electron Rabi flops between the core and the valence vacancy. The modified HHG spectrum due to recombination with the valence and the core is determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d {yields} 4p resonance in the ion. We assume an 800 nm laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 14} Wcm{sup 2} and XUV radiation from the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) with an intensity in the range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 16} Wcm{sup 2}. Our prediction opens perspectives for nonlinear XUV physics, attosecond x rays, and HHG-based spectroscopy involving core orbitals.

  1. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  2. Lighting effects rendering in three-dimensional computer-generated holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan

    2016-07-01

    We present a technique for generating three-dimensional (3-D) computer-generated holograms (CGHs) with realistic lighting effects based on a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). Phong reflection model is employed in the calculation of reflectance distribution for CGH synthesizing. Directional point-based algorithm produces realistic lighting effects of the 3-D scenes in processing the ambient, diffuse and specular reflections. A phase-only SLM is used to perform the optical experiments, and the results show that the proposed technique can perform quality reconstructions of the 3-D scenes with high optical efficiency and efficient utilization of the system space-bandwidth product.

  3. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd Edition (by Kenneth L. Williamson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeffe, Reviewed By James

    1999-11-01

    suggested semiempirical computations. Other new texts, for example that by Pavia et al. (3rd ed., 1999), take computation even further. New features in the third edition include reduction of the macroscale experimental quantities to amounts compatible with 14/20 standard-taper glassware. Additionally, there are some useful and characteristically clever equipment adaptations for microfiltration and gas phase IR spectra, a few new or updated experiments, replacement of all IR spectra by Fourier transform spectra, and routine use of 250-MHz 1H NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is briefly discussed but not further encountered. One new feature which looks promising is called "Surfing the Web". Pertinent Web site addresses dot the book, but it would be useful if these were indexed as a group. The brief but up-to-date chapter on searching the literature includes addresses and some advice on accessing commercial databases. Regarding the lab course itself, two useful addresses are http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/ and Williamson's own site (under construction as I write), http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/kwilliam/microscale.shtml, where pictures of techniques and other support information will interest teachers and students alike. Williamson has always been responsive to users of his texts, and will probably be quick to incorporate new information and improved techniques at this site. There are a few areas where improvement can still be made. The chapter on IR spectroscopy, although revised, does not contain an extensive, conventional table of characteristic group frequencies. All our instructors supplement the text with standard tables. We also find the section on organic qualitative analysis to be limited and mildly difficult to use. Students must do a lot of page turning, back and forth, to find some of the tests and recipes needed. At SFSU more than half of our second-semester lab is given over to organic qual, and no single lab text except that of Pasto

  4. Light-Induced Acid Generation on a Gatekeeper for Smart Nitric Oxide Delivery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Jinhwan; Kim, Yonghwi; Song, Hyun Beom; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-04-26

    We report herein the design of a light-responsive gatekeeper for smart nitric oxide (NO) delivery. The gatekeeper is composed of a pH-jump reagent as an intermediary of stimulus and a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating as a shielding layer for NO release. The light irradiation and subsequent acid generation are used as triggers for uncapping the gatekeeper and releasing NO. The acids generated from a light-activated pH-jump agent loaded in the mesoporous nanoparticles accelerated the degradation of the CaP-coating layers on the nanoparticles, facilitating the light-responsive NO release from diazeniumdiolate by exposing a NO donor to physiological conditions. Using the combination of the pH-jump reagent and CaP coating, we successfully developed a light-responsive gatekeeper system for spatiotemporal-controlled NO delivery. PMID:26953516

  5. Light generation of intracellular Ca2+ signals by a genetically encoded protein BACCS

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Sato, Koji; Kakumoto, Toshiyuki; Miura, Shigenori; Touhara, Kazushige; Takeuchi, Shoji; Nakata, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are highly regulated in a spatiotemporal manner in numerous cellular physiological events. Here we report a genetically engineered blue light-activated Ca2+ channel switch (BACCS), as an optogenetic tool for generating Ca2+ signals. BACCS opens Ca2+-selective ORAI ion channels in response to light. A BACCS variant, dmBACCS2, combined with Drosophila Orai, elevates the Ca2+ concentration more rapidly, such that Ca2+ elevation in mammalian cells is observed within 1 s on light exposure. Using BACCSs, we successfully control cellular events including NFAT-mediated gene expression. In the mouse olfactory system, BACCS mediates light-dependent electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, we generate BACCS mutants, which exhibit fast and slow recovery of intracellular Ca2+. Thus, BACCSs are a useful optogenetic tool for generating temporally various intracellular Ca2+ signals with a large dynamic range, and will be applicable to both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:26282514

  6. Effect of loss on slow-light-enhanced second-harmonic generation in periodic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Asger Mortensen, N; Pertsch, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists a maximally achievable efficiency reached for finite values of the group index at the point of phase-matching. Furthermore, we identify situations for which slow light, surprisingly, does not enhance the second-harmonic generation efficiency. Our results are corroborated by rigorous nonlinear simulations of second-harmonic generation in periodic nanobeam waveguides with loss. PMID:27367114

  7. What is waveform library? Advances in EPG science made possible by the 3rd generation AC-DC universal monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, most Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) studies have emphasized small-bodied sternorrhynchans, auchenorrhynchans, and thrips. EPG holds the potential to significantly improve research on a wider array of species, such as large heteropterans and blood-sucking vectors of medical/veteri...

  8. Improved method for recovery of organic solids from diluted swine manure in 3rd generation treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-liquid separation of the raw manure increases the capacity of decision making and opportunities for treatment. The high-rate separation up-front using flocculants allows recovery of most of the organic compounds, which can be used for manufacture of high-quality compost materials. However, t...

  9. Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, M.; Schadt, M.

    1996-12-01

    Novel liquid-crystal devices are described that generate linearly polarized light with axial symmetry; the beam propagation axis is the symmetry axis. Such light fields can be characterized by a polarization order number P . For example, P=1 fields represent radially or azimuthally polarized light. The reorientation of the polarization orientation in these polarization converters is due to the twisted nematic effect and the effect of lambda /2 wave plates. A single polarization converter can generate fields of orders 1 and 2. It is shown that one can in principle generate fields of any integral order P by cascading such elements. Devices that generate P=1 fields are achromatic and can be used as polarization axis finders or as versatile tools for studying birefringent or polarizing materials.

  10. Whispering gallery microresonators for second harmonic light generation from a low number of small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Juarez, J.L.; Kozyreff, G.; Martorell, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Unmarked sensitive detection of molecules is needed in environmental pollution monitoring, disease diagnosis, security screening systems and in many other situations in which a substance must be identified. When molecules are attached or adsorbed onto an interface, detecting their presence is possible using second harmonic light generation, because at interfaces the inversion symmetry is broken. However, such light generation usually requires either dense matter or a large number of molecules combined with high-power laser sources. Here we show that using high-Q spherical microresonators and low average power, between 50 and 100 small non-fluorescent molecules deposited on the outer surface of the microresonator can generate a detectable change in the second harmonic light. This generation requires phase matching in the whispering gallery modes, which we achieved using a new procedure to periodically pattern, with nanometric precision, a molecular surface monolayer. PMID:21448153

  11. Generation of bright broadband-squeezed light and broadband quantum interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Daruo

    Generation of bright broadband squeezed light is of great interest from the viewpoint of experimental and applied physics. Squeezed states of the light field can be used for ultrasensitive interferometry measurements. Broadband light squeezing also can find a direct application as classical channel capacity enhancement in broadband coherent optical communication. A degenerate (type-I) optical parametric amplifier (OPA), which is based on a periodically poled nonlinear crystal, has been built for research in quantum optics, to provide a source of broadband squeezed light. Through parametric down-conversion process in the nonlinear crystal, energy of pump light was converted to OPA's output 1064 nm light, and the output light is phase-quadrature broadband squeezed. Moreover, the OPA has been operated in the state of a free-running emitter with no servo loops for cavity length control and phase control to verify the intrinsic stability of the OPA. Sensitivity enhancement of optical interferometry has been observed by homodyne detection measurements with the OPO-generated broadband squeezed light as an input beam. This experiment is also a demonstration of the increase of the classical channel capacity beyond that of a coherent state in coherent optical communication.

  12. Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, H.; Quéré, F.

    2012-03-01

    Under the effect of even simple optical components, the spatial properties of femtosecond laser beams can vary over the duration of the light pulse. We show how using such spatiotemporally coupled light fields in high harmonic generation experiments (e.g., in gases or dense plasmas) enables the production of attosecond lighthouses, i.e., sources emitting a collection of angularly well-separated light beams, each consisting of an isolated attosecond pulse. This general effect opens the way to a new generation of light sources, particularly suitable for attosecond pump-probe experiments, and provides a new tool for ultrafast metrology, for instance, giving direct access to fluctuations of the carrier-envelope relative phase of even the most intense ultrashort lasers.

  13. Project DEEP STEAM 2nd and 3rd quarter reports, April 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Clay, R.G.; Lee, D.O.; Marshall, B.W.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam-generation systems. During the period April 1-September 30, 1981, activity was completed on the development of a low-pressure-combustion, indirect-contact downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and effort continued on two high-pressure, direct-contact designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). Field testing of the Sandia design began in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. This was the first test of a high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generator in a deep well. Development of a second Sandia design, using pure oxygen as the oxidizer, was initiated. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. A new insulant test series was begun at the Tacoma test tower. The instrumented bare-string steam injection test in Canada, initiated in cooperation with Husky Oil in the last report period, was successfully completed in early May. A redesigned test program to allow simultaneous testing of several different insulated tubulars is scheduled for October 1981.

  14. Principles and Applications of Imaging Radar, Manual of Remote Sensing, 3rd Edition, Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. Susan

    Aerial photographs and digital images from orbiting optical scanners are a daily source of information for the general public through newspapers, television, magazines, and posters. Such images are just as prevalent in scientific journal literature. In the last 6 months, more than half of the weekly issues of Eos published an image acquired by a remote digital sensor. As a result, most geoscientists are familiar with the characteristics and even the acronyms of the current satellites and their optical sensors, common detector filters, and image presentation. In many cases, this familiarity has bred contempt. This is so because the limitations of optical sensors (imaging in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum) can be quite formidable. Images of the surface cannot be acquired through clouds, and image quality is impaired with low-light conditions (such as at polar regions), atmospheric scattering and absorption, and variations in sun/sensor/surface geometry.

  15. Quantitative metabolic profiles of 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Brad R.; Zhao, Shoujun; Kornak, John; Zhang, Vickie Y.; Iman, Rahwa; Kurhanewicz, John; Vahidi, Kiarash; Yu, Jingwei; Caughey, Aaron B.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Object To establish and compare normative metabolite concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid samples in an effort to reveal metabolic biomarkers of fetal health and development. Materials and methods Twenty-one metabolite concentrations were compared between 2nd (15–27 weeks gestation, N = 23) and 3rd (29–39 weeks gestation, N = 27) trimester amniotic fluid samples using 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy. Data were acquired using the electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations method and quantified using a modified semi-parametric quantum estimation algorithm modified for high-resolution ex vivo data. Results Sixteen of 21 metabolite concentrations differed significantly between 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Betaine (0.00846±0.00206 mmol/kg vs. 0.0133±0.0058 mmol/kg, P <0.002) and creatinine (0.0124±0.0058 mmol/kg vs. 0.247±0.011 mmol/kg, P <0.001) concentrations increased significantly, while glucose (5.96±1.66 mmol/kg vs. 2.41±1.69 mmol/kg, P <0.001), citrate (0.740±0.217 mmol/kg vs. 0.399±0.137 mmol/kg, P <0.001), pyruvate (0.0659±0.0103 mmol/kg vs. 0.0299±0.286 mmol/kg, P <0.001), and numerous amino acid (e.g. alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine) concentrations decreased significantly with advancing gestation. A stepwise multiple linear regression model applied to 50 samples showed that gestational age can be accurately predicted using combinations of alanine, glucose and creatinine concentrations. Conclusion These results provide key normative data for 2nd and 3rd trimester amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations and provide the foundation for future development of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers to evaluate fetal health and development. PMID:19779747

  16. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Let there be white light: supercontinuum generation by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2006-06-01

    Three centuries after Newton's experiments on the decomposition of white light into its spectral components and the synthesis of white light from various colors, nonlinear-optical transformations of ultrashort laser pulses have made it possible to produce an artificial white light with unique spectral properties, controlled time duration, and a high spectral brightness. Owing to its broad and continuous spectrum, such radiation is called supercontinuum. The laser generation of white light is an interesting physical phenomenon and the relevant technology is gaining in practical implications — it offers novel solutions for optical communications and control of ultrashort laser pulses, helps to achieve an unprecedented precision in optical metrology, serves to probe the atmosphere of the Earth, and suggests new strategies for the creation of compact multiplex light sources for nonlinear spectroscopy, microscopy, and laser biomedicine. Here, we provide a review of physical mechanisms behind the laser generation of white light, examine its applications, and discuss the methods of generation of broadband radiation with controlled spectral, temporal, and phase parameters.

  17. Generation and physical properties of a new form of unpolarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, J.; Paul, H.; Agarwal, G. S.

    1997-02-01

    We start from our recent analysis of unpolarized light [J. Lehner et al., Phys. Rev. A 53 (1996) 2727] in which we distinguished two forms of unpolarized light, dependent on whether the field is invariant with respect to phase retardation (type I) or not (type II). First we show that optical mixing leaves the type unchanged. Our main objective is to devise a feasible experimental scheme for the generation of a new form of unpolarized light. Specifically, we point out that amplitude-stabilized unpolarized light is readily obtained with the help of two independently operated lasers. However, this light is of type II only, and we show that after passing a phase retarder it is no longer unpolarized, according to our general criteria. Experimentally, this becomes obvious from the fact that intensity fluctuations in a linear-polarization mode vary with the polarization direction.

  18. Fast light generation through velocity manipulation in two vertically-stacked ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, C; Campanella, C E; Dell'Olio, F; Armenise, M N

    2010-02-01

    Speed manipulation of optical pulses is a very attractive research challenge enabling next-generation high-capacity all-optical communication networks. Pulses can be effectively slowed by using different integrated optical structures such as coupled-resonator waveguiding structures or photonic crystal cavities. Fast light generation by means of integrated photonic devices is currently a quite unexplored research field in spite of its crucial importance for all-optical pulse processing. In this paper, we report on the first theoretical demonstration of fast light generation in an ultra-compact double vertical stacked ring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide. Periodic coupling between the two rings leads to splitting and recombining of symmetric and anti-symmetric resonant modes. Re-established degenerate modes can form when a symmetric and an anti-symmetric mode having different resonance order exhibit the same resonance wavelength. Under degenerate mode conditions, wide wavelength ranges where the group velocity is negative or larger than the speed of light in vacuum are generated. The paper proves how this physical effect can be exploited to design fast light resonant devices. Moreover, conditions are also derived to obtain slow light operation regime. PMID:20174126

  19. 1993 Aerospace Avionic Systems Division Conference, 3rd, Denver, CO, Apr. 22, 1993, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics addressed include a single-supply monolithic, MIL-STD-1553 transreceiver implemented in BiCMOS wafer fabrication technology, a development methodology for contemporary avionics systems, MIL-STD-1553 remote terminal design using ASIC megacell technology, a modular electrooptic bus coupler, experiences in validating MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals, and the STANAG 3910 data bus for the next generation of European avionics systems. Attention is also given to JIAWG compatible development boards for the i960, high-speed databus evaluation, the space avionics architecture standard tailored to the common lunar lander conceptual design, and 1553 RT mechanizations for data sample consistency and multimessage transfers.

  20. A novel mutation in Prph2, a gene regulated by Nr2e3, causes retinal degeneration and outer segment defects similar to Nr2e3rd7/rd7 retinas

    PubMed Central

    Nystuen, Arne M.; Sachs, Andrew J.; Yuan, Yang; Heuermann, Laura; Haider, Neena B.

    2014-01-01

    The nmf193 mutant was generated by a large-scale ENU mutagenesis screen and originally described as having a dominantly inherited phenotype characterized by fundus abnormalities. We determined that nmf193 mice exhibit outer segment defects and progressive retinal degeneration. Clinical examination revealed retinal spotting apparent at 6 weeks of age. Histological analysis of homozygous mutant mice at 6 weeks indicated an absence of outer segments (OS) and a 50% reduction of photoreceptor cells which progressed to complete loss of photoreceptors by 10 months. Mice heterozygous for the nmf193 mutation had a less severe phenotype of shortened outer segments at 2 months with progressive loss of photoreceptor cells to 50% by 10 months. A positional cloning approach using a DNA pooling strategy was performed to identify the causative mutation in nmf193 mice. The nmf193 mutation linked to chromosome 17 and fine mapped to an interval containing the peripherin/rds (Prph2) gene. Mutation analysis identified a single base change in Prph2 that causes aberrant splicing between exon 1 and 2. Interestingly, a comparative histological analysis demonstrated that Prph2nmf193/+ mutants have similar photoreceptor degeneration to that of Nr2e3rd7/rd7. We show that Prph2 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in the Nr2e3rd7/rd7 mutant compared to control littermates. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that Prph2 is a direct target of NR2E3. In addition, the down-regulation of Prph2 gene expression is similar in both the Nr2e3rd7/rd7 and Prph2nmf193/+ mutants suggesting that the reduction of Prph2 may contribute to the degenerative pathology seen in Nr2e3rd7/rd7. PMID:18763016

  1. 78 FR 4843 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed competing... Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public..., Connecticut. The existing licensee for the project is FirstLight Hydro Generating Company (FirstLight)....

  2. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  3. Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  4. Experimental generation of Mathieu-Gauss beams with a phase-only spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, R J; Terborg, R A; Ricardez-Vargas, I; Volke-Sepúlveda, K

    2010-12-20

    We present a novel method for the efficient generation of even, odd, and helical Mathieu-Gauss beams of arbitrary order and ellipticity by means of a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). Our method consists of displaying the phase of the desired beam in the SLM; the reconstructed field is obtained on-axis following a spatial filtering process with an annular aperture. The propagation invariance and topological properties of the generated beams are investigated numerically and experimentally. PMID:21173824

  5. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  6. 76 FR 8724 - First Light Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... 14, 2011. d. Applicant: First Light Hydro Generating Company. e. Name of Project: Northfield Mountain..., Franklin County, Massachusetts. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. John Howard, Plant Manager, Northfield Mountain Station, 99 Millers Falls Road,...

  7. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal.

    PubMed

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-09-01

    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm. PMID:18073993

  8. Comparison of beam generation techniques using a phase only spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas W; Offer, Rachel F; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Arnold, Aidan S; Radwell, Neal

    2016-03-21

    Whether in art or for QR codes, images have proven to be both powerful and efficient carriers of information. Spatial light modulators allow an unprecedented level of control over the generation of optical fields by using digital holograms. There is no unique way of obtaining a desired light pattern however, leaving many competing methods for hologram generation. In this paper, we test six hologram generation techniques in the creation of a variety of modes as well as a photographic image: rating the methods according to obtained mode quality and power. All techniques compensate for a non-uniform mode profile of the input laser and incorporate amplitude scaling. We find that all methods perform well and stress the importance of appropriate spatial filtering. We expect these results to be of interest to those working in the contexts of microscopy, optical trapping or quantum image creation. PMID:27136818

  9. FOREWORD: 3rd Symposium on Large TPCs for Low Energy Event Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, Igor G.; Colas, Paul; Gorodetzky, Phillippe

    2007-05-01

    The Third International Symposium on large TPCs for low-energy rare-event detection was held at Carré des sciences, Poincaré auditorium, 25 rue de la Montagne Ste Geneviève in Paris on 11 12 December 2006. This prestigious location belonging to the Ministry of Research is hosted in the former Ecole Polytechnique. The meeting, held in Paris every two years, gathers a significant community of physicists involved in rare event detection. Its purpose is an extensive discussion of present and future projects using large TPCs for low energy, low background detection of rare events (low-energy neutrinos, dark matter, solar axions). The use of a new generation of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) appears to be a promising way to reach this goal. The program this year was enriched by a new session devoted to the detection challenge of polarized gamma rays, relevant novel experimental techniques and the impact on particle physics, astrophysics and astronomy. A very particular feature of this conference is the large variety of talks ranging from purely theoretical to purely experimental subjects including novel technological aspects. This allows discussion and exchange of useful information and new ideas that are emerging to address particle physics experimental challenges. The scientific highlights at the Symposium came on many fronts: Status of low-energy neutrino physics and double-beta decay New ideas on double-beta decay experiments Gamma ray polarization measurement combining high-precision TPCs with MPGD read-out Dark Matter challenges in both axion and WIMP search with new emerging ideas for detection improvements Progress in gaseous and liquid TPCs for rare event detection Georges Charpak opened the meeting with a talk on gaseous detectors for applications in the bio-medical field. He also underlined the importance of new MPGD detectors for both physics and applications. There were about 100 registered participants at the symposium. The successful

  10. PREFACE: 3rd Italian-Pakistani Workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics (IPWRA2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paolis, Francesco; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2012-03-01

    The Third Italian-Pakistani Workshop on Relativistic Astrophysics was held at the Rectorate of the University of Salento in Lecce on June 20-22, 2011. It follows the first two editions of this Workshop held at the Department of Physics of the University of Salento on 20-22 June 2007 and at ICRA (International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics) in Pescara on 8-10 July 2009. The Proceedings of the first two editions of this Workshop have been published in two special issues of Nuovo Cimento B [1] and General Relativity and Gravitation [2], respectively. The workshop series, whose aim is that of discussing the different aspects (both theoretical and observational) of Relativistic Astrophysics, follows the signature, in 2006, of an agreement between the University of Salento, Italy and the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan, and aims at promoting scientific and academic cooperation between the parties. The organizing committee of this Workshop has decided to dedicate the present workshop's edition to the celebration of the 65th birthday of the founder of this series of meetings, Prof. Asghar Qadir, one of the greatest Pakistani scientists of any time and a renowned world expert in the theory of general relativity. Many of the Workshop's participants have either been students or collaborators of Asghar Qadir, or both. In Pakistan the words Relativity and Asghar Qadir are synonymous. It would not be entirely wrong to say that anybody who has anything to do with relativity in Pakistan is either his student or a student of one of his students. Asghar Qadir has inspired generations of researchers and teachers, and continues to be a source of inspiration for hard work and dedication. He is a mentor of Pakistani scientists and the equivalent in Pakistan of what John Archibald Wheeler has been in the US. Qadir and Wheeler An autographed picture of John Archibald Wheeler with a young Asghar Qadir Asghar had the rare privilege of being introduced

  11. Efficient White-Light Generation from Ionically Self-Assembled Triply-Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Das, Susmita; Debnath, Tanay; Basu, Amrita; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Das, Abhijit Kumar; Baker, Gary A; Patra, Amitava

    2016-06-20

    Low cost, simple, and environmentally friendly strategies for white-light generation which do not require rare-earth phosphors or other toxic or elementally scare species remain an essentially unmet challenge. Progress in the area of all-organic approaches is highly sought, single molecular systems remaining a particular challenge. Taking inspiration from the designer nature of ionic-liquid chemistry, we now introduce a new strategy toward white-light emission based on the facile generation of nanoparticles comprising three different fluorophores assembled in a well-defined stoichiometry purely through electrostatic interactions. The building blocks consist of the fluorophores aminopyrene, fluorescein, and rhodamine 6G which represent blue, green, and red-emitting species, respectively. Spherical nanoparticles 16(±5) nm in size were prepared which display bright white-light emission with high fluorescence quantum efficiency (26 %) and color coordinate at (0.29, 0.38) which lie in close proximity to pure white light (0.33, 0.33). It is noteworthy that this same fluorophore mixture in free solution yields only blue emission. Density functional theory calculations reveal H-bond and ground-state proton transfer mediated absolute non-parallel orientation of the constituent units which result in frustrated energy transfer, giving rise to emission from the individual centers and concomitant white-light emission. PMID:27219524

  12. Efficient blue light generation using periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate via resonant frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2014-05-01

    Convenient high power blue diode lasers with single frequency operation are still under developments and are not as well developed and cost effective as IR laser sources. Harmonic generation of IR lasers provide a viable alternative source of blue and UV light. Magnesium oxide doped periodically poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) has been reported to have the lowest blue, IR and blue induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) among ferroelectric crystals such as Lithium Niobate (PPLN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP). All these properties, along with higher thermal conductivity, make this crystal an excellent candidate for efficient blue light generation using second harmonic generation (SHG) in a resonant buildup cavity. Efficient resonant doubling is very sensitive to various cavity and crystal loss mechanisms. Recently we obtained 400 mW of blue light at 486 nm with net conversion efficiency of 77% using a 515 mW fiber grating stabilized IR source. Sources of conversion loss have been identified and evaluated with various methods in our investigation. These include reflection, scattering, absorption, and polarization rotation of IR light in the crystal, as well as mode mismatching and spherical aberration due to focusing lenses. The locking and electronic control functions of the cavity are automated using an internally mounted single chip microcontroller with embedded DSP (digital signal processor). Work is supported by NSF grant.

  13. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  14. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  15. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Retention in First Grade and Performance on High Stakes Tests in 3rd Grade

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi; Thoemmes, Felix; Kwok, Oi-man

    2010-01-01

    The association between grade retention in first grade and passing the third grade state accountability tests, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and math, was investigated in a sample of 769 students who were recruited into the study when they were in first grade. Of these 769 students, 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Using propensity matching, we created five imputed datasets (average N=321) in which promoted and retained students were matched on 67 comprehensive covariates. Using GEE models, we obtained the association between retention and passing the 3rd grade TAKS reading and math tests. The positive association between retention and math scores was significant while the association was marginally significant for reading scores. PMID:20628547

  16. Panorama of new generation of accelerator based short wavelength coherent light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The newly developed intense short wavelength light sources (from Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) to X-rays) have open the path to the exploration of matter for revealing structures and electronic processes and for following their evolution in time. After drawing the panorama of existing accelerator based short wavelength light sources, the new trends of evolution of short wavelengths FEL are described, with some illustrations with the example of the LUNEX5 (free electron Laser a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) demonstrator project of advanced compact Free Electron Laser.

  17. Coherence of light and generation of speckle patterns in photobiology and photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Belkin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The use of diodes instead of lasers was recently suggested for phototherapeutic applications. This trend is due to economical and practical reasons and is based on the argument that lasers have no preference over diodes as light sources as the former lose their coherency upon penetrating biological tissues. This module supports this claim while providing a brief explanation to non professionals on the meaning of coherence of light as well as the physics behind the generation of speckle patterns, and the relation of these physical entities to photomedicine.

  18. Beam dynamics of a new low emittance third generation synchrotron light source facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasem, H.; Ahmadi, E.; Saeidi, F.; Sarhadi, K.

    2015-03-01

    The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) is a new 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source facility which is in the design stage. As the main radiation source, design of the ILSF storage ring emphasizes an ultralow electron beam emittance, great brightness, stability and reliability. The storage ring is based on a five-bend achromat lattice providing an ultralow horizontal beam emittance of 0.48 nm rad. In this paper, we present the design feature of the ILSF storage ring, give the linear and nonlinear dynamic properties of the lattice and discuss the related beam dynamic specifications.

  19. Next-generation light delivery system for multitreatment extended-duration photodynamic therapy (MED-PDT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James C.

    1997-05-01

    The primary focus of laser based oncologic PDT has been on the treatment of skin and hollow organ tumors. Extending PDT to other primary internal lesions and metastasis requires a different approach. Light Sciences has developed a series of semiconductor-based devices which will be completely implanted in the patient using established, minimally invasive surgical techniques. These devices are energized noninvasively utilizing inductive coupling. The light delivery system will allow the clinician to modulate the intensity, spatial distribution, and duration of light delivery in order to maximize the benefits derived from each PDT drug dose. Light Sciences' technology minimizes patient risk and discomfort, is cost competitive, and expands the treatment options available to the clinician. Avoidance of lengthy operations, bone marrow suppression, and an emphasis on organ preservation allow this next generation of PDT light delivery devices to be effectively integrated with other forms of cancer treatment, if desired. We have termed our technique 'Multi-treatment Extended Duration PDT'. In what follows, we shall describe Light Sciences' technology and development of minimally invasive oncologic PDT.

  20. The ENCCA-WP7/EuroSarc/EEC/PROVABES/EURAMOS 3rd European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting/Joint Workshop of EU Bone Sarcoma Translational Research Networks; Vienna, Austria, September 24-25, 2015. Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Kager, Leo; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hassan, Bass; Anninga, Jakob; Bennister, Lindsey; Bovée, Judith V M G; Brennan, Bernadette; Broto, Javier M; Brugières, Laurence; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Copland, Christopher; Dutour, Aurélie; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Stefano; Fiocco, Marta; Fleuren, Emmy; Gaspar, Nathalie; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerrand, Craig; Gerß, Joachim; Gonzato, Ornella; van der Graaf, Winette; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Herrero-Martín, David; Klco-Brosius, Stephanie; Kovar, Heinrich; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lancia, Carlo; LeDeley, Marie-Cecile; McCabe, Martin G; Metzler, Markus; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela; Picci, Piero; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Reinke, Denise; Rutkowski, Piotr; Scotlandi, Katia; Strauss, Sandra; Thomas, David; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Vassal, Gilles; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3rd Joint ENCCA-WP7, EuroSarc, EEC, PROVABES, and EURAMOS European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting, which was held at the Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna, Austria on September 24-25, 2015. The joint bone sarcoma network meetings bring together European bone sarcoma researchers to present and discuss current knowledge on bone sarcoma biology, genetics, immunology, as well as results from preclinical investigations and clinical trials, to generate novel hypotheses for collaborative biological and clinical investigations. The ultimate goal is to further improve therapy and outcome in patients with bone sarcomas. PMID:27315524

  1. Towards visible light hydrogen generation: quantum dot-sensitization via efficient light harvesting of hybrid-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Sun-I; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We report pronounced enhancement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation of a quantum dot-sensitized hybrid-TiO2 (QD/H-TiO2) electrode that is composed of a mesoporous TiO2 layer sandwiched by a double sided energy harvesting layer consisting of a surface-textured TiO2 inverse opals layer on the bottom and a patterned mesoporous TiO2 layer on the top. CdSe/H-TiO2 exhibits a maximum photocurrent density of ~16.2 mA/cm(2), which is 35% higher than that of the optimized control sample (CdSe/P25), achieved by matching of the bandgap of quantum dot-sensitization with the wavelength where light harvesting of H-TiO2 is observed. Furthermore, CdSe/H-TiO2 under filtered exposure conditions recorded current density of ~14.2 mA/cm(2), the greatest value in the visible range. The excellent performance of the quantum dot-sensitized H-TiO2 suggests that alteration of the photoelectrodes to suitable nanostructures with excellent light absorption may offer optimal strategies for attaining maximum efficiency in a variety of photoconversion systems. PMID:24270426

  2. Towards Visible Light Hydrogen Generation: Quantum Dot-Sensitization via Efficient Light Harvesting of Hybrid-TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Kim, Myeong-Jong; Kim, Sun-I.; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    We report pronounced enhancement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation of a quantum dot-sensitized hybrid-TiO2 (QD/H-TiO2) electrode that is composed of a mesoporous TiO2 layer sandwiched by a double sided energy harvesting layer consisting of a surface-textured TiO2 inverse opals layer on the bottom and a patterned mesoporous TiO2 layer on the top. CdSe/H-TiO2 exhibits a maximum photocurrent density of ~16.2 mA/cm2, which is 35% higher than that of the optimized control sample (CdSe/P25), achieved by matching of the bandgap of quantum dot-sensitization with the wavelength where light harvesting of H-TiO2 is observed. Furthermore, CdSe/H-TiO2 under filtered exposure conditions recorded current density of ~14.2 mA/cm2, the greatest value in the visible range. The excellent performance of the quantum dot-sensitized H-TiO2 suggests that alteration of the photoelectrodes to suitable nanostructures with excellent light absorption may offer optimal strategies for attaining maximum efficiency in a variety of photoconversion systems.

  3. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Rubio, J.; Cook, B. D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Longo, M.; Choi, H.; Hunter, M. O.; Keller, M.

    2015-12-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR) for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80-0.82), light utilization varied seasonally (0.67-0.74), with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

  4. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Rubio, Jérémy; Cook, Bruce D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Longo, Marcos; Choi, Hyeungu; Hunter, Maria; Keller, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR) for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear-sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80-0.82), light utilization varied seasonally (0.67-0.74), with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry-season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

  5. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    PubMed

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power. PMID:24007048

  6. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, P. H.; Trong, V. D.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  7. Generation of XUV light by resonant frequency tripling in a two-wiggler FEL amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo Souza, L.; Pierini, P.; Scharlemann, E. T.

    1990-10-01

    FEL operation at short wavelengths is limited by electron-beam quality, by the availability of mirrors for oscillators and by the availability of input sources for FEL amplifiers. It is possible to use an FEL amplifier as a resonant-frequency tripling device, generating light and strong bunching at the third harmonic of a conventional input source in an initial wiggler section, then using a second wiggler section resonant at the tripled frequency to amplify the short-wavelength light. Neither mirrors nor a short-wavelength input source are required, and some relaxation of the electron-beam quality appears to be possible. We illustrate the scheme with a one-dimensional model and then with NUTMEG simulations of an 80 nm FEL amplifier initiated by a 240 nm input signal, in which an efficiency of the electron-beam power conversion to 80 nm light of nearly 10-4 was obtained.

  8. Propagation characteristics of Bessel beams generated by continuous, incoherent light sources.

    PubMed

    Altıngöz, Ceren; Yalızay, Berna; Akturk, Selcuk

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the propagation behavior of Bessel beams generated by incoherent, continuous light sources. We perform experiments with narrowband and broadband light emitting diodes, and, for comparison, with a laser diode. We observe that the formation of Bessel beams is affected minimally by temporal coherence, while spatial coherence determines the longitudinal evolution of the beam profile. With spatially incoherent beams, the fringe contrast is comparable to the coherent case at the beginning of the Bessel zone, while it completely fades away by propagation, turning into a cylindrical light pipe. Our results show that beam shaping methods can be extended to cases of limited spatial coherence, paving the way for potential new uses and applications of such sources. PMID:26367302

  9. Generation of atom-light entanglement in an optical cavity for quantum enhanced atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Simon A.; Lau, Wing Yung Sarah

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the generation of atom-light entanglement via Raman superradiance in an optical cavity, and show how this can be used to enhance the sensitivity of atom interferometry. We model a realistic optical cavity, and show that by careful temporal shaping of the optical local oscillator used to measure the light emitted from the cavity, information in the optical mode can be combined with the signal from the atom interferometer to reduce the quantum noise, and thus increase the sensitivity. It was found in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.053002 that an atomic "seed" was required in order to reduce spontaneous emission and allow for single mode behavior of the device. In this paper we find that the optical cavity reduces the need for an atomic seed, which allows for stronger atom-light correlations and a greater level of quantum enhancement.

  10. Self-Sensitized Carbon Nitride Microspheres for Long-Lasting Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quan; Gao, Ziwei; Xue, Can

    2016-07-01

    A new type of metal-free photocatalyst is reported having a microsphere core of oxygen-containing carbon nitride and self-sensitized surfaces by covalently linked polymeric triazine dyes. These self-sensitized carbon nitride microspheres exhibit high visible-light activities in photocatalytic H2 generation with excellent stability for more than 100 h reaction. Comparing to the traditional g-C3 N4 with activities terminated at 450 nm, the polymeric triazine dyes on the carbon nitride microsphere surface allow for effective wide-range visible-light harvesting and extend the H2 generation activities up to 600 nm. It is believed that this new type of highly stable self-sensitized metal-free structure opens a new direction of future development of low-cost photocatalysts for efficient and long-term solar fuels production. PMID:27225827

  11. Electrically Tunable Harmonic Generation of Light from Plasmonic Structures in Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean; Cui, Yonghao; Kang, Lei; Cai, Wenshan

    2016-08-10

    An emerging trend in plasmonics is to exploit nanostructured metals as a self-contained electrooptic platform with simultaneously supported electrical and optical functions. When it comes to nonlinear optics, this dual electrical and optical functionality offers an exciting potential to enable electrically controlled wave mixing processes in various nanometallic systems. Here we demonstrate tunable nonlinear generation of light enabled by an electrically active plasmonic crystal in aqueous electrolytic solutions. A modulation depth of ∼150%/V is observed in the second-harmonic signal, thanks to the light concentrating ability of the resonant plasmonic structure as well as the voltage-assisted charge accumulation on the metallic surfaces. The hybrid plasmonic-electrolyte system demonstrated in this work offers the exciting new potential to use plasmonic nanostructures for voltage-controlled nonlinear signal generation and in situ biochemical sensing in an aqueous environment. PMID:27398925

  12. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  13. Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchko, Robert G.; Shur, Vladimir Y.; Fejer, Martin M.; Byer, Robert L.

    1999-09-01

    In nonlinear optics applications employing quasiphase matching, short-pitch domain gratings are generally required for the efficient generation of visible and ultraviolet light. Here we introduce an improved electric-field poling technique, which incorporates spontaneous backswitching and leads to uniform short-pitch domain structures. The total volume of backswitched material, and hence the duty cycle of the backswitched domain grating, can be accurately controlled. First-order single-pass continuous-wave second harmonic generation of 60 mW at 460 nm is achieved at 6.1%/W efficiency in 0.5-mm-thick 4-μm-period backswitch-poled lithium niobate.

  14. PHOTOINJECTED ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC UPGRADE FOR THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.; BABZIEN,M.; BLUM,E.; CASEY,W.; CHANG,X.; GRAVES,W.; HASTINGS,J.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,E.; KAO,C.C.; KRAMER,S.; KRINSKY,S.; MORTAZAVI,P.; MURPHY,J.; OZAKI,S.; PJEROV,S.; PODOBEDOV,B.; RAKOWSKY,G.; ROSE,J.; SHAFTAN,T.; SHEEHY,B.; SIDDONS,D.; SMEDLEY,J.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; TOWNE,N.; WANG,J.M.; WANG,X.; WU,J.; YAKIMENKO,V.; YU,L.H.

    2001-06-18

    We describe a major paradigm shift in the approach to the production of synchrotron radiation This change will considerably improve the scientific capabilities of synchrotron light sources. We introduce plans for an upgrade of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This upgrade will be based on the Photoinjected Energy Recovering Linac (PERL). This machine emerges from the union of two technologies, the laser-photocathode RF gun (photoinjector) and superconducting linear accelerators with beam energy recovery (Energy Recovering Linac). The upgrade will bring the NSLS users many new insertion device beam lines, brightness greater than 3rd generation lightsource's and ultra-short pulse capabilities, not possible with storage ring light sources.

  15. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  16. Functionally Diverse Nucleophilic Trapping of Iminium Intermediates Generated Utilizing Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, David B.; Furst, Laura; Condie, Allison G.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies into visible light-mediated aza-Henry reactions demonstrated that molecular oxygen played a vital role in catalyst turnover as well as the production of base to facilitate the nucleophilic addition of nitroalkanes. Herein, improved conditions for the generation of iminium ions from tetrahydroisoquinolines that allow for versatile nucleophilic trapping are reported. The new conditions provide access to a diverse range of functionality under mild, anaerobic reaction conditions as well as mechanistic insights into the photoredox cycle. PMID:22148974

  17. 76 FR 26284 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Dept. of Public... will meet with FirstLight Hydro Generating Company and the City of Norwich Dept. of Public Utilities...

  18. Spectral, noise and correlation properties of intense squeezed light generated by a coupling in two laser fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryuchkyan, Gagik YU.; Kheruntsyan, Karen V.

    1994-01-01

    Two schemes of four-wave mixing oscillators with nondegenerate pumps are proposed for above-threehold generation of squeezed light with nonzero mean-field amplitudes. Noise and correlation properties and optical spectra of squeezed-light beams generated in these schemes are discussed.

  19. Ionic Charge Transfer Complex Induced Visible Light Harvesting and Photocharge Generation in Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz-Wai; Thachoth Chandran, Hrisheekesh; Chan, Chiu-Yee; Lo, Ming-Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-09-16

    Organometal trihalide perovskite has recently emerged as a new class of promising material for high efficiency solar cells applications. While excess ions in perovskites are recently getting a great deal of attention, there is so far no clear understanding on both their formation and relating ions interaction to the photocharge generation in perovskite. Herein, we showed that tremendous ions indeed form during the initial stage of perovskite formation when the organic methylammonium halide (MAXa, Xa=Br and I) meets the inorganic PbXb2 (Xb=Cl, Br, I). The strong charge exchanges between the Pb2+ cations and Xa- anions result in formation of ionic charge transfer complexes (iCTC). MAXa parties induce empty valence electronic states within the forbidden bandgap of PbXb2. The strong surface dipole provide sufficient driving force for sub-bandgap electron transition with energy identical to the optical bandgap of forming perovskites. Evidences from XPS/UPS and photoluminescence studies showed that the light absorption, exciton dissociation, and photocharge generation of the perovskites are closely related to the strong ionic charge transfer interactions between Pb2+ and Xa- ions in the perovskite lattices. Our results shed light on mechanisms of light harvesting and subsequent free carrier generation in perovskites. PMID:26305717

  20. Ultra-strongly sub-Poissonian light generation in a quantum dot-bimodal cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Yu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yumin; Peng, Yiwei

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the sub-Poissonian light generation in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system of a single quantum dot coupled a bimodal nanocavity. It is shown in a recent work [Arka Majumdar et.al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183601 (2012)] that the system can generate strongly sub-Poissonian light when one of the cavity modes is driven coherently and resonantly. We study the two-mode coherent driving regime of the coupled system. The effect of additional cavity mode driving on the statistic characteristics of photon emission is presented by evaluating the zero-delay second-order correlation function g2(0). We interpret the optimization of sub-Poissonian feature by regulating the ratio between driving strengths of two cavity modes and observe that g2(0) can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude (g2(0))<10-4), comparing with one-mode driving system (g2(0)~0.1), indicating ultra-strongly sub-Poissonian light generation.

  1. Oxygen suppresses light-driven anodic current generation by a mixed phototrophic culture.

    PubMed

    Darus, Libertus; Ledezma, Pablo; Keller, Jürg; Freguia, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA x m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA x m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume accounted for by bacteria. Genus-level sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria were dominated by cyanobacterium Leptolyngbia (∼35%), while the prevailing algae were Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrum, and Auxenochlorella. This study offers a key comprehension of mediator sensitivity to reoxidation by dissolved oxygen for improvement of microbial solar cell performance. PMID:25364824

  2. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nozomi; Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9-25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ˜109 W/cm2. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  3. Characterization of material ablation driven by laser generated intense extreme ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Nozomi Masuda, Masaya; Deguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-09-14

    We present a comparative study on the hydrodynamic behaviour of plasmas generated by material ablation by the irradiation of nanosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV or XUV) or infrared laser pulses on solid samples. It was clarified that the difference in the photon energy deposition and following material heating mechanism between these two lights result in the difference in the plasma parameters and plasma expansion characteristics. Silicon plate was ablated by either focused intense EUV pulse (λ = 9–25 nm, 10 ns) or laser pulse (λ = 1064 nm, 10 ns), both with an intensity of ∼10{sup 9 }W/cm{sup 2}. Both the angular distributions and energy spectra of the expanding ions revealed that the photoionized plasma generated by the EUV light differs significantly from that produced by the laser. The laser-generated plasma undergoes spherical expansion, whereas the EUV-generated plasma undergoes planar expansion in a comparatively narrow angular range. It is presumed that the EUV radiation is transmitted through the expanding plasma and directly photoionizes the samples in the solid phase, consequently forming a high-density and high-pressure plasma. Due to a steep pressure gradient along the direction of the target normal, the EUV plasma expands straightforward resulting in the narrower angular distribution observed.

  4. Early Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection of a Negative Flow Crossmatch 3rd Kidney Transplant with Exclusive Disparity at HLA-DP

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M.; Baum, Caitlin E.; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A.; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA. PMID:24755353

  5. Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using multiple annular beams generated by a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using diffractive multiple annular beam patterns is demonstrated in this paper. The annular beam was generated by diffractive axicon computer generated holograms (CGHs) using a spatial light modulator. The diameter of the annular beam can be easily adjusted by varying the radius of the smallest ring in the axicon. Multiple annular beams with arbitrary arrangement and multiple annular beam arrays were generated by superimposing an axicon CGH onto a grating and lenses algorithm calculated multi-beam CGH and a binary Dammann grating CGH, respectively. Microholes were drilled through a 0.03 mm thick stainless steel foil using the multiple annular beams. By avoiding huge laser output attenuation and mechanical annular scanning, the processing is ˜200 times faster than the normal single beam processing.

  6. The ARC-EN-CIEL French 4th Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, C.; Couprie, M. E.; Chubar, O.; Loulergue, A.; Nahon, L.; Carre, B.; Garzella, D.; Labat, M.; Lambert, G.; Monot, P.; Jablonka, M.; Meot, F.; Ortega, J. M.; Nutarelli, D.

    2007-01-19

    ARC-EN-CIEL (Accelerator-Radiation Complex for Enhanced Coherent Intense Extended Light) proposal is based on a CW 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator delivering high charge, subpicosecond, low emittance electron bunches with a high repetition rate (1 kHz). The FEL uses High Harmonics Generation in gases in a High Gain Harmonic Generation scheme, leading to a rather compact solution. The radiation extends down to 0.8 nm with the non-linear harmonics and reproduces the good longitudinal and transverse coherence of the harmonics generated in gas. Optional beam loops, foreseen to increase the beam current or the energy, will accommodate infrared CSR source, femtosecond undulator sources in the VUV and X-ray ranges, and a FEL oscillator in the 10 nm range. An important synergy is expected between accelerator and laser communities, in particular for electron plasma acceleration tests.

  7. Generating and Separating Twisted Light by gradient-rotation Split-Ring Antenna Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinwei; Li, Ling; Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jie

    2016-05-11

    Nanoscale compact optical vortex generators promise substantially significant prospects in modern optics and photonics, leading to many advances in sensing, imaging, quantum communication, and optical manipulation. However, conventional vortex generators often suffer from bulky size, low vortex mode purity in the converted beam, or limited operation bandwidth. Here, we design and demonstrate gradient-rotation split-ring antenna metasurfaces as unique spin-to-orbital angular momentum beam converters to simultaneously generate and separate pure optical vortices in a broad wavelength range. Our proposed design has the potential for realizing miniaturized on-chip OAM-multiplexers, as well as enabling new types of metasurface devices for the manipulation of complex structured light beams. PMID:27092965

  8. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  9. Generating the Nighttime Light of the Human Settlements by Identifying Periodic Components from DMSP/OLS Satellite Imagery.

    PubMed

    Letu, Husi; Hara, Masanao; Tana, Gegen; Bao, Yuhai; Nishio, Fumihiko

    2015-09-01

    Nighttime lights of the human settlements (hereafter, "stable lights") are seen as a valuable proxy of social economic activity and greenhouse gas emissions at the subnational level. In this study, we propose an improved method to generate the stable lights from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) daily nighttime light data for 1999. The study area includes Japan, China, India, and other 10 countries in East Asia. A noise reduction filter (NRF) was employed to generate a stable light from DMSP/OLS time-series daily nighttime light data. It was found that noise from amplitude of the 1-year periodic component is included in the stable light. To remove the amplitude of the 1-year periodic component noise included in the stable light, the NRF method was improved to extract the periodic component. Then, new stable light was generated by removing the amplitude of the 1-year periodic component using the improved NRF method. The resulting stable light was evaluated by comparing it with the conventional nighttime stable light provided by the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration/National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA/NGDC). It is indicated that DNs of the NOAA stable light image are lower than those of the new stable light image. This might be attributable to the influence of attenuation effects from thin warm water clouds. However, due to overglow effect of the thin cloud, light area in new stable light is larger than NOAA stable light. Furthermore, the cumulative digital numbers (CDNs) and number of light area pixels (NLAP) of the generated stable light and NOAA/NGDC stable light were applied to estimate socioeconomic variables of population, electric power consumption, gross domestic product, and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption. It is shown that the correlations of the population and CO2FF with new stable light data are higher than those in NOAA stable light data; correlations of the EPC and GDP with NOAA

  10. Ebastine in the light of CONGA recommendations for the development of third-generation antihistamines

    PubMed Central

    Rico, S; Antonijoan, RM; Barbanoj, MJ

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 a consensus group on new-generation antihistamines (CONGA) defined the characteristics required for a third-generation H1 antihistamine as there had been much controversy about this issue since the early 1990s. One of the antihistamines that had been claimed to belong to such a group is the second-generation antihistamine, ebastine. The objective of this review is to analyze the pharmacology of ebastine, in light of the CONGA recommendations for the development of new-generation antihistamines: (1) anti-inflammatory properties, (2) potency, efficacy and effectiveness, (3) lack of cardiotoxicity, (4) lack of drug interactions, (5) lack of CNS effects, and (6) pharmacological approach. Ebastine seems to have anti-inflammatory properties that help to ameliorate nasal congestion, though this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. Its pharmacological–therapeutic profile does not differ greatly from that of other second-generation antihistamines. Its cardiac safety has been widely assessed and no cardiac toxicity has been found at therapeutic doses despite initial concerns. The risk of potentially relevant drug interactions has been investigated and ruled out. Ebastine does not produce sedation at therapeutic doses and drug interaction studies with classical CNS depressants have not demonstrated a synergistic effect. Pharmacologically, ebastine is an H1 inverse agonist. Perhaps the answer to the quest for new-generation antihistamines lies not only in H1 but in a combined approach with other histamine receptors. PMID:21437146

  11. [The Original Formulation for Toso-shu (Tusujiu), Created by the 3rd Century Chinese Physician, Hua Tuo].

    PubMed

    Mouri, Chika; Mikage, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original formulation for "Tusujiu," which Japanese people still consume on the morning of January 1st, was created by Hua Tuo, but has not been studied in detail. The book Huatuo Shenyi Bizhuan, found in 1918, describes a concoction, "Biyijiu," that shows great similarity to the current Tusujiu; the ingredients for Biyijiu being rhubarb, atractylodes rhizome, cinnamon bark, platycodon root, zanthoxylum fruit, processed aconite root and smilax rhizome. The procedures for preparing and drinking it are to "pound the ingredients and then put them into a silk bag dyed with madder. During the daytime of the last day of the year, hang the bag in a well to soften the powder. Take the bag out early in the morning of the next day, the first day of the year. Heat the bag in fermented liquor until simmering. Drink the liquid with all family members, doing so while facing east. If one person drinks it, there will be no disease in the family. If the whole family drinks it, there will be no disease in their neighborhood in an area of one square 'li'. In this study, to determine the original formulation for Tusujiu, we examined a number of ancient medical texts from the 3rd to the 13th century that discuss Biyijiu and Tusujiu. As a result, we concluded that "Biyijiu" is likely to be the original formulation developed by Hua Tuo. PMID:26427101

  12. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  13. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  14. Evaluation of a model of dissertation supervision for 3rd year B.Sc. undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Donna; Cox, Georgina

    2016-03-01

    All English universities now offer an all degree undergraduate nursing programme. Many currently use an individual supervision model to support final year dissertation students, but with increased numbers and limited resources new models of supervision are needed. This study evaluated a mixed (group and individual) model of dissertation supervision to determine its effectiveness for a large group of undergraduate nursing students. A sample of 3rd year students and their supervisors were selected from one large university. An evaluation survey was conducted using anonymous internet-based questionnaires and focus groups. The data was analysed using Survey Monkey, SPSS and thematic analysis. A 51% (n = 56/110) response rate (students) and 65% (n = 24/37) for supervisors was obtained. The majority of students and supervisors were satisfied with the new model. There was a mixed response to the group workshops and supervision groups. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: engaging with the process, motivation to supervise and valuing the process. The supervision process is a struggle but both parties gained considerably from going through the process. In conclusion, a mixed model of supervision together with a range of other learning resources can be an effective approach in supporting students through the dissertation process. PMID:26700648

  15. To keep the catch – that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12–15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  16. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: expanding care in the interferon-free era.

    PubMed

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014⁄2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, 'Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada' is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and⁄or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  17. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  18. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA. PMID:20795337

  19. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Ozel, Tuncay; Mutlugun, Evren; Ozge Huyal, Ilkem; Sari, Emre; Holder, Elisabeth; Tian, Nan

    2007-10-01

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs (λPL=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λPL=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of Tc=6962 K and CRI of Ra=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs (λPL=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λPL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), Tc=14395 K and Ra=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs (λPL=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λPL=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), Tc=4052 K and Ra= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters.

  20. Rotating-frame perspective on high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Daniel M.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-04-01

    We employ a rotating frame of reference to elucidate high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light by bicircular driving fields. In particular, we show how the experimentally observed circular components of the high-order-harmonic spectrum can be directly related to the corresponding quantities in the rotating frame. Supported by numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we deduce an optimal strategy for maximizing the cutoff in the high-order-harmonic plateau while keeping the two circular components of the emitted light spectrally distinct. Moreover, we show how the rotating-frame picture can be more generally employed for elliptical drivers. Finally, we point out how circular and elliptical driving fields show a near-duality to static electric and magnetic fields in a rotating-frame description. This demonstrates how high-order-harmonic generation of circularly polarized light under static electromagnetic fields can be emulated in practice even at static field strengths beyond current experimental capabilities.

  1. Analysis of time-variant quadratic phase couplings in the tracé alternant EEG by recursive estimation of 3rd-order time-frequency distributions.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Marko; Schwab, Karin; Leistritz, Lutz; Eiselt, Michael; Witte, Herbert

    2006-10-15

    The quantification of transient quadratic phase couplings (QPC) by means of time-variant bispectral analysis is a useful approach to explain several interrelations between signal components. A generalized recursive estimation approach for 3rd-order time-frequency distributions (3rd-order TFD) is introduced. Based on 3rd-order TFD, time-variant estimations of biamplitude (BA), bicoherence (BC) and phase bicoherence (PBC) can be derived. Different smoothing windows and local moment functions for an optimization of the estimation properties are investigated and compared. The methods are applied to signal simulations and EEG signals, and it can be shown that the new time-variant bispectral analysis results in a reliable quantification of QPC in the tracé alternant EEG of healthy neonates. PMID:16737739

  2. White light generation using Förster resonance energy transfer between 3-hydroxyisoquinoline and Nile Red.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neeraj K; Polgar, Alexander M; Steer, Ronald P; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-11

    Simple composite films consisting of a polymer blended with organic emitters have the potential for broad-band "white" light emission that can be used for general lighting applications. In the present work, a simple mixture of 3-hydroxyisoquinoline (HIQ) with Nile Red (NR) in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used to generate white light through a non-radiative excitation energy transfer (NREET) mechanism. NREET between HIQ and NR doped in PVA films is investigated using a combination of steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It is observed that NR has very weak fluorescence in the PVA film upon excitation at 400 nm, but upon mixing NR with HIQ, sensitized emission of NR is observed with decreased emission of HIQ. The behavior of the sensitized emission of NR is consistent with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor HIQ and acceptor NR. By adjusting the relative fractions of HIQ and NR in the films, the extent of FRET could be regulated and the overall film emission color could be manipulated to enable overall "white" (CIE color coordinates 0.34, 0.38) emission. The films showed excellent photostability with 405 nm diode illumination, along with mechanical flexibility, suggesting good potential utility as a down converting element for lighting applications. PMID:26928071

  3. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  4. Phase-controllable spin wave generation in iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimine, Isao; Iida, Ryugo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Satoh, Takuya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2014-07-28

    A phase-controlled spin wave was non-thermally generated in bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses. We controlled the initial phase of the spin wave continuously within a range of 180° by changing the polarization azimuth of the excitation light. The azimuth dependences of the initial phase and amplitude of the spin wave were attributed to a combination of the inverse Cotton-Mouton effect and photoinduced magnetic anisotropy. Temporally and spatially resolved spin wave propagation was observed with a CCD camera, and the waveform was in good agreement with calculations. A nonlinear effect of the spin excitation was observed for excitation fluences higher than 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Computer-generated holograms by means of a magnetooptic spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mait, Joseph N.; Himes, Glenn S.

    1989-11-01

    A magnetooptic spatial light modulator is used to reconstruct computer-generated Fourier holograms. Different methods for designing the holograms are considered including binary and complex quantization in conjuction with an iterative algorithm, carrier techniques, phase manipulations, and cell oriented binary coding. The limitations of binary quantization are discussed, and the trade-offs between space-bandwidth and quantization error are considered. Using a device having an array 48 x 48 elements the best compromise is achieved using carrier techniques in conjuction with phase manipulations and binary quantization.

  6. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm.

    PubMed

    Berkeland, D J; Cruz, F C; Bergquist, J C

    1997-06-20

    Over 2 mW of continuous-wave tunable 194-nm light is produced by sum-frequency mixing approximately 500 mW of 792-nm and 500 mW of 257-nm radiation in beta-barium borate (BBO). The powers in both fundamental beams are enhanced in separate ring cavities whose optical paths overlap in the Brewster-cut BBO crystal. Due to the higher circulating fundamental powers, the sum-frequency-generated power is nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values. PMID:18253443

  7. Experimental generation of non-Kolmogorov turbulence using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij N.; Wilcox, Christopher C.; Restaino, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    Several experiments showed that the classical Kolmogorov power spectral density of the refractive-index sometimes does not properly describe the statistics of the atmosphere. In this paper we show an experimental testbed able to generate non-classical Kolmogorov turbulence by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The testbed is used at Naval Postgraduate School for laboratory investigation of laser beam propagation in maritime environment where a power law different from classical Kolmogorov, 11/ 3, could be present. Applications of this testbed are ship to-ship free space optical communication, imaging and high energy laser weapons.

  8. Biological activity of photoproducts of merocyanine 540 generated by laser-light activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Chanh, Tran C.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Harriman, Anthony; Matthews, James Lester

    1992-08-01

    Controlled exposure of photoactive compounds to light prior to their use in biological targets results in the formation of heretofore unknown photoproducts. This process of photoproduct generation, termed "preactivation," renders the photactive compound capable of systemic use without further dependence on light. Preactivation of mercyanin 540 (MC540) and several other photoactive compounds is achievable by exposure to CW and pulse laser radiation. The singlet oxygen generated at excited states attacks the dye molucule itself, resulting in the formation of biologically active photoproducts. For preactivated MC540 (photoproducts of MC540) generated by exposure to argon laser light (514 nm) and light from free-electron laser, we have demonstrated its effectiveness in selective killing of certain types of cultured tumor cells as well as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with very low, if any, damage to normal cells and tisues. For example, approximately 90% of the Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi cells and HL-60 leukemic cells are killed by preactivated MC540 at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. A two-hour treatment of cultured cells with buthionine sulfoxamine followed by the treatement with preactivated MC540 reults in 99.99% inhibition of clonogenic tumor stem cell growth. We also have demonstrated that preactivated MC540 is very effective in killing cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. It also is very effective in killing HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in virus-infected blood in vitro as determined by reverse transcriptase, P24, P17, core antigen expression and synctium formation. Treatment of HIV-1 with preactivated MC540 renders the treated HIV-1 incapable of binding to CD4 target molecules on T cells as determined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. In vivo toxicology studies show that preactivated MC540 is very well tolerated and does not produce any signs of adverse reaction at the therapeutic doses, as determined by

  9. Simulation of light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations: Time-independent solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shtykov, N. M. Palto, S. P.; Umanskii, B. A.

    2013-08-15

    We report on the results of calculating the conditions for light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes using kinetic equations. Specific features of spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and spatially distributed type of the feedback in the active medium are taken into account. The expression is derived for the threshold pump radiation intensity as a function of the dye concentration and sample thickness. The importance of taking into account the distributed loss level in the active medium for calculating the optimal parameters of the medium and for matching the calculated values with the results of experiments is demonstrated.

  10. Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses.

    PubMed

    Lara-Astiaso, M; Silva, R E F; Gubaydullin, A; Rivière, P; Meier, C; Martín, F

    2016-08-26

    One of the current challenges in high-harmonic generation is to extend the harmonic cutoff to increasingly high energies while maintaining or even increasing the efficiency of the high-harmonic emission. Here we show that the combined effect of down-chirped pulses and nuclear dynamics in light molecules allows one to achieve this goal, provided that long enough IR pulses are used to allow the nuclei to move well outside the Franck-Condon region. We also show that, by varying the duration of the chirped pulse or by performing isotopic substitution while keeping the pulse duration constant, one can control the extension of the harmonic plateau. PMID:27610851

  11. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D.; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  12. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  13. The Automatic Light Curves Generated by Danish 1.54m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoda, Petr

    2015-12-01

    We present the Ondřejov Southern Photometry Survey, being conducted at the Danish 1.54m telescope in remote observing mode by several groups of Czech stellar astronomers. The automatic astrometry and photometry pipelines run on every CCD frame combined with sophisticated parallelized cross-matching and clustering algorithms result in an on-the-fly generation of light curves of every single object in the field. To allow powerful querying and visualization of current database of more than half billion of measurements, the technology of Virtual Observatory is used, combining IVOA protocols and powerful visualization tools as Aladin, TOPCAT and SPLAT-VO.

  14. Light-RCV: a lightweight read coverage viewer for next generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has brought an unprecedented amount of genomic data for analysis. Unlike array-based profiling technologies, NGS can reveal the expression profile across a transcript at the base level. Such a base-level read coverage provides further insights for alternative mRNA splicing, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), novel transcript discovery, etc. However, to our best knowledge, none of existing NGS viewers can timely visualize genome-wide base-level read coverages in an interactive environment. Results This study proposes an efficient visualization pipeline and implements a lightweight read coverage viewer, Light-RCV, with the proposed pipeline. Light-RCV consists of four featured designs on the path from raw NGS data to the final visualized read coverage: i) read coverage construction algorithm, ii) multi-resolution profiles, iii) two-stage architecture and iv) storage format. With these designs, Light-RCV achieves a < 0.5s response time on any scale of genomic ranges, including whole chromosomes. Finally, a case study was performed to demonstrate the importance of visualizing base-level read coverage and the value of Light-RCV. Conclusions Compared with multi-functional genome viewers such as Artemis, Savant, Tablet and Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV), Light-RCV is designed only for visualization. Therefore, it does not provide advanced analyses. However, its backend technology provides an efficient kernel of base-level visualization that can be easily embedded to other viewers. This viewer is the first to provide timely visualization of genome-wide read coverage at the base level in an interactive environment. The software is available for free at http://lightrcv.ee.ncku.edu.tw. PMID:26680734

  15. Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave tunable ultraviolet coherent light in BBO-installed external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Kenta; Tokuyama, Kazuhiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Inoue, Norihiro; Fukuda, Naoaki; Takiya, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we have tried to develop a continuous wave (CW), tunable, and ultraviolet (UV) coherent light source through sum-frequency generation (SFG) using a BBO nonlinear crystal with a two-stage frequency-conversion system using two different external cavities for the enhancement of CW lights. In the first stage, we obtained the 532-nm light with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the 1064-nm light. A bow-tie external cavity incorporating four mirrors, whose cavity length was controlled by the frequency stabilization method proposed by Hänsch and Couillaud, was employed there. In the second stage, to generate the 312-nm light, we demonstrated doubly resonant sum frequency generation of the 532-nm light from the first-stage and the 754-nm light from a single-frequency CW Ti:Sapphire laser. Considering a nonlinear coefficient, it should be preferable to use a BiBO crystal for high-efficient SFG, but the 312-nm light might be absorbed by the BiBO crystal. Therefore, we chose a BBO as a nonlinear crystal to avoid the absorption of the 312-nm light.

  16. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice. PMID:27077324

  17. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  18. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Generation of squeezed (sub-Poissonian) light by a multimode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskii, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental results of investigations into the quantum noise of multimode laser radiation are considered. The feasibility of generating light with a photon-number-squeezed (sub-Poissonian) photon distribution by a multimode laser with a homogeneously broadened line is analyzed. The conditions of noisy and noiseless (regular) pumping are considered. Photon-number fluctuations of the net laser radiation summed over all generated modes are calculated in the approximation of equidistant equal modes, as are photon-number fluctuations in an individual mode inside and outside the resonator. Output-radiation noise spectra and photon-number fluctuations are calculated for solid-state (neodymium glass, Nd:YAG) and semiconductor lasers. Theoretical results are compared with a number of experimental data obtained for semiconductor lasers in recent years.

  19. A time/frequency quantum analysis of the light generated by synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shifeng; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2012-04-01

    We present in this paper a general model for determining the quantum properties of the light generated by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) operating below threshold. This model considers time and frequency on an equal footing, which allows us to find new quantum properties, related for example to the carrier envelope offset (CEO) phase, and to consider situations that are close to real experiments. We show that, in addition to multimode squeezing in the so-called ‘supermodes’, the system exhibits quadrature entanglement between frequency combs of opposite CEO phases. We have also determined the quantum properties of the individual pulses and their quantum correlations with the neighboring pulses. Finally, we determine the quantum Cramer-Rao limit for an ultra-short time delay measurement using a given number of pulses generated by the SPOPO.

  20. Light-scattering properties of plate and column ice crystals generated in a laboratory cold chamber.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Brian; Bailey, Matt; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Hallett, John

    2002-09-20

    Angular scattering properties of ice crystal particles generated in a laboratory cloud chamber are measured with a lightweight polar nephelometer with a diode laser beam. This cloud chamber produces distinct plate and hollow column ice crystal types for light-scattering experiments and provides a controlled test bed for comparison with results computed from theory. Ice clouds composed predominantly of plates and hollow columns generated noticeable 22 degrees and 46 degrees halo patterns, which are predicted from geometric ray-tracing calculations. With the measured ice crystal shape and size distribution, the angular scattering patterns computed from geometrical optics with a significant contribution by rough surfaces closely match those observed from the nephelometer. PMID:12269578

  1. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarlin Jensen, Ole; Michael Petersen, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic locking.

  2. Multi-point laser spark generation for internal combustion engines using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Elliott; Kuang, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique demonstrating for the first time successful multi-point laser-induced spark generation, which is variable in three dimensions and derived from a single laser beam. Previous work on laser ignition of internal combustion engines found that simultaneously igniting in more than one location resulted in more stable and faster combustion - a key potential advantage over conventional spark ignition. However, previous approaches could only generate secondary foci at fixed locations. The work reported here is an experimental technique for multi-point laser ignition, in which several sparks with arbitrary spatial location in three dimensions are created by variable diffraction of a pulsed single laser beam source and transmission through an optical plug. The diffractive multi-beam arrays and patterns are generated using a spatial light modulator on which computer generated holograms are displayed. A gratings and lenses algorithm is used to accurately modulate the phase of the input laser beam and create multi-beam output. The underpinning theory, experimental arrangement and results obtained are presented and discussed.

  3. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Nohra E.; Garcia, Laura E.; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients' outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine). The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10%) for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (P < 0.01). Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia. PMID:23841094

  4. Evolution of light-induced vapor generation at a liquid-immersed metallic nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Yu-Rong; Neumann, Oara; Polman, Albert; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    When an Au nanoparticle in a liquid medium is illuminated with resonant light of sufficient intensity, a nanometer scale envelope of vapor -a “nanobubble”- surrounding the particle, is formed. This is the nanoscale onset of the well-known process of liquid boiling, occurring at a single nanoparticle nucleation site, resulting from the photothermal response of the nanoparticle. Here we examine bubble formation at an individual metallic nanoparticle in detail. Incipient nanobubble formation is observed by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift of an individual, illuminated Au nanoparticle, when its local environment changes from liquid to vapor. The temperature on the nanoparticle surface is monitored during this process, where a dramatic temperature jump is observed as the nanoscale vapor layer thermally decouples the nanoparticle from the surrounding liquid. By increasing the intensity of the incident light or decreasing the interparticle separation, we observe the formation of micron sized bubbles resulting from the coalescence of nanoparticle-“bound” vapor envelopes. These studies provide the first direct and quantitative analysis of the evolution of light-induced steam generation by nanoparticles from the nanoscale to the macroscale, a process that is of fundamental interest for a growing number of applications. PMID:23517407

  5. Simultaneous Filtered and Unfiltered Light Scattering Measurements in Laser Generated Air Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, Christopher; Miles, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Elastic laser light scattering may be used to measure the thermofluidic properties of gases and plasmas, including but not limited to density, temperature and velocity. Most of this information is contained within the spectra of the scattered radiation. This may be measured directly through dispersion or indirectly, by passing the light through an atomic or molecular vapor filter with known absorption features. In this work, filtered and unfiltered laser light scattering is used to diagnose air sparks generated by a 1064 nm Q-switched laser. The probe laser consists of a second Q-switched Nd:YAG laser frequency doubled to 532 nm. Simultaneous unfiltered and filtered images of the scattering are captured by a Princeton Instruments ICCD camera by using a 50 mm diameter concave re-imaging mirror. The filter consists of a well-characterized molecular Iodine cell. In the shock wave formed by the laser spark, spatially resolved measurements of density, temperature and radial velocity are extracted and compared with theory and models. Measurements in the spark core probe the ion feature of the electron Thomson scattering, from which ne and T can be extracted with the assumption Te =Ti . Partial funding was provided by General Electric Global Research Center: Niskayuna, New York. The first author is also supported by a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  6. Evolution of light-induced vapor generation at a liquid-immersed metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Zhen, Yu-Rong; Neumann, Oara; Polman, Albert; García de Abajo, F Javier; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-04-10

    When an Au nanoparticle in a liquid medium is illuminated with resonant light of sufficient intensity, a nanometer scale envelope of vapor-a "nanobubble"-surrounding the particle, is formed. This is the nanoscale onset of the well-known process of liquid boiling, occurring at a single nanoparticle nucleation site, resulting from the photothermal response of the nanoparticle. Here we examine bubble formation at an individual metallic nanoparticle in detail. Incipient nanobubble formation is observed by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift of an individual, illuminated Au nanoparticle, when its local environment changes from liquid to vapor. The temperature on the nanoparticle surface is monitored during this process, where a dramatic temperature jump is observed as the nanoscale vapor layer thermally decouples the nanoparticle from the surrounding liquid. By increasing the intensity of the incident light or decreasing the interparticle separation, we observe the formation of micrometer-sized bubbles resulting from the coalescence of nanoparticle-"bound" vapor envelopes. These studies provide the first direct and quantitative analysis of the evolution of light-induced steam generation by nanoparticles from the nanoscale to the macroscale, a process that is of fundamental interest for a growing number of applications. PMID:23517407

  7. Implications of Technology for Teaching and Learning. Annual Professional Education Seminar of Central States Colleges and Universities (3rd, November, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Asahel; Froyen, Len

    This report of the proceedings of the 3rd Annual Professional Education Seminar of the Central States Colleges and Universities centers upon the implications of technology for teaching and learning and contains addresses delivered, including "Some Concerns Related to Technology in Education," by Len Froyen; and "Implications of Technology for…

  8. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  9. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  10. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental... to Florida Power and Light Company (the licensee), for operation of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4... National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or...

  11. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  13. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Sumpf, Bernd; Paschke, Katrin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a concept for visible laser sources based on sum-frequency generation of beam combined tapered diode lasers. In this specific case, a 1.7 W sum-frequency generated green laser at 509 nm is obtained, by frequency adding of 6.17 W from a 978 nm tapered diode laser with 8.06 W from a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applications, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser, thus demonstrating good beam quality and power stability. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 226 mW (CW) and 185 mW (mode-locked) at 1.7 W green pump power. The optical spectrum emitted by the mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of about 54 nm (FWHM), indicating less than 20 fs pulse width.

  14. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields. PMID:24730390

  15. Generation of axially modulated plasma waveguides using a spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Hine, G A; Goers, A J; Feder, L; Elle, J A; Yoon, S J; Milchberg, H M

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of axially modulated plasma waveguides using spatially patterned high-energy laser pulses. A spatial light modulator (SLM) imposes transverse phase front modulations on a low-energy (10 mJ) laser pulse which is interferometrically combined with a high-energy (130-450 mJ) pulse, sculpting its intensity profile. This enables dynamic and programmable shaping of the laser profile limited only by the resolution of the SLM and the intensity ratio of the two pulses. The plasma density profile formed by focusing the patterned pulse with an axicon lens is likewise dynamic and programmable. Centimeter-scale, axially modulated plasmas of varying shape and periodicity are demonstrated. PMID:27472585

  16. Generation of entangled macroscopic light fields with a coupled gain-loss waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashahri-Ghamsari, Saeid; He, Bing; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    We explore a Parity-Time (PT)-symmetric optical system of two coupled single-mode waveguides. One of the waveguides contains a gain medium, while the second one is with a loss medium. The magnitude of the gain can be adjusted to be equal to that of the loss, so that the PT-symmetric condition will be achieved. Moreover, we add a squeezing element to one of the waveguides. The squeezing can be generated in a parametric down conversion process. Moreover, we have included both amplifying and decaying noises in the process. It is shown that the squeezing intensifies the noise-induced photon emission and leads to the entanglement of the output light fields. Under certain conditions, the noises tend to eliminate the entanglement. If the input beam is strong, the entanglement due to the squeezing can become strong enough to overcome the noise effects, resulting in macroscopic entangled output fields.

  17. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    PubMed

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED. PMID:25832776

  18. Generation of broadband entangled light through cascading nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    He Wenping; Li Fuli

    2007-07-15

    We consider a system consisting of N nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) operating below threshold and linked with each other in a cascading way, each taking the output subharmonic fields from the previous one as the input fields. The entanglement properties of the subharmonic fields from these cascading nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers (CNOPAs) are investigated. We find that, if the input subharmonic fields of the first NOPA in the cascading line are in the vacuum state, the output fields from the later NOPAs exhibit excellent broadband entanglement, and the entanglement frequency band is broadened notably with increased number of cascading NOPAs. We also discuss the application of the entangled light generated from the CNOPAs to broadband teleportation, and find that the maximum width of the fidelity spectrum of teleportation of broadband coherent states can be greatly broadened.

  19. Near-zone evanescent waves generated by weak scattering of light from a spatially deterministic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    It is commonly known that the far-zone spectrum of a scattered field can be utilized to measure the scattering potential of the medium. However, properties of evanescent fields scattered from the medium with the dielectric susceptibility being a deterministic function, to the best of our knowledge, have not been concerned so far. Assuming the scattering potential of a spatially deterministic medium suffices the Gaussian profile, integrations are derived for the near-zone evanescent field generated by the scattering of light from the medium. It is noticed that the spectral density of the scattered field decays exponentially as either the propagation distance of scattered waves or the effective radius of the scattering potential (ERSP) increases. These results are applicable to the near-field biomedical imaging where the considered tiny particles and molecules solely scatter evanescent waves in near-zone regions.

  20. Laboratory Astrophysics with High Power Lasers and 4th Generation Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    The combination of high power optical lasers and free electron lasers operating at short wavelength (in the x-ray regime) has opened new avenues for laboratory astrophysics, where exotic states of matter can now be generated and probed with high accuracy. We will review a few examples of recent experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser operating in Stanford (CA), but also discuss future applications. We will focus our discussion on the following three examples: 1) Laboratory analogues of white dwarf envelopes and the physics of strongly coupled plasmas near crystallization; 2) scaled laboratory experiments to investigate magnetized and radiative shocks; and 3) possible proposals for testing strong gravity analogues using x-ray Thomson scattering. This work was partially the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.

  1. Monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light from in situ generated particles in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hareland, W.A.; Buss, R.J.; Brown, D.A.; Collins, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in the behavior of particles in plasmas because of the negative economic impact of contamination during processing of silicon for microelectronics manufacture. Here, spatially resolved images of particle distributions are measured in steady-state plasmas in a GEC (gaseous electronics conference) plasma reactor. Images are obtained by monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light using a microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifier and a high-speed video camera. The observed distributions of particulates generated by adding small quantities of CHF{sub 3} to an argon plasma are extremely complex and diverse. The patterns observed are temporally varying, and rarely as simple as domes and rings observed in other reactors. The forces acting on the particles are sufficiently complex that reproducing specific spatial patterns by controlling processing parameters if often impossible.

  2. Rise in power of Yb:YCOB for green light generation by self-frequency doubling.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Federico; Loiseau, Pascal; Aka, Gérard; Gheorghe, Lucian

    2016-08-01

    Spectroscopic properties and self-frequency-doubling laser performance are presented for Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 (Yb:YCOB) crystals oriented for type I second-harmonic generation in the ZX plane. In a plane-concave cavity 10 cm long, up to 330 mW of green light (544.5 nm) is obtained for 14.7 W of laser diode incident pump power. Broad emission bands and weak anisotropy in the 1060-1100 nm range between the two eigenstates of polarization may explain the instability of the self-frequency-doubled output power. PMID:27472630

  3. Generation of Antibunched Light by Excited Molecules in a Microcavity Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartini, F.; DiGiuseppe, G.; Marrocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    The active microcavity is adopted as an efficient source of non-classical light. By this device, excited by a mode-locked laser at a rate of 100 MHz, single-photons are generated over a single field mode with a nonclassical sub-poissonian distribution. The process of adiabatic recycling within a multi-step Franck-Condon molecular optical-pumping mechanism, characterized in our case by a quantum efficiency very close to one, implies a pump self-regularization process leading to a striking n-squeezing effect. By a replication of the basic single-atom excitation process a beam of quantum photon (Fock states) can be created. The new process represents a significant advance in the modern fields of basic quantum-mechanical investigation, quantum communication and quantum cryptography.

  4. Biphoton Generation Driven by Spatial Light Modulation: Parallel-to-Series Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luwei; Guo, Xianxin; Sun, Yuan; Su, Yumian; Loy, M. M. T.; Du, Shengwang

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the generation of narrowband biphotons with controllable temporal waveform by spontaneous four-wave mixing in cold atoms. In the group-delay regime, we study the dependence of the biphoton temporal waveform on the spatial profile of the pump laser beam. By using a spatial light modulator, we manipulate the spatial profile of the pump laser and map it onto the two-photon entangled temporal wave function. This parallel-to-series conversion (or spatial-to-temporal mapping) enables coding the parallel classical information of the pump spatial profile to the sequential temporal waveform of the biphoton quantum state. The work was supported by the Hong Kong RGC (Project No. 601113).

  5. Generation of a super-Rayleigh speckle field via a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzhong; Tai, Yuping; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Wang, Hui; Nie, Zhaogang

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the generation method and properties of a super-Rayleigh speckle field that had a contrast value greater than 1. First, an exponential factor was added to the complex amplitude of the Rayleigh speckle, and then, its inverse Fourier-transformed phase matrix was applied to a spatial light modulator (SLM). As the collimated light beam illuminated the SLM, the super-Rayleigh speckle field was formed at the SLM's Fourier plane. The effects of the exponential factor, size of the macro-pixel of the SLM, and diameter of the entrance pupil on the contrast values of the super-Rayleigh speckle patterns were investigated. Especially, the influence of different macro-pixel sizes of the SLM was systematically studied. Moreover, the stability region of the super-Rayleigh speckle field was examined. The experimental results showed that the contrast values of the super-Rayleigh speckle field increased exponentially as the exponential factor increased under the same conditions. In addition, the contrast values increased as the size of the macro-pixel or diameter of the entrance pupil increased. Furthermore, as the pupil diameter increased, the width of the stability region decreased according to a negative quadratic index that corresponded to the longitudinal length of a single speckle.

  6. Generation-IV Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR)

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Fisher, James; Weaver, Kevan; Babka, Pierre; Reyes, Jose; Groome, John

    2002-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Nexant Inc. and the Oregon State University (OSU) have developed a Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) concept. The MASLWR is a small, safe and economic natural circulation pressurized light water reactor. MASLWR reactor module consists of an integral reactor/steam generator located in a steel cylindrical containment. The entire module is to be entirely shop fabricated and transported to site on most railways or roads. Two or more modules are located in a reactor building, each being submersed in a common, below grade cavity filled with water. For the most severe postulated accident, the volume of water in the cavity provides a passive ultimate heat sink for 3 or more days allowing the restoration of lost normal active heat removal systems. MASLWR thermal power of a single module is 150 MWt, primary system pressure 10.5 MPa, steam pressure 1.52 MPa and the net electrical output is 35 - 50 MWe. (authors)

  7. Generation-IV Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR)

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, Slawomir Michael; Fisher, James Ebberly; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Babka, P.; Reyes, Johnny Paul; Groome, J.; Wilson, Gary Edward

    2002-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Nexant Inc. and the Oregon State University (OSU) have developed a Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) concept. The MASLWR is a small, safe and economic natural circulation pressurized light water reactor. MASLWR reactor module consists of an integral reactor/steam generator located in a steel cylindrical containment. The entire module is to be entirely shop fabricated and transported to site on most railways or roads. Two or more modules are located in a reactor building, each being submersed in a common, below grade cavity filled with water. For the most severe postulated accident, the volume of water in the cavity provides a passive ultimate heat sink for 3 or more days allowing the restoration of lost normal active heat removal systems. MASLWR thermal power of a single module is 150 MWt, primary system pressure 10.5 MPa, steam pressure1.52 MPa and the net electrical output is 35 - 50 MWe.

  8. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason B.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4-2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  9. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  10. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B. Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  11. Performance of a ruthenium beam separator used to separate soft x rays from light generated by a high-order harmonic light source.

    PubMed

    Ichimaru, Satoshi; Hatayama, Masatoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki; Gullikson, Eric M; Oku, Satoshi

    2016-02-10

    We describe the design and fabrication of a ruthenium beam separator used to simultaneously attenuate infrared light and reflect soft x rays. Measurements in the infrared and soft x-ray regions showed the beam separator to have a reflectivity of 50%-85% in the wavelength region from 6 to 10 nm at a grazing incidence angle of 7.5 deg and 4.3% at 800 nm and the same angle of grazing incidence, indicating that the amount of attenuation is 0.05-0.09. These results show that this beam separator could provide an effective means for separating IR light from soft x rays in light generated by high-order harmonic generation sources. PMID:26906363

  12. White-light emission from solid carbon in aqueous solution during hydrogen generation induced by nanosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Shota; Maeda, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    We previously discovered a novel method of hydrogen generation from high-grade charcoal in an aqueous solution using nanosecond laser pulse irradiation. In this paper, white-light emission during this reaction is reported: A broad spectrum over the visible range is observed above a threshold excitation energy density. The white-light emission is a simultaneous product of the hydrogen generation reaction and is attributed to blackbody radiation in accordance with Planck's Law at a temperature above 3800 K. Consequently, we propose that hydrogen generation induced by laser irradiation proceeds similarly to classical coal gasification, which features reactions at high pressure and high temperature.

  13. A method of generating atmospheric turbulence with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Martinez, Ty; Andrews, Jonathan R.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Corley, Melissa; Teare, Scott W.; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2010-08-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has developed a new method for generating atmospheric turbulence and a testbed that simulates its aberrations far more inexpensively and with greater fidelity using a Liquid Crystal (LC) Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) than many other methods. This system allows the simulation of atmospheric seeing conditions ranging from very poor to very good and different algorithms may be easily employed on the device for comparison. These simulations can be dynamically generated and modified very quickly and easily. In addition, many models for simulating turbulence often neglect temporal transitions along with different seeing conditions. Using the statistically independent set of Karhunen-Loeve polynomials in conjunction with Kolmogorov statistics in this model provides an accurate spatial and temporal model for simulating turbulence. An added benefit to using a LC SLM is its low cost; and multiple devices can be used to simulate multiple layers of turbulence in a laboratory environment. Current testing with using multiple LC SLMs is under investigation at the Naval Research Laboratory and the Naval Postgraduate School.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide generated by NADPH oxidase is involved in high blue-light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Xing, Da; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-08-01

    One of the most important functions of blue light is to induce chloroplast movements by reducing the damage to photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by various environmental stimuli, can act as a signaling molecule that regulates a number of developmental processes and environmental responses. To investigate whether H2O2 is involved in high blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we use luminescence spectrometer to observe H2O2 generation with the assistance of the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). After treatment with high blue light, a large quantity of H2O2 indicated by the fluorescence intensity of DCF is produced in a dose-dependent manner in leaf strip of Arabidopsis. Enzymatic assay shows that the activity of NADPH oxidase, which is a major site for H2O2 generation, also rapidly increases in treated strips. Exogenously applied H2O2 can promote the high blue light-induced chloroplast movements. Moreover, high blue light-induced H2O2 generation can be abolished completely by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT), and partly by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU), which are an NADPH oxidase inhibitor and a blocker of electron transport chain. And subsequent chloroplast movements can be abolished by CAT and DPI, but not by DCMU. These results presented here suggested that high blue light can induce oxidative burst, and NADPH oxidase as a major producer for H2O2 is involved in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements.

  15. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  16. Light Harvesting and White-Light Generation in a Composite of Carbon Dots and Dye-Encapsulated BSA-Protein-Capped Gold Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Barman, Monoj Kumar; Paramanik, Bipattaran; Bain, Dipankar; Patra, Amitava

    2016-08-01

    Several strategies have been adopted to design an artificial light-harvesting system in which light energy is captured by peripheral chromophores and it is subsequently transferred to the core via energy transfer. A composite of carbon dots and dye-encapsulated BSA-protein-capped gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) has been developed for efficient light harvesting and white light generation. Carbon dots (C-dots) act as donor and AuNCs capped with BSA protein act as acceptor. Analysis reveals that energy transfer increases from 63 % to 83 % in presence of coumarin dye (C153), which enhances the cascade energy transfer from carbon dots to AuNCs. Bright white light emission with a quantum yield of 19 % under the 375 nm excitation wavelength is achieved by changing the ratio of components. Interesting findings reveal that the efficient energy transfer in carbon-dot-metal-cluster nanocomposites may open up new possibilities in designing artificial light harvesting systems for future applications. PMID:27383453

  17. Optimal synthesis of double-phase computer generated holograms using a phase-only spatial light modulator with grating filter.

    PubMed

    Song, Hoon; Sung, Geeyoung; Choi, Sujin; Won, Kanghee; Lee, Hong-Seok; Kim, Hwi

    2012-12-31

    We propose an optical system for synthesizing double-phase complex computer-generated holograms using a phase-only spatial light modulator and a phase grating filter. Two separated areas of the phase-only spatial light modulator are optically superposed by 4-f configuration with an optimally designed grating filter to synthesize arbitrary complex optical field distributions. The tolerances related to misalignment factors are analyzed, and the optimal synthesis method of double-phase computer-generated holograms is described. PMID:23388811

  18. Magnetic field enhancement of generation-recombination and shot noise in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Djidjou, T. K.; Basel, Tek; Rogachev, A.; Chen, Ying; Shinar, J.

    2015-03-21

    We have studied the effect of magnetic field on noise in series of 2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene-based organic light emitting diodes with dominant hole injection, dominant electron injection, and balanced electron and hole injection. The noise spectra of the balanced devices revealed the generation-recombination (g-r) noise term, which we associated with bimolecular electron-hole recombination. The presence of the g-r noise term is correlated with the strong organic magnetoresistance (up to 25%) observed in the balanced devices. The noise spectra also have the shot noise contribution with the Fano factor 0.25–0.4. We found that time constant of the g-r term decreases and the magnitude of shot noise increases when magnetic field is applied. This behavior can be consistently explained within the polaron-polaron model of organic magnetoresistance. We have not found any evidence that the magnetoresistance in studied devices is affected by traps.

  19. Synthesis of fluorescent core-shell nanomaterials and strategies to generate white light

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Ramanjot; Pandey, O. P.; Wei, Xueyong; Sharma, Manoj E-mail: manojsharma@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-07-28

    In this work, cadmium free core-shell ZnS:X/ZnS (X = Mn, Cu) nanoparticles have been synthesized and used for white light generation. First, the doping concentration of Manganese (Mn) was varied from 1% to 4% to optimize the dopant related emission and its optimal value was found to be 1%. Then, ZnS shell was grown over ZnS:Mn(1%) core to passivate the surface defects. Similarly, the optimal concentration of Copper (Cu) was found to be 0.8% in the range varied from 0.6% to 1.2%. In order to obtain an emission in the whole visible spectrum, dual doping of Mn and Cu was done in the core and the shell, respectively. A solid-solid mixing in different ratios of separately doped quantum dots (QDs) emitting in the blue green and the orange region was performed. Results show that the optimum mixture of QDs excited at 300 nm gives Commission Internationale del'Éclairage color coordinates of (0.35, 0.36), high color rendering index of 88, and correlated color temperature of 4704 K with minimum self-absorption.

  20. Magnetic field enhancement of generation-recombination and shot noise in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djidjou, T. K.; Chen, Ying; Basel, Tek; Shinar, J.; Rogachev, A.

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the effect of magnetic field on noise in series of 2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene-based organic light emitting diodes with dominant hole injection, dominant electron injection, and balanced electron and hole injection. The noise spectra of the balanced devices revealed the generation-recombination (g-r) noise term, which we associated with bimolecular electron-hole recombination. The presence of the g-r noise term is correlated with the strong organic magnetoresistance (up to 25%) observed in the balanced devices. The noise spectra also have the shot noise contribution with the Fano factor 0.25-0.4. We found that time constant of the g-r term decreases and the magnitude of shot noise increases when magnetic field is applied. This behavior can be consistently explained within the polaron-polaron model of organic magnetoresistance. We have not found any evidence that the magnetoresistance in studied devices is affected by traps.

  1. Vector method for studying the second-harmonic-generation light derived from complex periodic ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihong; Yang, Xiangbo; Wang, Zhenyu

    2010-05-01

    In this Letter, in order to overcome the disadvantages of controlling the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light derived from the traditional one-dimensional (1D) periodic ferroelectric domains we propose a kind of so-called complex periodic ferroelectric structure (CPFS), which unit cell is composed of even layers of positive and negative domains arranged alternatively following aperiodic sequence. It is found that comparing with the traditional periodic structure, CPFS cannot offer more reciprocal vector compensations for the mismatching phase, but CPFS may provide larger effective nonlinear coefficients (ENCs) in high-order quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and possesses advantages of the amplitude modulation for SHG peaks. In this Letter we study CPFS by use of vector method (VM), where the contribution to ENC for each domain or each unit cell will be treated as a vector and the QPM condition for CPFS and the modulation effect of aperiodic unit cells have been obtained. Without any Fourier transformation VM treats the grating function in real space and will be very convenient and intuitive. Both VM and CPFS would possess potential applications in the field of SHG investigations.

  2. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  3. Method to generate high efficient devices which emit high quality light for illumination

    DOEpatents

    Krummacher, Benjamin C.; Mathai, Mathew; Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2009-06-30

    An electroluminescent apparatus includes an OLED device emitting light in the blue and green spectrums, and at least one down conversion layer. The down conversion layer absorbs at least part of the green spectrum light and emits light in at least one of the orange spectra and red spectra.

  4. FEMTOSECOND TIMING DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL FOR NEXT GENERATION ACCELERATORS AND LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Li-Jin

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even at-tosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objec-tive of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution sys-tem based on modelocked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the

  5. 75 FR 55317 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of Applications Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Establishing...

  6. 76 FR 35886 - Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing; FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities Take notice that the Hydropower...

  7. 76 FR 18217 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company, City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice Updating Procedural Schedule for Licensing Take notice that the Hydropower Licensing Schedule for the Scotland...

  8. 76 FR 43679 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public... D. Bose, Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington,...

  9. 75 FR 9591 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application for... paper-file, an original and eight copies should be mailed to: Secretary, Federal Energy...

  10. Smart suit with variable stiffness mechanism. 3rd report: development of a prototype and verify the effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Feng, Maria Q.; Okada, Hidetaka

    2005-12-01

    Wearable robots, especially power suits to enhance human activity are one of the most interesting and important topics. This study aims t o develop a wearable robot that is small-size, light-weight for improving human perfor- mance and reducting muscle fatigue. So we proposed smart suit with variable stiffness mechanism that utilize elastic forces for assist and make assistance control by impedance control. Because of to utilize elastic forces for assist, the capacity of the suit do not reliance on weight of actuators and their's energy source well than conventional power suits. In consequence, we think the suit can realize miniaturization and getting light-weight. In a previous study, we verified the effectiveness of smart suit with variable stiffness mechanism by experiments and simulations in order to design the suit which can tune the stiffness of joint mechanically, and had been able to confirm the effectiveness. Based on these results, we design the smart suit with variable stiffness mechanism that be able to control number of working spring by small actuator, and at any knee joint angle, elastic energy occurrence is variable by displacement angle of ankle joint. We could obtain a result of the output per a mass of the suit is more large than conventional power suits. And we confirm that reducting muscle fatigue by experiments on knee bends and walking in case that subjects wear the suit. In this paper, we show the suit that we developed and effectiveness of the suit for human working.

  11. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. 3rd Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} continue to improve. five wells responded to CO{sub 2} injection and currently are flowing with the exception of well No. 6, which has been placed on gas lift to draw the CO{sub 2} to the vicinity. Current production is about 400 BOPD from the five producing wells. Total CO{sub 2} injection is averaging 10 MMCFD, including 4 MMCFD purchased from Cardox and 6 MMCFD of recycled gas. Reservoir pressure increased from 2697 psi in May, to 2890 psi in June due to over-injection. An additional water injection pump was installed to handle the increasing volume of produced water. Also a workover was performed on Well No. 33 to take out the gas lift valves and eliminate communication. Two papers were presented at the SPE/DOE symposium that was held in Tulsa this April. The screening model has been released to the DOE and was made public during the month of May.

  12. A comparison of the second harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue, and acid purple membrane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Sheves, M; Lewis, A; Bouevitch, O

    1994-09-01

    The second order nonlinear polarizability and dipole moment changes upon light excitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR), dark-adapted BR, blue membrane, and acid purple membrane have been measured by second harmonic generation. Our results indicate that the dipole moment changes of the retinal chromophore, delta mu, are very sensitive to both the chromophore structure and protein/chromophore interactions. Delta mu of light-adapted BR is larger than that of dark-adapted BR. The acid-induced formation of the blue membrane results in an increase in the delta mu value, and formation of acid purple membrane, resulting from further reduction of pH to 0, returns the delta mu to that of light-adapted BR. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:7811928

  13. A comparison of the second harmonic generation from light-adapted, dark-adapted, blue, and acid purple membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Sheves, M; Lewis, A; Bouevitch, O

    1994-01-01

    The second order nonlinear polarizability and dipole moment changes upon light excitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR), dark-adapted BR, blue membrane, and acid purple membrane have been measured by second harmonic generation. Our results indicate that the dipole moment changes of the retinal chromophore, delta mu, are very sensitive to both the chromophore structure and protein/chromophore interactions. Delta mu of light-adapted BR is larger than that of dark-adapted BR. The acid-induced formation of the blue membrane results in an increase in the delta mu value, and formation of acid purple membrane, resulting from further reduction of pH to 0, returns the delta mu to that of light-adapted BR. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:7811928

  14. White light emission and second harmonic generation from secondary group participation (SGP) in a coordination network.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D; Xu, Zhengtao

    2012-01-25

    We describe a white emitting coordination network solid that can be conveniently applied as a thin film onto a commercial UV-LED lamp for practical white lighting applications. The solid state material was discovered in an exercise of exploring molecular building blocks equipped with secondary groups for fine-tuning the structures and properties of coordination nets. Specifically, CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)S- and (S)-CH(3)(OH)CHCH(2)S- (2-hydroxylpropyl) were each attached as secondary groups to the 2,5- positions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (bdc), and the resultant molecules (L1 and L2, respectively) were crystallized with Pb(II) into the topologically similar 3D nets of PbL1 and PbL2, both consisting of interlinked Pb-carboxyl chains. While the CH(3)S- groups in PbL1 are not bonded to the Pb(II) centers, the hydroxy groups in PbL2 participate in coordinating to Pb(II) and thus modify the bonding features around the Pb(II), but only to a slight and subtle degree (e.g., Pb-O distances 2.941-3.116 Å). Interestingly, the subtle change in structure significantly impacts the properties, i.e., while the photoluminescence of PbL1 is yellowish green, PbL2 features bright white emission. Also, the homochiral side group in PbL2 imparts significant second harmonic generation, in spite of its seemingly weak association with the main framework (the NLO-phore). In a broad perspective, this work showcases the idea of secondary group participation (SGP) in the construction of coordination networks, an idea that parallels that of hemilabile ligands in organometallics and points to an effective strategy in developing advanced functions in solid state framework materials. PMID:22236070

  15. 1.5 W green light generation by single-pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode laser.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E; Sumpf, Bernd; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Erbert, Götz; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-04-13

    More than 1.5 W of green light at 531 nm is generated by single-pass second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. The pump laser is a high power tapered laser with a distributed Bragg reflector etched in the ridge section of the laser to provide wavelength selectivity. The output power of the single-frequency tapered laser is 9.3 W in continuous wave operation. A conversion efficiency of 18.5 % was achieved in the experiments. PMID:19365478

  16. International Congress of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd, Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 2-4, 1990, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2, 3, & 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Mobarak, A.; Rayan, M. Abou

    This conference presents papers in the fields of flow separation, unsteady aerodynamics, fluid machinery, boundary-layer control and stability, grid generation, vorticity dominated flows, and turbomachinery. Also considered are propulsion, waves and sound, rotor aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, cavitation, mixing and shear layers, mixing layers and turbulent flows, and fluid machinery and two-phase flows. Also addressed are supersonic and reacting flows, turbulent flows, and thermofluids.

  17. Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Xi Tingting; Lu Xin; Zhang Jie

    2006-01-20

    The interaction of two light filaments propagating in air is simulated. Simulations show that the interaction of the two light filaments displays interesting features such as attraction, fusion, repulsion, and spiral propagation, depending on the relative phase shift and the crossing angle between them. A long and stable channel can be formed by fusing two in-phase light filaments. The channel becomes unstable with the increase of the crossing angle and phase shift. The interaction of two light filaments in different planes is studied and the spiral propagation is observed.

  18. Gold nanocluster-sensitized TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongkai; Chen, Fuyi; Li, Weiyin; Tian, Tian

    2015-08-01

    The wide band-gap of TiO2 semiconductors hinders the photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light. In this research, we introduce glutathione-protected gold (Au-GSH) nanoclusters as a sensitizer to extend the active region of TiO2 up to a wavelength of 510 nm under visible light spectrum. We demonstrate that Au-GSH nanoclusters are capable of enhancing photocatalytic effects for hydrogen generation in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs). The combined effects of metal nanoclusters and sacrificial agent (EDTA) enhance the photocurrent up to six times more than what can be achieved using Au-GSH nanoclusters without EDTA. Moreover, the mechanisms of interaction between Au-GSH nanoclusters and EDTA have been investigated through instantaneous photoresponse measurements. A single electrode system has been designed to simplify PECs for hydrogen generation, which exhibits the same enhanced photocatalytic effect.

  19. Multi-watt power blue light generation by intracavity sum- frequency-mixing in KTiOPO4 crystal.

    PubMed

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Zhenqiang, Chen

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a high power blue laser at 447 nm was obtained by intracavity sum-frequency-mixing of a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAlO(3)(Nd:YAP) laser operating at 1341.4 nm. A type-I critical phase matching LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal and type-II critical phase matching KTiOPO(4) (KTP) crystal were used for second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation, respectively. The phase matching condition of the KTP crystal was researched. The results show that the KTP has superiority in intracavity sum-frequency-mixing blue light generation. 4.76 W blue light output was achieved at 4.6 kHz with the pulse width of 190ns. The fluctuation of output power was better than 3% at the output power of 4.76 W during half an hour. PMID:18542384

  20. [Use of imaging methods in the current screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer - Professional guidelines. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Gábor; Ambrózay, Éva; Bidlek, Mária; Borbély, Katalin; Kovács, Eszter; Lengyel, Zsolt; Ormándi, Katalin; Péntek, Zoltán; Riedl, Erika; Sebõ, Éva; Szabó, Éva

    2016-09-01

    Breast radiologists and nuclear medical specialists have refreshed their previous statement text during the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting. They suggest taking into consideration this actual protocol for the screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast tumors, from now on. This recommendation includes the description of the newest technologies, the recent results of scientific research, as well as the role of imaging methods in the therapeutic processes and the follow-up. Suggestions for improvement of the Hungarian current practice and other related issues as forensic medicine, media connections, regulations, and reimbursement are also detailed. The statement text has been cross-checked with the related medical disciplines. PMID:27579719

  1. [Damage-loss relationships and integrated control of 3rd instar larvae of Actias selene nigpoana Felder in planting area of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Wang, C; Zhang, Q; Cheng, X

    1997-08-01

    In the present paper, the damage-loss model of Actias selene ningpoana to Cornus officinalis was tested and the results indicated that the yield loss rates obeyed the equation Y = 100 - EXP(4.6042 - 0.0315X). The economic threshold of the 2hd and 3rd instar larvae of A. selene nigpoana was then determined as 22 and 8 insects per tree respecitively. Suggestions for integrated control have been made based on the research of activities of A. selene ningpoana in the forest. PMID:11038910

  2. Quantum yield measurements of light-induced H₂ generation in a photosystem I-[FeFe]-H₂ase nanoconstruct.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Amanda M; Lubner, Carolyn E; Knörzer, Philipp; Happe, Thomas; Golbeck, John H

    2016-01-01

    The quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation was measured for a previously optimized bio-hybrid cytochrome c 6-crosslinked PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-[FeFe]-H2ase(C97G) (PSI-H2ase) nanoconstruct. The theoretical quantum yield for the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct is 0.50 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of two photons per H2 generated. Illumination of the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct with visible light between 400 and 700 nm resulted in an average quantum yield of 0.10-0.15 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of 6.7-10 photons per H2 generated. A possible reason for the difference between the theoretical and experimental quantum yield is the occurrence of non-productive PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-PSIC13G (PSI-PSI) conjugates, which would absorb light without generating H2. Assuming the thiol-Fe coupling is equally efficient at producing PSI-PSI conjugates as well as in producing PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs, the theoretical quantum yield would decrease to 0.167 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to 6 photons per H2 generated. This value is close to the range of measured values in the current study. A strategy that purifies the PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs from the unproductive PSI-PSI conjugates or that incorporates different chemistries on the PSI and [FeFe]-H2ase enzyme sites could potentially allow the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct to approach the expected theoretical quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation. PMID:25527460

  3. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference, 3rd, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Apr. 9, 10, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of NASA's third Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) conference are presented. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions in the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: the electrochemical interface, the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and electrochemistry for nonenergy storage applications.

  4. Luminance Mechanisms of White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Fabricated Utilizing a Charge Generation Layer with a Light-Emitting Function.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Jeon, Y P; Choo, D C; Kim, T W

    2015-07-01

    The luminance mechanisms of the white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with a charge generation layer (CGL) consisting of a tungsten oxide layer and a 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene (rubrene) doped N,N',-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl1-1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer were investigated. Current densities and luminances of the WOLEDs increased with increasing a rubrene doping concentration because the formation of excitons in the rubrene-doped NPB layer increased due to the more exciton trapping in rubrene molecules and the delay of the electron injection due to the insertion of the litium qunolate layer. The yellow light emitted from the rubrene-doped NPB layer in the CGL combined with the blue light from the main emitting layer of the WOLEDs, resulting in the emission of the white light. The ratio between the yellow and the blue color peak intensities of the electroluminescence spectra for the WOLEDs was controlled by the rubrene doping concentration. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the fabricated WOLED were (0.31, 0.42) at 740.7 cd/m2, indicative of white emission color. PMID:26373110

  5. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2014-02-21

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed and simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.

  6. Field-programmable gate array based arbitrary signal generator and oscilloscope for use in slow light and storage of light experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Stanko N.; Batić, Viktor; Panić, Bratimir; Jelenković, Branislav M.

    2013-06-01

    We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based device that simultaneously generates two arbitrary analog voltage signals with the maximum sample rate of 1.25 MHz and acquires two analog voltage signals with the maximum sample rate of 2.5 MHz. All signals are synchronized with internal FPGA clock. The personal computer application developed for controlling and communicating with FPGA chip provides the shaping of the output signals by mathematical expressions and real-time monitoring of the input signals. The main advantages of FPGA based digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital cards are high speed, rapid reconfigurability, friendly user interface, and low cost. We use this module in slow light and storage of light experiments performed in Rb buffer gas cell.

  7. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  8. Fragment Coupling with Tertiary Radicals Generated by Visible-Light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Christopher R; Overman, Larry E

    2016-08-16

    fragments in good yield with the formation of new quaternary and secondary stereocenters. As a result of the ready availability of tertiary alcohols, we describe two methods that were developed, one in collaboration with the MacMillan group, to generate tertiary radicals from tertiary alcohols. In the method that will be preferred in most instances, the tertiary alcohol is esterified in high yield to give a tert-alkyl hemioxalate salt, which-without purification-reacts with electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of visible light and an Ir(III) photocatalyst to give coupled products having a newly formed quaternary carbon in high yield. Hemioxalate salts containing Li, Na, K, and Cs countercations can be employed in this reaction, whose only other product is CO2. These reactions are carried out using nearly equimolar amounts of the addends, making them ideal for coupling of complex fragments at the late stage in a synthetic sequence. The attractive attributes of the fragment-coupling chemistry that we discuss in this Account are illustrated by an enantioselective total synthesis of a tricyclic trans-clerodane diterpenoid in eight steps and 34% overall yield from commercially available precursors. We anticipate that bimolecular reactions of carbon radicals will be increasingly used for fragment coupling in the future. PMID:27491019

  9. Effect of non-erupted 3rd molars on distal roots and supporting structures of approximal teeth. A radiographic survey of 202 cases.

    PubMed

    Nemcovsky, C E; Libfeld, H; Zubery, Y

    1996-09-01

    Root resorption of 2nd molars in proximity to non-erupted 3rd molars has been widely reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of root resorption in second molars adjacent to non-erupted third molars. Its association to age and gender of the patient, location and inclination of the non-erupted third molar and to distal bone support of the 2nd molars was analyzed. A radiographic survey of 202 periapical radiographs taken in patients with clinically missing third molars was conducted. 3 examiners independently evaluated the radiographs and only those cases where at least 2 observers agreed were included in this report. Statistical analysis was performed on 186 radiographs. Associations were analyzed with the Pearson chi 2 test. Radiographic evidence of root resorption was found in 45 2nd molars (24.2%) of which 12 (6.5%) showed moderate to complete root resorption. Non-erupted tooth apical position and mesio-inclination of 60 degrees or more relative to the distal root of the second molar were significantly associated with root resorption (p = 0.01368 and p = 0.0194, respectively). Resorption was positively associated with age of patient (p = 0.00606). These results may support early extraction of impacted 3rd molars especially in cases with a mesio-angulation of 60 degrees or more and an apical location in proximity to the distal root of the 2nd molar. PMID:8891930

  10. Carbon quantum dots with photo-generated proton property as efficient visible light controlled acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-12-01

    Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues.Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34

  11. Development of Hg1-xCd xSe for 3rd Generation Focal Plane Arrays using Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Kevin

    Hg1-xCd xSe grown on nearly lattice-matched GaSb substrates could serve as a new basis for infrared detector development. The preparation of the GaSb substrate surfaces and the growth of ZnTe1-xSex buffer layers via molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. ZnTe and ZnTe1- xSex layers were grown on GaSb substrates prepared with atomic hydrogen cleaning. The lattice constant of ZnTe1-xSex was tuned by controlling the ratio of Se/Te beam equivalent pressures, and ZnTe1- xSex was found to be lattice-matched to GaSb for x=0.01. Confocal photoluminescence measurements indicated that ZnTe0.99Se0.01 layers grown on GaSb have dislocation densities ˜7x104 cm-2, indicating that ZnTe0.99Se0.01/GaSb provides a high quality substrate with low dislocation densities for Hg1-xCd xSe growth. In parallel with the ZnTe1-xSe x/GaSb substrate development, the growth of Hg1- xCdxSe was studied via molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates and Si substrates with ZnTe buffer layers. Growth rate, composition, and surface quality were evaluated for different growth parameters. Two sources of Se were used, an effusion cell loaded with 5N purity source material that produced a predominantly Se6 flux, and a disassociation source loaded with 6N purity source material that could produce either a predominantly Se2 or a predominantly Se6 flux. For a given substrate temperature and Hg overpressure, the growth rate was controlled by the Se flux and the x-value was controlled by the Cd/Se flux ratio. Growths under Hg-deficient conditions produced "needle" and "diamond"-shaped defects. The optimal substrate temperature was found to be 90- 110°C for growths performed with a predominantly Se 6 flux. from the effusion cell and a standard Hg flux of 2.5x10 -4 Torr. Previous studies of nominally undoped Hg1-xCd xSe samples have reported large background electron concentrations ranging from 1017-1018 cm-3 at temperatures as low as 4K. In the study reported here, the use of Se source material with 6N purity instead of 5N reduced the electron concentration in Hg1-xCdxSe by an order of magnitude, suggesting contaminants in the Se source material are a significant source of the background electrons. Certain anneals can alter the electron concentration of Hg1-xCd xSe, suggesting the presence of native point defects as well as background impurities. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements strongly suggest the presence of p-type mercury vacancies in Hg1- xCdxSe samples both as-grown and after annealing under an Se overpressure. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements of annealed samples suggest two donor energy levels: one in the bandgap with ionization energy of ˜40 meV that produces an electron concentration of ˜8x10 15 cm-3 at 300K, and one in the conduction band with a concentration of ˜2x1016 cm-3. The former could originate from n-type Se vacancies, while the latter is most likely impurities from the Se source material.

  12. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  13. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17-36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; P<0.05) was observed in Jewish migrants to Germany as compared with non-Jewish German residents. Furthermore, anti-Semitic experiences in Germany correlated positively with depression (r=0.293; P<0.01) and fear (r=0.254; P<0.05). The anti-Semitic experiences in the post-Soviet-Union areas also correlated positively with limb pain (r=0.41, P<0.01), fatigue symptoms (r=0.296, P<0.01) and psychocardial symptoms (r=0.219, P<0.05). It was also confirmed that the male respondents recalled a controlling and overprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; P<0.01). The latter also correlated significantly positive with epigastric pain (r=0.349; P<0.01). The present results show that depression, fear and psychosomatic problems are common in Jewish residents with a background of migration from the post-Soviet-Union areas to Germany. Apart from the transgenerational passing of psychological traumata and the Holocaust experiences, other stressors like anti-Semitism, control and overprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  14. Real Time In Situ Observations of Equiaxed Dendrite Coherency in Al-Cu Alloys Using High-Brilliance, 3rd Generation Synchrotron Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Andrew G.; Browne, David J.; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade synchrotron X-ray sources have fast become the tool of choice for performing in-situ high resolution imaging during alloy solidification. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, using a Bridgman furnace, to monitor phenomena during solidification of Al-Cu alloys - specifically the onset of equiaxed dendrite coherency. Conventional experimental methods for determining coherency involve measuring the change in viscosity or measuring the change in thermal conductivity across the solidifying melt Conflicts arise when comparing the results of these experimental techniques to find a relationship between cooling rate and coherency fraction. It has been shown that the ratio of average velocity to the average grain diameter has an inversely proportional relationship to coherency fraction. In-situ observation therefore makes it possible to measure these values directly from acquired images sequences and make comparisons with published results.

  15. Analysis of Salmonella enterica with reduced susceptibility to the 3rd generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, isolated from US cattle during 2000-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade enteric bacteria in Europe, Africa and Asia have become increasingly resistant to cephalosporin antimicrobials. This is largely due to the spread of genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes which can inactivate many cephalosporins. Recently these resistance me...

  16. D Modeling of Headstones of the 2ND and 3RD Century by Low Cost Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, T.; Waton, M.-D.; Alby, E.; Gourvez, S.; Lopes, B.

    2013-07-01

    As a dozen headstones have been discovered during excavations in south Alsace, archaeologists stored them in the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs in Strasbourg. In order to complete the survey they are used to practice by hand on the steles, they asked the INSA Strasbourg to reconstruct at least the 7 figured sandstones in 3D. The high accuracy required by the archaeologists can be reached by an expensive technique using laserscanning system. Aim of the current work is to look for an alternative method and (if appropriate) low cost software allowing to provide a similar quality and a sufficient level of details. The 3D reconstruction of the headstones based exclusively on multiple images processing is presented. The step of point cloud generation is detailed because it determines the final product quality. Therefore, an assessment of the produced point cloud has been performed through comparison to a reference point cloud obtained by laser scanning technique. The steps leading to the photo-realistic textured 3D models of the headstones are presented and the software used for that are evaluated. The final product respects the accuracy requirement of 1 mm desired by the archaeologists.

  17. Far-infrared-light shadowgraphy for high extraction efficiency of extreme ultraviolet light from a CO2-laser-generated tin plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukuma, Hiraku; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yosuke; Yogo, Akifumi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Kodama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    The two-color, double-pulse method is an efficient scheme to generate extreme ultraviolet light for fabricating the next generation semiconductor microchips. In this method, a Nd:YAG laser pulse is used to expand a several-tens-of-micrometers-scale tin droplet, and a CO2 laser pulse is subsequently directed at the expanded tin vapor after an appropriate delay time. We propose the use of shadowgraphy with a CO2 laser probe-pulse scheme to optimize the CO2 main-drive laser. The distribution of absorption coefficients is derived from the experiment, and the results are converted to a practical absorption rate for the CO2 main-drive laser.

  18. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, Kirill I. Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-08-04

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  19. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  20. Non-mydriatic confocal retinal imaging using a digital light projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; Green, Jason J.; Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Ingling, Allen W.; Clendenon, Jeffrey L.; Gast, Thomas J.; Elsner, Ann E.

    2015-03-01

    A digital light projector is implemented as an integrated illumination source and scanning element in a confocal nonmydriatic retinal camera, the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). To simulate scanning, a series of illumination lines are rapidly projected on the retina. The backscattered light is imaged onto a 2-dimensional rolling shutter CMOS sensor. By temporally and spatially overlapping the illumination lines with the rolling shutter, confocal imaging is achieved. This approach enables a low cost, flexible, and robust design with a small footprint. The 3rd generation DLO technical design is presented, using a DLP LightCrafter 4500 and USB3.0 CMOS sensor. Specific improvements over previous work include the use of yellow illumination, filtered from the broad green LED spectrum, to obtain strong blood absorption and high contrast images while reducing pupil constriction and patient discomfort.

  1. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  2. BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES OF A HIGH-REPETITION RATE LINAC-DRIVER FOR A 4TH GENERATION LIGHT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ventturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Sun, C.; Wells, R.

    2012-05-18

    We present recent progress toward the design of a super-conducting linac driver for a high-repetition rate FEL-based soft x-ray light source. The machine is designed to accept beams generated by the APEX photo-cathode gun operating with MHz-range repetition rate and deliver them to an array of SASE and seeded FEL beamlines. We review the current baseline design and report results of beam dynamics studies.

  3. Visible light induced hydrogen generation using a hollow photocatalyst with two cocatalysts separated on two surface sides.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh-Hao; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Vuong, Gia-Thanh; Ta, Ngoc-Don; Do, Trong-On

    2014-04-01

    A hollow Fe2O3-TiO2-PtOx photocatalyst for visible light H2 generation was prepared from nanosized MIL-88B consisting of coordinatively unsaturated metal centers as a hard template. This photocatalyst is composed of hybrid metal oxide-TiO2 with controllable wall thickness and two different cocatalysts that are separately located on two surface sides. PMID:24549009

  4. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  5. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF MULTI-COMPONENT AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS FOR LIGHT-DRIVEN HYDROGEN GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Richard Eisenberg

    2012-07-18

    The research focussed on fundamental problems in the conversion of light to stored chemical energy. Specifically, work was completed on the design, synthesis and study of multi-component super- and supramolecular systems for photoinduced charge separation, one of the key steps in artificial photosynthesis, and on the use of these and related systems for the photochemical generation of H2 from water. At the center of these systems are chromophores comprised of square planar coordinated Pt(II) ions with arylacetylide and either diimine or terpyridyl ligands. Previous work had shown that the chromophores are photoluminescent in fluid solution with long-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) excited states that are necessarily directional. An advance which set the stage for a number of proposed studies was the light-driven production of hydrogen from water using a Pt(terpyridyl)(arylacetylide)+ chromophore and a sacrificial electron donor. The reaction is catalytic and appears to rival previously reported ruthenium bipyridyl systems in terms of H2 production. Variation of system components and mechanistic studies were conducted to understand better the individual steps in the overall process and how to improve its efficiency. Success with light driven H2 generation was employed as a key probe as new systems were constructed consisting of triads for photoinduced charge separation placed in close proximity to the H2 generating catalyst - a Pt colloid - through direct linkage or supramolecular interactions with the polymer used to stabilize the colloid. In order to prepare new donor-chromophore-acceptor (D-C-A) triads and associated D-C and C-A dyads, new ligands were synthesized having functional groups for different coupling reactions such as simple amide formation and Pd-catalyzed coupling. In these systems, the donor was attached to the arylacetylide ligands and the acceptor was linked to the diimine or terpyridyl chelate. Research under the contract proved

  6. Master-oscillator power-amplifier scheme for efficient green-light generation in a planar MgO:PPLN waveguide.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyohide; Koyata, Yasuharu; Shimada, Naoyuki; Shibata, Kimitaka; Hanamaki, Yoshihiko; Itakura, Shigetaka; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hirano, Yoshihito

    2008-03-01

    We developed a new master-oscillator power-amplifier scheme consisting of a tapered semiconductor amplifier and a fiber-grating-stabilized laser diode for efficient green-light generation in a planar MgO:PPLN waveguide, and demonstrated cw green-light generation of 346 mW. PMID:18311282

  7. Heat generation and light scattering of green fluorescent protein-like pigments in coral tissue.

    PubMed

    Lyndby, Niclas H; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments have been proposed to have beneficial effects on coral photobiology. Here, we investigated the relationships between green fluorescence, coral heating and tissue optics for the massive coral Dipsastraea sp. (previously Favia sp.). We used microsensors to measure tissue scalar irradiance and temperature along with hyperspectral imaging and combined imaging of variable chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence. Green fluorescence correlated positively with coral heating and scalar irradiance enhancement at the tissue surface. Coral tissue heating saturated for maximal levels of green fluorescence. The action spectrum of coral surface heating revealed that heating was highest under red (peaking at 680 nm) irradiance. Scalar irradiance enhancement in coral tissue was highest when illuminated with blue light, but up to 62% (for the case of highest green fluorescence) of this photon enhancement was due to green fluorescence emission. We suggest that GFP-like pigments scatter the incident radiation, which enhances light absorption and heating of the coral. However, heating saturates, because intense light scattering reduces the vertical penetration depth through the tissue eventually leading to reduced light absorption at high fluorescent pigment density. We conclude that fluorescent pigments can have a central role in modulating coral light absorption and heating. PMID:27225857

  8. Heat generation and light scattering of green fluorescent protein-like pigments in coral tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyndby, Niclas H.; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments have been proposed to have beneficial effects on coral photobiology. Here, we investigated the relationships between green fluorescence, coral heating and tissue optics for the massive coral Dipsastraea sp. (previously Favia sp.). We used microsensors to measure tissue scalar irradiance and temperature along with hyperspectral imaging and combined imaging of variable chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence. Green fluorescence correlated positively with coral heating and scalar irradiance enhancement at the tissue surface. Coral tissue heating saturated for maximal levels of green fluorescence. The action spectrum of coral surface heating revealed that heating was highest under red (peaking at 680 nm) irradiance. Scalar irradiance enhancement in coral tissue was highest when illuminated with blue light, but up to 62% (for the case of highest green fluorescence) of this photon enhancement was due to green fluorescence emission. We suggest that GFP-like pigments scatter the incident radiation, which enhances light absorption and heating of the coral. However, heating saturates, because intense light scattering reduces the vertical penetration depth through the tissue eventually leading to reduced light absorption at high fluorescent pigment density. We conclude that fluorescent pigments can have a central role in modulating coral light absorption and heating.

  9. Next generation organic light-emitting materials and devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippelen, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    In this talk, we will discuss recent innovations in organic light-emitting materials and devices. First, we will report on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). We will show that devices based on the emitter 4CzIPN doped in a novel ambipolar host can yield a current efficacy of 81 cd/A and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.5%. These devices exhibit a low turn-on voltage of 3.2 V at 10 cd/m2, as well as reduced efficiency roll-off at high current densities. The performance of these devices is comparable to that of electrophosphorescent devices based on organic-metallic compounds that contain precious metals such as Iridium. In a second part we will report on highly efficient green-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on shape memory polymer (SMP) substrates for flexible electronic applications. SMPs are a class of mechanically active materials that can change and store shape upon activation by a stimulus. The combination of the unique properties of SMP substrates with the light-emitting properties of OLEDs pave to the way for new applications, including conformable smart skin devices, minimally invasive biomedical devices, and flexible lighting/display technologies. Finally, we will present OLEDs fabricated on substrates made from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and discuss how such substrates can reduce the environmental footprint of printable organic electronics.

  10. Heat generation and light scattering of green fluorescent protein-like pigments in coral tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lyndby, Niclas H.; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments have been proposed to have beneficial effects on coral photobiology. Here, we investigated the relationships between green fluorescence, coral heating and tissue optics for the massive coral Dipsastraea sp. (previously Favia sp.). We used microsensors to measure tissue scalar irradiance and temperature along with hyperspectral imaging and combined imaging of variable chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence. Green fluorescence correlated positively with coral heating and scalar irradiance enhancement at the tissue surface. Coral tissue heating saturated for maximal levels of green fluorescence. The action spectrum of coral surface heating revealed that heating was highest under red (peaking at 680 nm) irradiance. Scalar irradiance enhancement in coral tissue was highest when illuminated with blue light, but up to 62% (for the case of highest green fluorescence) of this photon enhancement was due to green fluorescence emission. We suggest that GFP-like pigments scatter the incident radiation, which enhances light absorption and heating of the coral. However, heating saturates, because intense light scattering reduces the vertical penetration depth through the tissue eventually leading to reduced light absorption at high fluorescent pigment density. We conclude that fluorescent pigments can have a central role in modulating coral light absorption and heating. PMID:27225857

  11. Highly efficient visible light-induced O₂ generation by self-assembled nanohybrids of inorganic nanosheets and polyoxometalate nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Unusually high photocatalytic activity of visible light-induced O₂ generation can be achieved by electrostatically-derived self-assembly between exfoliated Zn-Cr-LDH 2D nanosheets and POM 0D nanoclusters (W₇O₂₄⁶⁻ and V₁₀O₂₈⁶⁻) acting as an electron acceptor. This self-assembly can provide a high flexibility in the control of the chemical composition and pore structure of the resulting LDH-based nanohybrids. The hybridization with POM nanoclusters remarkably enhances the photocatalytic activity of the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH, which is attributable to the formation of porous structure and depression of charge recombination. Of prime interest is that the excellent photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Zn-Cr-LDH-POM nanohybrid for visible light-induced O₂ generation can be further enhanced by calcination at 200 °C, leading to the very high apparent quantum yield of ∼75.2% at 420 nm. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the self-assembly of LDH-POM is fairly powerful in synthesizing novel LDH-based porous nanohybrid photocatalyst for visible light-induced O₂ generation. PMID:23801108

  12. Highly Efficient Visible Light-Induced O2 Generation by Self-Assembled Nanohybrids of Inorganic Nanosheets and Polyoxometalate Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Unusually high photocatalytic activity of visible light-induced O2 generation can be achieved by electrostatically-derived self-assembly between exfoliated Zn-Cr-LDH 2D nanosheets and POM 0D nanoclusters (W7O246− and V10O286−) acting as an electron acceptor. This self-assembly can provide a high flexibility in the control of the chemical composition and pore structure of the resulting LDH-based nanohybrids. The hybridization with POM nanoclusters remarkably enhances the photocatalytic activity of the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH, which is attributable to the formation of porous structure and depression of charge recombination. Of prime interest is that the excellent photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Zn-Cr-LDH-POM nanohybrid for visible light-induced O2 generation can be further enhanced by calcination at 200 °C, leading to the very high apparent quantum yield of ∼75.2% at 420 nm. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the self-assembly of LDH–POM is fairly powerful in synthesizing novel LDH-based porous nanohybrid photocatalyst for visible light-induced O2 generation. PMID:23801108

  13. Molecular alignment allows low-order harmonic generation by circular light in a gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzet, J.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Faucher, O.

    2013-08-01

    We experimentally investigate odd-order harmonic generation in molecular gases produced by circularly polarized laser fields. While forbidden in isotropic medium, this effect is allowed by symmetry breaking resulting from nonadiabatic laser-induced molecular alignment. The demonstration is provided by generating the third harmonic in CO2 molecules. Attractive properties and challenging potential applications are discussed in the context of higher-order harmonic generation.

  14. Tbr2 is required to generate a neural circuit mediating the pupillary light reflex.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Neal T; Tierney, Hannah; Feldheim, David A

    2014-04-16

    There are ∼20 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in mice, each of which has distinct molecular, morphological, and physiological characteristics. Each RGC type sends axon projections to specific brain areas that execute light-dependent behaviors. Here, we show that the T-box transcription factor Tbr2 is required for the development of several RGC types that participate in non-image-forming circuits. These types are molecularly distinct, project to non-image-forming targets, and include intrinsically photosensitive RGCs. Tbr2 mutant mice have reduced retinal projections to non-image-forming nuclei and an attenuated pupillary light reflex. These data demonstrate that Tbr2 acts to execute RGC type choice and/or survival in a set of RGCs that mediates light-induced subconscious behaviors. PMID:24741035

  15. High-efficiency blue light generation at 426 nm in low pump regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianfeng; Yang, Chen; Xue, Jia; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai

    2016-05-01

    We report high-efficiency Ti:sapphire-laser-based frequency doubling at the cesium D2 line 852 nm using a 20 mm-long periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal in a bow-tie four-mirror ring enhancement cavity. The relatively complete cavity design procedure is presented. Focusing that is over twice as loose as optimal focusing is used, and both the fundamental frequency wave and second harmonic beam absorption-induced thermal lensing effects are weakened. Blue light of 210 mW at 426 nm, where absorption is severe, was obtained with 310 mW mode-matched fundamental light, corresponding to conversion efficiency of up to 67%. The blue light beam power showed 1.5% RMS fluctuation over 40 min.

  16. Band-gap nonlinear optical generation: The structure of internal optical field and the structural light focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, Kirill I. Katyba, Gleb M.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.

    2014-06-07

    A novel approach for the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects inside globular photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed and systematically studied via numerical simulations. The enhanced optical harmonic generation is associated with two- and three-dimensional PC pumping with the wavelength corresponding to different PC band-gaps. The interactions between light and the PC are numerically simulated using the finite-difference time-domain technique for solving the Maxwell's equations. Both empty and infiltrated two-dimensional PC structures are considered. A significant enhancement of harmonic generation is predicted owing to the highly efficient PC pumping based on the structural light focusing effect inside the PC structure. It is shown that a highly efficient harmonic generation could be attained for both the empty and infiltrated two- and three-dimensional PCs. We are demonstrating the ability for two times enhancement of the parametric decay efficiency, one order enhancement of the second harmonic generation, and two order enhancement of the third harmonic generation in PC structures in comparison to the nonlinear generations in appropriate homogenous media. Obviously, the nonlinear processes should be allowed by the molecular symmetry. The criteria of the nonlinear process efficiency are specified and calculated as a function of pumping wavelength position towards the PC globule diameter. Obtained criterion curves exhibit oscillating characteristics, which indicates that the highly efficient generation corresponds to the various PC band-gap pumping. The highest efficiency of nonlinear conversions could be reached for PC pumping with femtosecond optical pulses; thus, the local peak intensity would be maximized. Possible applications of the observed phenomenon are also discussed.

  17. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-09-15

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power significantly. By combining two distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers we achieve a 2.5-3.2 fold increase in power and a maximum of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light. At this power level, green diode laser systems have a high application potential, e.g., within the biomedical field. Our concept can be expanded combining multiple diode lasers to increase the power even further. PMID:23041848

  18. Innovative Development of Next Generation and Energy Efficient Solid State Light Sources for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Ferguson

    2006-07-31

    This two year program resulted in a novel broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source (BSDLED) that uses a dual wavelength light emitting diode (LED) and combinations of phosphors to create a broadband emission that is real-time controllable. Four major focuses of this work were as follows: (1) creation of a two terminal dual wavelength LED with control of the relative intensities of the two emission peaks, (2) bandgap modeling of the two terminal dual LED to explain operation based on the doping profile, (3) novel use of phosphor combinations with dual LEDs to create a broadband spectral power distribution that can be varied to mimic a blackbody radiator over a certain range and (4) investigation of novel doping schemes to create tunnel junctions or equivalent buried current spreading layers in the III-nitrides. Advances were achieved in each of these four areas which could lead to more efficient solid state light sources with greater functionality over existing devices. The two-terminal BSDLED is an important innovation for the solid-state lighting industry as a variable spectrum source. A three-terminal dual emitter was also investigated and appears to be the most viable approach for future spectrally dynamic solid state lighting sources. However, at this time reabsorption of emission between the two active regions limits the usefulness of this device for illumination applications.

  19. Generation and Control of Chains of Entangled Atom-Ion Pairs with Quantum Light

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2011-04-15

    Coherent control using quantum light incident upon molecules in an optical lattice is shown to give rise to a direct way of writing arbitrary sequences of entangled atom-ion pairs. There is no evident limitation on the length of the word (i.e., the number of qbits) that can be formed.

  20. Deuterium beam acceleration with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating in Joint European Torus: Sawtooth stabilization and Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, T.; Schoepf, K.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Hellesen, C.; Eriksson, J.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2012-03-01

    Experiments on accelerating NBI-produced deuterium (D) beam ions from their injection energy of ˜110 keV up to the MeV energy range with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating were performed on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. A renewed set of nuclear diagnostics was used for analysing fast D ions during sawtooth stabilization, monster sawtooth crashes, and during excitation of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) residing inside the q = 1 radius. The measurements and modeling of the fast ions with the nonlinear HAGIS code [S. D. Pinches et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 111, 133 (1998)] show that monster sawtooth crashes are strongly facilitated by the AE-induced re-distribution of the fast D ions from inside the q = 1 radius to the plasma edge.

  1. [Pathological diagnosis, work-up and reporting of breast cancer. Recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Kulka, Janina; Francz, Monika; Járay, Balázs; Kálmán, Endre; Kovács, Ilona; Krenács, Tibor; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Vass, László

    2016-09-01

    There have been relevant changes in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to implement the updating of the 2010 recommendations made during the 2nd national consensus conference on the disease. Following a wide interdisciplinary consultation, the present recommendations have been finalized after their public discussion at the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer. The recommendations cover non-operative and intraoperative diagnostics, the work-up of operative specimens, the determination of prognostic and predictive markers and the content of the cytology and histology reports. Furthermore, it touches some special issues such as the current status of multigene molecular markers, the role of pathologists in clinical trials and prerequisites for their involvement, some relevant points about the future. PMID:27579721

  2. From challenges to solutions. European Bioanalysis Forum 3rd Annual Open Symposium, Hesperia Towers, Barcelona, Spain, 1-3 December 2010.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard W; Gordon, Ben; van Amsterdam, Peter; Lausecker, Berthold; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Smeraglia, John; Romero, Fernando; Globig, Susanne; Golob, Michaela; Knutsson, Magnus; Herling, Christian; Vieser, Eva; Timmerman, Philip

    2011-04-01

    The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical nonprofit organization comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date) and currently expanding to include CROs as well. The European Bioanalysis Forum provides a broad European bioanalytical network for the discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory topics of bioanalytical interest. The 3rd Annual Open Symposium was again much anticipated after the two previous successful meetings. The symposium included sessions on thinking outside the 'commodity' box, bioanalytical challenges with blood, global harmonization, assay platforms, dried blood spots, immunogenicity, matrix effects, anomalous results, biomarkers and two plenary technology sessions hosted by the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 424 delegates registered from 113 companies representing a large percentage of the European bioanalytical community. In addition to 48 oral presentations, 88 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 40 companies. PMID:21510756

  3. Reflections: Surgical Education-the Times they are a-Changin': Lessons Learned from the 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Radoslaw; Vetto, John T

    2015-09-01

    Technical skills are not sufficient for successful surgical care. Non-technical skills such as team work, decision-making in cancer treatment, communication with the patient, ethical challenges, situation awareness, and communication in the operating room are mandatory for favorable outcomes. Although formally taught in other high-demand disciplines, such skills were traditionally rarely discussed in surgical oncology. The 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting "Professionalism for Breast Surgeons" held in Istanbul, Turkey, 5 October 2013 was dedicated to the development of non-technical skills in the everyday activity of breast surgeons. We briefly discuss information from this very interesting and inspiring educational event and how it relates to more recent changes in surgical oncology education. PMID:25903052

  4. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  5. Optimization of Extreme Ultraviolet Light Source from High Harmonic Generation for Condensed-Phase Core-Level Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Benke, Kristin; Zhang, Kaili; Carlson, Michaela; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2015-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source from high-order harmonic generation has been shown to be a powerful tool for core-level spectroscopy. In addition, this light source provides very high temporal resolution (10-18 s to 10-15 s) for time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. Most applications of the light source have been limited to the studies of atomic and molecular systems, with technique development focused on optimizing for shorter pulses (i.e. tens of attoseconds) or higher XUV energy (i.e. ~keV range). For the application to general molecular systems in solid and liquid forms, however, the XUV photon flux and stability are highly demanded due to the strong absorption by substrates and solvents. In this case, the main limitation is due to the stability of the high order generation process and the limited bandwidth of the XUV source that gives only discrete even/odd order peaks. Consequently, this results in harmonic artifact noise that overlaps with the resonant signal. In our current study, we utilize a semi-infinite cell for high harmonic generation from two quantum trajectories (i.e. short and long) at over-driven NIR power. This condition, produces broad XUV spectrum without using complicated optics (e.g. hollow-core fibers and double optical gating). This light source allows us to measure the static absorption spectrum of the iron M-edge from a Fe(acac)3 molecular solid film, which shows a resonant feature of 0.01 OD (~2.3% absorption). Moreover, we also investigate how sample roughness affects the static absorption spectrum. We are able to make smooth solar cell precursor materials (i.e. PbI2 and PbBr2) by spin casting and observe iodine (50 eV) and bromine (70 eV) absorption edges in the order of 0.05 OD with minimal harmonic artifact noise.

  6. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  7. Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LED's for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    SciTech Connect

    McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-09-30

    1) We studied phosphors for near-UV (nUV) LED application as an alternative to blue LEDs currently being used in SSL systems. We have shown that nUV light sources could be very efficient at high current and will have significantly less binning at both the chip and phosphor levels. We identified phosphor blends that could yield 4100K lamps with a CRI of approximately 80 and LPWnUV,opt equal to 179 for the best performing phosphor blend. Considering the fact that the lamps were not optimized for light coupling, the results are quite impressive. The main bottleneck is an optimum blue phosphor with a peak near 440 nm with a full width half maximum of about 25 nm and a quantum efficiency of >95%. Unfortunately, that may be a very difficult task when we want to excite a phosphor at ~400 nm with a very small margin for Stokes shift. Another way is to have all the phosphors in the blend having the excitation peak at 400 nm or slightly shorter wavelength. This could lead to a white light source with no body color and optimum efficacy due to no self-absorption effects by phosphors in the blend. This is even harder than finding an ideal blue phosphor, but not necessarily impossible. 2) With the phosphor blends identified, light sources using nUV LEDs at high current could be designed with comparable efficacy to those using blue LEDs. It will allow us to design light sources with multiple wattages using the same chips and phosphor blends simply by varying the input current. In the case of blue LEDs, this is not currently possible because varying the current will lower the efficacy at high current and alter the color point. With improvement of phosphor blends, control over CRI could improve. Less binning at the chip level and also at the phosphor blend level could reduce the cost of SSL light sources. 3) This study provided a deeper understanding of phosphor characteristics needed for LEDs in general and nUV LEDs in particular. Two students received Ph.D. degrees and three

  8. Room-Temperature and Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Plasmonic Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Enhanced Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiayuan; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Wen, Meicheng; Navlani-García, Miriam; Mori, Kohsuke; An, Taicheng; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    A straightforward aqueous synthesis of MoO3-x nanoparticles at room temperature was developed by using (NH4 )6 Mo7 O24 ⋅4 H2 O and MoCl5 as precursors in the absence of reductants, inert gas, and organic solvents. SEM and TEM images indicate the as-prepared products are nanoparticles with diameters of 90-180 nm. The diffuse reflectance UV-visible-near-IR spectra of the samples indicate localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties generated by the introduction of oxygen vacancies. Owing to its strong plasmonic absorption in the visible-light and near-infrared region, such nanostructures exhibit an enhancement of activity toward visible-light catalytic hydrogen generation. MoO3-x nanoparticles synthesized with a molar ratio of Mo(VI) /Mo(V) 1:1 show the highest yield of H2 evolution. The cycling catalytic performance has been investigated to indicate the structural and chemical stability of the as-prepared plasmonic MoO3-x nanoparticles, which reveals its potential application in visible-light catalytic hydrogen production. PMID:27555123

  9. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    PubMed Central

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647

  10. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes.

    PubMed

    Moura, André L; Carreño, Sandra J M; Pincheira, Pablo I R; Fabris, Zanine V; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the (4)F3/2 → (4)I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd(3+)), was achieved by exciting the Nd(3+) with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the (4)F9/2, ((4)F7/2,(4)S3/2), ((4)F5/2,(2)H9/2), and (4)F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission. PMID:27250647

  11. Tunable ultraviolet and blue light generation from Nd:YAB random laser bolstered by second-order nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Carreño, Sandra J. M.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Fabris, Zanine V.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet and blue light were obtained by nonlinear frequency conversion in a random laser (RL) based on Nd0.10Y0.90Al3(BO3)4 nanocrystalline powder. RL operation at 1062 nm, due to the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of neodymium ions (Nd3+), was achieved by exciting the Nd3+ with a tunable beam from 680 to 920 nm covering the ground state absorption transitions to the 4F9/2, (4F7/2,4S3/2), (4F5/2,2H9/2), and 4F3/2 states. Light from 340 to 460 nm was obtained via the second-harmonic generation of the excitation beam while tunable blue light, from 417 to 486 nm, was generated by self-sum-frequency mixing between the excitation beam and the RL emission.

  12. Generation of sub-Poisson light in a negative feedback and cascade three-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jinhua; Guo, Guangcan

    1992-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to try to find out the possibility of reducing the photon number noise in an optically pumped three-level atomic system. Consider a three-level atomic system. The atomic transition between level 1 and level 3 is forbidden. Each atom is incoherently excited to upper level 3 from level 1, transits to level 1 through intermediate level 2, and emits photons at frequency (omega) 1 and (omega) 2. We place the atoms with the above feature into an oscillator and may obtain two coherent light beams, whose frequency are (omega) 1 and (omega) 2, respectively. There may be some correlation between these two light beams. We make one beam to control the pump source by a feedback loop and expect to reduce the noise of photon number of the other beam.

  13. Second-harmonic generation polarization microscopy by rotation of excitation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Wei-Liang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    When imaging anisotropic samples with a laser scanning optical microscope, the results are often affected by the polarization of the excitation light source. Quantifying the polarization dependence of biological fibrous material such as muscle and collagen allows us to gain molecular information at length scale below the resolution of optical microscopes. One problem associated with rotating the direction of linearly polarized excitation light for an epi-illuminated laser scanning microscope is due to the reflective properties of the main dichroic mirror. Depending on the direction of the incident polarization, the dichroic mirror can induce different amount of phase retardation, thus altering the desired output polarization. In this work, we theoretically determined the needed combination of wave plates and their angular positions to compensate for the effect of the dichroic mirror, thus achieving any arbitrary linear polarization angle for the excitation incident on sample.

  14. Tunable supercontinuum light vector vortex beam generator using a q-plate.

    PubMed

    Rumala, Yisa S; Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Hossain, Zabir; Nolan, Daniel; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Alfano, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy. PMID:24281515

  15. Anisotropic Expansion of the Universe and Generation of Quantum Interference in Light Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, G.; Tedesco, L.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the electrodynamic in a Bianchi type I cosmological model. This scenario reveals the possibility that photons, during their traveling, can make quantum interference. This effect is only due to the presence of two different axes of expansion in the cosmic evolution. In other word, it is possible to conclude that a purely metrical - or, equivalently, gravitational - phenomenon gives rise up to a quantum effect that manifests itself in the light propagation.

  16. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  17. Landman's encyclopedia. 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.L.; Hankinson, R.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the guidelines for petroleum landmen and includes the new documents: partial assignment of oil, gas, and mineral lease, net profits agreement, net profit interest, ratification agreements, an additional farmout agreement form, gas balancing agreement, shut-in gas royalty, oil, gas, and mineral lease form (Exxon lease), extension agreement, Pugh clause, assignment form of lease and equipment, losses addendum for operating agreements, boundary agreement, change of lease description forms. Also included is a cross-listing of the document numbers used in this book with those used in the popular software database.

  18. Sacrificial hydrogen generation from aqueous triethanolamine with Eosin Y-sensitized Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst in UV, visible and solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Gomaa, Hassan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied Eosin Y-sensitized sacrificial hydrogen generation with triethanolamine as electron donor in UV, visible, and solar light irradiation. Aeroxide TiO2 was loaded with platinum metal via solar photo-deposition method to reduce the electron hole recombination process. Photocatalytic sacrificial hydrogen generation was influenced by several factors such as platinum loading (wt%) on TiO2, solution pH, Eosin Y to Pt/TiO2 mass ratio, triethanolamine concentration, and light (UV, visible and solar) intensities. Detailed reaction mechanisms in visible and solar light irradiation were established. Oxidation of triethanolamine and formaldehyde formation was correlated with hydrogen generation in both visible and solar lights. Hydrogen generation kinetics followed a Langmuir-type isotherm with reaction rate constant and adsorption constant of 6.77×10(-6) mol min(-1) and 14.45 M(-1), respectively. Sacrificial hydrogen generation and charge recombination processes were studied as a function of light intensities. Apparent quantum yields (QYs) were compared for UV, visible, and solar light at four different light intensities. Highest QYs were attained at lower light intensity because of trivial charge recombination. At 30 mW cm(-2) we achieved QYs of 10.82%, 12.23% and 11.33% in UV, visible and solar light respectively. PMID:25441927

  19. A Simple Model for the Light Curve Generated by a Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Mordecai-Mark, Mac Low

    1995-01-01

    The impact of a typical Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragment produced three light peaks as seen from Earth. The first peak is related to the entry of the fragment into the Jovian atmosphere. The second peak occurs when the exploding fireball rises above Jupiter's limb into direct view from Earth. The third peak, much the brightest, occurs when the ejecta plume falls back on the atmosphere. By contrast, Galileo, which had a direct view of the impacts, saw two peaks, one at entry, and one at plumefall. Here we present a simple, highly idealized model of a ballistic plume, which we then use to fit the observed light curve of the R impact as recorded at Mauna Kea and Mount Palomar. From the light curve we find that the nominal R fragment had diameter 450-500 m and mass approx. 2-3 x 10(exp 13) g. The uncertainty in the mass is probably about a factor of 3, with a smaller event more likely than a larger one.

  20. Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Zengin, Gulis; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-01-01

    Warm-white light emitting diodes with high color rendering indices are required for the widespread use of solid state lighting especially indoors. To meet these requirements, we propose and demonstrate warm-white hybrid light sources that incorporate the right color-converting combinations of CdSe /ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized on InGaN /GaN LEDs for high color rendering index. Three sets of proof-of-concept devices are developed to generate high-quality warm-white light with (1) tristimulus coordinates (x,y)=(0.37,0.30), luminous efficacy (LE)=307lm/W, color rending index (CR)=82.4, and correlated color temperature (CCT)=3228K; (2) (x,y)=(0.38,0.31), LE =323lm/W, CRI =81.0, and CCT =3190K; and (3) (x,y)=(0.37,0.30), LE =303lm/W, CRI =79.6, and CCT =1982K.

  1. Novel Approaches to High-Efficiency III-V Nitride Heterostructure Emitters for Next-Generation Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Russell D. Dupuis

    2004-09-30

    We report research activities and technical progress on the development of high-efficiency long wavelength ({lambda} {approx} 540nm) green light emitting diodes which covers the first year of the three-year program ''Novel approaches to high-efficiency III-V nitride heterostructure emitters for next-generation lighting applications''. The first year activities were focused on the installation, set-up, and use of advanced equipment for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of III-nitride films and the characterization of these materials (Task 1) and the design, fabrication, testing of nitride LEDs (Task 4). As a progress highlight, we obtained improved quality of {approx} 2 {micro}m-thick GaN layers (as measured by the full width at half maximum of the asymmetric (102) X-ray diffraction peak of less than 350 arc-s) and higher p-GaN:Mg doping level (free hole carrier higher than 1E18 cm{sup -3}). Also in this year, we have developed the growth of InGaN/GaN active layers for long-wavelength green light emitting diodes, specifically, for emission at {lambda} {approx} 540nm. The effect of the Column III precursor (for Ga) and the post-growth thermal annealing effect were also studied. Our LED device fabrication process was developed and initially optimized, especially for low-resistance ohmic contacts for p-GaN:Mg layers, and blue-green light emitting diode structures were processed and characterized.

  2. White light generation in Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass focused on generation of white light is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time measurements. The white light emission obtained in the glass phosphor shows excitation wavelength dependent tunable tonality: neutral white (0.385, 0.441) of 4250 K and warm white (0.417, 0.412) of 3429 K, upon 445 and 322 nm excitations, respectively. A quantum yield of 26.1 ± 1.2% is attained upon Dy3+ excitation at 445 nm. The white luminescence is due mainly to terbium 5D4 → 7F5, dysprosium 4F9/2 → 6H15/2,13/2 and europium 5D0 → 7F2 transitions. It is demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfers Dy3+ to Tb3+ and Eu3+, and Tb3+ to Eu3+, take place in the glass phosphor excited at 445 or 322 nm. Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, excited by AlGaN (322 nm) or InGaN (445 nm) LEDs, could then be appropriated for solid state lighting technology as neutral or warm white light phosphors.

  3. Yellow laser light generation by frequency doubling of the output from a master oscillator fiber power amplifier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryser, Manuel; Marques, Carlos; Nogueira, Rogério; Romano, Valerio

    2015-03-01

    We present a power-scalable approach for yellow laser-light generation based on standard Ytterbium (Yb) doped fibers. To force the cavity to lase at 1154 nm, far above the gain-maximum, measures must be taken to fulfill lasing condition and to suppress competing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the high-gain region. To prove the principle we built a fiber-laser cavity and a fiber-amplifier both at 1154 nm. In between cavity and amplifier we suppressed the ASE by 70 dB using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based filter. Finally we demonstrated efficient single pass frequency doubling to 577 nm with a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (PPLN). With our linearly polarized 1154 nm master oscillator power fiber amplifier (MOFA) system we achieved slope efficiencies of more than 15 % inside the cavity and 24 % with the fiber-amplifier. The frequency doubling followed the predicted optimal efficiency achievable with a PPLN crystal. So far we generated 1.5 W at 1154nm and 90 mW at 577 nm. Our MOFA approach for generation of 1154 nm laser radiation is power-scalable by using multi-stage amplifiers and large mode-area fibers and is therefore very promising for building a high power yellow laser-light source of several tens of Watt.

  4. Testing quantum mechanics in non-Minkowski space-time with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.; Evans, R. G.; Gericke, D. O.; Landen, O. L.; Murphy, C. D.; Norreys, P. A.; Rose, S. J.; Tschentscher, Th; Wang, C. H.-T; Wark, J. S.; Gregori, G.

    2012-01-01

    A common misperception of quantum gravity is that it requires accessing energies up to the Planck scale of 1019 GeV, which is unattainable from any conceivable particle collider. Thanks to the development of ultra-high intensity optical lasers, very large accelerations can be now the reached at their focal spot, thus mimicking, by virtue of the equivalence principle, a non Minkowski space-time. Here we derive a semiclassical extension of quantum mechanics that applies to different metrics, but under the assumption of weak gravity. We use our results to show that Thomson scattering of photons by uniformly accelerated electrons predicts an observable effect depending upon acceleration and local metric. In the laboratory frame, a broadening of the Thomson scattered x ray light from a fourth generation light source can be used to detect the modification of the metric associated to electrons accelerated in the field of a high power optical laser. PMID:22768381

  5. Spatiotemporal light bullets and supercontinuum generation in β-BBO crystal with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Šuminas, R; Tamošauskas, G; Valiulis, G; Dubietis, A

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study filamentation and supercontinuum generation in a birefringent medium [beta-barium borate (β-BBO) crystal] pumped by intense 90 fs, 1.8 μm laser pulses whose carrier wavelength falls in the range of anomalous group velocity dispersion of the crystal. We demonstrate that the competition between the intrinsic cubic and cascaded-quadratic nonlinearities may serve as a useful tool for controlling the self-action effects via phase matching condition. In particular, we found that spectral superbroadening of the ordinary polarization is linked to three-dimensional self-focusing and formation of self-compressed spatiotemporal light bullets that could be accessed within a certain range of either positive or negative phase mismatch. In the extraordinary polarization, we detect giant spectral shifts of the second harmonic radiation, which are attributed to a light bullet-induced self-phase matching. PMID:27128083

  6. 175 to 210 nm widely tunable deep-ultraviolet light generation based on KBBF crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, G.; Guo, L.; Geng, A.; Bo, Y.; Cui, D.; Xu, Z.; Li, R.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, X.; Chen, C.

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a widely tunable deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser in the wavelength range from 175 to 210 nm by the fourth harmonic generation of Ti:Sapphire laser. The fourth harmonic generation is performed by direct second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a frequency doubled Ti:Sapphire laser with KBBF crystal. The highest output power is 2.23 mW at 193 nm, and the power of the DUV laser is more than 1 mW from 182 nm to 210 nm. To our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of milliwatt-level widely tunable DUV all-solid-state laser below 200 nm by direct SHG technique.

  7. Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef U; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Becker, Petra; Liebertz, Josef; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2015-05-01

    A millimeter-sized, monolithic whispering gallery resonator made of a lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7, crystal was employed for doubly resonant second-harmonic generation with a continuous-wave laser source at 490 nm. An intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(8) was observed at the pump wavelength. A conversion efficiency of 2.2% was attained with 5.9 mW of mode-matched pump power. In the lithium tetraborate resonator, it is feasible to achieve phase-matching of second-harmonic generation for pump wavelengths between 486 and 506 nm. PMID:25927751

  8. Generation of ultrashort pulses of electrons, X-rays and optical pulses by relativistically strong light

    SciTech Connect

    Umstadter, D.; Banerjee, S.; Chen, S.; Sepke, S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Valenzuela, A.; Rousse, A.; Shah, R.; Phuoc, K. Ta

    2006-04-07

    We report recent results of experiments in which relativistic optical effects play an important role, at peak laser intensities above 1019 W/cm2. These effects are leading to novel radiation sources, all with femtosecond pulse durations: (1) the generation of optical photons by means of pulse compression via relativistic cross-phase modulation, (2) ponderomotive deflection of laser accelerated electron beams, and (3) the generation of well-collimated keV-energy x-ray beams by means of either Thomson scattering or betatron oscillations in ion channels.

  9. An Update of The Diagnostic Systems Proposed for The New Third Generation UK Light Source, DIAMOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Stephen R.; Dufau, Michael J.; Smith, Robert J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the currently proposed systems for electron beam position monitoring (EBPM) and diagnostics for the DIAMOND synchrotron. Although the basic requirements have remained unaltered, the philosophy of implementation has been subject to change, influenced by the experiences of other national light sources, and the emerging availability of commercial equipment, suited to the needs of DIAMOND. This paper focuses in greatest detail on the storage ring systems, including data acquisition and control. Details of Total Current Monitor (TCM) systems, and an active, beam position based interlock system for protecting ID vessels against thermal damage, by beam mis-steer, are also included.

  10. Ultrashort light pulses generated from modulation instability: background removal and soliton content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, Christoph; Mitschke, Fedor

    2014-07-01

    Modulation instability can be used to convert a continuous light wave into a train of pulses on a constant background. It is a longstanding discussion whether these pulses can be converted into solitons. We clarify the situation by using a more general mathematical context, invoking the Akhmediev breather, Peregrine soliton and Kuznetsov-Ma soliton solutions of the wave equation, and suggest the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to remove the background. Expressions for the pulse widths and peak powers thus obtained are presented, and their soliton content is determined. It turns out that more than 95 % of each pulse's energy can be converted to a soliton.

  11. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Filippetto, D.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  12. Spectroscopic measurements of ablation plasma generated with laser-driven intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, N.; Hane, K.; Shikata, H.; Masuda, M.; Nagatomi, K.; Sunahara, A.; Yoshida, M.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.

    2016-03-01

    Material ablation by a focused Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light is studied by comparing expanding ion properties and plasma parameters with laser ablation. The kinetic energy distributions of expanding ions from EUV and laser ablation showed different spectra implying different geometries of plasma expansion. The calculation results of plasma parameters showed that EUV energy is mostly deposited in high electron density region close to the solid density, while laser energy is deposited in low energy density region. Plasma parameters experimentally obtained from visible spectra did not show noticeable difference between EUV and laser ablation due to the corresponding low cut off density.

  13. Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image by Using a Far-Infrared Light Camera

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Som; Choi, Jong-Suk; Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light) cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction and perspective

  14. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C C; Wright, E M; Moloney, J V

    2001-11-19

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse. PMID:11736337

  15. 266  nm ultraviolet light generation in Ga-doped BaAlBO3F2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yue, Yinchao; Yang, Feng; Hu, Zhanggui; Xu, Zuyan

    2016-04-01

    BaAlBO3F2 (BABF) crystals are a recently developed and promising nonlinear optical material, notably for the third harmonic generation of ultraviolet (UV) light at 355 nm. However, the fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm has never been obtained by using a BABF crystal due to its relatively small birefringence. We demonstrate that the birefringence of BABF can be effectively increased by doping it with Ga3+. The fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm was achieved for the first time in a Ga-doped BABF crystal. PMID:27192296

  16. Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering light generation in BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2008-07-01

    As broad as 12000 cm(-1) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) light from ultraviolet to infrared was generated in a BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses with 30% conversion efficiency. More than fifteenth-order anti-Stokes and second-order Stokes Raman sidebands were observed with nice Gaussian spatial mode. The effect of the crossing angle between two input beams on the spectrum and emitting angle of the Raman sidebands was studied in detail. Calculation shows that the phase-matching condition determines the frequencies and angles of the sidebands. PMID:18594676

  17. Improving proliferation resistance of high breeding gain generation 4 reactors using blankets composed of light water reactor waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hellesen, C.; Grape, S.; Haakanson, A.; Jacobson Svaerd, S.; Jansson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Fertile blankets can be used in fast reactors to enhance the breeding gain as well as the passive safety characteristics. However, such blankets typically result in the production of weapons grade plutonium. For this reason they are often excluded from Generation IV reactor designs. In this paper we demonstrate that using blankets manufactured directly from spent light water (LWR) reactor fuel it is possible to produce a plutonium product with non-proliferation characteristics on a par with spent LWR fuel of 30-50 MWd/kg burnup. The beneficial breeding and safety characteristics are retained. (authors)

  18. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  19. Numerical evaluation of multilayer holographic data storage with a varifocal lens generated with a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2015-08-01

    A multilayer recording using a varifocal lens generated with a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) is proposed. A phase-only SLM is used for not only improving interference efficiency between signal and reference beams but also shifting a focus plane along an optical axis. A focus plane can be shifted by adding a spherical phase to a phase modulation pattern displayed on a phase-only SLM. A focal shift with adding a spherical phase was numerically confirmed. In addition, shift selectivity and recording performance of the proposed multilayer recording method were numerically evaluated in coaxial holographic data storage.

  20. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben

    2013-01-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability. PMID:24307756

  1. Real-time computer-generated hologram by means of liquid-crystal television spatial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mok, Fai; Psaltis, Demetri; Diep, Joseph; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of an inexpensive liquid-crystal television) (LCTV) as a spatial light modulator for coherent-optical processing in the writing and reconstruction of a single computer-generated hologram has been demonstrated. The thickness nonuniformities of the LCTV screen were examined in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and the phase distortions were successfully removed using a technique in which the LCTV screen was submerged in a liquid gate filled with an index-matching nonconductive mineral oil with refractive index of about 1.45.

  2. A Visible-Light-Active Heterojunction with Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Shiba P; Hood, Zachary D; More, Karren L; Chen, Vincent W; Lachgar, Abdou

    2016-07-21

    A visible-light-active carbon nitride (CN)/strontium pyroniobate (SNO) heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated by deposition of CN over hydrothermally synthesized SNO nanoplates by a simple thermal decomposition process. The microscopic study revealed that nanosheets of CN were anchored to the surface of SNO resulting in an intimate contact between the two semiconductors. Diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectra show that the resulting CN/SNO heterojunction possesses intense absorption in the visible region. The structural and spectral properties endowed the CN/SNO heterojunction with remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity. Specifically, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate per mole of CN was found to be 11 times higher for the CN/SNO composite compared to pristine CN. The results clearly show that the composite photocatalyst not only extends the light absorption range of SNO but also restricts photogenerated charge-carrier recombination, resulting in significant enhancement in photocatalytic activity compared to pristine CN. The relative band positions of the composite allow the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of CN to migrate to that of SNO. This kind of charge migration and separation leads to the reduction in the overall recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which is regarded as one of the key factors for the enhanced activity. A plausible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the heterostructured composite is proposed based on observed activity, photoluminescence, time-resolved fluorescence emission decay, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and band position calculations. PMID:27282318

  3. Laser light scattering from silicon particles generated in an argon diluted silane plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Bilik, N.; Kortshagen, U. R.; Aydil, E. S.

    2016-03-01

    We conducted laser light scattering (LLS) measurements in a 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled dusty plasma maintained in silane and argon to study the spatial distribution of silicon nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates. Specifically, we focused on the temporal evolution of their spatial distribution in the plasma as a function of pressure and power. We observed three distinct types of temporal evolution behavior of the nanoparticle dust cloud in the plasma and classified these into three regimes based on pressure and power. Each regime features a distinct pattern in laser light scattering measurements. At low pressures (∼80–100 mTorr) and high powers (∼40–60 W) we observed periodically repeating expansions and contractions of a continuous dust cloud for the first time. Dust voids, which have been reported before, were also observed at high pressures (∼100–150 mTorr) and low powers (∼20–40 W) in the center of the plasma. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of the nanoparticles. The balance between the ion drag force and electrostatic forces and their dependence on particle size are hypothesized to be the dominant factors that determine the nanoparticle cloud dynamics.

  4. Generating multi-atom entangled W states via light-matter interface based fusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Yang, Ming; Ozaydin, Fatih; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    W state is a key resource in quantum communication. Fusion technology has been proven to be a good candidate for preparing a large-size W state from two or more small-size W states in linear optical system. It is of great importance to study how to fuse W states via light-matter interface. Here we show that it is possible to prepare large-size W-state networks using a fusion mechanism in cavity QED system. The detuned interaction between three atoms and a vacuum cavity mode constitute the main fusion mechanism, based on which two or three small-size atomic W states can be fused into a larger-size W state. If no excitation is detected from those three atoms, the remaining atoms are still in the product of two or three new W states, which can be re-fused. The complicated Fredkin gate used in the previous fusion schemes is avoided here. W states of size 2 can be fused as well. The feasibility analysis shows that our fusion processes maybe implementable with the current technology. Our results demonstrate how the light-matter interaction based fusion mechanism can be realized, and may become the starting point for the fusion of multipartite entanglement in cavity QED system. PMID:26548649

  5. Generating multi-atom entangled W states via light-matter interface based fusion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Yang, Ming; Ozaydin, Fatih; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    W state is a key resource in quantum communication. Fusion technology has been proven to be a good candidate for preparing a large-size W state from two or more small-size W states in linear optical system. It is of great importance to study how to fuse W states via light-matter interface. Here we show that it is possible to prepare large-size W-state networks using a fusion mechanism in cavity QED system. The detuned interaction between three atoms and a vacuum cavity mode constitute the main fusion mechanism, based on which two or three small-size atomic W states can be fused into a larger-size W state. If no excitation is detected from those three atoms, the remaining atoms are still in the product of two or three new W states, which can be re-fused. The complicated Fredkin gate used in the previous fusion schemes is avoided here. W states of size 2 can be fused as well. The feasibility analysis shows that our fusion processes maybe implementable with the current technology. Our results demonstrate how the light-matter interaction based fusion mechanism can be realized, and may become the starting point for the fusion of multipartite entanglement in cavity QED system. PMID:26548649

  6. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  7. Improved visible light driven photoelectrochemical properties of 3C-SiC semiconductor with Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tae Song, Jun; Kamiya, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Hatano, Mutsuko; Mashiko, Hisanori; Ohtomo, Akira; Nakamine, Yoshifumi

    2013-11-18

    We propose the n-type 3C-SiC with Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as photo-anode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation. We found that band-edge structure of 3C-SiC is suitable for H{sub 2} generation, and the property can be optimized by dopant (nitrogen) concentration in 3C-SiC. We also confirmed that Pt NPs enhance photoelectrochemical properties showing 0.2%–0.8% higher Incident Photon-to-Current Efficiency than bare 3C-SiC in visible wavelength despite diminished light absorption. Solar-conversion efficiency increases approximately 6.3 times, and H{sub 2} production is improved by 6.5 times with 33% of Faradaic efficiency. Lastly, 3C-SiC surface corrosion is effectively inhibited.

  8. Quasi-phase-matching and second-harmonic generation enhancement in a semiconductor microresonator array using slow-light effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dumeige, Yannick

    2011-04-15

    We theoretically analyze the second-harmonic generation process in a sequence of unidirectionnaly coupled doubly resonant whispering gallery mode semiconductor resonators. By using a convenient design, it is possible to coherently sum the second-harmonic fields generated inside each resonator. We show that resonator coupling allows the bandwidth of the phase-matching curve to be increased with respect to single-resonator configurations simultaneously taking advantage of the resonant feature of the resonators. This quasi-phase-matching technique could be applied to obtain small-footprint nonlinear devices with large bandwidth and limited nonlinear losses. The results are discussed in the framework of the slow-light-effect enhancement of second-order optical nonlinearities.

  9. Observation of electron behavior in ambipolar polymer-based light-emitting transistor by optical second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Yuki; Lim, Eunju; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2011-07-01

    By using the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement, we directly visualized the carrier behavior leading to carrier recombination and electroluminescence (EL) in ambipolar polymer-based organic light-emitting transistor (OLET) with an active layer of poly 9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiszole (F8BT). Eliminating photoluminescence generated at 560 nm by a two-photon absorption process, the dynamical carrier motion in the F8BT-OLET was visualized by the electric field induced SHG induced at 420 nm. Diffusion-like electron transport that starts from the drain electrode was directly caught as the transits of the SHG images. Accordingly, EL was obtained at the edge of the source electrode. The electron mobility was estimated from the visualized carrier motion as 9.2×10-4cm2/Vs, which was larger than that obtained from the transfer curve of the OLET.

  10. Nano-CdS by polymer-inorganic solid-state reaction: Visible light pristine photocatalyst for hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanade, K.G.; Baeg, Jin-OoK . E-mail: jobaeg@krict.re.kr; Mulik, U.P.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com

    2006-12-14

    We have explored the possibility of using environmentally stable nano-CdS embedded in thermally stable polymer matrix as an efficient photocatalyst for the hydrogen generation by photodecomposition of hydrogen sulphide under visible light irradiation. Initially, we restricted our attempt to the usage of nano-CdS synthesized by novel polymer-inorganic solid-state reaction between cadmium iodide and polyphenylene sulphide (PPS). The structural study revealed the formation of nanocrystallites of CdS with the particle size ranging from 6 to 28 nm entrapped in modified (cyclized) PPS matrix. A quantum yield of 19.7% for the H{sub 2} generation was accomplished with CdS-PPS nanocomposite in pristine state, which appears to be superior in comparison to that of the conventional Pt loaded CdS. We believe that this straightforward approach can be extended to synthesise other nano-metal sulphides in polymer network for photocatalytic and allied applications.

  11. Slower carriers limit charge generation in organic semiconductor light-harvesting systems

    PubMed Central

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Shoaee, Safa; Kassal, Ivan; Burn, Paul; Meredith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Blends of electron-donating and -accepting organic semiconductors are widely used as photoactive materials in next-generation solar cells and photodetectors. The yield of free charges in these systems is often determined by the separation of interfacial electron–hole pairs, which is expected to depend on the ability of the faster carrier to escape the Coulomb potential. Here we show, by measuring geminate and non-geminate losses and key transport parameters in a series of bulk-heterojunction solar cells, that the charge-generation yield increases with increasing slower carrier mobility. This is in direct contrast with the well-established Braun model where the dissociation rate is proportional to the mobility sum, and recent models that underscore the importance of fullerene aggregation for coherent electron propagation. The behaviour is attributed to the restriction of opposite charges to different phases, and to an entropic contribution that favours the joint separation of both charge carriers. PMID:27324720

  12. Slower carriers limit charge generation in organic semiconductor light-harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Shoaee, Safa; Kassal, Ivan; Burn, Paul; Meredith, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Blends of electron-donating and -accepting organic semiconductors are widely used as photoactive materials in next-generation solar cells and photodetectors. The yield of free charges in these systems is often determined by the separation of interfacial electron-hole pairs, which is expected to depend on the ability of the faster carrier to escape the Coulomb potential. Here we show, by measuring geminate and non-geminate losses and key transport parameters in a series of bulk-heterojunction solar cells, that the charge-generation yield increases with increasing slower carrier mobility. This is in direct contrast with the well-established Braun model where the dissociation rate is proportional to the mobility sum, and recent models that underscore the importance of fullerene aggregation for coherent electron propagation. The behaviour is attributed to the restriction of opposite charges to different phases, and to an entropic contribution that favours the joint separation of both charge carriers. PMID:27324720

  13. Single mode optical fiber based devices and systems for mid-infrared light generation, communication and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Ojas P.

    Fiber-optic systems and devices for broadband mid-infrared light generation, communication and optical metrology are developed in this thesis. Using the nonlinear properties of low mid-infrared loss ZrF4-BaF 2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber, a mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) laser based on a thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) with spectrum extending from ˜1.9-4.5 microm is demonstrated. A higher efficiency, power-scalable, all-fiber integrated mid-infrared light source is realized capable of generating ˜0.7 W time-average power in wavelengths beyond 3.8 microm. The novelty of the laser lies in its two-step spectral shifting architecture. First, amplified laser diode pulses at 1.55 microm are used to generate a SC extending beyond 2 microm in standard SMF using modulation-instability initiated pulse break-up. A TDFA stage is then used to amplify the ˜2 microm components in the standard SMF continuum. By subsequently coupling the amplified ˜2 microm pulses in to a ZBLAN fiber, an SC with up to ˜2.6 W average power, and ˜9% optical conversion efficiency from the power-amp pump to mid-IR output is demonstrated. The two-step methodology leads to extension in the long wavelength edge of the SC from 4.2 microm to ˜4.5 microm, compared to previously demonstrated systems and ˜2.5 times higher optical efficiency in generating wavelengths beyond 3.8 microm. Numerical simulations are also presented based on solving the generalized non-linear Schrodinger equation to verify and extend experimental results. A broadband surface-normal optical modulator for communication applications with operation demonstrated over 1200--2400 nm is also presented. The modulator uses free-carrier effect in GaAs and mode selectivity of SMF to generate up to ˜43% modulation depth with a maximum operating speed of ˜270 MHz. The broad wavelength range of operation of the modulator can potentially enable higher throughput wavelength-division multiplexed optical network architectures based on

  14. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  15. Plasmas generated by ultra-violet light rather than electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, R. N.; Allen, J. E.; Thomas, D. M.; Benilov, M. S.

    2013-12-15

    We analyze, in both plane and cylindrical geometries, a collisionless plasma consisting of an inner region where generation occurs by UV illumination, and an un-illuminated outer region with no generation. Ions generated in the inner region flow outwards through the outer region and into a wall. We solve for this system's steady state, first in the quasi-neutral regime (where the Debye length λ{sub D} vanishes and analytic solutions exist) and then in the general case, which we solve numerically. In the general case, a double layer forms where the illuminated and un-illuminated regions meet, and an approximately quasi-neutral plasma connects the double layer to the wall sheath; in plane geometry, the ions coast through the quasi-neutral section at slightly more than the Bohm speed c{sub s}. The system, although simple, therefore has two novel features: a double layer that does not require counter-streaming ions and electrons, and a quasi-neutral plasma where ions travel in straight lines with at least the Bohm speed. We close with a précis of our asymptotic solutions of this system, and suggest how our theoretical conclusions might be extended and tested in the laboratory.

  16. Generation of photocurrent by visible-light irradiation of conjugated dawson polyoxophosphovanadotungstate-porphyrin copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Iban; Huo, Zhaohui; Farha, Rana; Goldmann, Michel; Xu, Hualong; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Lacôte, Emmanuel; Ruhlmann, Laurent

    2015-05-26

    Four hybrid polyoxometalate-porphyrin copolymer films were obtained by the electrooxidation of zinc octaethylporphyrin in the presence of four different Dawson-type polyoxometalates bearing two pyridyl groups (POM(py)2) with various spacers. The POM monomers were designed around 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene rings. Two of the substituents of the benzene ring are linked to the pyridyl groups, and the third is connected to the POM subunit. The four monomers vary in the relative positions of the nitrogen atoms of the pyridine rings or in the distance from the carbonyl group. The monomers were fully characterized by (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. The copolymers were characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and AFM. Their photovoltaic performance under visible light irradiation was investigated by photocurrent transient measurements under visible illumination. PMID:25900250

  17. Accuracy Based Generation of Thermodynamic Properties for Light Water in RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis

    2010-09-01

    RELAP5-3D interpolates to obtain thermodynamic properties for use in its internal calculations. The accuracy of the interpolation was determined for the original steam tables currently used by the code. This accuracy evaluation showed that the original steam tables are generally detailed enough to allow reasonably accurate interpolations in most areas needed for typical analyses of nuclear reactors cooled by light water. However, there were some regions in which the original steam tables were judged to not provide acceptable accurate results. Revised steam tables were created that used a finer thermodynamic mesh between 4 and 21 MPa and 530 and 640 K. The revised steam tables solved most of the problems observed with the original steam tables. The accuracies of the original and revised steam tables were compared throughout the thermodynamic grid.

  18. A tunable azine covalent organic framework platform for visible light-induced hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Vijay S.; Haase, Frederik; Stegbauer, Linus; Savasci, Gökcen; Podjaski, Filip; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen evolution from photocatalytic reduction of water holds promise as a sustainable source of carbon-free energy. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present an interesting new class of photoactive materials, which combine three key features relevant to the photocatalytic process, namely crystallinity, porosity and tunability. Here we synthesize a series of water- and photostable 2D azine-linked COFs from hydrazine and triphenylarene aldehydes with varying number of nitrogen atoms. The electronic and steric variations in the precursors are transferred to the resulting frameworks, thus leading to a progressively enhanced light-induced hydrogen evolution with increasing nitrogen content in the frameworks. Our results demonstrate that by the rational design of COFs on a molecular level, it is possible to precisely adjust their structural and optoelectronic properties, thus resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activities. This is expected to spur further interest in these photofunctional frameworks where rational supramolecular engineering may lead to new material applications.

  19. Coherent EUV light from high-order harmonic generation: Enhancement and applications to lensless diffractive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Ariel J.

    2007-12-01

    The first half of this thesis presents the first demonstration of quasi-phase matching in the coherent high-order harmonic conversion of ultrafast laser pulses into the EUV region of the spectrum. To achieve this quasi-phase matching, a novel method of fabricating hollow waveguides with a modulated inner diameter was developed. This technique lead to significant enhancements of EUV flux at wavelengths shorter than were previously accessible by known phase-matching techniques. In the second half of this thesis, the first tabletop demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging with EUV light is presented using HHG in a gas-filled hollow waveguide to provide coherent illumination. This tabletop microscope shows a spatial resolution of ˜ 200 nm and a large depth of field. Furthermore, the technique is easily scalable to shorter wavelengths of interest to biological imaging.

  20. A tunable azine covalent organic framework platform for visible light-induced hydrogen generation

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Vijay S.; Haase, Frederik; Stegbauer, Linus; Savasci, Gökcen; Podjaski, Filip; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution from photocatalytic reduction of water holds promise as a sustainable source of carbon-free energy. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present an interesting new class of photoactive materials, which combine three key features relevant to the photocatalytic process, namely crystallinity, porosity and tunability. Here we synthesize a series of water- and photostable 2D azine-linked COFs from hydrazine and triphenylarene aldehydes with varying number of nitrogen atoms. The electronic and steric variations in the precursors are transferred to the resulting frameworks, thus leading to a progressively enhanced light-induced hydrogen evolution with increasing nitrogen content in the frameworks. Our results demonstrate that by the rational design of COFs on a molecular level, it is possible to precisely adjust their structural and optoelectronic properties, thus resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activities. This is expected to spur further interest in these photofunctional frameworks where rational supramolecular engineering may lead to new material applications. PMID:26419805

  1. Slow light generation in single-mode rectangular core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have designed and analyzed a rectangular core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in Tellurite material. For the designed photonics crystal fiber, we have calculated the values of confinement loss and effective mode area for different values of air filling fraction (d/Λ). For single mode operation of the designed photonic crystal fiber, we have taken d/Λ= 0.4 for the further calculation of stimulated Brillouin scattering based time delay. A maximum time delay of 158 ns has been achieved for input pump power of 39 mW. We feel the detailed theoretical investigations and simulations carried out in the study have the potential impact on the design and development of slow light-based photonic devices.

  2. A tunable azine covalent organic framework platform for visible light-induced hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vijay S; Haase, Frederik; Stegbauer, Linus; Savasci, Gökcen; Podjaski, Filip; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution from photocatalytic reduction of water holds promise as a sustainable source of carbon-free energy. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present an interesting new class of photoactive materials, which combine three key features relevant to the photocatalytic process, namely crystallinity, porosity and tunability. Here we synthesize a series of water- and photostable 2D azine-linked COFs from hydrazine and triphenylarene aldehydes with varying number of nitrogen atoms. The electronic and steric variations in the precursors are transferred to the resulting frameworks, thus leading to a progressively enhanced light-induced hydrogen evolution with increasing nitrogen content in the frameworks. Our results demonstrate that by the rational design of COFs on a molecular level, it is possible to precisely adjust their structural and optoelectronic properties, thus resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activities. This is expected to spur further interest in these photofunctional frameworks where rational supramolecular engineering may lead to new material applications. PMID:26419805

  3. Degradation of organic dyes by Si/SiOx core-shell nanowires: Spontaneous generation of superoxides without light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Gu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongkun; Zeng, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Yuesheng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been proven to be highly active in the photocatalysis of dye degradation. However, the unstable hydrogen-terminated surface and the need for constant light irradiation hinder their extensive use. In this work, a stable silica shell was intentionally formed on the surface of SiNWs to produce Si/SiOx core-shell silicon nanowires (S-SiNWs). Light-illuminated or not, S-SiNWs showed almost identical degradation ability for the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) in both conditions, which meant neither hydrogen termination nor light irradiation was a prerequisite for the degradation activity of S-SiNWs. UV/Vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that IC was converted into isatin sulfonic acid in this process. Quenching studies and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that this bleaching ability was highly dependent on superoxides. A possible mechanism was accordingly suggested. In addition, the recently discovered reductase-like activity of SiNWs can be explained by the superoxides generation. PMID:26421622

  4. Blue-Violet Light Irradiation Dose Dependently Decreases Carotenoids in Human Skin, Which Indicates the Generation of Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Vandersee, Staffan; Beyer, Marc; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² (P < 0.05). The irradiation intensity was 100 mW/cm². This is above natural conditions; the achieved doses, though, are acquirable under natural conditions. The corresponding restoration lasted 2 and 24 hours, respectively. The degradation of cutaneous carotenoids indirectly shows the amount of generated free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species in human skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin. PMID:25741404

  5. In Situ Fluorine Doping of TiO2 Superstructures for Efficient Visible-Light Driven Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-03-21

    With the aid of breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is imperative to develop metal oxide semiconductors through visible light-driven hydrogen generation. In this study, TiOF2 was incorporated as an n-type F-dopant source to TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with visible-light absorption during the topotactic transformation. The crystal growth, structural change, and dynamic morphological evolution, from the initial intermediate NH4 TiOF3 to HTiOF3 , TiOF2 , and F-doped TMCs, were verified through in situ temperature-dependent techniques to elucidate the doping mechanism from intermediate TiOF2 . The visible-light efficiencies of photocatalytic hydrogen were dependent on the contents of the dopant as compared with the pure TMC and a controled reference. Using femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the charge-transfer dynamics were monitored to confirm the improvement of charge separation after doping. PMID:26871554

  6. Wind-powered electric generation runway lighting system demonstration project. Interim final technical report, September 15, 1981-December 15, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Mesa, D.

    1984-01-01

    The project is a small scale demonstration project to determine the feasibility of using wind-powered generation of electricity to operate the runway lighting system at Half Moon Bay Airport. The airport is located in San Mateo County near Highway 1, approximately 15 miles south of San Francisco, California. The project is a joint effort of San Mateo County, the California Department of Transportation, Division of Aeronautics, and the United States Department of Energy. The concept of wind-powered turbines to produce electrical power, which is not new or unique, has been demonstrated many times. This project seeks to determine if wind power has practical application to an airport environment as a cost-effective means of providing an alternate source of energy. Should the results of this demonstration be positive, the technology can be applied to airports statewide which possess the meteorological conditions conducive to wind power generation. Concurrently included in the demonstration project, and funded separately, is the construction of a runway lighting system designed for low energy use. The total system is tied into PG and E's grid system.

  7. Efficient Light-driven Long Distance Charge Separation and H2 Generation in Semiconductor Quantum Rods and Nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Tianquan

    Quantum confined semiconductor nanocrystals (0D quantum dots, 1D quantum rods and 2D quantum platlets) have been intensively investigated as light harvesting and charge separation materials for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. The efficiency of these semiconductor nanocrystal-based devices depends on many fundamental processes, including light harvesting, carrier relaxation, exciton localization and transport, charge separation and charge recombination. The competition between these processes determines the overall solar energy conversion (solar to electricity or fuel) efficiency. Semiconductor nano-heterostructures, combining two or more material components, offer unique opportunities to control their charge separation properties by tailoring their compositions, dimensions and spatial arrangement. Further integration of catalysts (heterogeneous or homogeneous) to these materials form multifunctional nano-heterostructures. Using 0D, 1D and 2D CdSe/CdS/Pt heterostructures as model systems, we directly probe the above-mentioned fundamental exciton and carrier processes by transient absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We are examining how to control these fundamental processes through the design of heterostructures to achieve long-lived charge separation and efficient H2 generation. In this talk, we will discuss a new model for exciton dissociation by charge transfer in quantum dots (i.e. Auger assisted electron transfer), mechanism of 1D and 2D exciton transport and dissociation in nanorods, and key factors limiting H2 generation efficiency in CdSe/CdS/Pt nanorod heterostructures.

  8. Surface Maps of LO Pegasi May-July 2011 Generated via BVRI Light Curve Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Robert O.; Johns Vidaurri, P.; Krug, S.

    2012-01-01

    The young solar analog LO Pegasi is a rapidly rotating (P ≈ 10.2 hr) K8 main sequence star known to exhibit large cool spots on its surface. We present surface maps based on BVRI photometry obtained at Perkins Observatory from May-July 2011 and inverted with an algorithm which makes no a priori assumptions regarding the number of spots or their shapes, and compare the results to images generated from 2006-2010. This work was supported by the NSF REU Program.

  9. Generation of Sources of Light with Well Defined Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, S. Cruz y.; Escamilla, N.; Velάzquez, V.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a technique to produce spatial electromagnetic modes with definite orbital angular momentum is presented. The method is based in the construction of binary diffractive gratings generated by computer. In the classical regime the gratings produce the well known Laguerre-Gaussian modes distributions when illuminated by a plane wave. In the quantum regime the grating is placed in the signal path of a spontaneous parametric down conversion layout and the diffraction pattern, observed in the coincidence count rate, shows that the single photons are projected onto spatial states consistent with a Laguerre-Gaussian modes distribution.

  10. Next Generation X-Ray Optics: High-Resolution, Light-Weight, and Low-Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray telescopes are essential to the future of x-ray astronomy. In this talk I will describe a comprehensive program to advance the technology for x-ray telescopes well beyond the state of the art represented by the three currently operating missions: Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. This program will address the three key issues in making an x-ray telescope: (1) angular resolution, (2) effective area per unit mass, and (3) cost per unit effective area. The objectives of this technology program are (1) in the near term, to enable Explorer-class x-ray missions and an IXO-type mission, and (2) in the long term, to enable a flagship x-ray mission with sub-arcsecond angular resolution and multi-square-meter effective area, at an affordable cost. We pursue two approaches concurrently, emphasizing the first approach in the near term (2-5 years) and the second in the long term (4-10 years). The first approach is precision slumping of borosilicate glass sheets. By design and choice at the outset, this technique makes lightweight and low-cost mirrors. The development program will continue to improve angular resolution, to enable the production of 5-arcsecond x-ray telescopes, to support Explorer-class missions and one or more missions to supersede the original IXO mission. The second approach is precision polishing and light-weighting of single-crystal silicon mirrors. This approach benefits from two recent commercial developments: (1) the inexpensive and abundant availability of large blocks of monocrystalline silicon, and (2) revolutionary advances in deterministic, precision polishing of mirrors. By design and choice at the outset, this technique is capable of producing lightweight mirrors with sub-arcsecond angular resolution. The development program will increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of the polishing and the light-weighting processes, to enable the production of lightweight sub-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Concurrent with the fabrication of lightweight

  11. Using hollow carbon nanospheres as a light-induced free radical generator to overcome chemotherapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Xin; Wen, Tao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wang, Pengyang; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Lu-Hua; Lu, An-Hui; Chen, Chunying

    2015-02-11

    Under evolutionary pressure from chemotherapy, cancer cells develop resistance characteristics such as a low redox state, which eventually leads to treatment failures. An attractive option for combatting resistance is producing a high concentration of produced free radicals in situ. Here, we report the production and use of dispersible hollow carbon nanospheres (HCSs) as a novel platform for delivering the drug doxorubicine (DOX) and generating additional cellular reactive oxygen species using near-infrared laser irradiation. These irradiated HCSs catalyzed sufficiently persistent free radicals to produce a large number of heat shock factor-1 protein homotrimers, thereby suppressing the activation and function of resistance-related genes. Laser irradiation also promoted the release of DOX from lysosomal DOX@HCSs into the cytoplasm so that it could enter cell nuclei. As a result, DOX@HCSs reduced the resistance of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) to DOX through the synergy among photothermal effects, increased generation of free radicals, and chemotherapy with the aid of laser irradiation. HCSs can provide a unique and versatile platform for combatting chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells. These findings provide new clinical strategies and insights for the treatment of resistant cancers. PMID:25597855

  12. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  13. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  14. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  15. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects. PMID:15267113

  16. Aging of secondary organic aerosol generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene: effects of ozone, light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Camredon, M.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Monod, A.; Aumont, B.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-09-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in the CESAM simulation chamber to investigate the evolution of the physical and chemical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during different forcing. The present experiments represent a first attempt to comprehensively investigate the influence of oxidative processing, photochemistry, and diurnal temperature cycling upon SOA properties. SOA generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene were exposed to (1) elevated ozone concentrations, (2) light (under controlled temperature conditions), or (3) light and heat (6 °C light-induced temperature increase), and the resultant changes in SOA optical properties (i.e. absorption and scattering), hygroscopicity and chemical composition were measured using a suite of instrumentation interfaced to the CESAM chamber. The complex refractive index (CRI) was derived from integrated nephelometer measurements at 525 nm wavelength, using Mie scattering calculations and measured number size distributions. The particle size growth factor (GF) was measured with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was used for the determination of the f44 / f43 and O : C ratio of the particles bulk. No change in SOA size or chemical composition was observed during O3 and light exposure at constant temperature; in addition, GF and CRI of the SOA remained constant with forcing. By contrast, illumination of the SOA in the absence of temperature control led to an increase in the real part of the CRI from 1.35 (±0.03) to 1.49 (±0.03), an increase of the GF from 1.04 (±0.02) to 1.14 (±0.02) and an increase of the f44 / f43 ratio from 1.73 (±0.03) to 2.23 (±0.03). These surprising results suggest that SOA properties may be governed more by local temperature fluctuations than by oxidative processing and photochemistry.

  17. High Brightness Electron Guns for Next-Generation Light Sources and Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    H. Bluem; M.D. Cole; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; I. Ben-Zvi; T. Srinivasan-Rao; P. Colestock; D.C. Nguyen; R.L. Wood; L. Young; D. Janssen; J. Lewellen; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2004-07-01

    Advanced Energy Systems continues to develop advanced electron gun and injector concepts. Several of these projects have been previously described, but the progress and status of each will be updated. The project closest to completion is an all superconducting RF (SRF) gun, being developed in collaboration with the Brookhaven National Laboratory, that uses the niobium of the cavity wall itself as the photocathode material. This gun has been fabricated and will shortly be tested with beam. The cavity string for a closely-coupled DC gun and SRF cavity injector that is expected to provide beam quality sufficient for proposed ERL light sources and FELs will be assembled at the Jefferson Laboratory later this year. We are also collaboration with Los Alamos on a prototype CW normal-conducting RF gun with similar performance, that will undergo thermal testing in late 2004. Another CW SRF gun project that uses a high quantum efficiency photocathode, similar to the FZ-Rossendorf approach, has just begun. Finally, we will present the RF design and cold test results for a fully axisymmetric, ultra-high-brightness x-band RF gun.

  18. Light Harvesting Proteins for Solar Fuel Generation in Bioengineered Photoelectrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ihssen, Julian; Braun, Artur; Faccio, Greta; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The sun is the primary energy source of our planet and potentially can supply all societies with more than just their basic energy needs. Demand of electric energy can be satisfied with photovoltaics, however the global demand for fuels is even higher. The direct way to produce the solar fuel hydrogen is by water splitting in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, an artificial mimic of photosynthesis. There is currently strong resurging interest for solar fuels produced by PEC cells, but some fundamental technological problems need to be solved to make PEC water splitting an economic, competitive alternative. One of the problems is to provide a low cost, high performing water oxidizing and oxygen evolving photoanode in an environmentally benign setting. Hematite, α-Fe2O3, satisfies many requirements for a good PEC photoanode, but its efficiency is insufficient in its pristine form. A promising strategy for enhancing photocurrent density takes advantage of photosynthetic proteins. In this paper we give an overview of how electrode surfaces in general and hematite photoanodes in particular can be functionalized with light harvesting proteins. Specifically, we demonstrate how low-cost biomaterials such as cyanobacterial phycocyanin and enzymatically produced melanin increase the overall performance of virtually no-cost metal oxide photoanodes in a PEC system. The implementation of biomaterials changes the overall nature of the photoanode assembly in a way that aggressive alkaline electrolytes such as concentrated KOH are not required anymore. Rather, a more environmentally benign and pH neutral electrolyte can be used. PMID:24678669

  19. Quantum teleportation of laser-generated photons with an entangled-light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R M; Nilsson, J; Bennett, A J; Skiba-Szymanska, J; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum teleportation can transfer information between physical systems, which is essential for engineering quantum networks. Of the many technologies being investigated to host quantum bits, photons have obvious advantages as 'pure' quantum information carriers, but their bandwidth and energy is determined by the quantum system that generates them. Here we show that photons from fundamentally different sources can be used in the optical quantum teleportation protocol. The sources we describe have bandwidth differing by a factor over 100, but we still observe teleportation with average fidelity of 0.77, beating the quantum limit by 10 standard deviations. Furthermore, the dissimilar nature of our sources exposes physics hidden in previous experiments, which we also predict numerically. These phenomena include converting qubits from Poissonian to Fock statistics, quantum interference, beats and teleportation for spectrally non-degenerate photons, and acquisition of evolving character following teleportation of a qubit. PMID:24300834

  20. Computer-Generated Hologram Design For A Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himes, Glenn S.; Mait, Joseph N.

    1990-02-01

    A magneto-optic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) has been proposed for use as a Fourier plane filter in a coherent optical correlator. Its binary nature and limited, presently small, space-bandwidth product constrain any filter design. Although binary quantization allows a maximum number of Fourier values to be coded, quantization and reconstruction error is high except in a few cases. To reduce these errors, a cell-oriented binary coding technique, the delayed-sample method, is used. Three cell sizes are considered: 2 x 1 pixels, 3 x 1 pixels, and 4 x 1 pixels. Through coding, a 2 x 1 cell can realize three real values {-1,0,1} as opposed to only two {4,1} for binary quantization; however, there is a trade-off in the number of Fourier values that can be coded. For a 2 x 1 cell the number is reduced by one-half. A 3 x 1 cell can realize seven complex values, but with a one-third reduction in the number of coded Fourier values. Finally, a 4 x 1 cell is capable of realizing nine complex values with a one-fourth reduction in the number of coded values. The trade-off between quantization error and number of Fourier values coded is examined qualitatively using a 128 x 128 MOSLM. Reconstructions from coding using different cell sizes are compared to reconstructions from binary quantization. In addition to coding, hologram replication is used to improve reconstruction error. Sampling issues relating to the size of the filter response are also discussed.