Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah
The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…
Shanahan, Timothy; Callison, Kim; Carriere, Christine; Duke, Nell K.; Pearson, P. David; Schatschneider, Christopher; Torgesen, Joseph
Strong reading comprehension skills are central not only to academic and professional success, but also to a productive social and civic life. These skills build the capacity to learn independently, to absorb information on a variety of topics, to enjoy reading, and to experience literature more deeply. Despite the growing demand for highly…
In order to identify students at risk of failing the Tennessee high-stakes achievement test known as the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), early literacy skills are monitored using reading assessments. Common reading assessments are based upon varying theories of reading development and do not reflect the necessary reading…
Beach, Kristen Dawn
Reading is the most valuable skill children must master early in schooling. Unfortunately, many students struggle to read and may be identified as having a Reading Disability (RD). In this dissertation, I explored the usefulness of the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) framework for identifying children with RD by examining the use of 1st and 2nd…
Nineteen percent of 1997-98 North Carolina 3rd graders were observed to drop out of high school. A series of logits predict probabilities of dropping out on determinants such as math and reading test scores, absenteeism, suspension, and retention, at the following grade levels: 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th. The same cohort and variables are used to…
Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick
The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…
Wieland, Anne; And Others
Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…
In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…
Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura
Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…
Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.
A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…
Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma
For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…
Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma
For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…
Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail
Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…
Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie
Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.
Rogers, Misha Neely
The research study will examine the impact of using the ClassScape program and targeted interventions on 3rd grade reading levels of performance. The conceptual and theoretical framework for the study suggests the need to connect formative, benchmark, and summative assessments in North Carolina. Furthermore, the review of the literature will…
Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.
Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…
The focus of this study was to investigate how parent involvement impacts student motivation in third grade special education. The study was conducted at Allen Elementary in Genoa, Ohio during the spring of 2011. After reviewing recent literature, it acknowledges the importance of parent participation on student academic education, the effects of…
Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.
Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…
Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.
This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade three prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area.…
Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene
The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…
Professional Learning Communities Participant's Activities for the What Works Clearinghouse Practice Guide: Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. REL 2016-277a
Kosanovich, Marcia; Foorman, Barbara
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast developed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) Facilitators Guide to support educators in the implementation of recommendations from the What Works Clearinghouse's. The practice guide focuses on the foundational reading skills that enable students to read words, relate those words to their…
Professional Learning Communities Facilitator's Guide for the What Works Clearinghouse Practice Guide: Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. REL 2016-277
Kosanovich, Marcia; Foorman, Barbara
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast developed a Professional Learning Community (PLC) Facilitators Guide to support educators in the implementation of recommendations from the What Works Clearinghouse's. The practice guide focuses on the foundational reading skills that enable students to read words, relate those words to their…
Froman, Terry; Bayne, Joseph
Recent revisions of the Florida School Code by the Florida Legislature include a major component focusing on proficiency in reading. In particular, grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) SSS Reading Test must be retained, unless exempted for special circumstances. This new…
Bornfreund, Laura; Cook, Shayna; Lieberman, Abbie; Loewenberg, Aaron
Only about one-third of children attending school in the United States can read proficiently at fourth grade, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, known as "the nation's report card." If that is not dismaying enough, consider the outcomes for the nation's most vulnerable students. The first eight years of…
Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane
This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…
Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.
This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…
Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.
Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail
Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…
Topping, Keith, Ed.
The 15 papers constituting the Proceedings of the third National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with seven feature articles, as follows: (1) "Peer Tutored Paired Reading in a College of Further Education" (S. Booth and J. Winter); (2) "A Comparative Review of…
Corwin, Sylvia K., Ed.
Reading Improvement Through Art (RITA) program is an interdisciplinary approach to literacy that blends visual art with reading comprehension, evaluated in nine New York City urban high schools. 240 problem readers participating in the pilot program were pre- and post-tested in the Fall 1975 and Spring 1976 semesters. The testing showed the 9th…
This teacher's guide for grades 3 and 4 contains simulated work experiences for students using the isolated skill concept - assembling in sequence. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested,…
Petrosky, Anthony R.
In discussing the third national assessment of reading and literature, four major points can be made. First, norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests ignore serious ethical and measurement problems, namely, we don't know enough about individual differences to do such testing and the outcome, social class tracking, is ethically…
In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…
Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur
This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…
Goldman, Elizabeth; Adler, C. Ralph
This family booklet about reading is aimed at parents of children in Preschool through 3rd Grade. The simple text provides ideas for parents of all literacy skill levels to read with their children and find lessons for reading in everyday activities. Each page presents an exercise with the following page showing a black-and-white photograph of a…
Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar
The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.
Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon
Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…
The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The…
Brown, Brett V.; Bogard, Kimber
By the end of third grade, children must develop foundational skills in reading, math, and behavioral predispositions that maximize their chances of future academic success and wellbeing. Results from the 2005 National Assessment for Educational Progress (NAEP) indicate that many children lack these foundational skills, and that low-income…
Many mobile 1st through 3rd grade students are not reading on grade level in a southern urban school. The purpose of this study was to assess how teachers perceive the effectiveness of the "Success for All and Reading First" programs for their mobile and nonmobile students in order to create a new theory to improve instruction for the…
Martin, Corey; Elfreth, Jaime; Feng, Jay
This research study examined two intervention programs, Read Naturally (computer-assisted) and The Six-Minute Solution (teacher-guided), for the purpose of finding their effects on reading fluency with 3rd grade students at an elementary school. The participants were from two separate third grade classrooms, randomly assigned to one of the two…
Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.
This study tested a hypothesized model examining reading proficiency across first grade. It addressed how alphabetics at the beginning of the year were mediated by applied and automated skills at the middle of the year to explain actualized reading at the end of the year. The alphabetic skills of 102 first graders were measured in October and the…
Kasten, Wendy C.; Clarke, Barbara K.
Using ethnographic techniques to observe seven fifth grade and seven third grade students, a study examined the function of children's oral language during creative writing sessions in typical classroom situations. Findings indicated that oral language plays an important role in the writing process; specifically, that it (1) accompanies writing as…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Williams, Rihana S.; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Connor, Carol
This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to…
Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.
Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential
Kaput, James J.; Blanton, Maria L.
As a part of a long term district-wide study, we report on achievement test results involving students in a third-grade classroom taught by a teacher in a professional development program led by the authors and directed towards the integration of algebraic reasoning with elementary school mathematics. The teacher's practice, reported upon…
Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.
Water is a crucial topic that spans the K-12 science curriculum, including the elementary grades. Students should engage in the articulation, negotiation, and revision of model-based explanations about hydrologic phenomena. However, past research has shown that students, particularly early learners, often struggle to understand hydrologic…
Little, Callie W.
The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052
Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.
Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks . We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We
Hummel, Jeffrey W.; Fisher, Peter J. L.
Administered Survey of Reading Attitudes and Bundy Reading Preference Survey to 130 fourth- and fifth-grade students. Significant moderate correlation between total score of Bundy Reading Preference Survey and the Reading as Enjoyment Dimension of the Survey of Reading Attitudes contributes to construct validity of both measures. (Author)
Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl
Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…
A study determined if regular listening to oral reading by the teacher affected fourth-grade students' level of comprehension. Subjects were 47 students from an elementary school in central New Jersey. Twenty-five students were read to for 30 minutes daily for 8 weeks in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction. The remaining 22…
Castner, Myra H.; And Others
A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…
Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2.
NICHOLS, MARGUERITE; AND OTHERS
AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM FOR GRADES 2, 4, AND 5 WAS INITIATED AT PLATEAU VALLEY SCHOOL IN COLLBRAN, COLORADO, IN AN EFFORT TO RAISE THE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS. THE PROGRAM AT EACH GRADE LEVEL IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE METHODS USED TO GATHER PRELIMINARY DATA, IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF…
Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.
The third-grade year is considered a pivotal point in a child's educational career, as a critical shift in learning takes place--one where basic reading skills are established and can begin to be utilized for more complex learning. State policymakers are well aware of the importance of ensuring that all students are reading at grade level by the…
State and local assessment data from 117 students in one school in the California Central Valley were examined to determine how much participation in a kindergarten through second grade multitiered reading intervention model contributed to third grade reading achievement, over and above the demographic factors of ethnicity, socioeconomic status,…
Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K
Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and
Texas Education Agency, Austin.
The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was developed by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), in response to Texas House Bill 72 (1984), which mandated a new basic skills assessment program for mathematics, reading, and writing at grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. This is one in a series of Instructional Strategies Guides designed to…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.
Children (n=747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of 1st grade); addition retrieval (end of 2nd grade); and calculations and word reading (end of 3rd grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly contributed to both outcomes, via retrieval. However, there was no overlap in domain-general direct effects on calculations (attentive behavior, reasoning, working memory) versus word reading (language, phonological memory, RAN). Results suggest ease of forming associative relations and abilities engaged during the formation of these long-term memories are common to both outcomes and can be indexed by addition fact retrieval, but further growth in calculations and word reading is driven by different constellations of domain-general abilities. PMID:26700885
Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…
Grippin, Pauline C.
Ninety children in third and fourth grade were assessed on a hierarchical class inclusion task. Scores were trichotomized, and children from each level were randomly assigned to one of three cueing conditions (no cues, two superordinate cues, six subordinate cues). Subjects were administered a recall task of categorized words and "new" words…
Franks, Betty Barclay; Taylor, Nancy
This booklet contains 12 lessons about the history of Ohio correlated to the proficiency outcomes of the "Grade 4 Proficiency Test Outcomes in Ohio." Lessons include: (1) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (2) "The Era of Expansion"; (3) "Finding Out about Ohio"; (4) "Emigrating to Ohio"; (5) "Settling in…
Bradley, Robert H.; Gilkey, Barbara
Used post hoc matching design to compare children who participated in the Home Instructional Program for Preschool Youngsters throughout Arkansas with children from same classrooms with either no preschool experiences or with other preschool experiences in Grades 3 and 6. Found that HIPPY showed a modest positive impact on school suspensions,…
Hollimon, Deborah Neal
The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are changes in student motivation to read and reading comprehension when the instructional strategy of shared reading is used with sixth grade students. The quasi-experimental design for the study was based on the pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The sample for the study…
Jackson, Sheila M.
This study examined the revised Goodman taxonomy, the Oral Reading Miscues Inventory, as a means of evaluating reading achievement. A sample of 128 second-grade students was tested with a standardized reading test, the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, to determine their current reading achievement levels. Causal conversation was recorded on tape for…
Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Tonks, Stephen; Perencevich, Kathleen C.
The authors discuss the nature and domain specificity of reading motivation and present initial results that examined how 2 reading instructional programs, Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) and multiple Strategy Instruction (SI), influenced 3rd-grade children's intrinsic motivation to read and reading self-efficacy. Each reading program…
Thomas, P. Ann
The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the…
Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee
The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…
Witry, Susan M.
A practicum addressed the problem of a lack of reading motivation among middle grade students. An activity based program for middle grade students which integrated reading, book reports, book presentations, computer programs, and a library skills program was developed. Subjects, 32 fifth grade and 33 sixth grade students enrolled in a computer…
Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle
This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of…
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…
Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha
This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…
Hodges, Elaine Joy
The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained from a cloze test with the results obtained from an informal reading inventory in establishing the functional reading levels of selected third grade students of varying reading abilities. The subjects consisted of 100 third grade students. The following tests are given: the…
Mason, George E.
Three types of extra stimulation in reading are discussed: extra teacher time devoted to teaching reading, extra student time devoted to practice in reading, and extra motivation and reinforcement leading to greater amounts of student reading outside the school. Problems are created (1) when teaching time spent on reading is increased in the…
Indiana Department of Education, 2009
The Grade 2 Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was developed to help early primary students develop the skills necessary to read and use informational text. This booklet contains all the information teachers need to use the Grade 2 ITRI materials, including assessments, mock textbook pages, mini books designed to look like commercial…
Indiana Department of Education, 2009
The Grade 1 Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was developed to help early primary students develop the skills necessary to read and use informational text. This booklet contains all the information teachers need to use the Grade 1 ITRI materials, including assessments, mock textbook pages, mini books designed to look like commercial…
Wang, Chuang; Algozzine, Bob; Ma, Wen; Porfeli, Erik
The importance of reading fluently is widely recognized in school effectiveness, reform, and improvement efforts of the educational community, yet there are few large-scale, structured assessments of the progression of students' reading rates over time. This study documented 2nd-grade students' oral reading rates on the basis of fall, winter, and…
Abbott, Lindsey; Dornbush, Abby; Giddings, Anne; Thomas, Jennifer
In the action research project report, the teacher researchers found that many kindergarten and first-grade students did not have the reading readiness skills to be reading at their benchmark target. The purpose of the project was to improve the students overall reading ability. The dates of the project began on September 8 through December 20,…
Ross, Beth; Simone, Nancy
The reading interests of 300 tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students were surveyed and compared to those revealed in previous research. The results indicated that the amount of time students reported reading outside of school per day has decreased slightly since a 1961 study by P. Witty, with females still reading more than males. As in the…
Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne
Purpose: We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Method: Forty students at each…
Johnson, Darwin B.
Relationships between teachers' knowledge of reading and students' achievement in reading were investigated in a sample of 1,058 students and 62 teachers in grades two, three, and four. Students were pre- and posttested with the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Cognitive Abilities Test. Teachers' knowledge of reading was measured with the…
The habit of reading develops over a period of time. This study explored reading habits across a wide range of students. An open-ended survey of reading habits involved 242 participants from grades 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, undergraduate non-education majors, undergraduate elementary majors, and graduate reading majors. As data were analyzed, themes emerged…
Coppins, Laci Sharyl
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…
Wright, Kelli B.
A study investigated the effects of a read-aloud program in the Stockton Unified School District, Kansas, the independent variables being type of instruction, gender, family structure, and perception of family. The dependent variables were Reading Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, and Reading Total from the Science Research Associates test.…
Veenendaal, Nathalie J; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo
The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared three theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody and a bidirectional relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension. Further, we controlled for autoregressive effects and included decoding efficiency as a measure of general reading skill. Participants were 99 Dutch children, followed longitudinally, from fourth- to sixth-grade. Structural equation modeling showed that the bidirectional relation provided the best fitting model. In fifth-grade, text reading prosody was related to prior decoding and reading comprehension, whereas in sixth-grade, reading comprehension was related to prior text reading prosody. As such, the results suggest that the relation between text reading prosody and reading comprehension is reciprocal, but dependent on grade level.
Stanfield, Gayle M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether third grade literacy students who receive incentive rewards as part of their instruction will exhibit significantly higher reading habits and attitudes toward recreational reading than they did before the incentives were introduced. The study examined 19 third grade students with fairly high…
Cibula, June Clarke
A practicum was conducted to improve reading comprehension in classroom performance with the basal reading series and on norm-referenced tests. Subjects included a fifth-grade class of 28 students who were paired with another fifth-grade class as peer teachers. New skills were taught and practiced with the target population early in the week. On…
Adlof, Suzanne M; Catts, Hugh W; Lee, Jaehoon
Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine kindergarten predictors of early versus later reading comprehension impairments. Participants included 433 children involved in a longitudinal study of language and reading development. The kindergarten test battery assessed various language skills in addition to phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, naming speed, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Reading comprehension was assessed in second and eighth grades. Results indicated that different combinations of variables were required to optimally predict second versus eighth grade reading impairments. Although some variables effectively predicted reading impairments in both grades, their relative contributions shifted over time. These results are discussed in light of the changing nature of reading comprehension over time. Further research will help to improve the early identification of later reading disabilities.
Indiana Department of Education, 2005
The Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was created when the Center for Innovation in Assessment (CIA) observed that students in grade four experience a significant drop in performance in all of their subject areas. CIA researched solutions and identified the critical issue as the students' struggle to apply the reading skills they have…
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.; Lee, Jaehoon
Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine…
Salch, Kim; And Others
A project developed processes for improving the reading comprehension of third- and fourth-grade students in two progressive suburban communities in northern Illinois. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of reading strategies and a review of the district's general curriculum and textbooks revealed systematic…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected second-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals, biography…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
Designed to enrich the reading program, this bibliography lists books, films, filmstrips, and records for fifth-grade children. The list, which is divided according to readability into easy, average, and difficult, is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
This Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected first-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals, birthdays,…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected third-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals and birds,…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected fourth-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals and birds,…
Prior, Suzanne M.; Fenwick, Kimberley D.; Saunders, Katie S.; Ouellette, Rachel; O'Quinn, Chantell; Harvey, Shannon
The study examines comprehension after oral and silent reading in elementary- and middle-school students. It investigates whether and when one mode is superior to the other for comprehension as children develop, independent of reading ability levels. One hundred and seventy three children in first through seventh grades orally and silently read…
Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.; Hay, Sarah E.
Purpose: This study examined relationships between 3rd graders' metalinguistic skills (phonological and morphological awareness), reading skills (decoding and word identification), and accurate stress production in derived words with stress-changing suffixes. Method: Seventy-six typically developing 3rd-grade children (M = 8;8[years;months])…
Burchfield, Shirley; Hua, Haiyan; Noyes, David; van de Waal, Willem
The Government of Mozambique has long struggled to improve the low reading levels of children in early grades. With funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in 2012, World Education collaborated with the Ministry of Education and Human Development (MINEDH) to improve reading by developing a research-based reading intervention and testing it in two provinces. This article examines student reading performance from cohorts of second and third graders before and after a 1-year intervention compared to that of a control group and identifies factors required for successful scale-up.
The purpose of creative activities in the classroom and the part creativity should have in the reading program are discussed. Both the gifted and not-so-gifted child can be motivated, challenged, and provided with enriching experiences through creative activities planned and encouraged by a resourceful teacher. Suggestions given include the…
Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo
The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: "My Magical Metronome" (Lewis Thomas); "Queen Street…
There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the English 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in Alberta, Canada, this test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the reading component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, the 10 selections consist of:…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 8 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Circus Nerves" (Eric Nicol); "Follower"…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.
These booklets are intended for students in Alberta, Canada, taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30. The readings booklet presents 7 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction literature. After instructions for students, the booklet presents: (1) Lance Morrow's essay "Metaphors of the World, Unite!"; (2) Carl…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the…
Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov
Policy changes at the federal and state level are endeavoring to improve student achievement at schools serving children from lower-SES homes. One important strategy is the focus on using evidence-based core reading curricula to provide a consistent framework for instruction across schools. However, rarely have these curricula undergone rigorous comparative testing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six core reading curricula on oral reading fluency growth, while appraising whether these effects differ by grade level and for children living in lower socioeconomic (SES) households. Over 30,000 students in first through third grade Florida Reading First classrooms comprise this academically and economically diverse cross-sectional. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model latent growth curves for students' reading fluency scores over the school year. Growth curves revealed differences across curricula as well as between students of lower and higher SES, suggesting that reading fluency growth trajectories for curricula varied depending on student SES and grade level. Findings indicate that while there are similarities among curricula, they sometimes differ in their ability to promote reading skill growth. Differences by grade level and SES were also detected. However, many of these differences were small. Implications for the use of curriculum as a conduit for improving reading instruction are discussed.
Mims, Wyn, M.; Lockley, Jeannie
A fourth-grade teacher utilized action research in order to make data-driven decisions about reading interventions with her students. The teacher decided on a broad intervention, which was differentiating reading instruction, implemented differentiated instruction, collected data and continuously adjusted interventions based on monitoring data.…
ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.
BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry and drama, including the following: "At the Age at Which Mozart Was Dead Already" (Ellen Goodman);…
Rider, Lynne Marie
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, about 60% of students cannot read proficiently at their current grade level. Findings from the National Reading Panel (NRP) indicate that there is not sufficient research on the topic of struggling middle school readers. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30, this "readings booklet" presents 8 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction. After instructions for students, the booklet presents (1) Robert Penn Warren's poem "Summer Afternoons and Hypnosis"; (2) an excerpt from an interview with William…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Where Did You Go?""Out." (Robert Paul…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the English 33 Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in Alberta, Canada, this test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the reading component of the June 1988 tests. The following short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and day-to-day…
Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan
The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387
Roller, Cathy M., Ed.
This collection of 9 papers from the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2001 Conference (RR2001) addresses comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels. The introduction, "How Will We Develop the Concept of Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across Grade Levels?," notes that five quandaries arose in the discussion of…
Daly, Edward J., III; Kupzyk, Sara
In this study, we examined whether individualized, student-selected, parent-delivered reading interventions would produce generalized oral reading fluency improvements. Three 3rd-grade students received reading fluency interventions (repeated readings, modeling, error correction, and flashcard instruction) 1 at a time and were shown the results…
Gellert, Anna S
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether immediate gains in reading fluency achieved during repeated reading of text can predict long-term reading development over and above traditional predictors of reading development. Eighty-one Grade 3 children read texts three times consecutively and were instructed either to read as quickly as possible (speed-focused repeated reading), or to retell the text afterwards (meaning-focused repeated reading). Measures of text reading fluency, sentence reading fluency, and text comprehension were administered to the children in Grades 3 and 4 to assess their reading development over time. The results indicate that children's immediate response to repeated reading can contribute to the prediction of their development of reading fluency over time. Even after controlling for individual differences in general cognitive ability, word reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, and vocabulary, the experimental measure with meaning-focused repeated reading remained a significant predictor.
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, Sacramento.
Offered as a policy statement rather than as a how-to manual, this program advisory provides the policy direction and instructional guidance needed to support the improvement of reading achievement in California through the development and implementation of a balanced, comprehensive reading program in prekindergarten through grade 3. The first…
Accelerated Reader is a computer program designed by Advantage Learning Systems to assess students' reading comprehension levels and keep detailed and accurate reports of such findings. This research studied the Accelerated Reader program with a second grade class over a 6-week time frame. One class of 20 students read books picked from the…
REDDY, G.N.; MATSON, DAN M.
THE 31 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER WERE TAKEN FROM THE PAGES OF A NUMBER OF DAILY AND WEEKLY TELUGU NEWSPAPERS. THEY WERE SELECTED TO ACQUAINT THE STUDENT WITH A VARIETY OF TYPES OF JOURNALISTIC WRITING IN TELUGU WHILE INSTRUCTING HIM IN IMPORTANT READING SKILLS. THE MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRADED FOR DIFFICULTY AND INCLUDES A VARIETY OF SUBJECTS. THE…
This project describes a program designed to improve the music reading abilities of second grade children. The intention is to discover the best possible method of teaching students basic rhythmic and melodic skills. When combined, these skills will not only increase students' understanding of the language of music, but will also increase…
This qualitative study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling. The current research explored eight grade 1 students' experiences with online electronic storybooks (eBooks). Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software programs over 15 weeks.…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
A list of almost 300 titles of Spanish language reading materials represents the recommendations of the California Media and Library Educators Association for use with Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient students in kindergarten through eighth grade. It is intended as a guide for teachers of Spanish and teachers of English language arts…
Coley, Richard J.; Coleman, Ashaki B.
This report draws on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to provide a picture of the fourth-grade reading classroom. The picture includes views of teachers and their training, the climate and characteristics of the school environment, and the kinds of instructional and assessment practices that teachers use in reading…
Taylor, Mary F.
A qualitative study was recently done with students in a second grade class examining their use of eBooks and other digital online reading materials, as well as their use of traditional print books. In the classroom chosen from the study, the students were being taught through the use of balanced literacy instruction, which includes both whole…
Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.
This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that can be used on the sixth-grade level. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals, poetry, fiction, science fiction,…
Howard, Walter J., III
A program was developed to improve the reading scores and communication skills of ninth-grade students from multicultural backgrounds. The students' socioeconomic status ranges from below the poverty level to upper middle class. The population of the high school in suburban Chicago (Illinois) is multiethnic, the English is not always the primary…
This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).
Gray, Holly Lynn
This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Fawson, Parker C.; Smith, John A.
The purpose of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate the efficacy of scaffolded silent reading (ScSR) compared with the evidence-based practice of guided repeated oral reading (GROR) with feedback on 3rd-grade students' fluency and comprehension growth. Using a mixed-model dominant-less dominant design, the authors collected both…
Kariuki, Patrick; Baxter, Andrew
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prosodic oral reading and overall reading comprehension of second grade students. The sample consisted of ten students who were randomly selected from a second grade classroom. The students read aloud from the book "Bedtime for Frances" by Lillian and Russell Hoban for a…
Hollinger, Jamie L.
The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…
Keck, Dana Ann
Students who have the ability of working through text, while at the same time comprehending what they read, increase the likelihood of school success and lifelong learning (Johnson, 2006). In primary grades, teachers understand that students are learning how to read and in intermediate grades, students are reading to learn new knowledge about a…
Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka
The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…
Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun
Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530
Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack
The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to…
Good, Roland H., III; Baker, Scott K.; Peyton, Julia A.
In this article, we examine the contribution of initial skill and slope of progress on alphabetic principle to end of first-grade reading outcomes. Initial skill and slope were measured using DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency. Reading outcomes were measured at the end of first grade with DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency. Students in Oregon Reading First…
Turner, Franklin Dickerson
The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…
Taylor, Rosemarye T.
In contrast to the primary grades when children are learning to read, students in grades 4 through 12 are expected to learn content as they read, yet they may still struggle with reading basics. This book provides a realistic and systematic process for improving reading and writing while enhancing content knowledge and skills. Based on proven…
Chatis, Corey; Thompson-Hoffman, Susan; de Kanter, Adriana; Moles, Ollie; Steele, Shirley; Howes, Sarah; Doyle, Michelle; Colmenares, Margarita; Vosburgh, Leah; Herman, Menahem; Ballen, Jennifer; Arnold, Chandler
This booklet presents suggestions for things people can do to help meet the America Reads Challenge of having all children read well and independently by the end of third grade. One of the ways to meet this challenge is through the research-based community reading initiative, called READ*WRITE*NOW!, which encourages students to read and write at…
Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.
This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…
The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following eight short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Loyalties" (Roo Borson); "Clever Animals" (Lewis Thomas); "Death of…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test is designed to be administered with a questions booklet. The following short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and day-to-day functional materials are included: (1) "Interpreter" (Gary Hyland); (2) an…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following 10 short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Parents as People (with Children)" (Ellen Goodman); "Everybody Knows about the…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examinations in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following nine short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "The Biggest Liar in the World" (Harry Mark Petrakis); "Victorian…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test is designed to be administered with a questions booklet. The following short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and day-to-day functional materials are included: (1) "M is for Mother" (Marjorie Riddle);…
Hayes, Cheryl D.; Bhat, Soumya; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Martinez, Laura
The audience for this guide is state, local, and program leaders who want to learn more about federal funding sources that can support early literacy programs and systems reform. Funding available through federal programs can help address the underlying causes of children failing to learn to read by the end of third grade, such as limited access…
Üstten, Aliye Uslu
The purpose of this study is to identify the sources of reading difficulties and to evaluate reading fluency of 9th grade students which aims to improve students' reading and their understanding of complex literary texts. The sample is composed of 120 students selected from 9th grade of 10 different high schools in central province of Ankara in…
Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.
Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…
Culmo, Jill R.
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of second grade students about reading, themselves as readers, their motivation to read, and their subsequent reading achievement. Allowing students time to read independently during the school day and providing various reading materials in the classroom are options that some school…
An existing data set for a sample of 3rd grade students was used to determine the relationship between performance during a reading intervention and short-term achievement test outcomes, and long-term risk status. Students participated in a reading intervention, one-on-one practice with a trained adult, during which weekly curriculum based…
Roehrig, Alysia D; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M; Hudson, Roxanne F; Torgesen, Joseph K
We evaluated the validity of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) for predicting performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT-SSS) and Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good, R.H., Simmons, D.C., and Kame'enui, E.J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.] for third grade students were evaluated on calibration (n(S1)=16,539) and cross-validation (n(S2)=16,908) samples representative of Florida's Reading First population. The strongest correlations were the third (February/March) administration of ORF with both FCAT-SSS and SAT-10 (r(S)=.70-.71), when the three tests were administered concurrently. Recalibrated ORF risk-level cut scores derived from ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve analyses produced more accurate identification of true positives than previously established benchmarks. The recalibrated risk-level cut scores predict performance on the FCAT-SSS equally well for students from different socio-economic, language, and race/ethnicity categories.
Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara
The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research.
Chang, Sau Hou
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…
Sanchez, Victoria M.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.
Tier 3 interventions are necessary for improving the reading performance of students who fail to respond adequately to Tier 1 general education instruction and Tier 2 supplemental reading intervention. In this pilot study, we identified 8 students in 3rd and 4th grade who had demonstrated slow response to Tier 2 reading interventions for three…
Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique
In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…
Redding, Larry R.
This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…
Reglin, Gary; Cameron, Horace; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo
This study determined the effectiveness of a parent support intervention to improve parental involvement and students' scores in reading. During the past 4 years (2006-2010), the students' seventh-grade reading scores at the study site on the state end-of-grade (EOG) reading test declined from 71.1% to 28.1%, which represented a decrease of 43.0%…
Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin
This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…
DiBella, Karen S.
The purpose of this study was to measure the motivation for academic and recreational reading of 6th grade students in a middle school located in southwest Florida using the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS). In this mixed methods study, motivation for both types of reading were measured, individual demographics of the population, such as…
Hickey, David W.
This ex post facto, participatory action research study investigated the relationship between a criterion-referenced, inventory-based reading assessment and the standardized Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The study, conducted in a suburban Ohio district where the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) has been used since…
Arnold, Holly Weber
This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…
Coyne, Michael D; Kame'enui, Edward J; Simmons, Deborah C; Harn, Beth A
This study examined the first-grade reading progress of children who participated in an intensive beginning reading intervention in kindergarten. Specifically, the study investigated whether kindergarten intervention could prevent first-grade reading difficulties, or produce an "inoculation" effect, for some children under certain instructional conditions. Participants included children at risk for developing reading difficulties who received a 7-month beginning reading intervention in kindergarten. In October of first grade, 59 children who had achieved criterion levels on measures of phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge were randomly assigned to one of two types of first-grade reading instruction: (a) code-based classroom instruction and a supplemental maintenance intervention, or (b) only code-based classroom instruction. February posttest measures assessed oral reading fluency, word reading, nonword reading, and comprehension. Between-group analyses indicated that instructional groups did not differ on any posttest measure. The students' absolute levels of achievement were compared to national and local normative samples. These results indicated that between 75% and 100% of students in both conditions attained posttest levels and demonstrated growth comparable to their average-achieving peers. These results support the hypothesis that strong responders to kindergarten intervention can experience an inoculation effect through the middle of first grade with research-validated classroom reading instruction.
The author reviews exemplary strategies for teaching reading to middle grades English language learners (ELLs) derived from 21 peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books. The author presents an in-depth look at three successful categories of reading strategies: interactive read-alouds to model fluent reading and engage learners, the…
Coy-Shaffer, Joye; Pettit, Shirley
A study conducted in the Orange County Public Schools in central Florida investigated the reading interests of sixth-grade students. The study also gathered information from teachers regarding the nature and source of reading materials used for independent reading in their classrooms and on the implementation of sustained silent reading practices.…
Grills, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon; Barth, Amy; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.
BACKGROUND For school-aged children with reading difficulties, an emerging and important area of investigation concerns determining predictors of intervention response. Previous studies have focused exclusively on cognitive and broadly defined behavioral variables. What has been missing, however, are studies examining anxiety, which is among the most commonly experienced difficulty for youth. OBJECTIVE The present study examined anxiety among children classified as typically achieving or showing inadequate/adequate response following an intervention for reading problems. METHODS Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed several standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with a multidimensional anxiety rating scale. RESULTS Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for time and scale and significant interactions for time*scale and group*scale. Logistic regression examined whether anxiety predicted response to intervention (Y/N) at the end of the school-year. CONCLUSIONS Results showed overall decreases in anxiety over time, with the exception of the harm avoidance area which increased and also interacted with group (children with decoding/fluency difficulties reported less harm avoidance than typically achieving children). The harm avoidance area was most pertinent across analyses highlighting the potential importance of targeting this area; however, none of the anxiety scales predicted response group at the end of the intervention. Ongoing research is needed in this area in order to identify characteristics of inadequate responders to reading intervention programs and/or inform interventions that incorporate these socioemotional factors. PMID:25431528
Register, Dena; Darrow, Alice-Ann; Standley, Jayne; Swedberg, Olivia
The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01).
McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.
Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.
Baker, Doris Luft; Biancarosa, Gina; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Bousselot, Tracy; Smith, Jean-Louise; Baker, Scott K.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K
In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4, and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text reading fluency changes over time as children's reading proficiency develops. In the beginning phase of reading development (Grade 1), text reading fluency was not independently related to reading comprehension over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. In Grades 2 to 4, however, text reading fluency completely mediated the relation between word reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas it partially mediated the relation between listening comprehension and reading comprehension. These results suggest that text reading fluency is a dissociable construct that plays a developmentally changing role in reading acquisition.
Adams, Gary L.; Slocum, Timothy A.
A recent report by Dr. Randall Ryder evaluated the use of Direct Instruction (DI) reading programs in 2 school districts in Wisconsin. In the report, Ryder claimed that students in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade who received Direct Instruction scored significantly lower on several standardized tests of reading than students who received more traditional…
REDDY, G.N.; MATSON, DAN M.
THIS VOLUME IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1) A SERIAL GLOSSARY FOR THE AUTHORS'"GRADED READINGS IN MODERN LITERARY TELUGU" (AL 000 904), (2) ANOTHER SERIAL GLOSSARY FOR "GRADED READINGS IN NEWSPAPER TELUGU" (AL 000 905), AND (3) AN ALPHABETIC INDEX TO BOTH READERS. THE ENTRIES IN THE GLOSSARIES ARE ARRANGED BY THE ORDER IN WHICH THE ITEM IS…
The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…
Klecker, Beverly M.
This paper describes a secondary analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores by gender. Data were national public 4th- and 8th-grade reading scores from composite and subscales for 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Twelfth-grade scores for composite and literary experience from 2005, 2009, and 2013 and gain…
Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz
In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…
Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Relyea, Jackie Eunjung; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Stenner, A. Jackson
The purpose of the study was to address possible text complexity shifts across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. The anthologies of one publisher's seven first-grade core reading programs were examined using computer-based analytics, dating from 1962 to 2013. Variables were Overall Text…
Flowers, Lynn; Meyer, Marianne; Lovato, James; Felton, Rebecca; Wood, Frank
A study employed mixed effects regression growth curve analysis to assess the developmental course of discrepant (n=51) and nondiscrepant (n=89) poor readers identified in third grade and retested in fifth, eight, and twelfth grades. Discrepancy status did not differentiate the developmental course of basic reading skills or reading comprehension.…
Abram, Marie J.; Cobb, Robert A.
A study investigated whether various home and school factors were related to first grade reading gain. Parents of all second grade students in a school district were asked to complete questionnaires eliciting the number of persons living in the household, the strictness of parental discipline, number of hours spent reading to the child each week,…
Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
Historically, researchers have identified that reading outcomes for students in upper grades who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) have typically rested around the late 3rd to early 4th grade. In recent years, wide-scale state-level testing has called into question these prognostications. The authors conducted a descriptive, multiunit,…
Cheng, Yahua; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hong; Wu, Xinchun; Liu, Hongyun; Dong, Qiong; Li, Liping; Nguyen, Thi Phuong; Zheng, Minglu; Zhao, Ying; Sun, Peng
Using a longitudinal sample of young Chinese students (fall and spring in grades 1 and 2: times 1-4, respectively) and growth curve analysis, this study examined whether the initial status and growth rates of compounding awareness from time 1 to time 4 uniquely contribute to reading comprehension at time 4 and whether word-reading efficiency at…
Wallace, Jennifer N.
As education law evolves, educators are faced with difficult decisions regarding curriculum, prevention programs, and intervention strategies to use with their students. The use of evidence-based strategies for all academic skill areas, including reading, has become increasingly common in schools. Twenty-four 4th grade students participated in an…
an attractive chapter it is a pity that it is not printed within the book. Although viewing the chapter on the Web gives the benefit of full colour, it is not easy to read the textual information off the screen. Within the printed material, there are good diagrams with the addition of a single colour, burgundy, a colour that is wasted on those of us who are red-green colour-blind! Each chapter is provided with an impressive number of graded problems (it is not easy to provide such a comprehensive range of problems at this level) and numerical answers are given in the back for every third problem. There is a student solution manual available for these problems and a complete instructor's solution manual has also been produced. It is therefore a useful book for both students and lecturers.
Fry, Margaret Elaine
Previous research has demonstrated that various reading intervention strategies have shown improvement over time. In a rural south central Pennsylvania school district, 25% of the third grade students are not proficient in reading, leading to possible disadvantages throughout life. This study investigated whether the theory of automaticity…
Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the three…
Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.
A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…
Granger, Noelle; Black, Alison; Miller, Jane
The purpose of the study was to examine how reader response journals followed by classroom discussion ("Reader Response Plus") contributed to students' reading comprehension and to their attitudes toward reading. The study was conducted in a rural school in upstate New York. The twelfth grade class that participated in the study…
Otter, Martha E.; And Others
A longitudinal study investigated the effects of leisure time reading (reading at home for pleasure or fun) on pupils' reading achievement in school. Subjects, 736 students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 in 30 schools located throughout the Netherlands, had their reading achievement determined five times: at the beginning and end of grade 3 and at the…
Kirkham, Scott; Lampley, James H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables (Fall R-CBM, Winter R-CBM, and Spring R-CBM) and the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program third grade reading and language arts assessment. The population selected for this study included all third grade students from an East Tennessee school…
Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.; Graves, Michael F., Ed.; van den Broek, Paul, Ed.
Reading comprehension is of great concern to many Americans, as evidenced by the mandate in most states today for graduation standards in reading and for assessments aligned to those standards. This book focuses on what has been learned from research about fostering reading comprehension in the middle grades, providing a broad overview of current…
Thomas, Sylvia Louise
The problem of this study was concerned with instruction in reading rate acceleration and the effects upon comprehension. Correlates of reading achievement, sex, IQ, age, and interest were also considered. A six-week reading rate training program was completed by the three experimental classes randomly selected in each of grades two, four, and six…
Gove, Amber, Ed.; Wetterberg, Anna, Ed.
This book highlights the experience of Liberia in both assessing and improving reading in primary schools. As a result of an Early Grade Reading Assessment, the Ministry of Education and partners, including the United States Agency for International Development, came together to identify and develop strategies for improving reading in schools.…
Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…
Izzo, Theresa Eleanor
Sixty-four third-grade pupils who were underachieving in reading participated in a study to determine the effect of parental home instruction in reading. A four-cell experimental design was used with two treatment factors: programmed home reading instruction given by mothers trained to administer the program versus no instruction, and mother's…
Leguizamon, Daniel F.
The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Vermeulen, Karin; Fulton, Cynthia M.
Two studies of second graders at risk for reading disability, which were guided by levels of language and functional reading system theory, focused on reading comprehension in this population. In Study 1 (n = 96), confirmatory factor analysis of five comprehension measures loaded on one factor in both fall and spring of second grade. Phonological…
Darrow, Alice-Ann; Cassidy, Jane W.; Flowers, Patricia J.; Register, Dena; Sims, Wendy; Standley, Jayne M.; Menard, Elizabeth; Swedberg, Olivia
The purpose of these five related studies was to ascertain the effects of a music curriculum designed to enhance reading skills of second-grade students. The dependent variables were subtest scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test administered pre and post the music/reading intervention. Results showed that the total test gain scores of…
CAMPBELL, PAUL B.; AND OTHERS
DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR 1965-66, GROUPS OF FIRST-GRADE PUPILS IN THE LIVONIA SCHOOL SYSTEM, MICHIGAN, WERE PROVIDED WITH READING INSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM EIGHT PUBLISHERS REPRESENTING EIGHT APPROACHES AS PART ONE OF A 2-YEAR STUDY. THE MATERIALS WERE THE LIPPINCOTT BASIC READING SERIES, THE SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES BASIC READING SERIES, THE…
Greene, John F.; Zirkel, Perry A.
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the measurement of attitudes toward reading, and recommends a workable approach for the elementary grades based on available instrumentation. The preliminary section summarizes the findings of studies relating to the theoretical framework of the psychology of reading. Reading research findings…
Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren
In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…
Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M; Thompson, Lee A; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A
Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.
North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.
Researchers have found that readers they described as "strategic" had a purpose for reading, that they monitored their comprehension as they read, and they reflected on their reading. Although most readers have grasped fundamental reading processes by age 12, they still do not have well-articulated concepts about effective strategies to…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.
The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on…
Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.
Reading comprehension growth trajectories from 3rd to 7th grade were estimated for 99,919 students on a state reading comprehension assessment. We examined whether differences between students in general education (GE) and groups of students identified as exceptional learners were best characterized as stable, widening, or narrowing. The groups…
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students' third-grade behavioral engagement on students' third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students' third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students' first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272
Kershaw, Sarah; Schatschneider, Chris
The present study utilized a latent variable modeling approach to examine the Simple View of Reading in a sample of students from 3rd, 7th, and 10th grades (N = 215, 188, and 180, respectively). Latent interaction modeling and other latent variable models were employed to investigate (a) the functional form of the relationship between decoding and…
Grant, Frances E.
A reading problem does exist within the schools; moreover, reading retardation is of epidemic proportions in the inner-city schools. Educators continue to seek new materials and different approaches to reading instruction for students who read below their grade and expectancy levels and who need a remedial program. Reading, like speaking and…
Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle
From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…
The academic performance of over 38,000 Texas students who failed the state's 1994 reading test was examined through their sophomore year in high school. Propensity score matching resulted in strata with retained and promoted students of comparable observed characteristics. Reading scores were analyzed using a two-level hierarchical linear model. Same grade comparisons show that third graders failing the state-mandated reading test who repeated the grade consistently outperformed in later grades the socially promoted children who also failed the third grade test. Additional analyses indicate that alternative explanations for the findings such as omitted variables, regression to the mean, differential panel attrition and cohort effects are not supported. The results are consistent with findings from other recent studies which suggest that grade retention in third grade may help increase student achievement.
Oostdam, Ron; Blok, Henk; Boendermaker, Conny
To assess the efficacy of guided oral reading as a remedy for low-achieving readers, two experiments were conducted in the early grades of primary school. In the first, poor-reading students were randomly divided between two treatment groups and a control group. In treatment groups, the intervention was delivered one-to-one, either in a repeated…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise
We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
Compiled by teachers, administrators, curriculum planners, and librarians, this list is intended to help local level curriculum planners and teachers select books for their reading programs and evaluate their literature programs, and to encourage students to read by improving their reading attitudes. To accommodate a variety of tastes, abilities,…
The program of studies for a reading elective course for avid or potentially avid readers at the junior high school level contained in this guide represents an attempt to address problems experienced by young adult readers. The program would provide time for them to read, and it would allow students the opportunity to value reading whether it be…
Sargent, Stephan Earl
A study was designed to help teachers discover which tools best predict future success in reading proficiency. It sought to find out whether commonly used reading assessments and/or measures of oral reading fluency could predict reading proficiency as measured by a standardized criterion-referenced achievement test of reading. In the first…
Collingwood, Madeline Duckworth
This study was a follow-up of a three year longitudinal study of factors affecting learning to read. It examined the efficacy of four different approaches to beginning reading instruction on subsequent reading achievement in grade four. Major purposes were to determine what effect maturation and exposure to a non-experimental typical grade four…
Elkins, J.; And Others
Investigated were the relationships between a wide variety of cognitive measures (including the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities) and five reading tests for 144 third grade children. (CL)
DiStefano, Philip; Valencia, Sheila
A study of 65 seventh grade students indicates that existing readability formulas should be used in combination with measures of syntactic complexity to assess levels of passage difficulty for students who appear to have difficulty in reading comprehension. (JD)
Dellatolas, Georges; Watier, Laurence; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Lubart, Todd; Chevrie-Muller, Claude
Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evidence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was administered to 1,028 French children aged 5-6 years. The score distribution (from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, reading was assessed in 695 of these children. Kindergarten variables explained 26% of the variance of the reading score at second grade. The Stambak score was strongly and linearly related to reading performance in second grade, after partialling out performance on other tasks (oral repetition, attention, and visuo-spatial tasks) and socio-cultural level. Findings are discussed in relation to perceptual, cerebellar, intermodal, and attention-related theories of developmental dyslexia. It is concluded that simple rhythm reproduction tasks in kindergarten are predictive of later reading performance.
Sanderson, Geoffrey T.
This evaluation report provides details for school year 2013 on the percentage of primary students who met or exceeded grade-level reading benchmarks on the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools' (MCPS) Assessment Program in Primary Reading (AP-PR). The percentage remained above 90% for kindergarten students and showed a small decrease for…
Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G.; Cirino, Paul T.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.
The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2010
Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for New Jersey's student achievement in reading. In…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2014
Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for New Jersey's 2013 student achievement in reading.…
Huelsman, Charles B., Jr.
An attempt to evaluate the effects of individualized vision training in a group of grade-4 children who were both disabled in reading and diagnosed as having inadequate vision skills is reported. The effects evaluated include both changes in vision and the relationship of vision training to change in reading achievement. Experimental cases…
Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Taylor, Aaron B.; Caskie, Grace L.
This study compared the validity of progress monitoring slope of nonsense word fluency (NWF) and word identification fluency (WIF) with early first-grade readers. Students ("N" = 80) considered to be at risk for reading difficulty were monitored with NWF and WIF on a 1-2 week basis across 11 weeks. Reading skills at the end of first…
Giroir, Shannon; Grimaldo, Leticia Romero; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg
This article describes the implementation of a read-aloud routine focused on the development of vocabulary knowledge and comprehension for English Learners (ELs) in grades K-3. This paper describes the steps of a daily read-aloud system, including key applications of second language acquisition and culturally responsive pedagogy with examples of…
Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan
This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of…
Magi, Katrin; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
A latent profile analysis approach was used to examine the developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills in Grades 1 and 2, as well as their antecedents in kindergarten. The participants in this study were 448 children. Four different developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills were identified. Our…
Briggs, Shawna R.
Reading comprehension strategies are important skills for a child to learn. Good strategies support struggling students to be more successful in all subjects at school as reading is the basis for subsequent mastery of most subjects (Bender & Larkin, 2003). This action research project examined the use of literature circles in a third grade class.…
Robbins, Edward L.; Thompson, Linda W.
A study examined the effectiveness of a pilot literature-based reading program. Subjects, sixth grade students at Galveston Elementary School, were grouped into high, middle, and low ability groups containing 20, 25, and 13 students respectively. Reading instruction was provided during 45-minute class periods 5 times each week. Instruction…
Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh
This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…
Marco, Gary L.
An overall analysis is made of the impact of Grade 3 Title I reading programs in the State of Michigan. An attempt is made to estimate the effectiveness of particular reading programs for low-scoring, middle-scoring, and high-scoring pupils for the purpose of identifying exemplary programs. In addition, a rank ordering of the various programs…
Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud
The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2014
Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Florida's 2013 student achievement in reading. In…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2014
Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Iowa's 2013 student achievement in reading. In…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2010
Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Iowa's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…
Intermediate grade teachers can help students deal with content area reading problems by using the directed reading activity (DRA) approach. Prior to using this approach the teacher needs to decide the major concepts to be emphasized in the content selection, the vocabulary terms to be taught, the specific skills to be taught to aid in…
Klingner, Janette Kettmann; Vaughn, Sharon; Schumm, Jeanne Shay
Studied effectiveness of a cooperative-learning approach designed to foster strategic reading and social studies learning, in three heterogeneous, culturally and linguistically diverse, fourth-grade classrooms. Found that the experimental-group students made greater gains than control-group students in reading comprehension, and equal gains in…
Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli
A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…
National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.
In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…
Springer, Judith Ann
The focus of this study is on the possible effects of phonological interference on the reading achievement of Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican first graders. Specifically, the study explored the relationship between standard English auditory discrimination and first-grade reading achievement. Subjects for the study were 32 female and 20 male students…
Carlisle, Joanne F.; Cortina, Kai Schnabel; Katz, Lauren A.
The purpose of this study was to compare 1st-grade teachers' responses to professional development (PD) programs in reading that differed in means and degree of support for teachers' learning and efforts to improve their reading instruction. We compared 3 models of PD: the 1st model provided only seminars for the teachers, the 2nd model provided…
This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.
For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…
Kelty, Carole L.
This practicum program was developed and implemented to increase the reading comprehension of second grade students. The objectives of the program were for students to improve the ability to use context clues by 20%, improve reading comprehension by 15%, identify the 4 types of QAR (Question Answer Relationship) questions by 80%, and write…
The purposes of this research were to consolidate the findings from research on reading instruction in the intermediate grades in a manner that would be usable for teachers, administrators, and curriculum planners, and to offer suggestions and procedures for the teaching of intermediate reading. The procedures used involved an intensive…
Clinard, Linda McCorkel
Intended for parents of children in Kindergarten through Grade 2, this book explains 10 keys to literacy that ensure reading success, the 5 major influences on a child's overall academic success, and how reading skills can be affected by attitude and expectations. The book provides ideas for ways to help a child become a better thinker, listener,…
Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel
This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…
Paradis, Edward; Bayne, Mina
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of systematic instruction with cloze tasks on the reading achievement of primary grade children. The cloze procedure was selected as an instructional strategy because of the close relationship of the cloze procedure to the psycholinguistic model of the reading process. Twenty-two first and nine…
Fortescue, Peter; Stark, John; Swinerd, Graham
Following on from the hugely successful previous editions, the third edition of Spacecraft Systems Engineering incorporates the most recent technological advances in spacecraft and satellite engineering. With emphasis on recent developments in space activities, this new edition has been completely revised. Every chapter has been updated and rewritten by an expert engineer in the field, with emphasis on the bus rather than the payload. Encompassing the fundamentals of spacecraft engineering, the book begins with front-end system-level issues, such as environment, mission analysis and system engineering, and progresses to a detailed examination of subsystem elements which represent the core of spacecraft design - mechanical, electrical, propulsion, thermal, control etc. This quantitative treatment is supplemented by an appreciation of the interactions between the elements, which deeply influence the process of spacecraft systems design. In particular the revised text includes * A new chapter on small satellites engineering and applications which has been contributed by two internationally-recognised experts, with insights into small satellite systems engineering. * Additions to the mission analysis chapter, treating issues of aero-manouevring, constellation design and small body missions. In summary, this is an outstanding textbook for aerospace engineering and design students, and offers essential reading for spacecraft engineers, designers and research scientists. The comprehensive approach provides an invaluable resource to spacecraft manufacturers and agencies across the world.
Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P
Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.
Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy
This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…
Robinson, Stephanie J.
Although phonological awareness (PA) is an essential preliteracy skill with well-established predictive validity for elementary school reading success, previous research indicates that PA intervention does not demonstrate long term effects on reading. The theory of automaticity was the underlying foundation used to understand the importance of…
Buescher, Eileen M.; Lightner, Sarah C.; Kelly, Robert H.
The purposes of this study were to examine the diversity of the authors and illustrators in core reading series and to evaluate the opportunities and limitations of these texts in relation to the goals of multicultural education. The authors began their research concerned about whose stories are told in core reading series, and who gets to tell…
Munoz, Marco A.
A school district located in the southern region of the United States is implementing the Reading Recovery (RR) Program in 10 elementary schools. The RR program is an initiative to help elementary schools improve student learning, especially in the area of reading. A broad literature review framed this quantitative investigation. The overall…
Piecewise latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was used to examine growth patterns in reading comprehension and passage reading fluency on easyCBM, a popular formative assessment system. Unlike conventional growth modeling, LCGA takes into account the heterogeneity of growth and may provide reliable predictions for later development. Because…
Morrison, James B., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to devise a simple instrument that could be helpful in predicting reading success by classroom teachers and school administrators who are not experts in the field of reading. The subjects, 190 randomly selected first graders, were given "Alphabet" and "Numbers" of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and "Information" and…
Palmer, Mary Leonard
The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…
Independent Reading (IR) is a reading intervention that many schools implement to help students develop essential reading skills and improve academic achievement on various standardized assessments. However, recent IR studies have yielded mixed findings on the effectiveness of IR as a reading intervention to help struggling students increase…
Jones, Paul L.; Armitage, Bonnie J.
Having implemented a testing procedure using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests to identify recruits with reading deficiencies, the United States Navy conducted a study comparing the performance of recruits on three different reading tests. A total of 716 recruits completed the comprehension portion of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, the Tests…
Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert
This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…
Frontera, Lucy S.; Horowitz, Rosalind
In a low-income south Texas school with primarily Mexican American students, teacher assessments of fourth-grade students' content reading ability and work habits predicted student success for that school year, as measured by grades and achievement scores. Teacher input can be critical in the early identification of students at risk of dropping…
Hernandez, Donald J.
Educators and researchers have long recognized the importance of mastering reading by the end of third grade. Students who fail to reach this critical milestone often falter in the later grades and drop out before earning a high school diploma. This study relies on a unique national database of 3,975 students born between 1979 and 1989. The…
Seals, Melissa Paige
The purpose of this nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leveled book programs on first-grade students' oral reading fluency rates and comprehension levels. This study was conducted over a 10-week time span with four first-grade classes. All of the students in each class were given a…
Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.
This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…
Sabb-Cordes, Morelisa L.
Students were performing below grade level in reading, fluency, and comprehension in a suburban school in South Carolina. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teachers about their preferred differentiated instruction approach (face-to-face vs. computer-based) to meet the needs of at-risk students in 2nd grade. The underlying…
To confirm or refute impressions that primary grade children do little in the way of actual school work during the day, a principal conducted informal observations in several first and second grade classrooms. Each type of activity the children might perform, such as reading, coloring, or moving about the room, was grouped into three major…
Carreker, Suzanne H.; Swank, Paul R.; Tillman-Dowdy, Lynn; Neuhaus, Graham F.; Monfils, Mary Jo; Montemayor, Mary Lou; Johnson, Paul
First and second grade public school teachers were trained through interactive video-conferencing to implement "Language Enrichment," an Orton-Gillingham-based literacy instruction. The effectiveness of the linguistically informed training was demonstrated by documenting the longitudinal third grade reading comprehension achievement of…
Manwell, Anita K.
This qualitative study used a triangulation of survey, conversational interviews, and observations in an authentic setting to explore the phenomenon of reading motivation from the perspectives of a specific group of individuals. Five participants, all African American fifth grade boys qualifying for meal subsidies, gathered in a local youth…
This study examined the "Tejas LEE or El Inventario de Lectura en Espanol de Tejas" (Grade 1) to determine if a relationship existed between reading comprehension in Spanish and the tested skills on the diagnostic assessment. This quantitative research design evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Tejas LEE and followed customary…
Stotsky, Sandra L.
The major purpose of this thesis was to show that it is possible to develop a theoretically sound and empirically based rationale for determining the systematic introduction and use of vocabulary in middle-grade reading instructional material. A major portion of the research for this thesis consisted of a content analysis of six current reading…
Lencioni, Gina M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit direct instruction and cooperative learning on reading comprehension in fourth grade students. A quasi-experimental design was used. There were six cognitive and three affective measures used to collect quantitative data. Cognitive measures included California State Test scores,…
Doerr, Helen M.; Temple, Codruta
Through a qualitative analysis of data collected over four years of design-based research on the implementation of a reform-oriented mathematics curriculum, this study describes two sixth-grade teachers' changing views of the role and place of reading in mathematics instruction. The findings reveal the evolution of the teachers' perspective on…
Shiring, Joan M.
Maintains that free reading and film study constitute a powerful arsenal against the barriers reluctant student learners erect. Describes the successful use of both techniques with a class of seniors who had all failed junior English. (SR)
Morrison, Faith Andrea
The purpose of this study was to explore whether William Deming's 8 Step Model would increase reading achievement in 3rd grade students. The study investigated how well the process based plan-do-check-act model when used as a treatment with fidelity, coupled with the principal as instructional leader would result in success in the age of federal…
Elias, Elizabeth I.
Purpose and Method of Study. The purpose of this study is to examine the lived experiences of six first-grade teachers using Reading Mastery Plus in schools participating in the Reading First Grant. This study will also describe the teachers' experiences of working in a school participating in the Reading First Grant. First-grade teachers were…
Vaughn, Sharon; Mathes, Patricia; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Cirino, Paul; Carlson, Coleen; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David
A first-grade reading and language development intervention for English language learners (Spanish/English) at risk for reading difficulties was examined. The intervention was conducted in the same language as students' core reading instruction (English). Two hundred sixteen first-grade students from 14 classrooms in 4 schools from 2 districts…
Deacon, S. Helene; Whalen, Rachel; Kirby, John R.
We examined whether Grade 4, 6, and 8 children access the base form when reading morphologically complex words. We asked children to read words varying systematically in the frequency of the surface and base forms and in the transparency of the base form. At all grade levels, children were faster at reading derived words with high rather than low…
Moses, Britani Creel
The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…
A program was designed to improve the reading skills of the second grade at-risk students in a suburban K-6 elementary school located northwest of Chicago, Illinois. The second grade at-risk students could not read fluently at the conclusion of the academic school year, and consequently did not exhibit strong reading comprehension skills. A…
Johnson, Diane D.
An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.
Children (n = 747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of first grade), addition retrieval (end of second grade), and calculations and word reading (end of third grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly…
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Vagnoli, Linda; Valente, Elena; Pinto, Giuliana
This study analyzed the predictive relationship between reading fluency and school outcomes across school levels (primary, secondary, and high school), after controlling on the effect of reading comprehension. The sample included 489 children attending Italian primary (grades 4 and 5), secondary (grades 6 and 8), and high schools (grade 9). Students' reading fluency and comprehension were examined with a standardized reading achievement test. At the end of the school year, we requested the school reports of each participant. According to our data, reading fluency predicted all school marks in all literacy-based subjects, with reading rapidity being the most important predictor. School level did not moderate the relationship between reading fluency and school outcomes, confirming the importance of effortless and automatized reading even in higher school levels. Overall this study emphasizes the importance of identifying evidence-based tasks that can be administered in a short time and to many different individuals, which are easy to create, and are linked to school outcomes. PMID:28261134
Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Vagnoli, Linda; Valente, Elena; Pinto, Giuliana
This study analyzed the predictive relationship between reading fluency and school outcomes across school levels (primary, secondary, and high school), after controlling on the effect of reading comprehension. The sample included 489 children attending Italian primary (grades 4 and 5), secondary (grades 6 and 8), and high schools (grade 9). Students' reading fluency and comprehension were examined with a standardized reading achievement test. At the end of the school year, we requested the school reports of each participant. According to our data, reading fluency predicted all school marks in all literacy-based subjects, with reading rapidity being the most important predictor. School level did not moderate the relationship between reading fluency and school outcomes, confirming the importance of effortless and automatized reading even in higher school levels. Overall this study emphasizes the importance of identifying evidence-based tasks that can be administered in a short time and to many different individuals, which are easy to create, and are linked to school outcomes.
Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R
It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do not contribute to their reading abilities in their other language or that children's experiences with either language assist them in developing a common underlying proficiency that they draw upon when learning to read. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among bilingual children's receptive language development and reading outcomes in first grade. Eighty-one bilingual children who were attending Head Start participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during two years in Head Start and reading outcomes at the end of first grade. Children's growth in both English and Spanish receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension predicted their English and Spanish reading abilities at the end of first grade within languages. Associations were also observed between languages with growth in English receptive language predicting Spanish reading comprehension and growth in Spanish receptive language predicting English reading comprehension.
Knight, Amanda Jill
The purpose of this study is to examine if low SES students respond differently to Tier I and Tier II interventions than Non-Low SES students. The study also seeks to determine the effect Tier I and Tier II interventions have on a group of second grade students. Forty-four Tier I and Tier II Caucasian second grade students from a rural Ohio…
Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Anne Marie; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.
Prosodic reading, or reading with expression, is considered one of the hallmarks of fluent reading. The major purpose of the study was to learn how reading prosody is related to decoding and reading comprehension skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured in 2nd- and 3rd-grade children (N = 123) and 24 adults. Reading comprehension and word decoding skills were assessed. Children with faster decoding speed made shorter and less variable intersentential pauses, shorter intrasentential pauses, larger sentence-final fundamental frequency (F0) declinations, and better matched the adult prosodic F0 profile. Two structural equation models found evidence of a relationship between decoding speed and reading prosody as well as decoding speed and comprehension. There was only minimal evidence that prosodic reading was an important mediator of reading comprehension skill. PMID:19777077
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.
This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…
Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.
This study investigated the associations of oral language and reading skills with a sample of 282 Spanish-speaking English language learners across 3 years of elementary school. In the 3rd grade, the English and Spanish decoding measures formed two distinct but highly related factors, and the English and Spanish oral language measures formed two…
van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.
In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…
Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon
Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed. PMID:26779296
Denton, Carolyn A; Fletcher, Jack M; Taylor, W Pat; Barth, Amy E; Vaughn, Sharon
Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed.
Swinehart, Alexis Fitzgerald
This study extended the research of Aiken (2006), which originally examined the reading motivation, attitudes, and habits for a cohort of 6th grade readers from an affluent suburban community. The purpose of this research was to investigate if the students' self-concepts as readers and values of reading have changed from their 6th grade year…
REDDY, G.N.; MATSON, DAN M.
THE 16 CONTEMPORARY TELUGU SELECTIONS IN THIS READER WERE SELECTED TO ACQUAINT THE STUDENT WITH A VARIETY OF POPULAR LITERARY STYLES AND TECHNIQUES WHILE INSTRUCTING HIM EFFICIENTLY IN IMPORTANT READING SKILLS. ALL TELUGU MATERIAL IS WRITTEN IN DEVANAGARI SCRIPT. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION AND SHORT PARAGRAPHS CONCERNING EACH AUTHOR ARE WRITTEN IN…
Grills, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon; Barth, Amy; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.
Background: For school-aged children with reading difficulties, an emerging and important area of investigation concerns determining predictors of intervention response. Previous studies have focused exclusively on cognitive and broadly defined behavioral variables. What has been missing, however, are studies examining anxiety, which is among the…
Although many educators believe that learning to read and write Mandarin Chinese is not easy (because of the complexities of its characters and grammar), it is common to find voracious and expert young readers in the early elementary school levels in Taiwan. The Chinese educational system is governed by a uniform curriculum and nationalized…
Park Forest Public Schools District 163, IL.
Two main ideas form the focus of this interdisciplinary unit: (1) Sub-Sahara Africa is a diverse geographic region with a little known but rich historical tradition; and (2) Sub-Sahara Africa has thrown off colonial rule and is developing modern societies that play an important role in the world today. The teaching guide and reading materials…
Sejnost, Roberta; Thiese, Sharon
This book, which focuses on strategies for content area literacy, employs a step-by-step approach to help students comprehend content area texts, effectively express their ideas in writing, and acquire the literacy skills they need to succeed. The book provides a research-based framework for teaching reading and writing with strategies for…
Baker, Doris Luft; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.; Basaraba, Deni Lee; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas
This longitudinal study examined the effects of a paired bilingual program and an English-only reading program on English reading outcomes for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in first, second, and third grades. Participants were 214 ELs enrolled in first grade in 12 high-poverty, low-achieving schools at the beginning of the study. Results…
Silva, Janelle M.
This article examines how teachers can develop a sense of social activism in students through critical multiculturalism. Drawing upon data from a nine-month participant observation study of a first-grade public charter school classroom in central California, this article highlights how teachers can integrate critical multiculturalism within an…
Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wagner, Richard K; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills.
Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological…
Sturm, Janet M; Spadorcia, Stephanie A; Cunningham, James W; Cali, Kathleen S; Staples, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Yoder, David E; Koppenhaver, David A
School-age students who use AAC need access to communication, reading, and writing tools that can support them to actively engage in literacy learning. They also require access to core literacy learning opportunities across grade levels that foster development of conventional literacy skills. The importance of the acquisition of conventional literacy skills for students who use AAC cannot be overemphasized. And yet, one of the critical challenges in supporting the literacy learning of students who use AAC has been a lack of knowledge about literacy curricula and supports to literacy learning for these students. Most students who use AAC do not become conventionally literate and few of those who do achieve literacy skills beyond the second grade level. This article will provide an overview of the most frequent reading instructional activities in first and third grade classrooms. To better understand the foundational experiences important to literacy learning, the results of a survey project that examined the reading activities of general education students and teachers during primary grade instruction are presented, and critical shifts in instruction that occurred between first and third grade are highlighted. The primary instructional focus of core reading activities is also examined, along with adaptations for students who use AAC.
From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.
In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4 and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text…
Lazarev, Valeriy; Atienza, Sara; Lai, Garrett; Ma, Boya; Sterling, Laurel
A quasi-experimental study designed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of the "Jamestown Reading Navigator" ("JRN") program for students in grades 9-10 was conducted in the Miami Dade Public School District (MDCSD). "Jamestown Reading Navigator" is a reading intervention program developed by McGraw-Hill…
Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.
The current investigation studied the effects of a computer software program of the oral reading fluency and comprehension of eight, first grade students. These students were identified as being either "at-risk" or "some-risk" for reading failure on the DIBELS oral reading fluency winter benchmark assessment. A multiple probe…
Forshey, Amy L.
No Child Left Behind (2001) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) has put pressure on all teachers to develop proficient readers. In order to do just this, develop proficient readers, teachers must understand the effects that reading attitude has on reading achievement for all students. Research states that individuals with a…
Roehrig, Alysia D.; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Torgesen, Joseph K.
We evaluated the validity of DIBELS ("Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills") ORF ("Oral Reading Fluency") for predicting performance on the "Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test" (FCAT-SSS) and "Stanford Achievement Test" (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously…
Miller, Tawana D.
Background: The No Child Left Behind Act legislation requires both higher standards and higher success rates at the same time. Failure of students to learn to read adequately as shown by national and state test results and the need for continued school success had prompted education officials to implement two reading programs--Voyager Universal…
Hanselman, Paul; Borman, Geoffrey D.
We evaluate the impact of Success for All literacy instruction in grades 3 through 5 using data from the same cluster randomized trial used to evaluate effects in the earlier grades (K-2). In contrast to the early benefits, there is no effect on reading achievement in the later grades, either overall or for students and schools with high or low…
Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill
This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological awareness, syntax, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and decoding fluency measures in mid-year. Outcome measures included a listening comprehension measure in Kindergarten and a reading comprehension test in Grades1 and 2. In Kindergarten, oral language (consisting of listening comprehension, syntax, and vocabulary) shared variance with phonological awareness in predicting a listening comprehension outcome. However, in Grades 1 and 2, phonological awareness was no longer predictive of reading comprehension when decoding fluency and oral language were included in the model. In Grades 1 and 2, oral language and decoding fluency were significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27660395
Foorman, Barbara R; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological awareness, syntax, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and decoding fluency measures in mid-year. Outcome measures included a listening comprehension measure in Kindergarten and a reading comprehension test in Grades1 and 2. In Kindergarten, oral language (consisting of listening comprehension, syntax, and vocabulary) shared variance with phonological awareness in predicting a listening comprehension outcome. However, in Grades 1 and 2, phonological awareness was no longer predictive of reading comprehension when decoding fluency and oral language were included in the model. In Grades 1 and 2, oral language and decoding fluency were significant predictors of reading comprehension.
Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Jaramillo, James; Jaramillo, Olga
When one effectively employs the strategies of exploratory-learning, wait-time, intervention, guided reading, meaning, and phonological-morphological-syntactical awareness-for infants and on up-to 3rd grade students-all-in a Montessori-like-learning-literacy-setting replete with semantical interactions with phonology, syllabology, morphology, and…
Leading change to create an integrated PreK-3rd education and connect early learning programs with the K-12 system is not easy. Superintendents require courage to take the first step, persistence and political skills to encourage organizational and community engagement, and a relentless focus on results to measure progress and build momentum. As a…
Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.
This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…
Suggate, Sebastian Paul
Despite impressive advances in the science of reading intervention, how to best help at-risk readers remains a point of contention. Because reading represents the synthesis of background factors and language and reading skills-all of which develop with age and experience-this meta-analysis investigated whether development (as approximated by grade) and intervention modality are key moderators of intervention effect size for disadvantaged readers. Eighty-five experimental or quasi-experimental studies with 116 treatment-control groups (N = 7,522) were selected from preschool to Grade 7. Analyses accounted for intervention length, instructor-to-student ratio, measure design, experimental design, attrition, intervention language, and publication bias. Between-group comparisons suggested that effect sizes were larger for older students, comprehension interventions, quasi-experimental studies, and samples at greater risk. In hierarchical regression analyses, intervention modality alone did not explain additional variance in effect size; however, when interacting with grade, intervention modality did explain additional variance. Phonics interventions were more effective until Grade 1, after which comprehension and mixed interventions, in particular, tended to be associated with greater effect sizes. These results highlight the importance of a developmental understanding of reading remediation.
Clark, Melissa H.
This study examines the impact of various types of preschool care and education on the reading achievement of children, kindergarten through fifth grade, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). The participants in this study are located throughout the United States of America. These…
OLSON, ARTHUR V.; ROSEN, CARL L.
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES, BY RACE AND SEX, OF SPECIFIC STUDENTS ENROLLED IN TWO RECENTLY INTEGRATED HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES IS REPORTED. SUBJECTS WERE 264 NINTH-GRADE PUPILS--140 NEGROES AND 124 CAUCASIANS. TO MEASURE READING INTERESTS AND CHOICE OF MATERIALS, A 40-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRE WAS…
Kuhn, Karen E.; Rausch, Casey M.; McCarty, Tiffany G.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Rule, Audrey C.
Many primary grade students are not afforded nonfiction-rich opportunities, with fiction comprising the majority of books read aloud in classrooms. With the Common Core Standards recommending that half of the texts made available to students be nonfiction, educators are increasing their use of informational text. The present study explored the…
The primary goal of this research is to better understand my students' reading orientations--what they believe it means to be a successful reader. I also seek to identify the relationship between those beliefs and my teaching. The data come primarily from six focal students in my second-grade classroom in an urban public charter elementary school…
Poggio, Jennifer M.
This study investigated the effects of teacher sense of efficacy for literacy instruction on reading achievement in grades three through eight. In previous studies, a teacher's sense of efficacy was shown to be correlated to student achievement (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Moore & Esselman, 1992). However, research attempting to uncover the…
Harckham, Laura D.
A longitudinal study was undertaken to determine whether measures that are readily available in most school districts, administered in kindergarten by classroom teachers, could predict reading achievement as measured by standardized tests in grades 1 through 4. The subjects were 553 children in the kindergarten class of 1964-65 in Ithaca, New…
Bernfeld, L. Elizabeth Shirley; Morrison, Timothy G.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Wilcox, Brad
The purpose of this study was to rate oral retellings of fifth graders to determine how passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements produce reliable retelling ratings. A group of 36 fifth grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two…
Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading…
Padgett, Carrie B.
The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…
A study was conducted at College of the Sequoias (COS) to examine the entry-level reading and writing skills of students and their grade outcomes in the social science courses for which they were enrolled. The study sought to identify any predictors of students' eventual success/non-success in class. The study focused on the placement test scores…
Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…
Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…
Scammacca, Nancy K.; Roberts, Garrett J.; Cho, Eunsoo; Williams, Kelly J.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Carroll, Megan
The history of research on interventions for struggling readers in Grades 4 through 12 dates back to 19th-century case studies of seemingly intelligent children who were unable to learn to read. Physicians, psychologists, educators, and others were determined to help them. In the process, they launched a century of research on a wide variety of…
Boutwell, Lydia T.; Sistrunk, Kim S.
Results of two studies that investigated the effects of guest readers on the reading attitudes of second- and fifth-grade children in the Meridian (Mississippi) schools are presented. Twenty-nine second graders and 29 fifth graders participated. Local television personalities, school personnel, former teachers, and parents were among the guests…
The purpose of this study was to determine effective reading interventions for primary grade students, utilizing the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. The purpose of RtI is to enhance the quality of education for children, if appropriate levels of academic instruction are present (Hanover Research, 2015). The research questions were posed to…
Huddleston, Andrew P.
The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…
The need for simultaneous teaching of reading skills and course content prompted the formation of a study guide which coordinates these two areas in an eleventh-grade nonregent English program used by Ramapo Central School District No. 2 in Spring Valley, New York. The guide provides exercises with a range of ability and achievement levels which…
Cisco, Brooke Kandel; Padron, Yolanda
Recent data indicate that many adolescent English language learners (ELLs) comprehend English texts at only a limited literal level. The purpose of this research synthesis was to systematically identify and describe the research related to the English reading comprehension of middle grades ELLs while also making practical connections to…
Lovell, Meridith; Phillips, Linda
This article reports the results of a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of 13 commercially available, authorized software programs for teaching reading and writing in the primary grades. These programs were assessed on interface design, content, instructional design, whether manufacturers' educational claims were supported…
DOLAN, SISTER MARY EDWARD
THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS WHO WERE TAUGHT WORD RECOGNITION BY EITHER A BASAL APPROACH OR A BASAL APPROACH WITH LINGUISTIC EMPHASIS WAS INVESTIGATED. A SAMPLE OF 10 CLASSROOMS MATCHED ON INTELLIGENCE, CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WAS SELECTED FROM SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN IOWA AND MICHIGAN. THE LORGE-THORNDIKE…
TO UNCOVER BASIC PERCEPTUAL AND PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES POSSIBLY RESPONSIBLE FOR DIFFERENCES IN READING ACHIEVEMENT, TWO STRATIFIED SAMPLES OF 60 ABOVE- AND BELOW-AVERAGE READERS WERE SELECTED FROM THE ENTIRE POPULATION OF 5,612 CHILDREN COMPLETING FIRST GRADE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA. THE GROUPS WERE MATCHED ACCORDING TO SEX, SCHOOL, GROUP…
Murphy, Kimberly A.; Farquharson, Kelly
This longitudinal study investigated profiles of lexical quality domains in preschool children and the extent to which profile membership predicted reading comprehension in first grade. A latent profile analysis was conducted to classify 420 preschool children on lexical quality domains, including orthography, phonology, morphosyntax, and…
Forty-four second grade students participated in a study examining the relationships between field dependence/independence (FDI), grammatical awareness, reading ability, and training in grammatical awareness. After the children were pretested for their levels of cognitive development, degree of field independence, grammatical awareness, and…
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Remia, K. R.
The context of this paper is studies worldwide on influence of phonological factors in language development of children. Such studies reveal the significance of Phonological Awareness in development language skills: including, predictive value of phonological short-term memory for reading skills in Grade 1. This paper throws light on factors in…
Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan
Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…
Aukerman, Maren S.
This study offers an alternative to traditional notions of scaffolding for reading comprehension by tracing the evolution of a fifth-grade small group literature conversation in which the teacher sought to displace himself as "primary knower" (Berry, 1981) in the conversation. The study examines how the teacher shared evaluation with his…
A study was conducted to determine if a teacher-constructed cloze procedure correlated significantly with two standardized tests of reading achievement, thereby testing G.D. Spache's claim that most teachers are unable to design valid and reliable assessment materials. Subjects were 60 fourth and sixth grade students who were administered the…
Fox, C.; Steg, D. R.
Three evaluations were conducted to try to pinpoint the cause of the difficulties of a 23-year-old black male, who was highly gifted in mathematics but hampered by a second grade reading level, displayed difficulty in focusing his eyes together, spoke as if trying to avoid stuttering, and did not maintain eye contact. A neurological evaluation…
Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has increased the importance of assessment in K-12 education. Designed to ensure that all students meet high academic standards, the law currently requires states receiving Title I funds to test all children annually in reading and math in grades 3 through 8 and report student performance disaggregated by…
Moss, John J.
This dissertation describes how the medical categories of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Reading Disability (RD) have become commonsense ways to understand educational problems. I explore historical precursors of ADD and RD followed by a report on fieldwork I conducted in a first grade classroom of mostly Latino and low-income children. I…
Zhang, Jianwei; Sun, Yanqing
This study looks into the reading practice in a Grade 4 knowledge building community that involved 22 students and a veteran teacher. The students investigated light over a three-month period supported by Knowledge Forum, a networked collaborative knowledge-building environment. The classroom designs encouraged the students to take on high-level…
Reed, Deborah K.
This article synthesized the morphology intervention studies conducted in English with students in kindergarten through 12th grade between 1986 and 2006. Seven studies were identified as focusing primarily on morphology instruction, including roots and affixes, and measuring one or more reading-related outcomes (e.g., word identification,…
WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.
"Between the Lions" is an award-winning PBS television series based on a comprehensive literacy curriculum that combines phonics and whole language. This guide has been created to help first grade teachers use "Between the Lions" in their classrooms to enhance their reading lessons. The guide is filled with engaging activities,…
Mosher, Deborah J.
A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…
Mendenhall, Betty Joan
This study was designed to ascertain whether the self-acceptance of second grade Chicano children could be improved by incorporating into the curriculum selected activities which reflected characteristics of each child to himself and by adding a supplementary language experience approach to reading. Subjects included 91 children from two…
Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.
In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…
This study employed a multilevel technique to examine pupil-, school- and province-level factors that influence achievement in mathematics and reading of Grade 5 primary school pupils in Vietnam. The data for this study were collected as part of a major survey that sought to examine the quality of education offered in Vietnam primary schools.…
Coiro, Julie; Dobler, Elizabeth
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the nature of reading comprehension processes while reading on the Internet. Eleven sixth-grade students with the highest combination of standardized reading scores, reading report card grades, and Internet reading experiences were selected from a population of 150 sixth graders in three…
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.
This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade…
O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria M.; Bocian, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Lindsay J.
We tested the effects of teaching reading skills through U.S. history content for 38 eighth-grade poor readers whose reading ability ranged from second-to fourth-grade levels. Half of the students received special education services, and half of the students were English language learners. Students were taught to decode multisyllabic words, learn…
Valenti, Joy E.; Tracey, Diane H.
This study examined the relationships between students' attendance at full-day, half-day, or no preschool and first grade reading achievement. 214 urban, low SES public first grade students of mixed ethnicities were studied. Using the students' Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) scores (Beaver, 2006), results indicated that by the middle of…
Hughes, Jan N; Chen, Qi; Thoemmes, Felix; Kwok, Oi-Man
The association between grade retention in first grade and passing the third grade state accountability tests, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and math, was investigated in a sample of 769 students who were recruited into the study when they were in first grade. Of these 769 students, 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Using propensity matching, we created five imputed datasets (average N=321) in which promoted and retained students were matched on 67 comprehensive covariates. Using GEE models, we obtained the association between retention and passing the 3(rd) grade TAKS reading and math tests. The positive association between retention and math scores was significant while the association was marginally significant for reading scores.
Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.
We present recent measurements of visual double stars made at the Nice Observatory (3rd series). We also report the discovery of a new double star: JCT 4. Moreover we give a more precise position of the double star DOO 35. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the
Tse, Shek-Kam; Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Lam, Joseph Wai-Ip; Hui, Sau-Yan; Ng, Hung-Wai
This study examined the influence of classroom pedagogic reading practices and out-of-school practices in explaining why the reading attainment of Hong Kong Grade 4 students was superior to that of their counterparts in Taiwan in the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Analyses of scores from 9,301 students (4,712 from Hong Kong…
McGrath, Gregory L.; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Bucknell, Wendy
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks with three 8-year-old students with learning disabilities. All three children were performing well below grade level in reading. A single subject reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing reading racetracks. Corrects responses and errors were…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…
Whitmer, Jean Elizabeth; Miller, Margaret
The IBM Writing to Read program for children in kindergarten and first grade uses computers with voice output and IBM selectric typewriters to encourage writing and hence reading development. A study examined whether increased writing activity without the use of the technology would produce similar gains in reading. A classroom from the IBM…
Anthony, Angela Beckman
Basal reading series are used in a majority of classrooms in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of fiction and nonfiction genres included in four recently published first and second grade basal reading series and to compare the frequencies to studies of older basal reading series. Based on the work of…
LeRoux, Mindy J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and Maze, two common Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs), and the statewide large-scale assessment of reading in Oregon, the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills- Reading (OAKS-R). A sample of three cohorts of eighth-grade students in an Oregon school…
Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.
This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…
Quick, Charles David
The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of pre-reading guides would effect better comprehension in the reading of short stories by ninth grade public school students. Four pre-reading guide sheets were prepared and validated for use in this study for each of the following stories: "The Interlopers" by Saki, "The Necklace" by…
Baker, Doris Luft; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K; Basaraba, Deni Lee; Kame'enui, Edward J; Beck, Carrie Thomas
This longitudinal study examined the effects of a paired bilingual program and an English-only reading program on English reading outcomes for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in first, second, and third grades. Participants were 214 ELs enrolled in first grade in 12 high-poverty, low-achieving schools at the beginning of the study. Results of piecewise growth modeling analysis indicated that ELs in the paired bilingual group made more growth on oral reading fluency in English than ELs in the English-only group across all grades. Conversely, regression analysis revealed that the difference in reading comprehension outcomes between these two groups was not statistically significant in first and third grades, independent of risk category, whereas in second-grade, at-risk ELs in the paired bilingual group had statistically significant higher scores in reading comprehension than ELs in the English-only group (d = +0.51). In general, ELs at risk for reading difficulties appeared to benefit more from the paired bilingual program than ELs with moderate or low-risk for reading difficulties. Implications of findings to advance theory and practice on the most effective program to teach reading to ELs are discussed.
Schevill, Helen Shaner
This report investigates perceptual functioning in the kindergarten first-grade period for slow- and average-maturing children. Two sets of auditory and visual tasks were devised: (1) identifying the first of an ordered pair of lights or tones when speed of presentation was a factor, and (2) categorizing each stimulus signal either by a uni- or…
The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…
Rothlein, Liz; Christman, Terri
This guide provides activities for use with 15 popular children's books. Basic information is provided for each book--author, illustrator, publisher, publication date, grade level, and a list of other works by the same author. Each section includes a summary of the book, an introduction to use when presenting the book to children, key vocabulary…
Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G; Cirino, Paul T; Carlson, Coleen D; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J
The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within schools to a treatment or comparison group; after 7 months, 64 students remained in the study. The intervention matched the language of instruction of their core reading program (Spanish). Treatment groups of 3 to 5 students met daily for 50 min and were provided systematic and explicit instruction in oral language and reading by trained bilingual intervention teachers. Comparison students received the school's standard intervention for struggling readers. Observations during core reading instruction provided information about the reading instruction and language use of the teachers. There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in either Spanish or English on any measures at pretest, but there were significant posttest differences in favor of the treatment group for the following outcomes in Spanish: Letter-Sound Identification (d = 0.72), Phonological Awareness composite (d = 0.73), Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised Oral Language composite (d = 0.35), Word Attack (d = 0.85), Passage Comprehension (d = 0.55), and two measures of reading fluency (d = 0.58-0.75).
González-Valenzuela, María J.; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D.
The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied are predictors of reading performance for words and pseudowords, although their influence differs depending on the reading measures and type of linguistic unit considered. Phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric rapid naming were the best predictors of reading accuracy for words and pseudowords. Variability in the other two measures of reading ability (speed and efficiency) was best explained by alphanumeric rapid naming. These results suggest that reading is a complex skill that depends on different types of cognitive variables according to the age and/or level of the reader, the type of orthography and the type of measure used. Furthermore, they highlight the need to provide instruction in these processes from an early age so as to address or prevent the problems that children may present. PMID:27303336
González-Valenzuela, María J; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D
The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied are predictors of reading performance for words and pseudowords, although their influence differs depending on the reading measures and type of linguistic unit considered. Phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric rapid naming were the best predictors of reading accuracy for words and pseudowords. Variability in the other two measures of reading ability (speed and efficiency) was best explained by alphanumeric rapid naming. These results suggest that reading is a complex skill that depends on different types of cognitive variables according to the age and/or level of the reader, the type of orthography and the type of measure used. Furthermore, they highlight the need to provide instruction in these processes from an early age so as to address or prevent the problems that children may present.
Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L
The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.
Costa, Hugo Câmara; Perdry, Hervé; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salomé; Cusin, Françoise; Dellatolas, Georges
This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of concurrent relations between behavioral, familial and emergent literacy measures in a sample of 812 preschoolers, and their predictive power in explaining word reading achievement in a sub-sample of 150 children followed from kindergarten to fifth grade. Word reading at fifth grade was predicted by kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter knowledge. Teachers' reports of inattention symptoms at each grade level were associated with early reading skills and with subsequent word reading. Fa/Rd were concurrently and longitudinally associated with emergent literacy skills, teachers' reported inattention and word reading. These results indicate that children with a family history of reading difficulties are at increased risk for the co-occurrence of reading difficulties and attention problems from kindergarten onward. These findings confirm the shared influence of Fa/Rd on the comorbidity between inattention symptoms and reading difficulties in a non-diagnosed community sample of preschool children followed through late elementary school.
Dugger-Roberts, Cherith A.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a relationship between the TCAP test and Pearson Benchmark assessment in elementary students' reading and language arts and math performance in a northeastern Tennessee school district. This study involved 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. The study focused on the following…
Polite', Cheryl Powell
This was a quantitative study utilized to determine the effect of the Physio-Cat Program on improving reading-comprehension scores in reading for students in kindergarten through Grade 5 at an elementary school in Dade County Florida. The Physio-Cat Program, designed by this researcher, was developed to provide an innovative approach to improve…
Much time is spent instilling in young students the importance of reading, and the impact reading has on their being considered "smart." The activities presented to students in primary (Pre-Kindergarten/Kindergarten) classrooms through third grade are engaging and cooperative, and they provide a sense of accomplishment for students who…
Matis, Karen Louise
Students' initial eagerness and excitement for learning to read are evident when they enter primary grades. Their levels of enthusiasm for reading diminish through elementary (Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, & Blumenfeld, 1993; Mazzoni, Gambell, & Koreamaki, 1999) and middle school (McKenna & Kearn, 1990; Oldfather & McLaughlin, 1993)…
Sawangsamutchai, Yutthasak; Rattanavich, Saowalak
The objective of this research is to compare the English reading comprehension and motivation to read of seventh grade Thai students taught with applied instruction through the genre-based approach and teachers' manual. A randomized pre-test post-test control group design was used through the cluster random sampling technique. The data were…
Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.
This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…
Gottardo, Alexandra; Collins, Penny; Baciu, Iuliana; Gebotys, Robert
We examined the components of first (L1) and second language (L2) phonological processing that are related to L2 word reading and vocabulary. Spanish-speaking English learners (EL) were classified as average or low readers in grades 1 and 2. A large number of children who started out as poor readers in first grade became average readers in second…
Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E
This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade progressed in reading achievement through 4th grade and (b) which emergent literacy and behavioral skills measured in kindergarten predicted differential 4th grade outcomes. Results indicated that the divergence between children who improved and those who did not was established by the end of 2nd grade. Further, individual linguistic skills and behavioral attributes measured in kindergarten contributed substantively to this difference. Implications for intervention timing and educational policy are discussed.
This mixed method study explored three approaches to reading fluency and their impact on students' reading fluency, perceived reading efficacy, and engagement. The quantitative portion of the study was conducted with 182 second-grade students and was guided by the following questions: (a) Which instructional method, iPod Touch, student-pairing, or…
Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.
In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.
Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Chaparro, Erin
This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of…
Bruton, Ronald W.; Owen, Thomas R.
A study compared the effectiveness of intensive phonics instruction (a combination of the Distar and Lippincott methods) with a language experience approach (Success in Reading program) in the first and second grades. Subjects, 48 first and second grade students in the Hillsboro School District in Oregon, were divided into two groups (matched…
Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia
Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study
Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Montanaro, Elizabeth A.; Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study investigated a Tier 2 intervention in the context of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model for 123 fourth grade students who were identified as having a high probability of reading failure. A randomized control trial was used to evaluate the effects of a 24 session multi-component supplemental intervention targeting fluency and expository comprehension of science texts. Intervention students performed significantly higher on comprehension strategy knowledge and use and science knowledge, but not on word reading, fluency, or other measures of reading comprehension. Moderators of intervention effects were also examined; children at higher risk in the intervention condition appeared to benefit more in comparison to lower probability children in intervention and compared to higher probability children in the control condition. PMID:22685347
The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.
Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard
Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.
Potrakhov, N. N.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.
In this preface a brief history, modern aspects and future tendencies in development of the X-ray technique as seen from the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique that was held on 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are described On 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg on the basis of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” n. a. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) was held the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique. The tradition to hold a similar conference in our country was laid in Soviet times. The last of them, the All-Union Conference on the Prospects of X-ray Tubes and Equipment was organized and held more than a quarter century ago – on 21–23 November 1999, at the initiative and under the leadership of the chief engineer of the Leningrad association of electronic industry “Svetlana” Borovsky Alexander Ivanovich and the chief of special design bureau of X-ray devices of “Svetlana” Shchukin Gennady Anatolievich. The most active part in the organization and work of the conference played members of the department of X-ray and electron beam instruments of Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute “LETI” (the former name of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”), represented by head of the department professor Ivanov Stanislav Alekseevich.
Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Richardson, Ulla; Martin, Maisa; Leiwo, Matti; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki
Purpose: To examine the ability to discriminate phonemic length and the association of this ability with reading accuracy, reading speed, and spelling accuracy in Finnish children throughout Grades 1-3. Method: Reading-disabled (RDFR, n = 35) and typically reading children (TRFR, n = 69) with family risk for dyslexia and typically reading control…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2010
The study, "Effectiveness of Selected Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions: Impacts on a First Cohort of Fifth-Grade Students," examined the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula: (1) Project CRISS (CReating Independence through Student-owned Strategies), (2) ReadAbout, (3) Read for Real, and (4) Reading for…
Nguyen, Nghia Van
First grade teachers play a critical role in shaping the foundation for early literacy skills acquisition of primary students. Past research studies have indicated that primary students whose teachers followed the"Big 5 Ideas" to teach reading had higher reading abilities when compared to other students. The purpose of this current…
Nevo, Einat; Bar-Kochva, Irit
This study investigated the relations of early working-memory abilities (phonological and visual-spatial short-term memory [STM] and complex memory and episodic buffer memory) and later developing reading skills. Sixty Hebrew-speaking children were followed from kindergarten through Grade 5. Working memory was tested in kindergarten and reading in…
This pilot study explores the impact of online electronic storybooks (e-books) on the reading motivation and listening comprehension of six grade 1 students (aged 7 years) from Ontario, Canada. The researcher measured participants' perceived enjoyment of the online e-book reading experience using standardized listening comprehension tests,…
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…
Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.
This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…
Barth, Amy E.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David; Vaughn, Sharon
We evaluated the reliability and validity of two oral reading fluency scores for 1-minute equated passages: median score and mean score. These scores were calculated from measures of reading fluency administered up to five times over the school year to students in grades six to eight (n = 1,317). Both scores were highly reliable with strong…
Redcay, Jessica D.; Preston, Sean M.
Purpose: This study aims to examine the differences in second grade students' reading fluency and comprehension scores when using varying levels of teacher-guided iPad® app instruction to determine effective reading practices. Design/methodology/approach: This study reports the results of the quasi-experimental pre-post study by providing…
MANNING, JOHN C.
THIS RESEARCH STUDY EVALUATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS OF FIRST-GRADE READING INSTRUCTION EMPLOYING SIMILAR BASAL READER STORY CONTENT. THE THREE METHODS WERE--(A) THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES OUTLINED IN THE TEACHERS MANUAL ACCOMPANYING THE GINN BASIC READING SERIES, (B) A LEVELS-DESIGNED PROGRAM STRESSING EARLY INTENSIVE LETTER…
Kieffer, Michael J.
Using longitudinal data on a nationally representative U.S. cohort, this study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and students' reading growth between kindergarten and eighth grade. Piecewise latent growth modeling was used to describe nonlinear growth trajectories in reading during three developmental periods: kindergarten…
Bowers, Michele Marie
This study examined elementary student literacy performance in Lancaster School District in kindergarten through 5th grades for 6 elementary schools implementing the Reading First program and 6 elementary schools not implementing Reading First. Subgroup data for English Language Learners, Hispanic, and African American students was closely…
Villanueva, Cristina Sarahi
The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the HELPS-SG curriculum and a small group repeated reading (RR) intervention on oral reading fluency and comprehension. The participants of this study were 42 second-grade ELL's who attended an elementary school in the southwestern United States. The participants were either a…
Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Ciullo, Stephen
A synthesis of the extant research on reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities in fourth and fifth grade (ages 9-11) is presented. Thirteen studies with treatment/comparison study designs and eleven single group or single subject studies were located and synthesized. Findings from the 24 studies revealed high…
Xu, Tuo; Zhang, Beili
This article discusses the importance of functional grammar and demonstrates its application to the teaching of reading among graded college students. Functional grammar holds that a discourse is composed of two levels: the interior level and the exterior level. Therefore, reading activities involve both linguistic elements and contexts.…
Robbins, Katherine R.
Because research exploring how students with disabilities read and comprehend on the Internet is scarce, a mixed methods study was implemented to determine if Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT) is an effective intervention for improving online reading comprehension among seventh grade students with high-incidence disabilities in inclusive…
Maxwell, Nicole P.
In the current era of accountability, U.S. teachers face strict demands from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to ensure that all students' reading achievement meets the requirements of their respective grade levels (Coburn, Pearson, & Woulfin, 2011). These demands are especially stressful when teachers have students who struggle with reading.…
Matz, Debbie S.
This study examined how the use of teacher think-alouds influenced and transferred to the reading comprehension and metacognition of seventh grade middle school social studies students in two Reading Apprenticeship classrooms. The researcher conducted classroom observations at a middle school in a mid-size suburban and rural school district in…
Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio
Kidney cancers' natural history has radically changed in the past few years, due to the development of novel targeted agents. Despite these improvements, several unanswered questions still remain on the table, regarding the best first-line treatment, the ideal sequence of treatments, the management of specific subgroups of patients (e.g., elderly patients or those with comorbidities) and the relevance of prognostic factors, among many others. To foster discussions among clinicians and investigators working in this field, and to exchange different viewpoints concerning the newest advances in kidney cancer pathogenesis and treatment, the 3rd Pavia International Symposium on Advanced Kidney cancer was held in Pavia (Italy) between 30 June and 1 July 2011. The aim of this report is to summarize the most significant advances in the different disciplines applied to advanced kidney cancer, which were presented and discussed during the meeting, and how these advances will be changing the perspective of patients with this disease.
Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy; Gatlin, Brandy; Walker, Melodee A; Capin, Philip
This meta-analysis extends previous work on extensive Tier 3 type reading interventions (Wanzek & Vaughn, 2007; Wanzek et al., 2013) to Tier 2 type interventions by examining a non-overlapping set of studies addressing the effects of less extensive reading interventions for students with or at risk for reading difficulties in Grades K-3. We examined the overall effects of these interventions on students' foundational skills, language, and comprehension as well as the intervention features that may be associated with improved outcomes. We conducted four meta-analyses on 72 studies to examine effects on (1) standardized foundational skill measures (mean ES = 0.54), (2) not-standardized foundational skill measures (mean ES = 0.62), (3) standardized language/comprehension measures (mean ES = 0.36), and (4) not-standardized language/comprehension measures (mean ES = 1.02). There were no differences in effects related to intervention type, instructional group size, grade level, intervention implementer, or the number of intervention hours.
Mott, Michael S; Robinson, Daniel H; Williams-Black, Thea H; McClelland, Susan S
The universality of the impact of daylight is a common thread that defines humanity. Day light affects us in a variety of ways -visually, psychologically and biologically. Artificial lighting research has explored ways in which artificial lighting may substitute for daylight and enhance human health and wellbeing. Recently, a study by Mott et al. 2011 found that the usage of high intensity, yet glare free lighting, (referred to as Focus light setting) during reading instruction increased grade 3 students' oral reading fluency (ORF) scores, a key index of reading comprehension. The current study further explored the effect of Focus lighting during literacy instruction with at-risk grade 3 students (n = 172). Over the course of an academic year, the Focus lighting students increased their ORF scores at a greater rate than did the Normal lighting students. These findings, in combination with earlier lighting research, suggest that artificial lighting plays a key role in helping to create an effective learning environment to ensure children reach their full potential. More systematic research, however, is needed to understand the mechanisms by which artificial lighting may contribute to the learning environment: visually, biologically and/or psychologically.
Gray, Cassandra D.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference with student achievement at third grade in reading with a traditional public school as compared to a public charter school; both schools were a part of the Southwest Region School Corporation. This quasi-experimental study compared third grade ISTEP+ scale scores in…
As students transition from primary to intermediate grades, the kind of materials that they are expected to read and write become more heavily dominated by expository texts. Expository texts contain grammatical patterns that are distinct from those used in primary-grade storybooks. These linguistic features pose new comprehension challenges for…
FRY, MAURINE; MUEHL, SIEGMAR
THE RESULTS OF A FOLLOWUP INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PERSISTENCE OF LEFT-LATERAL TENDENCIES OF A GROUP OF CHILDREN WAS RELATED TO FIRST-GRADE READING PERFORMANCE ARE REPORTED. THE ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL INCLUDED 64 SUBJECTS. FORTY SUBJECTS REMAINED IN THE LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEM THROUGH FIRST GRADE FOR THE FOLLOWUP…
The Problem: The study examined the difference that animal interactions had on the reading comprehension growth skills of students in the seventh grade. Method: A quasiexperimental study was conducted with two seventh-grade classes at William Howard Taft Middle School. One class received daily 20-minute animal interaction experiences for 5 days.…
Ward, Susan Lynette
The importance of reading proficiency is unquestioned. Although the nation has set a goal for all students to be proficient in reading, many of the nation's students are not proficient readers. The vast majority of research examining reading proficiency and reading achievement has concentrated on the cognitive aspects of reading and the use…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea
The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839
Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience.
Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Hamlett, Carol L
Children (n = 747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of first grade), addition retrieval (end of second grade), and calculations and word reading (end of third grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly contributed to both outcomes, via retrieval. However, there was no overlap in domain-general direct effects on calculations (attentive behavior, reasoning, working memory) versus word reading (language, phonological memory, RAN). Results suggest ease of forming associative relations and abilities engaged during the formation of these long-term memories are common to both outcomes and can be indexed by addition-fact retrieval, but further growth in calculations and word reading is driven by different constellations of domain-general abilities.
Reutzel, D. Ray; Spichtig, Alexandra N.; Petscher, Yaacov
The authors’ purpose was to explore the effects of a supplementary, guided, silent reading intervention with 80 struggling third-grade readers who were retained at grade level as a result of poor performance on the reading portion of a criterion referenced state assessment. The students were distributed in 11 elementary schools in a large, urban school district in the state of Florida. A matched, quasi-experimental design was constructed using propensity scores for this study. Students in the guided, silent reading intervention, Reading Plus, evidenced higher, statistically significant mean scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test criterion assessment measure of reading at posttest. The effect size, favoring the guided, silent reading intervention group was large, 1 full standard deviation, when comparing the 2 comparison groups’ mean posttest scores. As such, the results indicate a large advantage for providing struggling third-grade readers guided silent reading fluency practice in a computer-based practice environment. No significant difference was found between the treatment and control group on the Stanford Achievement Test–10 (SAT-10) posttest scores, although posttest scores for the treatment group trended higher than the control. After conducting a power analysis, it was determined that the sample size (n = 80) was too small to provide sufficient statistical power to detect a difference in third-grade students’ SAT-10 scores. PMID:26346539
Williams, Angela W.
This study involved examination of the processes employed in tailoring fourth-grade reading instruction to increase levels of student motivation. A participatory action research approach was utilized to design and conduct reading instruction that fourth-grade students perceived to be motivating. The reading instructional program was designed using…
Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David
We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6–8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659
Wojtcuk, Albert John
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two methods of teaching reading upon reversal errors. A sample of 210 pupils in grades one through four were selected for this study. One half of the group had learned to read through an analytic method while the other half had learned through a synthetic method. Since the synthetic group had…
Kim, J. G.; Chang, Won Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ku; Jeong, Sungho; Shin, Bo Sung; Whang, Kyung Hyun
Micromachining using the DPSS 3rd Harmonic Laser (355nm) has outstanding advantages as a UV source in comparison with Excimer lasers in various aspects such as maintenance cost, maskless machining, high repetition rate and so on. It also has the greater absorptivity of many materials in contrast to other IR sources. In this paper, the process for micro-drilling of through and blind hope in Cu/PI/Cu substrate with the UV DPSSL and a scanning device is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods. It is known that there is a large gap between the ablation threshold of copper and that of PI. We use the multi path for through hole with high energy density and we use Archimedes spiral path for blind hole with different energy densities to ablate different material. Furthermore, Matlab simulations considering the energy threshold of material is performed to anticipate the ablation shape according to the duplication of pulse, and FEM thermal analysis is used to predict the ablation depth of copper. This study would be widely applicable to various laser micromachining applications including through and blind hole micro-drilling of PCB, and micromachining of semiconductor components, medical parts and printer nozzles amongst others.
Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon
Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of…
Cameron, Claire E; Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J; Jewkes, Abigail M
Teacher organization is a crucial part of classroom functioning; however, its relation to student achievement has not been investigated as extensively as that of instruction. In this study, organization is defined as the amount of time teachers spend explaining the purpose and procedures of learning activities and daily routines. Data from first-grade classrooms (N=44) observed three times during the school year (fall, winter, and spring) are analyzed, along with students' (N=108) literacy skills at fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling reveals that, controlling for students' fall word reading and vocabulary skills, as well as amount of language arts instruction they receive, both amount and change in amount over time in classroom organization significantly predicts spring word reading skills. Specifically, children in classrooms observed in higher amounts of classroom time in organization at the beginning of the school year, followed by sharp decreases over the school year, demonstrated stronger letter and word reading skills by spring, and this was a main effect (p<.05). Practical and research implications are discussed.
Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr E.; Yawn, Christopher D.
The current study investigated the effects of a repeated reading intervention on the oral reading fluency (ORF) and comprehension on generalization passages for eight, first-grade students with reading risk. The intervention involved a commercial computerized program (Read Naturally Software Edition [RNSE], 2009) and a generalization principle…
James-Burdumy, Susanne; Mansfield, Wendy; Deke, John; Carey, Nancy; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Hershey, Alan; Douglas, Aaron; Gersten, Russell; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Faddis, Bonnie
This document reports on the impacts on student achievement for four supplemental reading curricula that use similar overlapping instructional strategies designed to improve reading comprehension in social studies and science text. Fifth-grade reading comprehension for each of three commercially-available curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, and…
80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY
Yu, Pei; Han, Maoan
In this paper, we show that a Z2-equivariant 3rd-order Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order symmetric perturbations can have at least 10 limit cycles. The method combines the general perturbation to the vector field and the perturbation to the Hamiltonian function. The Melnikov function is evaluated near the center of vector field, as well as near homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits.
Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ
The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph
Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Nelson, Nancy J; Chaparro, Erin
This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of daily small group intervention (Tier 2). In the treatment condition, teachers were trained to enhance core reading instruction by making instruction more explicit and increasing practice opportunities for students in Tier 1. In addition, at-risk readers were provided an additional 30-min daily small group intervention with content that was highly aligned with the Tier 1 core reading program. Results indicate significant, positive effects of the intervention on students' decoding and first semester fluent reading and potentially positive effects on reading comprehension and total reading achievement.
Wang, W. Maria
The Problem. In its meta-analysis on teaching children to read, U.S. National Reading Panel (NICHD & NIH, 2000) found repeated reading to be an effective technique for reading instruction. Specifically, the report determined that repeated reading procedures had a positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of…
Cribbs, Aimee M.
This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…
Palacios, Natalia; Guttmannova, Katarina; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay
This article examines whether longitudinal reading trajectories vary by the generational status of immigrant children as they begin formal schooling through the 3rd grade. The results of the hierarchical linear model indicated that 1st and 2nd generation children (i.e., those born in a foreign country and those born in the United States to foreign-born parents, respectively) had higher achievement scores at the spring of kindergarten than did 3rd generation children. Yet, controlling for race/ethnicity and maternal education fully reduced the 1st generation advantage. In addition, 1st generation children grew in reading achievement at a faster rate than did 3rd generation children. Controlling for a host of proximal and distal factors that included demographic, race/ethnic, family, and school characteristics somewhat reduced the association between generational status and rate of growth. First and 2nd generation children continued to increase their reading scores at a faster rate than did 3rd generation children. It is likely that additional factors not measured in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten cohort, such as selection, cultural, or motivational factors, would be useful in further explaining the immigrant advantage.
Clark, Sarah K.; Andreasen, Lindi
The purpose of this embedded mixed methods study was to examine how sixth graders with high and low reading attitudes perceive teacher read aloud. We utilized quantitative data by surveying sixth graders (N = 87) about their reading attitudes and then collected qualitative data by interviewing five students, interviewing the teacher, conducting…
Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.
The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…
Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Stanley, Christopher
The idea of targeting reading instruction to profiles of students' strengths and weaknesses in component skills is central to teaching. However, these profiles are often based on unreliable descriptions of students' oral reading errors, text reading levels, or learning profiles. This research utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine…
Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid
. Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF
Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.
The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from
Cholewa, Jurgen; Mantey, Stefanie; Heber, Stefanie; Hollweg, Wibke
The investigation of developmental reading and spelling disorders within the framework provided by cognitive neuropsychology has yielded interesting results for several alphabetic orthographies, for example English, Italian, and French. However, this approach has not attracted much attention in German speaking countries up to now. The following…
Konstantopoulou, Kallirroi; Del'Omo, Roberto; Morley, Anne M; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Bunce, Catey; Pavesio, Carlos
To assess the accuracy of standard clinical grading of aqueous flare in uveitis according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature consensus, and compare the results with the readings of the laser flare meter, Kowa 500. Two examiners clinically graded the flare in 110 eyes. The flare was then measured using the Kowa laser flare meter. Twenty-nine eyes were graded as anterior chamber flare +2; for 18 of these, the clinicians were in agreement, the rest differed by the order of one grade. The range of the laser flare meter for these eyes was 5.2-899.1 photons/ms. The median value was 41.4. Seventy-four eyes were graded with flare +1. Agreement was established in 51 of these eyes. Disagreement for the rest was again by the order of 1, and the flare meter range was 1.1-169.9 photons/ms, median value 18.4. For the clinical measure of flare 0, the clinicians disagreed on three out of five eyes. The flare meter readings ranged from 2.5 to 14.1 photons/ms, median value 9.9. Only two eyes were graded with flare +3 and there was one step disagreement on both of them. We found little evidence of association between the flare readings and intraocular pressure or age. Our findings suggest that clinical evaluation of aqueous flare is subjective. Compared with the Kowa laser flare meter's numeric readings, the discrepancies observed indicate that clinical grading is an approximate science. The laser flare meter provides an accurate, reproducible, non-invasive assessment of aqueous flare that can prove valuable in research and clinical decisions.
Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.
The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…
Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon
We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading…
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle
Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…
Stedman, Nathan Alexander, III
Having been taught for one year from a curriculum designed to enhance comprehension of syntactic structures, two groups (experimental and control) of fourth grade students were tested by two special cloze instruments to examine the effect of the curriculum on the comprehension of syntactic structures which the students encountered in reading.…
The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade students enrolled in a Title I supplemental reading class. Qualitative research methods included observations, interviews, archived data, and Miscue Analysis. I examined the data through a Vygotsky constructivist perspective to provide…
Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Deenang, Exkarach; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
This study aimed to investigate the structure and the validity of the cognitive components of reading in Thai, which is a language with a high degree of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The participants were 1181 fourth-grade students in 29 schools in Thailand, divided into two subsamples for data analysis. Phoneme isolation, rapid colour naming,…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Brandt, Lorilynn; Fawson, Parker C.; Jones, Cindy D.
This article examines the Consortium on Reading Excellence-Phonics Survey (CORE-PS), an informal, inexpensive, and widely disseminated assessment tool that is used to determine primary-grade students' knowledge of and abilities to apply key alphabetic and phonics understandings to decode a mix of real and pseudo-words. Evidence is reported of the…
Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam
In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban fourth grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…
Walter, Richard Barry
This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…
Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk
In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…
Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald
This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…
National Center for Education Statistics, 2011
Representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade public school students from 21 urban districts participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading. Eighteen of the districts participating in the 2011 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) participated in earlier assessment years, while three districts…
Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis
This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…
Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.
TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is an international assessment of mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades that has been conducted every four years since 1995, with the most recent assessment in 2011. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) is an international assessment of reading…
THREE METHODS OF TEACHING READING, THE INITIAL TEACHING ALPHABET (ITA), THE DIACRITICAL MARKING SYSTEM (DMS), AND THE TRADITIONAL ORTHOGRAPHY (TO) METHOD WERE COMPARED IN 21 FIRST GRADES FOR THE THIRD YEAR. A FOLLOWUP STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEW DMS GROUP FOR A SECOND YEAR. TWO HUNDRED NINETY-NINE STUDENTS OF AN ORIGINAL SAMPLE OF 393 STUDENTS WERE…
Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine
In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…
McCown, Margaret Averill
This study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. This study tested the theories of metacognition and social cognition with a focus on self-regulation and self-efficacy. Participating students included a heterogeneous mix of regular…
Schechter, Rachel; Macaruso, Paul; Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Brooke, Elizabeth
This study investigated the potential benefits of a blended learning approach on the reading skills of low socioeconomic status students in Grades 1 and 2. Treatment students received English language arts instruction that was both teacher-led and technology-based. Comparisons were made with control students who received the same English language…
Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria; Patton, Sofia Kokkino; Ye, Li; Ortiz, Ibett
This article shows how various dialogic discourse strategies were used in read-alouds of English science information books in a 2nd-grade bilingual classroom. Using a variety of discursive strategies, Ibett encouraged her Spanish-speaking students to provide explanations and reasoning related to science ideas. Similarly, she used intertextual…
Sytsma, Marcia Ruth
A cross-age peer tutoring program was implemented in a small rural school in west central Belize, Central America. All students at the school were native Spanish speakers, and all general instruction was conducted in English. The program was devised to supplement existing reading and language arts instruction at all grade levels. Progress of both…
La Marca, Marilyn Tierney
A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…
Cohen, S. Alan; Rodriquez, Samuel
Results of a study conducted with first-grade Mexican American children indicate that direct reading instruction to precise behavioral objectives is more effective than teaching to Mexican American children's supposed "cultural learning styles" as recommended by Manuel Ramirez and Alfredo Castaneda in 1974. (GT)
A pre-experimental case study design was used to explore the value of intrinsic motivation in mobile eBook reading among 30 Grade 1 child participants. Data collection comprised pre- and post-test motivation questionnaires and researcher field notes. Child participants' enjoyment of mobile eBooks corresponded to 3 motivational aspects of intrinsic…
Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald
In this technical report, we describe a study examining the internal structures of the easyCBM reading measures, Grades K-5. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 114 Kindergarten students, 43 first graders, 82 second graders, 100 third graders, 109 fourth graders, and 71 fifth graders attending schools in Oregon, Georgia, South…
Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix
This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…
Maddox, Krissy; Feng, Jay
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of whole language instruction versus phonics instruction for improving reading fluency and spelling accuracy. The participants were the first grade students in the researcher's general education classroom of a non-Title I school. Stratified sampling was used to randomly divide…
Brantley, Verna Lee
Relationships among teacher and pupil self-concepts and pupil reading achievement were investigated in a sample of 239 first-grade pupils and the 17 teachers assigned to them. Results from pretesting and posttesting indicated that a positive relationship existed among changes in certain elements of pupil self-concept (self-acceptance, social…
Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N
The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.
Kieffer, Michael J.; Petscher, Yaacov; Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.
Language comprehension is crucial to reading. However, theoretical models and recent research raise questions about what constitutes this multifaceted domain. We present two related studies examining the dimensionality of language comprehension and relations to reading comprehension in the upper elementary grades. Studies 1 (Grade 6; N = 148) and…
Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy; Fletcher, Jack M.; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.
We provide data 3 to 4 years postintervention for four samples of English language learners from two sequential Grade 1 cohorts who received supplemental Grade 1 reading interventions in Spanish or English and for whom the language of instruction for intervention was matched with language of core reading instruction. Participants were 300 students…
Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin
Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native…
Munger, Kristen A.; Blachman, Benita A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores for predicting third-grade reading comprehension scores. We used the "simple view" of reading as the theoretical foundation for examining the extent to which DIBELS subtest scores predict…
Tyrell, Terrylynn; Spangler, Stephanie
According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), only one-third of American fourth grade students are at or above proficient in reading. Yet state assessments indicate that most American fourth-grade students are above average in reading. This analysis raises the questions about standards of success and what children need to…
Ramsey, Whitney J.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in standardized test scores, expressed as percentage passing, in math, reading-language arts, science, and social studies by comparing 6th grade students in K--8 schools with those in 6--8 schools. The data were gathered from an analysis of 6th grade students' scores on the 2006--2007 TCAP standardized assessment test in the state of Tennessee. The relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient, proficient, or advanced level in each subject area was examined. The analysis was based on 5 research questions. A t-test for independent samples was used to identify the relationships between the independent variables, configuration of the school (K--8 or 6--8), and the dependent variables, the percent of students scoring below proficient, proficient, or advanced. A chi square analysis was used to identify the relationship between the proportion of K--8 schools meeting AYP versus the proportion of 6--8 schools meeting AYP. The study showed no relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level in math, reading-language arts, and social studies. Similarly, there was not a significant difference between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level in math and reading-language arts and the advanced level in math, reading-language arts, and science. However, there was a significant relationship between grade configuration (6--8 or K--8) and percent of 6th grade students scoring at the below proficient level and the proficient level in science and the percent of 6th grade students scoring at the proficient level and advanced level in social studies. In science, a lower percentage of 6th grade students in K--8 schools scored below proficient than did 6th grade students in 6--8 schools. In science, a higher
Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk
In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed.
Dickinson, David K; Porche, Michelle V
Indirect effects of preschool classroom indexes of teacher talk were tested on fourth-grade outcomes for 57 students from low-income families in a longitudinal study of classroom and home influences on reading. Detailed observations and audiotaped teacher and child language data were coded to measure content and quantity of verbal interactions in preschool classrooms. Preschool teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary during free play predicted fourth-grade reading comprehension and word recognition (mean age=9; 7), with effects mediated by kindergarten child language measures (mean age=5; 6). In large group preschool settings, teachers' attention-getting utterances were directly related to later comprehension. Preschool teachers' correcting utterances and analytic talk about books, and early support in the home for literacy predicted fourth-grade vocabulary, as mediated by kindergarten receptive vocabulary.
Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun
The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D
Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record
WWC Review of the Report "The Impact of Collaborative Strategic Reading on the Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 Students in Linguistically Diverse Schools." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
The study reviewed in this paper examined the impact of "Collaborative Strategic Reading" ("CSR"), a set of instructional strategies used to build reading proficiency, on the reading comprehension of fifth-grade students. The analysis included 1,355 students from 74 social studies classrooms within 26 linguistically diverse…