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Sample records for 3rd harmonic cavity

  1. Higher order modes of a 3rd harmonic cavity with an increased end-cup iris

    SciTech Connect

    T. Khabibouline; N. Solyak; R. Wanzenberg

    2003-05-19

    The cavity design for a 3rd harmonic cavity for the TTF 2 photoinjector has been revised to increase the coupling between the main coupler and the cavity cells. The iris radius of the end cup of the cavity has been increased to accomplish a better coupling. The basic rf-parameters and the higher order modes of the modified design are summarized in this report.

  2. Mechanical design and engineering of the 3.9 GHZ, 3rd harmonic SRF system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Don Mitchell et al.

    2004-08-05

    The mechanical development of the 3.9 GHz, 3rd Harmonic SRF System is summarized to include: the development of a full scale copper prototype cavity structure; the design of the niobium 3 cell and niobium 9 cell structures; the design of the helium vessel and cryostat; the HOM coupler design; and a preliminary look at the main coupler design. The manufacturing processes for forming, rolling, and e-beam welding the HOM coupler, cavity cells, and end tubes are also described. Due to the exotic materials and manufacturing processes used in this type of device, a cost estimate for the material and fabrication is provided. The 3rd harmonic design is organized via a web-based data management approach.

  3. Low efficiency gratings for 3rd harmonic diagnostics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Perry, M.D.; Shore, B.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-08-09

    The baseline design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) calls for sampling gratings to provide third-harmonic energy diagnostics in the highly constrained area of the target chamber. These 40 {times} 4O cm transmission gratings are to diffract at (order +1) nominally 0.3% of the incident 351 run light at a small angle on to a focusing mirror and into a calorimeter. The design calls for a plane grating of 500 lines/mm, and approximately 30 run deep, etched into a fused silica focusing lens and subsequently overcoated with a solgel anti reflective coating. Gratings of similar aperture and feature size have been produced for other applications by ion etching processes, but, in an effort to reduce substantially the cost of such optics, we are studying the feasibility of making these gratings by wet chemical etching techniques. Experimentation with high-quality fused silica substrates on 5 and 15 cm. scale has led to a wet etching process which can meet the design goals and which offers no significant scaleup barriers to full sized optics. The grating is produced by holographic exposure and a series of processing steps using only a photoresist mask and a final hydrofluoric acid etch. Gratings on 15 cm diameter test substrates exhibit absolute diffraction efficiencies from 0.2--0.4% with a standard deviation of about 15% of the mean over the full aperture. The efficiency variation is due to variation in linewidth caused by spatial nonuniformities in exposure energy. Uniformity improvements can be realized by using a smaller, more uniform portion of the exposure beam and exposing for longer times. The laser damage threshold for these gratings has been measured at LLNL and found to be identical to that of the fused silica substrate.

  4. Development of the third harmonic SC cavity at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolay Solyak et al.

    2004-08-05

    The third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity was recently proposed by DESY for a new generation of high brightness photo-injector (TTF photoinjector-2) to compensate nonlinear distortion of the longitudinal phase space due to RF curvature of the 1.3 GHz TESLA cavities [1,2]. Installation of the 3rd harmonic cavity will allow us to generate ultra-short (<50 {micro}m rms) highly charged electron bunches with an extremely small transverse normalized emittance (<1 {micro}m). This is required to support a new generation of linear colliders, free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation sources. In this paper we present the current status of the 3rd harmonic cavity being developed at Fermilab. We discuss the design procedure, the building and testing of the copper and niobium half-cells and components, the design of input and HOM couplers.

  5. Effect of 3rd-degree gravity harmonics and Earth perturbations on lunar artificial satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzirti, S.; Tsiganis, K.; Varvoglis, H.

    2010-12-01

    In a previous work we studied the effects of (I) the J 2 and C 22 terms of the lunar potential and (II) the rotation of the primary on the critical inclination orbits of artificial satellites. Here, we show that, when 3rd-degree gravity harmonics are taken into account, the long-term orbital behavior and stability are strongly affected, especially for a non-rotating central body, where chaotic or collision orbits dominate the phase space. In the rotating case these phenomena are strongly weakened and the motion is mostly regular. When the averaged effect of the Earth’s perturbation is added, chaotic regions appear again for some inclination ranges. These are more important for higher values of semi-major axes. We compute the main families of periodic orbits, which are shown to emanate from the ‘frozen eccentricity’ and ‘critical inclination’ solutions of the axisymmetric problem (‘ J 2 + J 3’). Although the geometrical properties of the orbits are not preserved, we find that the variations in e, I and g can be quite small, so that they can be of practical importance to mission planning.

  6. Multi-Harmonic Cavities for Increasing RF Breakdown Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2010-11-04

    A multi-harmonic asymmetric cavity is predicted to sustain higher acceleration gradients than a conventional pillbox cavity, 55% higher in one example, when driven by external RF harmonic sources. Simulations of multi-harmonic excitation in such a cavity are described, either by a charged drive beam or by external RF sources. An accelerator structure based on multi-harmonic cavity is proposed.

  7. HARMONIC CAVITY PERFORMANCE FOR NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    BLEDNYKH, A.; KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at BNL. Ultralow emittance combined with short bunch length means that it is critical to minimize the effects of Touschek scattering and coherent instabilities. Improved lifetime and stability can be achieved by including a third-harmonic RF cavity in the baseline design. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters and the expected system performance.

  8. High-harmonic gyrotron with sectioned cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Savilov, A. V.

    2010-07-15

    High-harmonic large-orbit gyrotrons require long-length operating cavities because of both a weak electron-wave coupling and relatively low electron currents. Since diffraction Q factors of such cavities are very high, a large fraction of the radiated power is dissipated in Ohmic losses. A sectioned klystronlike cavity can be a way to combine a long electron-wave interaction region with a relatively low diffraction Q factor. In this paper, a design of a third-harmonic terahertz gyrotron is studied in detail and discussed. As compared to a regular cavity, the use of a sectioned microwave system provides an enhancement of the output rf power by several times along with the halving of the Ohmic losses.

  9. Deuterium beam acceleration with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating in Joint European Torus: Sawtooth stabilization and Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, T.; Schoepf, K.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Hellesen, C.; Eriksson, J.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2012-03-01

    Experiments on accelerating NBI-produced deuterium (D) beam ions from their injection energy of ˜110 keV up to the MeV energy range with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating were performed on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. A renewed set of nuclear diagnostics was used for analysing fast D ions during sawtooth stabilization, monster sawtooth crashes, and during excitation of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) residing inside the q = 1 radius. The measurements and modeling of the fast ions with the nonlinear HAGIS code [S. D. Pinches et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 111, 133 (1998)] show that monster sawtooth crashes are strongly facilitated by the AE-induced re-distribution of the fast D ions from inside the q = 1 radius to the plasma edge.

  10. The progress in developing superconducting third harmonic cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, Nikolay; Edwards, Helen; Foley, Mike; Gonin, Ivan; Harms, Elvin; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Mitchell, Donald; Olis, Daniel; Rowe, Allan; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The XFEL and TTF facilities are planning to use section with a few third harmonic cavities (3.9GHz) upstream of the bunch compressor to improve beam performance [1-2]. Fermilab is developing superconducting third harmonic section for the TTFII upgrade. This section will include four cavities equipped with couplers and blade tuners installed in cryostat. Up to now, two cavities are complete and one of them is under test. The status of the cavity development and preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  11. Harmonically resonant cavity as a bunch-length monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B.; Hannon, F.; Ali, M. M.; Forman, E.; Grames, J.; Kazimi, R.; Moore, W.; Pablo, M.; Poelker, M.; Sanchez, A.; Speirs, D.

    2016-05-01

    A compact, harmonically resonant cavity with fundamental resonant frequency 1497 MHz was used to evaluate the temporal characteristics of electron bunches produced by a 130 kV dc high voltage spin-polarized photoelectron source at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector, delivered at 249.5 and 499 MHz repetition rates and ranging in width from 45 to 150 picoseconds (FWHM). A cavity antenna attached directly to a sampling oscilloscope detected the electron bunches as they passed through the cavity bore with a sensitivity of ˜1 mV /μ A . The oscilloscope waveforms are a superposition of the harmonic modes excited by the beam, with each cavity mode representing a term of the Fourier series of the electron bunch train. Relatively straightforward post-processing of the waveforms provided a near-real time representation of the electron bunches revealing bunch-length and the relative phasing of interleaved beams. The noninvasive measurements from the harmonically resonant cavity were compared to measurements obtained using an invasive RF-deflector-cavity technique and to predictions from particle tracking simulations.

  12. Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.

  13. Storage ring free electron laser dynamics in presence of an auxiliary harmonic radio frequency cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. A.; Botman, J. I. M.; Bruni, C.; Orlandi, G.; de Ninno, G.; Garzella, D.; Couprie, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    In a Storage Ring Free Electron Laser (SRFEL) there is a strong interdependence between the laser beam and the electron beam from which the laser is generated. The Super ACO storage ring has a second Radio Frequency (RF) cavity at the 5th harmonic of the main RF cavity. It is used to shorten the bunch length, thereby enhancing the laser gain. Employing this RF harmonic cavity instabilities are observed with a strong effect on both the laser radiation properties and the electron beam behaviour. In this paper, we first present beam characteristics of Super-ACO as influenced by the harmonic cavity, and the instabilities of the beam due to this RF cavity. Then we discuss the FEL properties in presence of the harmonic RF cavity. In general the harmonic cavity functions as intended, and it is observed that the laser suppresses the instabilities caused by the harmonic cavity in the absence of the FEL.

  14. Resonance widths in open microwave cavities studied by harmonic inversion.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, U; Höhmann, R; Main, J; Stöckmann, H-J

    2008-06-27

    From the measurement of a reflection spectrum of an open microwave cavity, the poles of the scattering matrix in the complex plane have been determined. The resonances have been extracted by means of the harmonic inversion method. By this, it became possible to resolve the resonances in a regime where the linewidths exceed the mean level spacing up to a factor of 10, a value inaccessible in experiments up to now. The obtained experimental distributions of linewidths were found to be in perfect agreement with predictions from random matrix theory when wall absorption and fluctuations caused by couplings to additional channels are considered. PMID:18643662

  15. Amplification studies of a two-cavity second harmonic gyroklystron with a mixed-mode output cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Calame, J.P.; Cheng, J.; Latham, P.E.; Lawson, W.; Hogan, B.; Matthews, H.W.; Flaherty, M.K.E.; Striffler, C.D. )

    1994-05-01

    The performance of a two-cavity second harmonic gyroklystron employing a short, mixed-mode output cavity with stepped radial transitions is described. The short cavity was employed to prevent low frequency spurious oscillations that can compete with the harmonic signal. The radial rf field profile in the cavity and the output radiation consisted of both the TE[sub 01] and TE[sub 02] circular waveguide modes. This device produced a peak output power of 20 MW at 19.782 GHz, with an efficiency of 23% and a gain of 26 dB. The nominal mode mixture of the radiated power during optimal operation was found to be about 60% TE[sub 02] and 40% TE[sub 01]. Variations from this ratio are observed at lower powers and are attributed to shifts in the cavity rf field profiles. Systematic studies of amplifier performance as a function of beam parameters and magnetic field profile are described. The sensitivities of output power production to changes in operating parameters are compared to results from earlier harmonic and fundamental gyroklystrons. The present device is found to be more stable to parasitic oscillations and less sensitive to variations in beam current and output cavity magnetic field than previous harmonic gyroklystrons that employed longer, smoothly transitioned cavities. However, both the peak power and efficiency in the present device are lower than the 30 MW at 28% efficiency obtained with the final smooth-cavity tube. The tradeoffs between the two output cavity concepts will be discussed.

  16. In-phase synchronization of array laser using intra-Talbot-cavity second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    Talbot cavity is passive method to synchronize the phase of array lasers. Because the Talbot cavity does not need any electrical feedback systems, we believe that Talbot cavity is the most suitable technique to combine a considerable number of laser array into a compact system. A well-known drawback of the Talbot cavity is that it can produce out-phased array and their far-field image has 2-peak profile. To solve this drawback, we developed a frequency doubled laser array based on intra-Talbot-cavity second harmonic generation. Basic concept is second harmonic generation of the out-phased array generated from the Talbot cavity. Because the second harmonic wave is generated proportionally to the square of the fundamental wave, out-phase flips to in-phase. Our Talbot cavity is composed of a pumping 808-nm laser diode array with 15 emitters, an Nd:YVO4 planar waveguide, a PPLN planar waveguide, an f =10 cylindrical lens, and an output coupler (high reflection for 1064 nm and high transition to 532 nm). The pump laser beams are directly launched into the Nd:YVO4. The fundamental wave (1064 nm) oscillates between the Nd:YVO4 and the output coupler and generates second harmonic wave (532 nm) at the PPLN placed next to the Nd:YVO4. The round-trip optical path of the cavity length is set to 1/2 Talbot length so that Talbot cavity forms for the fundamental wave. As a result, we obtained 1-peak far-field image of second harmonic wave from the intra-Talbot-cavity second harmonic generation.

  17. Electro-optic harmonic conversion to switch a laser beam out of a cavity

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Roger A.; Henesian, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a switch to permit a laser beam to escape a laser cavity through the use of an externally applied electric field across a harmonic conversion crystal. Amplification takes place in the laser cavity, and then the laser beam is switched out by the laser light being harmonically converted with dichroic or polarization sensitive elements present to alter the optical path of the harmonically converted laser light. Modulation of the laser beam can also be accomplished by varying the external electric field.

  18. Note: auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments. PMID:23464273

  19. Note: Auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments.

  20. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  1. Optical bistability and second-harmonic generation in thin film coupled cavity photonic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Liyong

    This thesis deals with design, fabrication and modeling of bistable and multi-stable switching dynamics and second-harmonic generation in two groups of thin film coupled cavity photonic crystal structures. The first component studies optical bistability and multistability in such structures. Optical bistability and multistability are modelled by a nonlinear transfer matrix method. The second component is focused on the modelling and experimental measurement of second-harmonic generation in such structures. It is found that coupled cavity structures can reduce the threshold and index change for bistable operation, but single cavity structures can do the same. However, there is a clear advantage in using coupled cavity structures for multistability in that the threshold for multistability can be reduced. Second-harmonic generation is enhanced by field localization due to the resonant effect at the fundamental wavelength in single and coupled cavity structures by simulated and measured results. The work in this thesis makes three significant contributions. First, in the successful fabrication of thin film coupled cavity structures, the simulated linear transmissions of such structures match those of the fabricated structures almost exactly. Second, the newly defined figure of merit at the maximum transmission point on the bistable curve can be used to compare the material damage tolerance to any other Kerr effect nonlinear gate. Third, the simulated second-harmonic generation agrees excellently with experimental results. More generally optical thin film fabrication has commercial applications in many industry sections, such as electronics, opto-electronics, optical coating, solar cell and MEMS.

  2. Enhanced harmonic generation and carrier-envelope phase-dependent effects in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ding, Chunling; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Ying

    2015-07-01

    A lot of experimental and theoretical studies of a system in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED), which consists of two spatially separated quantum emitters strongly coupled to a single optical cavity mode, have recently attracted much interest in the quantum optics community for various quantum information applications. Here, we propose a method for high-order harmonic generation in a photonic crystal microcavity coupled to single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The system is coherently driven by a bichromatic laser consisting of the control and signal fields at low input power (a few nanowatts) and the cavity output power via the cavity loss channel is monitored. Via numerical simulations, we thoroughly explore the difference of the generated high-order harmonic spectra between two QDs, one QD, and zero QDs in microcavity. The results clearly indicate that harmonic generation can be significantly enhanced via collective coherent coupling in the case of two spatially separated QDs coupled to the same photonic crystal microcavity mode. In addition, we present a study of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) effect on high-order harmonic spectra, which may provide the insight of CEP effect in a new regime. Beyond this, our obtained results also apply to other classes of single-mode cavity-QED setup incorporating two-level atoms or comparable solid-state emitters.

  3. High conversion efficiency pumped-cavity second harmonic generation of a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of producing a compact, efficient blue laser source, pumped-cavity second harmonic generation of diode lasers was explored. It is desirable to have such lasers to increase optical disk storage density, for color displays and for under-the-sea green-blue optical signal transmission. Based on assumed cavity losses, a cavity was designed and numerical analysis predicted an overall conversion efficiency to the second harmonic wavelength of 76% from a 75 mW diode laser. The diode laser used in these experiments had a single longitudinal and a single transverse mode output at 860 nm. The best conversion efficiency obtained (26%) was less than optimum due to the 2.5% single-pass linear losses associated with the cavity. However, calculations based on these higher losses are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values. In additions, a factor of 1.65 increase in the second harmonic output power is anticipated by reducing the input mirror reflectivity to better impedance-match the cavity. With this relatively low second harmonic conversion, the power to light conversion is 7.8%.

  4. A W-band Third Harmonic Gyrotron with an Iris Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dimin; Chen, Huaibi; Ma, Guowu; Lei, Wenqiang; Chen, Hongbin; Meng, Fanbao

    2014-05-01

    The design and experimental results of a W-band gyrotron operating at the third cyclotron harmonic are presented. The gyrotron is designed to operate at the TE61 mode, which is significantly distinct from competing modes. An iris cavity is employed for the purpose of trapping the third harmonic mode more effectively and lowering its start current. In the experiment, the gyrotron is drived by a triode magnetron injection gun (MIG) which can produce a 45 kV, 3 A electron beam. When maximum axial magnetic field is 1.22 T, a single mode third harmonic gyrotron radiation is observed with the frequency of 94.86 GHz. The maximum output power is 5.5 kW, corresponding to an efficiency of 4%. Another third harmonic mode TE02 is also detected at 88.8 GHz, with maximum output power of 1.5 kW.

  5. Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Sonia Radulaski, Marina; Vučković, Jelena; Biermann, Klaus

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. We fabricate 30 photonic crystal structures in both (111)- and (100)-oriented GaAs and observe an increase in generated second harmonic power in the (111) orientation, with the mean power increased by a factor of 3, although there is a large scatter in the measured values. We discuss possible reasons for this increase, in particular, the reduced two photon absorption for transverse electric modes in (111) orientation, as well as a potential increase due to improved mode overlap.

  6. Klystron-like cavity with mode transformation for high-harmonic terahertz gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Savilov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    A novel cavity scheme of a gyrotron is proposed and investigated. As it provides low Ohmic losses and high mode selectivity, it can be especially prospective for realization in gyrotrons operating in the THz frequency range. Numerical simulations show that it allows three-fold increase in the efficiency of the low-relativistic 500 GHz fourth-harmonic gyrotron as compared to conventional two-section scheme with modes transformation.

  7. Klystron-like cavity with mode transformation for high-harmonic terahertz gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Savilov, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A novel cavity scheme of a gyrotron is proposed and investigated. As it provides low Ohmic losses and high mode selectivity, it can be especially prospective for realization in gyrotrons operating in the THz frequency range. Numerical simulations show that it allows three-fold increase in the efficiency of the low-relativistic 500 GHz fourth-harmonic gyrotron as compared to conventional two-section scheme with modes transformation.

  8. Electro-optic harmonic conversion to switch a laser beam out of a cavity

    DOEpatents

    Haas, R.A.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The present invention relates to switching laser beams out of laser cavities, and more particularly, it relates to the use of generating harmonics of the laser beam to accomplish the switching. When laser light is generatd in a laser cavity the problem arises of how to switch the laser light out of the cavity in order to make use of the resulting laser beam in a well known multitude of ways. These uses include range finding, communication, remote sensing, medical surgery, laser fusion applications and many more. The switch-out problem becomes more difficult as the size of the laser aperture grows such as in laser fusion applications. The final amplifier stages of the Nova and Novette lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are 46 centimeters with the laser beam expanded to 74 centimeters thereafter. Larger aperture lasers are planned.

  9. Design and operation of a two-cavity third harmonic Ka-band gyroklystron

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Hogan, B.; Flaherty, M.K.; Metz, H.

    1996-09-01

    We present the operating characteristics of a two-cavity third harmonic gyroklystron experiment. The input cavity utilizes a 9.854 GHz TE{sub 011} mode which is driven by a 100 kW magnetron. The TE{sub 031} output cavity has a resonant frequency of 29.57 GHz. The nominal beam voltage and current are 435 kV and 210 A, respectively. The pulse length is about 1 {mu}s and the average ratio of parallel to perpendicular velocity is near one. Peak powers above 1.8 MW are achieved with an efficiency of about 2{percent} and a gain of 14 dB. The theoretical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Coupling interaction between the power coupler and the third harmonic superconducting cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianjian; Solyak, Nikolay; Wong, Thomas; /IIT, Chicago

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab has developed a third harmonic superconducting cavity operating at the frequency of 3.9 GHz to improve the beam performance for the FLASH user facility at DESY. It is interesting to investigate the coupling interaction between the SRF cavity and the power coupler with or without beam loading. The coupling of the power coupler to the cavity needs to be determined to minimize the power consumption and guarantee the best performance for a given beam current. In this paper, we build and analyze an equivalent circuit model containing a series of lumped elements to represent the resonant system. An analytic solution of the required power from the generator as a function of the system parameters has also been given based on a vector diagram.

  11. Recent RRR measurements on niobium for superconducting RF cavities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.; Boffo, C.; Hahn, E.; Hicks, D.; Foley, M.; McConologue, F.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Fermilab is developing superconducting RF cavities of the bulk Niobium (Nb) type. Several prototypes of a 3rd-harmonic cavity and a transverse deflecting mode (CKMtype) cavity were already built. The first three-cell third harmonic model recently achieved the expected performance limit [1]. The following reports on RRR measurements on samples cut from Nb sheets for the 3rd-harmonic and CKM prototype cavities. The RRR was measured upon receipt and after the chemical polishing and heat treatment steps used in the cavity fabrication. These measurements not only serve the purpose of quality control of the pre-cursor material but also as a check of the cavity processing. We also measured the RRR of the electron-beam welds using samples cut from plates produced by joining sheets by e-beam welding in the same device used for welding cavity parts. Finally we will discuss our next generation RRR measurement system, currently in the design stage.

  12. Field localization and enhancement of phase-locked second- and third-order harmonic generation in absorbing semiconductor cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Roppo, V.; Cojocaru, C.; Trull, J.; Vilaseca, R.; Raineri, F.; Halioua, Y.; Raj, R.; Sagnes, I.; D'Aguanno, G.; Scalora, M.

    2009-10-15

    We predict and experimentally observe the enhancement by three orders of magnitude of phase mismatched second and third harmonic generation in a GaAs cavity at 650 and 433 nm, respectively, well above the absorption edge. Phase locking between the pump and the harmonics changes the effective dispersion of the medium and inhibits absorption. Despite hostile conditions the harmonics resonate inside the cavity and become amplified leading to relatively large conversion efficiencies. Field localization thus plays a pivotal role despite the presence of absorption, and ushers in a new class of semiconductor-based devices in the visible and uv ranges.

  13. 94 GHz, 25 kW CW, Harmonic Complex-Cavity Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, D. B.; Balkcum Luhmann, A. J., Jr.

    1997-11-01

    A low-voltage second-harmonic gyrotron has been designed and evaluated with a particle-tracing code and the PIC code MAGIC. The two codes are shown to be in excellent agreement when applied to a conventional fundamental-frequency gyrotron and also to the novel second-harmonic gyrotron. The 25 kW CW, 94 GHz gyrotron with a predicted conversion efficiency of 28.5% and device efficiency of 20% is driven by a 25 kV, 5 A, v_t/v_z=1.5, MIG electron beam with 15% axial velocity spread and employs a TE_021/TE_031 complex cavity for mode control. The compact 17 kG solenoid magnet utilizes the tremendous advances made in high-Tc superconducting technology. However, the 94 GHz prototype will be tested at low duty in pulse mode with a conventional low-Tc superconducting magnet that has been received and tested.

  14. A Massively Parallel Solver for the Mechanical Harmonic Analysis of Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    O. Kononenko

    2015-02-17

    ACE3P is a 3D massively parallel simulation suite that developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory that can perform coupled electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical study. Effectively utilizing supercomputer resources, ACE3P has become a key simulation tool for particle accelerator R and D. A new frequency domain solver to perform mechanical harmonic response analysis of accelerator components is developed within the existing parallel framework. This solver is designed to determine the frequency response of the mechanical system to external harmonic excitations for time-efficient accurate analysis of the large-scale problems. Coupled with the ACE3P electromagnetic modules, this capability complements a set of multi-physics tools for a comprehensive study of microphonics in superconducting accelerating cavities in order to understand the RF response and feedback requirements for the operational reliability of a particle accelerator. (auth)

  15. Experimental Study of a Gyrotron with a Sectioned Klystron-Type Cavity Operated at Higher Cyclotron Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Savilov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    We are planning to use extended cavities in order to excite gyrotrons with large electron orbits, which are operated at higher cyclotron harmonics in the terahertz frequency range. This is determined by both the weakness of the electron-wave interaction, and relatively low operating currents. Since the diffraction Q-factor of such cavities is high, a significant part of the highfrequency power produced by the electron beam is lost due to the ohmic loss in the cavity walls. As a way to solve this problem, we proposed a sectioned klystron-type cavity, where an extended length of the electron-wave interaction region can be combined with a relatively low diffraction Q-factor of the system. This work presents the results of the first experiment on a gyrotron with a sectioned cavity, where selective excitation of higher (second and third) cyclotron harmonics was observed in the terahertz frequency range (0 .55 and 0 .74 THz).

  16. Experimental studies of stability and amplification in a two-cavity second harmonic gyroklystron

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.W.; Lawson, W.; Calame, J.P.; Flaherty, M.K.E.; Hogan, B.; Cheng, J.; Latham, P.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Future electron-positron supercolliders will require efficient RF amplifiers in the 10--20 GHz range with peak powers well above the current state of the art. To close this gap, several approaches have received considerable attention in the past few years. Here, the authors report the operating characteristics of a sequence of two-cavity second harmonic gyroklystrons which are derived in part from a previous fundamental tube and utilize output cavities which resonate at twice the drive frequency. They present results from the design simulations as well as details of the stable range of operating parameters. While the harmonic tube is somewhat more susceptible to spurious oscillations and more sensitive to parameter variations than the fundamental device, there is still considerable parameter space available for amplifier operation. Peak powers above 30 MW are obtained with efficiencies greater than 28% and large signal gains of 27 dB. These results depend critically on the magnetic field profile which has a slight up-taper at the optimum operating point. The nominal beam parameters include a pulse length of 1 [mu]s, a voltage near 450 kV, a current in the range 235--245 A, and a perpendicular to parallel velocity ratio ([alpha] = v[sub [perpendicular

  17. Asymptotic expansion for harmonic functions in the half-space with a pressurized cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspri, Andrea; Beretta, Elena; Mascia, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address a simplified version of a problem arising from volcanology. Specifically, as reduced form of the boundary value problem for the Lam\\'e system, we consider a Neumann problem for harmonic functions in the half-space with a cavity $C$. Zero normal derivative is assumed at the boundary of the half-space; differently, at $\\partial C$, the normal derivative of the function is required to be given by an external datum $g$, corresponding to a pressure term exerted on the medium at $\\partial C$. Under the assumption that the (pressurized) cavity is small with respect to the distance from the boundary of the half-space, we establish an asymptotic formula for the solution of the problem. Main ingredients are integral equation formulations of the harmonic solution of the Neumann problem and a spectral analysis of the integral operators involved in the problem. In the special case of a datum $g$ which describes a constant pressure at $\\partial C$, we recover a simplified representation based on a polarization tensor.

  18. Efficient second-harmonic generation of continuous-wave Yb fiber lasers coupled with an external resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Jeong, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Efficient second-harmonic generation of continuous-wave Yb fiber lasers is reported. A simple bow-tie external resonant cavity incorporating a type I LBO nonlinear optical crystal was employed for second harmonic frequency conversion of a multi-longitudinal-mode Yb fiber laser. It is shown that strong coupling was formed between the Yb fiber laser and the external cavity and, as a result, the laser produced 9.1 W of green output at 535 nm for 43 W of absorbed diode pump power at 975 nm corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 21 % with respect to absorbed diode pump power. The prospects for further improvement are discussed.

  19. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  20. Quasiresonant excitation of InP/InGaP quantum dots using second harmonic generated in a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Sonia; Rivoire, Kelley; Hatami, Fariba; Vučković, Jelena

    2012-10-01

    Indistinguishable single photons are necessary for quantum information processing applications. Resonant or quasiresonant excitation of single quantum dots provides greater single photon indistinguishability than incoherent pumping, but is also more challenging experimentally. Here, we demonstrate high signal to noise quasiresonant excitation of InP/InGaP quantum dots. The excitation is provided via second harmonic generated from a telecommunications wavelength laser resonant with the fundamental mode of a photonic crystal cavity, fabricated at twice the quantum dot transition wavelength. The second harmonic is generated using the χ(2) nonlinearity of the InGaP material matrix.

  1. Production and test results of SC 3.9-GHz accelerating cavity at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Khabiboulline, Timergali; Cooper, Charlie; Edwards, Helen; Foley, Mike; Gonin, Ivan; Mitchell, Donald; Olis, D.; Rowe, Allan; Salman, Tariq; Solyak, Nikolay; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve beam performances for TTF-FEL facility. In the frame of collaboration Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. In addition, a second cryomodule with one cavity will be fabricated for installation in the Fermilab photo-injector, which will be upgraded for the ILC accelerator test facility. In this paper we discuss the status of the cavity and coupler production and the first result of cavity tests. It is hoped that this project will be completed during the first half of 2007 and the cryomodule delivered to DESY in this time span.

  2. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.

    1996-08-01

    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs.

  3. Field in a complex cylindrical/coaxial cavity subject to time-harmonic and transient excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Charles L.; Butler, Chalmers M.

    2004-12-01

    A coupled integral-equation method for calculating fields in complex cavities is developed and is applied to cavities comprising multiple cascaded and overlapping coaxial and circular-cylindrical regions or sections. The field in a section is related to the fields in apertures of planar conducting surfaces, which bound the section. Laboratory cavities are constructed, and their fields are computed from numerical solutions of the integral equations. The results are compared with data obtained through measurements in both the frequency and time domains. The accuracy of the method is also verified by comparison of measured and calculated values of the current and charge on cavity walls. The tools developed are used to investigate the salient features of a sine burst that passes through the complex cavity.

  4. Harmonic distortion dependent on optical feedback, temperature and injection current in a vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, selective optical feedback is used to investigate the nonlinearity behaviours of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with the modulation signal. A single mode VCSEL with both parallel and orthogonal optical feedback (OF) signals modulated at 1 MHz frequency over a range of modulation depth is investigated. We also investigate the nonlinear characteristics of the orthogonal polarization modes XP and YP of the VCSEL by changing the injection current and temperature. The results show an enhancement in the harmonic distortions (HDs) of both XP and YP modes with parallel OF, and the total suppression of HDs with orthogonal OF. We show that for the VCSEL with orthogonal OF, the second and third harmonic components of the XP and YP modes decrease and reach the noise floor level of the output power spectrum. Additionally, peaks of second and third harmonic components change radically when varying the bias current and temperature. The results reveal that orthogonal OF can be employed as a new tool to improve the linear dynamic range and to control the nonlinear characteristics of the VCSEL, thus making these devices a promising optical source in present and future optical communication applications.

  5. Higher Order Modes in Third Harmonic Cavities for XFEL/FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Shinton, I.R.R.; Baboi, N.; Eddy, N.; Flisgen, T.; Glock, H.W.; Jones, R.M.; Juntong, N.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; van Rienen, U; Zhang, P.; /Manchester U. /DESY /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2010-06-01

    We analyse higher order modes in the 3.9 GHz bunch shaping cavities recently installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. We report on recent experimental results on the frequency spectrum from probe based measurements made at CMTB at DESY. These are compared to those predicted by finite difference and finite element computer codes. This study is focused mainly on the dipole component of the multi-pole expansion of the wakefield. The modes are readily identifiable as single-cavity modes provided the frequencies of these modes are below the cut-off of the inter-connecting beam pipes. The modes above cut-off are coupled to the 4 cavities and are distinct from single cavity modes.

  6. Third harmonic rf cavity for transition crossing in the Main Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports the present status and future plans of the implementation of the transition crossing RF harmonic system at Fermilab. The test is being carried out in the Main Ring (MR) which is used as a 150 GeV injector to the Tevatron.

  7. Development of a four cavity second-harmonic gyroklystron as driver for a linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Emmanuel Steve

    Gyroklystrons are microwave amplifiers that combine the multi-cavity configuration of a klystron with the energy extraction mechanism of the cyclotron maser instability. These devices have been studied at the University of Maryland for several years. This work is focused on the development of a 17.14 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron circuit. This device was designed specifically to drive a high gradient linear accelerator recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. The gyroklystron was designed using the code MAGYKL, yielding a predicted output power of 87 MW for an input drive power of 250 W, with a velocity pitch ratio (alpha) of 1.4. The tube was later fabricated, and underwent a series of experimental tests to evaluate its performance. The highest peak power observed was 18.5 +/- 1.7 MW, corresponding to an efficiency of 7.0% and a gain of 24.0 dB. This result fell short of the theoretical design, yet it was consistent with the low value of the velocity pitch ratio (alpha = 0.85) realized in the experiments. This limitation on alpha was linked to the onset of instabilities in the input cavity. The ultimate cause of these instabilities was the thermal non-uniformity in the emitter of our electron gun, which led to a significant variation (approximately 50%) of the current density across the beam. In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. These measures should dramatically reduce the probability of instabilities, thus allowing us to remove the experimental limitations imposed on alpha. This new design is presented here. We also describe advanced designs of an output cavity with radial power extraction, and a compact circular to rectangular mode converter. A detailed description of the present experimental setup is given, along with an overview of the power transport system necessary to feed the accelerator with output power from the gyroklystron.

  8. Efficient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser using monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 external resonant cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. D.; Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    56-percent efficient external-cavity-resonant second-harmonic generation of a diode-laser pumped, CW single-axial-mode Nd:YAG laser is reported. A theory of external doubling with a resonant fundamental is presented and compared to experimental results for three monolithic cavities of nonlinear MgO:LiNbO3. The best conversion efficiency was obtained with a 12.5-mm-long monolithic ring cavity doubler, which produced 29.7 mW of CW, single-axial model 532-nm radiation from an input of 52.5 mW.

  9. Detailed study of an efficient blue laser source by second-harmonic generation in a semimonolithic cavity for the cooling of strontium atoms.

    PubMed

    Klappauf, Bruce G; Bidel, Yannick; Wilkowski, David; Chanelière, Thierry; Kaiser, Robin

    2004-04-20

    We have constructed a blue laser source consisting of an amplified, grating tuned diode laser that is frequency doubled by a KNbO3 crystal in a compact standing wave cavity and produces as much as 200 mW of internal second-harmonic power. We have analyzed the unusual characteristics of this standing wave cavity to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of this configuration as an alternative to a ring cavity for second-harmonic generation. We emphasize its efficiency and stability and the fact that it has an inherent walk-off compensation, similar to twin crystal configurations. We demonstrate its utility for laser cooling and trapping of earth alkalis by stabilizing the laser to the 461-nm transition of strontium, using a heat pipe, and then forming a magneto-optic trap of strontium from a Zeeman-slowed atomic beam. PMID:15119621

  10. A study of beam position diagnostics using beam-excited dipole modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at a free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; Shinton, Ian R. R.; Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using higher order mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band, and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR), and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.

  11. Theoretical study on mode competition between fundamental and second harmonic modes in a 0.42 THz gyrotron with gradually tapered complex cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qixiang Yu, Sheng; Zhang, Tianzhong; Li, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of mode competition in the complex cavity gyrotron are studied by using multi-frequency, time-dependent theory with the cold-cavity longitudinal profile approximation. Based on the theory, a code is written to simulate the mode competition in the gradually tapered complex cavity gyrotron operating at second harmonic oscillation. The simulations tracking seven competition modes show that single mode oscillation of the desired mode TE{sub 17.4} at 150 kW level can be expected with proper choice of operating parameters. Through studying on mode competition, it is proved that the complex cavity has a good capability for suppressing the mode competition. Meanwhile, it is found that TE{sub 17.3} could be excited in the first cavity as a competition mode when the gyrotron operating at large beam current, which leads to that TE{sub 17.3} and TE{sub 17.4} with different frequencies can coexist stably in the complex cavity gyrotron with very close amplitudes. Thus, the complex cavity might be used for multi-frequency output gyrotron.

  12. Theoretical study on mode competition between fundamental and second harmonic modes in a 0.42 THz gyrotron with gradually tapered complex cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qixiang; Yu, Sheng; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Tianzhong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of mode competition in the complex cavity gyrotron are studied by using multi-frequency, time-dependent theory with the cold-cavity longitudinal profile approximation. Based on the theory, a code is written to simulate the mode competition in the gradually tapered complex cavity gyrotron operating at second harmonic oscillation. The simulations tracking seven competition modes show that single mode oscillation of the desired mode TE17.4 at 150 kW level can be expected with proper choice of operating parameters. Through studying on mode competition, it is proved that the complex cavity has a good capability for suppressing the mode competition. Meanwhile, it is found that TE17.3 could be excited in the first cavity as a competition mode when the gyrotron operating at large beam current, which leads to that TE17.3 and TE17.4 with different frequencies can coexist stably in the complex cavity gyrotron with very close amplitudes. Thus, the complex cavity might be used for multi-frequency output gyrotron.

  13. Supermode suppression to below -130 dBc/Hz in a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked external sigma cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Tolga; Depriest, C; Delfyett, P; Etemad, S; Braun, A; Abeles, J

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate supermode suppression to levels below -125 dBc/Hz and -132 dBc/Hz using Fabry-Perot etalons with finesse values of 180 and 650, respectively, for a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked external sigma cavity semiconductor laser. The laser was hybridly mode-locked using direct electrical modulation in a compact package without the need for an external modulator. PMID:19465973

  14. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  15. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE 1/3rd RADIUS USING A NEW DESKTOP ULTRASONIC BONE DENSITOMETER

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Emily M.; Rosete, Fernando; Young, Polly; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; McMahon, Donald J.; Luo, Gangming; Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Shane, Elizabeth; Siffert, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of a novel ultrasound device to clinically estimate bone mineral density (BMD) at the 1/3rd radius. The device rests on a desktop and is portable, and permits real-time evaluation of the radial BMD. The device measures two (2) net time delay (NTD) parameters, NTDDW and NTDCW. NTDDW is defined as the difference between the transit time of an ultrasound pulse to travel through soft-tissue, cortex and medullary cavity, and the transit time through soft tissue only of equal overall distance. NTDCW is defined as the difference between the transit time of an ultrasound pulse to travel through soft-tissue and cortex only, and the transit time through soft tissue only again of equal overall distance. The square root of the product of these two parameters is a measure of the radial BMD at the 1/3rd location as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A clinical IRB-approved study measured ultrasonically sixty adults at the 1/3rd radius. BMD was also measured at the same anatomical site and time using DXA. A linear regression using NTD produced a linear correlation coefficient of 0.93 (P<0.001). These results are consistent with previously reported simulation and in vitro studies. In conclusion, although x-ray methods are effective in bone mass assessment, osteoporosis remains one of the largest undiagnosed and under-diagnosed diseases in the world today. The research described here should enable significant expansion of diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis through a desktop device that ultrasonically assesses bone mass at the 1/3rd radius. PMID:23312957

  16. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  17. National--Alliance for Arts Education; JDR 3rd Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Forbes W.; Bloom, Kathryn

    1978-01-01

    The Alliance for Arts Education is an educational project embracing organizations and individuals at the national, state, and local levels with a mutual commitment to the arts as an integral part of the educational process. The JDR 3rd Fund provides consultant and technical services and, through coordination of the League of Cities for the Arts in…

  18. Walk-Off-Induced Modulation Instability, Temporal Pattern Formation, and Frequency Comb Generation in Cavity-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Coen, S.; Wabnitz, S.; Erkintalo, M.

    2016-01-01

    We derive a time-domain mean-field equation to model the full temporal and spectral dynamics of light in singly resonant cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We show that the temporal walk-off between the fundamental and the second-harmonic fields plays a decisive role under realistic conditions, giving rise to rich, previously unidentified nonlinear behavior. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we discover a new kind of quadratic modulation instability which leads to the formation of optical frequency combs and associated time-domain dissipative structures. Our numerical simulations show excellent agreement with recent experimental observations of frequency combs in quadratic nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063839 (2015)]. Thus, in addition to unveiling a new, experimentally accessible regime of nonlinear dynamics, our work enables predictive modeling of frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We expect our findings to have wide impact on the study of temporal and spectral dynamics in a diverse range of dispersive, quadratically nonlinear resonators.

  19. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY TEST OF THE 1500 MHZ NSLS-II PASSIVE SUPERCONDUCTING RF CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Kosciuk, B.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, B.; Sharma, S.; Towne, N.; Grimm, T.L.; Boulware, C.H.; Krizmanich, C.; Kuhlman, B.; Miller, N.; Siegel, B.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. Earlier work described the design alternatives and the geometry selected for a copper prototype. We subsequently have iterated the design to lower the R/Q of the cavity and to increase the diameter of the beam pipe ferrite HOM dampers to reduce the wakefield heating. A niobium cavity and full cryomodule including LN2 shield, magnetic shield and insulating vacuum vessel have been fabricated and installed. A passive SRF 3rd harmonic cavity consisting of two tightly coupled cells has been designed and fabricated for NSLS-II. Initial cold tests of this cavity are very promising. These tests have verified that the cavity frequency and mode separation between the 0 and {pi}-modes can be set at manufacture. Further, the frequency separation can be maintained over wide tuning ranges necessary for operation. Future work includes HOM damper and motorized tuner development.

  20. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR...: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces a ROD for conversion of the... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to...

  1. 3rd latin american and Caribbean congress on health economics.

    PubMed

    Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria; Alvarez Muñiz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    The 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Health Economics took place at Havana Convention Center from 28th to 31st October 2008. The conference was an excellent opportunity for the exchange of personal encounters regarding health economics and its related disciplines from the perspectives of research, teaching and management. Specialists from mostly Latin American countries attended the event. High-ranking specialists from other countries highlighted the importance and popularity of the conference. A total of 313 delegates from 23 countries were present at the congress, 160 of whom were Cuban. PMID:19371176

  2. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  3. 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating 9-cell cavity vertical test results

    SciTech Connect

    Khabiboulline, Timergali; Cooper, Charles; Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Edwards, Helen; Foley, Mike; Harms, Elvin; Mitchell, Donald; Rowe, Allan; Solyak, Nikolay; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich; /DESY

    2007-06-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the FLASH (TTF/DESY) facility [1]. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. In addition, a second cryomodule with one cavity will be fabricated for installation in the Fermilab photo-injector, which will be upgraded for the ILC accelerator test facility. The first 9-cell Nb cavities were tested in a vertical setup and they didn't reach the designed accelerating gradient [2]. The main problem was a multipactor in the HOM couplers, which lead to overheating and quenching of the HOM couplers. New HOM couplers with improved design are integrated in the next 9-cell cavities. In this paper we present all results of the vertical tests.

  4. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  5. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  6. Temperature increase effects on a double-pass cavity type II second-harmonic generation: a model for depleted Gaussian continuous waves.

    PubMed

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature increase on the efficiency of a double-pass cavity type II second-harmonic generation (SHG) is investigated. To this end, a depleted wave model describing the continuous-wave SHG process with fundamental Gaussian waves was developed. First, six coupled equations were proposed to model a double-pass cavity to generate the second harmonic of a Gaussian fundamental wave in type II configuration. Then, the effect of temperature increase in the nonlinear crystal due to the optical absorption was modeled. To do this, a mismatched phase arising from changes in refractive indices was added to the coupled equations. Although the nondepleted assumption is usually used in such problems, a simultaneous solving of coupled equations with assumption of fundamental beam depletion was performed. The results were obtained by a homemade code written in Intel Fortran, and show how the efficiency of the SHG process decreases when the crystal is warmed up by 5, 10, and 15 K. Dramatic reductions in SHG efficiency were observed due to small changes in temperature. The results show excellent agreement with the experimental data [Opt. Commun.173, 311-314 (2000)]. PMID:25967798

  7. Tensile tests of niobium material for SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Dhanaraj, N.; Cooley, L.; Hicks, D.; Hahn, E.; Burk, D.; Muranyi, W.; Foley, N.; Edwards, H.; Harms, E.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab /Michigan State U.

    2009-06-01

    Mechanical tests of cavity-grade niobium samples were conducted to provide engineering information for the certification of 3rd-harmonic superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryomodules. Large changes of mechanical properties occur throughout the cavity fabrication process due to the cold work introduced by forming, the heating introduced by electron beam welding, and the recovery of cold work during the anneal used to degas hydrogen after chemical processing. Data is provided here to show the different properties at various stages of fabrication, including both weld regions and samples from the bulk niobium far away from the weld. Measurements of RRR were used to assure that any contamination during annealing was negligible.

  8. Tensile Tests of Niobium Material for Srf Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Dhanaraj, N.; Cooley, L.; Hicks, D.; Hahn, E.; Burk, D.; Muranyi, W.; Foley, M.; Edwards, H.; Harms, E.; Champion, M.; Baars, D.; Compton, C.

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical tests of cavity-grade niobium samples were conducted to provide engineering information for the certification of 3rd-harmonic superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryomodules. Large changes of mechanical properties occur throughout the cavity fabrication process due to the cold work introduced by forming, the heating introduced by electron beam welding, and the recovery of cold work during the anneal used to degas hydrogen after chemical processing. Data is provided here to show the different properties at various stages of fabrication, including both weld regions and samples from the bulk niobium far away from the weld. Measurements of RRR were used to assure that any contamination during annealing was negligible.

  9. The 3D split-ring cavity lattice: a new metastructure for engineering arrays of coupled microwave harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-02-01

    A new electromagnetic cavity structure, a lattice of 3D cavities consisting of an array of posts and gaps is presented. The individual cavity elements are based on the cylindrical re-entrant (or Klystron) cavity. We show that these cavities can also be thought of as 3D split-ring resonators, which is confirmed by applying symmetry transformations, each of which is an electromagnetic resonator with spatially separated magnetic and electric field. The characteristics of the cavity is used to mimic phonon behaviour of a one-dimensional (1D) chain of atoms. It is demonstrated how magnetic field coupling can lead to phonon-like dispersion curves with acoustical and optical branches. The system is able to reproduce a number of effects typical to 1D lattices exhibiting acoustic vibration, such as band gaps, phonon trapping, and effects of impurities. In addition, quasicrystal emulations predict the results expected from this class of ordered structures. The system is easily scalable to simulate two-dimensional and 3D lattices and shows a new way to engineer arrays of coupled microwave resonators with a variety of possible applications to hybrid quantum systems proposed.

  10. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  11. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2012-03-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph

  13. Measurement and correction of the 3rd order resonance in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    At Fermilab Tevatron BPM system has been recently upgraded resulting much better accuracy of beam position measurements and improvements of data acquisition for turn-by-turn measurements. That allows one to record the beam position at each turn for 8000 turns for all BPMs (118 in each plane) with accuracy of about 10-20 {micro}m. In the last decade a harmonic analysis tool has been developed at CERN that allows relating each FFT line derived from the BPM data with a particular non-linear resonance in the machine. In fact, one can even detect the longitudinal position of the sources of these resonances. Experiments have been performed at the Tevatron in which beams have been kicked to various amplitudes to analyze the 3rd order resonance. It was possible to address this rather large resonance to some regular machine sextupoles. An alternative sextupole scheme allowed the suppression of this resonance by a good factor of 2. Lastly, the experimental data are compared with model calculations.

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    . Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF

  15. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  16. An Evidence-Based Approach to Estimating the National and State Costs of PreK-3rd. FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3rd. No.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Goetz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the costs of providing a high-quality PreK-3rd education approach in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Relying on an Evidence-Based approach to school finance adequacy, it identifies the staffing resources needed to offer high-quality integrated PreK-3rd programs and then estimates the costs of those resources. By…

  17. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Ceramics (ICC3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihara, Koichi; Ohji, Tatsuki; Sakka, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Early in 2005, the American Ceramic Society, the European Ceramic Society and the Ceramic Society of Japan announced a collaborative effort to provide leadership for the global ceramics community that would facilitate the use of ceramic and glass materials. That effort resulted in an agreement to organize a new biennial series of the International Congress on Ceramics, convened by the International Ceramic Federation (ICF). In order to share ideas and visions of the future for ceramic and glass materials, the 1st International Congress on Ceramics (ICC1) was held in Canada, 2006, under the organization of the American Ceramic Society, and the 2nd Congress (ICC2) was held in Italy, 2008, hosted by the European Ceramic Society. Organized by the Ceramic Society of Japan, the 3rd Congress (ICC3) was held in Osaka, Japan, 14-18 November 2010. Incorporating the 23rd Fall Meeting of the Ceramic Society of Japan and the 20th Iketani Conference, ICC3 was also co-organized by the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation, and was endorsed and supported by ICF, Asia-Oceania Ceramic Federation (AOCF) as well as many other organizations. Following the style of the previous two successful Congresses, the program was designed to advance ceramic and glass technologies to the next generation through discussion of the most recent advances and future perspectives, and to engage the worldwide ceramics community in a collective effort to expand the use of these materials in both conventional as well as new and exciting applications. ICC3 consisted of 22 voluntarily organized symposia in the most topical and essential themes of ceramic and glass materials, including Characterization, design and processing technologies Electro, magnetic and optical ceramics and devices Energy and environment related ceramics and systems Bio-ceramics and bio-technologies Ceramics for advanced industry and safety society Innovation in traditional ceramics It also contained the Plenary Session and the

  18. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  19. The self-started 10 GHz harmonic mode-locking of a hybrid weak-resonant-cavity laser diode and fiber ring link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-06-01

    A self-started harmonic mode-locking of a hybrid weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode and fiber ring link is demonstrated to serve as a pulsed optical for future 10 Gb s-1 RZ data transmission. Beginning with the optical injection-locking rate equation describing the optoelectronic oscillator structure, the pulsewidth formula in the active mode-locking theory is modified and illuminates the shortening of the pulsewidth as a function of the optical feedback ratio and the microwave power gain. The pulsewidth is narrower with the higher optical injection power and the higher microwave power gain because of the gain saturation of the laser diode and the increase of the modulation depth. The lowest jitter and pulsewidth of the pulse train are 0.9 ps and 20 ps, respectively. With the higher microwave power gain, the SNR and ER are improved up to 10.2 dB and 13.8 dB, respectively, due to the enhancement of the peak power and the elimination of the residual carrier. Under the optimized operation condition, the pulsed optical carrier can be externally encoded at 10 Gbit/s for RZ-OOK data transmission.

  20. Blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on second-harmonic generation grown on (311)B and (411)A GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Ichimura, Yoshikatsu; Yamada, Norihide; Mars, Dan E.; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2000-02-01

    We have studied blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) grown on (411)A and (311)B GaAs substrates in order to investigate suitable substrate orientations for SHG-VCSELs. The comparison among substrate orientations has been made on three parameters, SHG conversion efficiency, transparency current density and gain coefficient. The transparency current density and the gain coefficient are characterized by edge emitting lasers grown on the above substrates. We also discuss the transparency current density and the gain coefficient for (311)A reported previously by Takahashi et al. [M. Takahashi, M. Hirai, K. Fujita, N. Egami, and K. Iga, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4551 (1997)]. SHG conversion efficiency is 38 and 30% W for SHG-VCSELs grown on (311)B and (411)A substrates, respectively, which is consistent with theory, assuming identical nonlinear coefficients for the A face and B face. Transparency current density for (311)A, (311)B and (411)A is 80, 105 and 60 A/cm2, and gain coefficients for (311)A, (311)B and (411)A are 20, 13 and 18 cm-1, respectively. There are no significant differences between (311)A and (411)A, while those for (311)B are less than those for (311)A. In conclusion, SHG efficiency is dependent on crystal orientation consistent with theory and thus the (311) orientation is preferable. Optical gain is independent of substrate orientation, while it is dependent on substrate face and A face is preferable.

  1. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Infrared Plasma Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. B.; Röpcke, Jürgen; Hempel, Frank

    2009-07-01

    This volume containsd a selection of papers from the third Infrared Plasma Spectroscopy (IPS) Workshop held in Greifswald, Germany in July 2008. Although not all the contributions have been written up in time for the deadline for this volume, nevertheless the 12 contributions presented here give a fair representation of the conference topics. The conference comprised four different types of contribution. Firstly, four invited lectures focussed on the prime areas of interest. Secondly, eight shorter contributed talks, grouped as closely as possible with the appropriate invited lecture. These contributed talks covered topics in both pure and applied infrared plasma spectroscopy. A feature of the two previous IPS conferences has been a contribution from commercial organisations namely those involved in manufacturing devices, detectors and spectrometers. This group of participants formed the third part of the conference programme and gave five oral presentations covering topics like QCL and detector/detection developments and novel spectrometer designs. The fourth contributing group comprised 27 poster presentations. It should be mentioned that some of the latter were poster versions of contributed talks. The conference was remarkable for the wide spread of topics covered in a relatively small meeting, consisting of 44 participants. The participants were made up of 34 scientists from within Europe and 4 from the rest of the world. It is interesting to reflect on changes that have occurred since the previous meeting just a year earlier. Two clear developments which have occurred are the emergence of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) and their use in Cavity Ring Down (CRD) spectroscopy. A major shift from cw lead salt diode lasers to cw and pulsed QCL in both pure and applied projects now seems to be well under way. The topics covered in the earlier conferences focussed more on applying infrared spectroscopy to plasma monitoring and control. When choosing the topics to cover

  2. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. 1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. Harmonic generation in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sherborn, H.P.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for providing second harmonic generated radiation. It comprises: an optical fiber disposed in a laser cavity, the optical fiber having a substantially single-mode core which is doped with an active laser material, the laser material being self-organizable to produce radiation by second harmonic generation, the laser material further being substantially transparent to the second harmonic generated radiation; and means for pumping the core of the optical fiber to produce laser radiation therein and the laser cavity further comprising means for extracting at least a portion of the second harmonic generated radiation.

  7. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  8. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  9. 1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa,T.; Rose, J.; Grimm, T.; Bogle, A.

    2009-05-04

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. After an extensive investigation of different cavity geometries, a passive, superconducting two-cell cavity has been selected for prototyping. The cavity is HOM damped with ferrite absorbers on the beam pipes. The two-cell cavity simplifies the tuner design, compared to having two independent cells. Tradeoffs between the damping of the higher order modes, thermal isolation associated with the large beam tubes, and overall cavity length are described. A copper prototype has been constructed, and measurements of fundamental and higher order modes will be compared to calculated values.

  10. Ordinary mode auroral kilometric radiation, with harmonics, observed by ISIS 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Topside-sounder receiver observations by ISIS 1 that reveal examples of o-mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are presented. They correspond to locations outside of the low density source region of intense AKR x-mode emission. The propagation modes are identified by comparing the natural radiation wave cutoffs with the local resonant and wave cutoff phenomena stimulated by the sounder transmitter. The o-mode AKR is the dominant emission in these regions of relatively high electron density, but it is considerably weaker than the intense x-mode AKR observed to emanate from low density cavities above the auroral regions. In addition to the fundamental o-mode, 2nd and 3rd harmonic bands of radiation have also been detected. Harmonics associated with these o-mode AKR are less intense than the harmonics associated with x-mode AKR. It is difficult to explain the variety of harmonic AKR observations (x as well as o-mode) based on present AKR theories.

  11. Ordinary mode auroral kilometric radiation, with harmonics, observed by ISIS 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Topside-sounder receiver observations by ISIS 1 that reveal examples of o-mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are presented. They correspond to locations outside of the low density source region of intense AKR x-mode emission. The propagation modes are identified by comparing the natural radiation wave cutoffs with the local resonant and wave cutoff phenomena stimulated by the sounder transmitter. The o-mode AKR is the dominant emission in these regions of relatively high electron density, but it is considerably weaker than the intense x-mode AKR observed to emanate from low density cavities above the auroral regions. In addition to the fundamental o-mode, 2nd and 3rd harmonic bands of radiation have also been detected. Harmonics associated with these o-mode AKR are less intense than the harmonics associated with x-mode AKR. It is difficult to explain the variety of harmonic AKR observations (x as well as o-mode) based on present AKR theories. Previously announced in STAR as N83-27517

  12. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  13. PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? Policy to Action Brief. No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    2009-01-01

    In an era of intense fiscal pressures, educators are focusing on those investments most likely to lift student achievement. They are also trying to make more strategic use of existing resources. To achieve these goals, a growing number of policymakers are considering integrated PreK-3rd approaches. Increasingly, they are recognizing that the first…

  14. Patient protection at risk in IEC 60601-1 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Dybdahl, K

    2009-09-01

    Engineers developing medical electrical equipment in accordance with IEC 60601-1 3rd edition are in immediate need of short- and long-term solutions to avoid potentially hazardous designs as a result of misinterpretation of the requirements. Several options are described to ensure consistency and safety of devices. PMID:19852179

  15. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to…

  16. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  17. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  18. AL State Profile. Alabama: Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE), 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Alabama High School Graduation Exam, 3rd Edition, a comprehensive standards-based exam. The purpose of the exam is to: (1) Provide schools with student academic diagnostic information; (2) Determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum; (3) Increase alignment of local curriculum…

  19. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. Linking Learning: The PreK-3rd Path to School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Giving children high-quality preschool is the first step in the journey to school success. The next steps--kindergarten through 3rd grade--are equally important. Advocates for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) is working on several fronts to help school districts across the state build strong early learning programs, which can significantly improve…

  1. 78. VIEW OF 3RD TEE, TAKEN FROM SOUTHEAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF 3RD TEE, TAKEN FROM SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER, FACING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX (LEFT), SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST FRONT OF PUMPHOUSE (RIGHT), AND RESTROOMS IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. Correlates and Phenomenology of 1st and 3rd Person Memories

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Robins, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present research addressed fundamental questions about the visual perspective of autobiographical memories: Are stable personality characteristics associated with visual perspective? Does visual perspective influence the memory's phenomenological qualities? Participants in Study 1 (N = 1,684) completed individual-difference measures and indicated the perspective from which they generally retrieve memories. Participants in Study 2 (N = 706) retrieved a memory from their natural or manipulated perspective, rated its phenomenology, and completed the same individual-difference measures. Dissociation and anxiety were associated with 3rd person retrieval style; the Big Five personality traits were primarily unrelated to perspective. Compared to 3rd person memories, naturally-occurring 1st person memories were higher on Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Sensory Detail, Emotional Intensity, and Time Perspective and lower on Distancing; manipulating perspective eliminated these differences. Visual perspective is associated with clinically-relevant constructs and, although associated with the memory's phenomenology, perspective does not shape it. PMID:20665336

  3. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe. PMID:22185271

  4. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible. PMID:18282121

  5. What is FirstSchool? Issues in PreK-3rd Education. Number One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Sharon; Maxwell, Kelly; Clifford, Richard

    2009-01-01

    FirstSchool is part of a national PreK-3rd movement of schools, districts, educators and universities seeking to improve how children from ages 3 to 8 learn and develop in schools. While these different projects use a variety of names, all are working to connect high-quality PreK programs with high-quality elementary schools. FirstSchool is…

  6. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  8. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  9. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  10. Recent advances on developing 3rd generation enzyme electrode for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyanki; Das, Madhuri; Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Singha, Irom Manoj; Goswami, Pranab

    2016-05-15

    The electrochemical biosensor with enzyme as biorecognition element is traditionally pursued as an attractive research topic owing to their high commercial perspective in healthcare and environmental sectors. The research interest on the subject is sharply increased since the beginning of 21st century primarily, due to the concomitant increase in knowledge in the field of material science. The remarkable effects of many advance materials such as, conductive polymers and nanomaterials, were acknowledged in the developing efficient 3rd generation enzyme bioelectrodes which offer superior selectivity, sensitivity, reagent less detection, and label free fabrication of biosensors. The present review article compiles the major knowledge surfaced on the subject since its inception incorporating the key review and experimental papers published during the last decade which extensively cover the development on the redox enzyme based 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors. The tenet involved in the function of these direct electrochemistry based enzyme electrodes, their characterizations and various strategies reported so far for their development such as, nanofabrication, polymer based and reconstitution approaches are elucidated. In addition, the possible challenges and the future prospects in the development of efficient biosensors following this direct electrochemistry based principle are discussed. A comparative account on the design strategies and critical performance factors involved in the 3rd generation biosensors among some selected prominent works published on the subject during last decade have also been included in a tabular form for ready reference to the readers. PMID:26735873

  11. LHC crab-cavity aspects and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-05-23

    The 3rd LHC Crab Cavity workshop (LHC-CC09) took place at CERN in October 2009. It reviewed the current status and identified a clear strategy towards a future crab-cavity implementation. Following the success of crab cavities in KEK-B and the strong potential for luminosity gain and leveling, CERN will pursue crab crossing for the LHC upgrade. We present a summary and outcome of the variousworkshop sessions which have led to the LHC crab-cavity strategy, covering topics like layout, cavity design, integration, machine protection, and a potential validation test in the SPS.

  12. Higher Harmonic Forces in Purely Crossflow Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    In vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexibly-mounted rigid cylinders free to oscillate both in the inline and crossflow directions, higher (3rd) harmonic forces have already been observed in the crossflow direction. In the present work, we report higher harmonic force components for a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder with only one degree of freedom in the crossflow direction. We show that the inline displacement is not necessary to observe higher harmonic components in the crossflow force spectrum. Due to the relative velocity of the cylinder with respect to the oncoming flow, the lift and drag forces make an angle with respect to the crossflow and inline directions, and the contribution of the components of each of these forces in the crossflow direction results in a 3rd harmonic force component. These higher harmonic components have been observed in self-excited VIV experiments, performed in a water tunnel for a Reynolds number range of Re = 400-1000, as well as in numerical simulation results at Re = 100. We also find that the maximum ratio of the 3rd harmonic to the 1st harmonic occurs when the phase between the crossflow force and displacement changes from 0 to 180 degrees, resulting in a small first harmonic component.

  13. From challenges to solutions. European Bioanalysis Forum 3rd Annual Open Symposium, Hesperia Towers, Barcelona, Spain, 1-3 December 2010.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard W; Gordon, Ben; van Amsterdam, Peter; Lausecker, Berthold; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Smeraglia, John; Romero, Fernando; Globig, Susanne; Golob, Michaela; Knutsson, Magnus; Herling, Christian; Vieser, Eva; Timmerman, Philip

    2011-04-01

    The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical nonprofit organization comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date) and currently expanding to include CROs as well. The European Bioanalysis Forum provides a broad European bioanalytical network for the discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory topics of bioanalytical interest. The 3rd Annual Open Symposium was again much anticipated after the two previous successful meetings. The symposium included sessions on thinking outside the 'commodity' box, bioanalytical challenges with blood, global harmonization, assay platforms, dried blood spots, immunogenicity, matrix effects, anomalous results, biomarkers and two plenary technology sessions hosted by the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 424 delegates registered from 113 companies representing a large percentage of the European bioanalytical community. In addition to 48 oral presentations, 88 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 40 companies. PMID:21510756

  14. NURSING EMERGING. ANA Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, (2015) 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    AHNA Past-President Carla Mariano recently had the privilege of serving on the American Nurses Association's (ANA) Nursing Scope and Standards Revision Workgroup. Representing the specialty practice of holistic nursing, Carla's presence within this workgroup contributed greatly to the inclusion of holistic principles and values throughout the new 2015 Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd edition, the foundational document that informs and guides professional nursing practice within the United States. This is a significant step forward for holistic nursing and an indicator of our growing influence as specialty practice. PMID:27305802

  15. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  16. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  17. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  18. Treatment of 3rd molar-induced periodontal defects with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oxford, G E; Quintero, G; Stuller, C B; Gher, M E

    1997-07-01

    Recent reports provide evidence of increased attachment levels when using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques for the treatment of periodontal defects. Periodontal defects frequently occur at the distal aspect of mandibular 2nd molars which are next to mesioangular impacted 3rd molars that have oral communication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of GTR can enhance probing attachment levels (PALs) following extraction of mesioangular impacted third molars. 12 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular 3rd molars entered this split mouth study. After extractions, the previously exposed distal root surface of the 2nd molars were debrided. The defects on the randomly selected experimental sites were covered with expanded polytetraflouro-ethylene (e-PTFE) membrane and the tissue was replaced to cover the membrane. Membranes were removed after 6 weeks. Control sites were treated identically except no membrane was placed. GI, P1I, PD, PAL and BOP records were obtained at 0, 3 and 6 months. The use of barrier material did not provide statistically-significant differences in PAL when comparing experimental versus control sites. Nevertheless, PAL gain was consistently greater at 3 and 6 months when GTR techniques were used in sites with deep impactions. PMID:9226386

  19. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007–2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3rd-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4th grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. PMID:20975982

  20. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 μm can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 μm.

  1. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  3. Microwave harmonic generation and nonlinearity in microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregório, José; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinearities in microplasmas excited by microwaves are described both experimentally and through a 2D fluid model. A split-ring resonator generates a microplasma in a 150 μm discharge gap at 1 GHz. Nonlinearity generates both radiated and conducted harmonics which are measured from 0.2–760 Torr (Ar) for power levels between 0.5 and 3 W. Asymmetric electrode configurations produce the highest 3rd harmonic power (>10 mW) at an optimal pressure of the order of 0.3 Torr. The microplasma is also demonstrated as a mixer. The experimental results are explained with the aid of a fluid model of the microplasma. The model shows that the smaller electrode in an asymmetric device is forced to attain a large microwave potential that strongly modulates the sheath thickness and the local electron energy. The voltage-dependent sheath width gives rises to a nonlinear sheath capacitance as well as short pulses of hot electron flux to the electrode. The modeled 3rd harmonic current is converted to an extractable harmonic power by a microwave circuit model. Using this technique the modeled and measured harmonic production of the microplasma are found to compare favorably.

  4. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting. PMID:24257515

  5. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting. PMID:24257515

  6. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  7. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" firearm safety lesson for 3rd-graders.

    PubMed

    Liller, Karen D; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B; Gonzalez, Robin R

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to determine the effectiveness of the class in increasing student knowledge about firearm safety. The results revealed a significant increase in the mean scores on the posttest compared with the pretest. Qualitative findings showed the lesson was positively received by both students and teachers, and 65% of responding students reported discussing the lesson with family members. School nurses are encouraged to take a leading role in promoting firearm injury prevention to students. PMID:14622039

  8. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  9. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion. PMID:12349764

  10. Detection and clinical evolution of scrapie in sheep by 3rd eyelid biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Francisco; Luján, Lluís; Bolea, Rosa; Monleón, Eva; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Fernández, Antonio; De Blas, Ignacio; Badiola, Juan José

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this article was to characterize the clinical evolution of scrapie in naturally affected sheep. Eighteen sheep with scrapie diagnosed by examination of 3rd eyelid biopsy and 12 control ewes were studied throughout the duration of their disease. Diagnosis was confirmed postmortem by histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analysis of nervous tissue. Complete clinical examinations were performed every 2 weeks for each animal, of which 3 clinical examinations per animal are reported. Those clinical signs that showed a significant frequency within the corresponding clinical examination were considered representative of each stage of the disease (ie, early, middle, and late). The representative clinical signs for the early stage were hypoesthesia in the limbs, alteration of mental status, and a body condition score <3. Remarkably, hypoesthesia in the limbs was one of the 1st signs appearing during the early clinical stage in the affected animals, even before the appearance of other signs. For the middle stage, representative signs were the same as those for the early stage, together with hyporreflexia in the limbs, cardiac arrhythmia, pruritus/wool loss, and the appearance of the nibbling reflex. Representative clinical signs for the late stage were the same as those for the early and middle stage, together with head tremors, hyperexcitability to external stimuli, ataxia or gait abnormalities, and teeth grinding. On the basis of these results, we propose the calculation of an objective clinical index that allows the differentiation among clinical stages and that could be useful for further studies. The usefulness of 3rd eyelid lymphoid tissue biopsies for sequential clinical studies in naturally scrapie-affected sheep is demonstrated. PMID:16496940

  11. Upgraded cavities for the positron accumulator ring of the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Jiang, X.; Mangra, D.

    1997-08-01

    Upgraded versions of cavities for the APS positron accumulator ring (PAR) have been built and are being tested. Two cavities are in the PAR: a fundamental 9.8-MHz cavity and a twelfth harmonic 117.3-MHz cavity. Both cavities have been manufactured for higher voltage operation with improved Q-factors, reliability, and tuning capability. Both cavities employ current-controlled ferrite tuners for control of the resonant frequency. The harmonic cavity can be operated in either a pulsed mode or a CW mode. The rf properties of the cavities are presented.

  12. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  13. Effects of notetaking instruction on 3rd grade student's science learning and notetaking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.

  14. Resurgence of duckweed research and applications: report from the 3rd International Duckweed Conference.

    PubMed

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Sree, K Sowjanya; Fakhoorian, Tamra; Lam, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Duckweed, flowering plants in the Lemnaceae family, comprises the smallest angiosperms in the plant kingdom. They have some of the fastest biomass accumulation rates reported to date for plants and have the demonstrated ability to thrive on wastewater rich in dissolved organic compounds and thus could help to remediated polluted water resources and prevents eutrophication. With a high quality genome sequence now available and increased commercial interest worldwide to develop duckweed biomass for renewables such as protein and fuel, the 3rd International Duckweed Conference convened at Kyoto, Japan, in July of 2015, to update the community of duckweed researchers and developers on the progress in the field. In addition to sharing results and ideas, the conference also provided ample opportunities for new-comers as well as established workers in the field to network and create new aliances. We hope this meeting summary will also help to disseminate the key advances and observations that have been presented in this conference to the broader plant biology community in order to encourage increased cross-fertilization of ideas and technologies. PMID:26506824

  15. Measuring the cascade rate in anisotropic turbulence through 3rd order structure functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Von-Karman-Howart-Yaglom-Politano-Poquet (KHYPP)law, to compute the cascade rate by means of 3rd order structure functions in homogeneous, forced, DNS at high resolution. We consider first the isotropic case (no guide field) and verify that the cascade rate is consistent with the dissipation rate. Then we consider an anisotropic case (with guide field) for which the isotropic KHYPP law does not apply. We compute the parallel and perpendicular cascade rates and find that the latter basically accounts for the total dissipation rate, as expected for anisotropic turbulence. Also, the cascade rate derived from the isotropic law is found to be a good approximation for the total cascade rate. Recent works have shown that the hypothesis of stationary turbulence must be probably relaxed in the solar wind. We present preliminary results on the measure of the cascade rate in the expanding solar wind, obtained with DNS of MHD turbulence in the expanding box model. Such model incorporates the basic physic of expansion thus inducing anisotropies driven by both the magnetic field and expansion, along with an energy decrease due to the conservation of linear invariants (angular momentum and magnetic flux). The correction due to non-stationary conditions is found to be important and to become negligible only at small scales, thus suggesting that solar wind measurements over- estimate the actual cascade rate.

  16. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  17. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  18. Albion: cost-effective 3rd generation high-performance thermal imaging in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Lupton, M.; Lawrence, M.; Knowles, P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Gordon, N. T.; Lees, D. J.; Parsons, J. F.

    2006-09-01

    The first generation of high performance thermal imaging sensors in the UK was based on two axis opto-mechanical scanning systems and small (4-16 element) arrays of the SPRITE detector, developed during the 1970s. Almost two decades later, a 2nd Generation system, STAIRS C was introduced, based on single axis scanning and a long linear array of approximately 3000 elements. This paper addresses the development of the UK's 3rd Generation High Performance Thermal Imaging sensor systems, under a programme known as "Albion". Three new high performance detectors, manufactured in cadmium mercury telluride, operating in both MWIR and LWIR, providing high resolution and sensitivities without need for opto-mechanical scanning systems will be described. The CMT material is grown by MOVPE on low cost substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). All three detectors are designed to fit with existing standard Integrated Detector Cooling Assemblies (IDCAs). The two largest detectors will be integrated with field demonstrator cameras providing MWIR and LWIR solutions that can rapidly be tailored to specific military requirements. The remaining detector will be a LWIR device with a smart ROIC, facilitating integration times much longer than can typically be achieved with focal plane arrays and consequently yield very high thermal sensitivity. This device will be demonstrated in a lab based camera system.

  19. Albion: the UK 3rd generation high-performance thermal imaging programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Lupton, M.; Lawrence, M.; Knowles, P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Gordon, N. T.; Lees, D. J.; Parsons, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    The first generation of high performance thermal imaging sensors in the UK was based on two axis opto-mechanical scanning systems and small (4-16 element) arrays of the SPRITE detector, developed during the 1970s. Almost two decades later, a 2nd Generation system, STAIRS C was introduced, based on single axis scanning and a long linear array of approximately 3000 elements. The UK has now begun the industrialisation of 3 rd Generation High Performance Thermal Imaging under a programme known as "Albion". Three new high performance cadmium mercury telluride arrays are being manufactured. The CMT material is grown by MOVPE on low cost substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). To maintain low production costs, all three detectors are designed to fit with existing standard Integrated Detector Cooling Assemblies (IDCAs). The two largest focal planes are conventional devices operating in the MWIR and LWIR spectral bands. A smaller format LWIR device is also described which has a smart ROIC, enabling much longer stare times than are feasible with conventional pixel circuits, thus achieving very high sensitivity. A new reference surface technology for thermal imaging sensors is described, based on Negative Luminescence (NL), which offers several advantages over conventional peltier references, improving the quality of the Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) algorithms.

  20. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  1. Report from the 3rd AIDS Impact Conference: culture, community, empowerment.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, P

    1997-10-01

    Presentations made at the 3rd AIDS Impact Conferences in June 1997 in Melbourne, Australia are summarized. The presentations focused on the importance of local beliefs, practices, and sexual cultures as factors that impact HIV risk. The three dominant themes of this conference were a concern for community, an emphasis on culture, and empowerment for the most vulnerable groups. Speakers illustrated the importance of culture as a factor in the form, context, and meaning of sex among young men and women in Thailand, Australia, Italy, Cambodia, and the United States. Studies conducted in correctional facilities illustrate how the culture of sex and substance use can intensify the HIV risk. Papers examined the sexual revolution in China and the experiences of indigenous people in Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand. The presentations also highlighted drug use cultures among gay men in Australian and German cities and introduced new research methodologies for the analysis of these processes and issues. The closing presentation considered the politics of HIV and their relationship to national and international processes of negative societal responses to HIV diseases. PMID:11364796

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  3. New half-film method for measuring Al2O3 film MTF of 3rd generation image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yaojin; Shi, Feng; Bai, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yufeng; Yan, Lei; Liu, Feng; Li, Min

    2012-10-01

    In 3rd generation image intensifier, Al2O3 film on the input of MCP is a serious influence factor on device MTF due to its electron scattering process. There are no reportes about how to measure the MTF of Al2O3 film. In this paper a new Half-film comparssion test method is creatively established for determing the film MTF, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring super thin film less than a few nm. In this way, the MTF curves of 10nm Al2O3 film can be accurately obtained. The measurement results show that 10nm Al2O3 film obviously decay the MTF performance of the 3rd generation image intensifier and take an important role in the improvement work of 3rd generation image intensifier MTF and resolution performances.

  4. High-harmonic generation in cavitated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Comier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2008-05-15

    A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using ultraintense lasers interacting with highly stripped ions in cavitated plasmas. This method relies on plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense drive beam (laser or electron beam) to produce an ion cavity. An ultrashort pulse laser propagating in the plasma-electron-free ion cavity generates laser harmonics. The longitudinal electron motion, which inhibits high-harmonic generation at high laser intensities, can be suppressed by the space-charge field in the ion cavity or by using a counterpropagating laser pulse. Periodic suppression of the longitudinal electron motion may also be used to quasi-phase-match. This method enables harmonic generation to be extended to the sub-A regime.

  5. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  6. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  7. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  8. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  10. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  11. Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…

  12. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  13. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  14. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  15. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  16. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and Mexican)…

  17. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) focuses on the earliest stages of human development, and provides a novel paradigm to complement other strategies for lifelong prevention of common chronic health conditions. The 3rd International Congress on DOHaD, held in 2005, retained the most ...

  18. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  19. Visual Arts Teaching in Kindergarten through 3rd-Grade Classrooms in the UAE: Teacher Profiles, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…

  20. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  1. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  3. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  4. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  5. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  6. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  7. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  8. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  10. Gyromultiplier with sectioned cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2010-11-15

    A novel scheme of a self-exciting single-cavity terahertz gyromultiplier is proposed and theoretically investigated. Simulations predict a possibility to obtain a power of 75 W at the frequency of 1.3 THz from the 80 kV/0.7 A electron beam when operating at the fourth cyclotron harmonic at the relatively low magnetic field of 14 T.

  11. Electron in a transverse harmonic cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Honkanen, H.; Maris, P.; Vary, J.P.; Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC

    2010-10-27

    We employ Hamiltonian light-front quantum field theory in a basis function approach to solve the non-perturbative problem of an electron in a strong scalar transverse confining potential. We evaluate both the invariant mass spectra and the anomalous magnetic moment of the lowest state for this two-scale system. The weak external field limit of the anomalous magnetic moment agrees with the result of QED perturbation theory within the anticipated accuracy.

  12. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F.

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  13. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    A new version of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) is being compiled in the framework of cooperation between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This initiative aims at mapping the global land degradation and desertification, as well as introducing the reader with complex interactions of geo-physical, socio-economic, and political aspects that affect the environmental sustainability. Recurrent extreme events resulting from climate change, such as more severe droughts, combined with non-adapted land use practices can affect the resilience of ecosystems tipping them into a less productive state. Thus, to describe the effects of climatological hazards on land degradation and desertification processes, we computed a World drought climatology that will be part of the 3rd edition of the WAD and will replace and update to 2010 the results presented in the 2nd edition in 1997. This paper presents the methodology used to compute three parameters included in the WAD drought climatology, i.e. drought frequency, intensity and duration, and discusses their spatio-temporal patterns both at global and continental scales. Because drought is mainly driven and triggered by a rainfall deficit, we chose the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as the drought indicator to estimate our climatological parameters. The SPI is a statistical precipitation-based drought indicator widely used in drought-related studies. We calculated the SPI on three different accumulation periods: 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6), and 12 months (SPI-12), in order to take into account meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought-related features. Each quantity has been calculated on a monthly basis using the baseline period between January 1951 and December 2010. As data input, we used the Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 (0.5˚x0.5˚) of gridded monthly precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  15. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  16. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  17. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  18. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  19. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization under XUV FEL radiation: a case study of the role of harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, G. M.; Lambropoulos, P.

    2015-12-01

    We provide a detailed quantitative study of the possible role of a small admixture of harmonics on resonant two-photon ionization. The motivation comes from the occasional presence of 2nd and 3rd harmonics in FEL radiation. We obtain the dependence of ionic yields on the intensity of the fundamental, the percentage of 2nd harmonic and the detuning of the fundamental from resonance. Having examined the cases of one and two intermediate resonances, we arrive at results of general validity and global behaviour, showing that even a small amount of harmonic may seem deceptively innocuous.

  20. Interplay of Touschek scattering, intrabeam scattering, and rf cavities in ultralow-emittance storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemann, S. C.

    2014-05-01

    The latest generation of storage ring-based light sources employs multibend achromat lattices to achieve ultralow emittance. These lattices make use of a large number of weak bending magnets which considerably reduces the amount of power radiated in the dipoles in comparison to power radiated from insertion devices. Therefore, in such storage rings, parameters such as emittance, energy spread, and radiated power are—unlike 3rd generation storage rings—no longer constant during a typical user shift. Instead, they depend on several varying parameters such as insertion device gap settings, bunch charge, bunch length, etc. Since the charge per bunch is usually high, intrabeam scattering in medium-energy storage rings with ultralow emittance becomes very strong. This creates a dependence of emittance on stored current. Furthermore, since the bunch length is adjusted with rf cavities but is also varied as insertion device gaps change, the emittance blowup from intrabeam scattering is not constant either. Therefore, the emittance, bunch length, and hence the resulting Touschek lifetime have to be calculated in a self-consistent fashion with 6D tracking taking into account not only the bare lattice and rf cavity settings, but also momentary bunch charge and gap settings. Using the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring as an example, this paper demonstrates the intricate interplay between transverse emittance (insertion devices, emittance coupling), longitudinal emittance (tuning of main cavities as well as harmonic cavities), and choice of stored current in an ultralow-emittance storage ring as well as some implications for brightness optimization.

  1. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 3rd Edition (by Kenneth L. Williamson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeffe, Reviewed By James

    1999-11-01

    suggested semiempirical computations. Other new texts, for example that by Pavia et al. (3rd ed., 1999), take computation even further. New features in the third edition include reduction of the macroscale experimental quantities to amounts compatible with 14/20 standard-taper glassware. Additionally, there are some useful and characteristically clever equipment adaptations for microfiltration and gas phase IR spectra, a few new or updated experiments, replacement of all IR spectra by Fourier transform spectra, and routine use of 250-MHz 1H NMR spectra. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is briefly discussed but not further encountered. One new feature which looks promising is called "Surfing the Web". Pertinent Web site addresses dot the book, but it would be useful if these were indexed as a group. The brief but up-to-date chapter on searching the literature includes addresses and some advice on accessing commercial databases. Regarding the lab course itself, two useful addresses are http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/ and Williamson's own site (under construction as I write), http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/kwilliam/microscale.shtml, where pictures of techniques and other support information will interest teachers and students alike. Williamson has always been responsive to users of his texts, and will probably be quick to incorporate new information and improved techniques at this site. There are a few areas where improvement can still be made. The chapter on IR spectroscopy, although revised, does not contain an extensive, conventional table of characteristic group frequencies. All our instructors supplement the text with standard tables. We also find the section on organic qualitative analysis to be limited and mildly difficult to use. Students must do a lot of page turning, back and forth, to find some of the tests and recipes needed. At SFSU more than half of our second-semester lab is given over to organic qual, and no single lab text except that of Pasto

  2. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  3. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  4. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  5. Compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.Z.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Tate, J.; Chen, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    A compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling wave amplifier is being developed. The device is a three-stage tube with the output section running as a fourth harmonic gyro-TWT, the input section running as a fundamental gyro-TWT, and the middle operating at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Radiation is suppressed by servers between the sections. The operating beam of the tube is produced by a magnetron injection gun (MIG). A TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit consisting of mode converters and a filter waveguide is employed for both input and output sections to solve the mode competition problem, which is pervasive in gyro-TWT operation. The input section has an input coupler designed as a TE{sub 0n} mode launcher. It excites a signal at the fundamental cyclotron frequency (17.5 GHz), which is amplified in the first TWT interaction region. So far the device is similar to a two-stage harmonic gyro-TWT. The distinction is that in the three-stage device the second section will be optimized not for output power but for fourth harmonic bunching of the beam. A gyroklystron amplifier has also been designed. The configuration is similar to the gyro-TWT but with the traveling wave interaction structures replaced by mode selective special complex cavities. Cold test results of the wideband input coupler and the TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit have been obtained.

  6. Input cavity for high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    A new input cavity design for a high-order asymmetric-mode gyroklystron is proposed. Methods of the selective excitation of a resonant mode with a rotating field structure and the prevention of cavity self-excitation at harmonics of the gyrofrequency are proposed. Results of experimental investigation of the H711 mode cavity for a multimegawatt pulsed gyroklystron are presented.

  7. Short pulse photoemission from a dispenser cathode under the 2nd, 3rd and 4th harmonics of a picosecond Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, B.

    1992-06-01

    We present new results concerning the photoemissive properties of a standard thermionic dispenser cathode, B type, a porous tungsten matrix impregnated with barium calcium aluminate, 5 BaO-3 CaO, 2 Al 2O 3, working in ultra-short pulses at a temperature far below the measurable thermoemission threshold thanks to a picosecond frequency doubled-tripled or quadrupled Nd: YAG laser delivering 35 ps pulses and a continuous electrical accelerating field applied to the cathode plane surface. Our experiments have shown that the maximum emitted charge in each current pulse corresponds to the maximum available superficial charge of the cathode and that the emitted charge is proportional to the illuminated surface area. The quantum yield values measured at low laser energy are about: η = 2.5 × 10 -5, η = 1 × 10 -4 and η = 3.5 × 10 -4 at the three photon energies h̵ω 3 = 2.34 eV, h̵ω 3 = 3.51 EV andh̵ω 4 = 4.68 eV respectively. Poisoning effectsdue to some residual gas molecules like O 2-H 2O existing in the vacuum cell modify the composition of the surface Ba-O monolayer and are at the origin of a decrease of the photoemitted current about 3.6% per hour. Heating slightly and permanently the cathode permits to limit these effects.

  8. Influence of solar eclipse of November 3rd, 2013 on the total ozone column over Badajoz, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, D.; Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The hybrid eclipse of November 3rd, 2013 was observed as partial with a magnitude equal to 0.126 from Badajoz (38° 53‧ N, 6° 58‧ W). The evolution of the total ozone column (TOC) values for 4 h was monitored using a Solar Light Microtops-II manual sun-photometer. Before the eclipse, TOC remained invariable ~280 Dobson Units (DU) for one hour and a half. Once the eclipse was started, a clear decrease in TOC occurred. After the eclipse maximum (with TOC=273 DU), a rapid TOC recovery was observed. When the eclipse was over, TOC came back to values ~280 DU.

  9. Quantitative metabolic profiles of 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Brad R.; Zhao, Shoujun; Kornak, John; Zhang, Vickie Y.; Iman, Rahwa; Kurhanewicz, John; Vahidi, Kiarash; Yu, Jingwei; Caughey, Aaron B.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Object To establish and compare normative metabolite concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid samples in an effort to reveal metabolic biomarkers of fetal health and development. Materials and methods Twenty-one metabolite concentrations were compared between 2nd (15–27 weeks gestation, N = 23) and 3rd (29–39 weeks gestation, N = 27) trimester amniotic fluid samples using 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy. Data were acquired using the electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations method and quantified using a modified semi-parametric quantum estimation algorithm modified for high-resolution ex vivo data. Results Sixteen of 21 metabolite concentrations differed significantly between 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Betaine (0.00846±0.00206 mmol/kg vs. 0.0133±0.0058 mmol/kg, P <0.002) and creatinine (0.0124±0.0058 mmol/kg vs. 0.247±0.011 mmol/kg, P <0.001) concentrations increased significantly, while glucose (5.96±1.66 mmol/kg vs. 2.41±1.69 mmol/kg, P <0.001), citrate (0.740±0.217 mmol/kg vs. 0.399±0.137 mmol/kg, P <0.001), pyruvate (0.0659±0.0103 mmol/kg vs. 0.0299±0.286 mmol/kg, P <0.001), and numerous amino acid (e.g. alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine) concentrations decreased significantly with advancing gestation. A stepwise multiple linear regression model applied to 50 samples showed that gestational age can be accurately predicted using combinations of alanine, glucose and creatinine concentrations. Conclusion These results provide key normative data for 2nd and 3rd trimester amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations and provide the foundation for future development of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers to evaluate fetal health and development. PMID:19779747

  10. A method for suppression of spurious fundamental-harmonic waves in gyrotrons operating at the second cyclotron harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A typical problem of gyrotrons operating at high harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency is the suppression of parasitic near-cutoff waves excited at lower harmonics. In this paper, a method for a significant improvement of the selectivity of the second-harmonic gyrotrons is proposed. This method is based on the use of quasi-regular cavities with short irregularities, which provide different effects on the process of excitation of the operating second-harmonic wave and the spurious fundamental-harmonic wave by the electron beam.

  11. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  12. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  13. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214. PMID:25725361

  14. Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  15. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  16. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Retention in First Grade and Performance on High Stakes Tests in 3rd Grade

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Chen, Qi; Thoemmes, Felix; Kwok, Oi-man

    2010-01-01

    The association between grade retention in first grade and passing the third grade state accountability tests, the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading and math, was investigated in a sample of 769 students who were recruited into the study when they were in first grade. Of these 769 students, 165 were retained in first grade and 604 were promoted. Using propensity matching, we created five imputed datasets (average N=321) in which promoted and retained students were matched on 67 comprehensive covariates. Using GEE models, we obtained the association between retention and passing the 3rd grade TAKS reading and math tests. The positive association between retention and math scores was significant while the association was marginally significant for reading scores. PMID:20628547

  18. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.; Boucaud, P.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χzxx (2 ), χzyy (2 ) and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  19. First Demonstration of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Technique for Short-Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne

    2010-08-25

    We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique which holds great promise for generation of high power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonic of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the EEHG technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.

  20. Cavity magnomechanics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2016-03-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  1. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  2. Early Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection of a Negative Flow Crossmatch 3rd Kidney Transplant with Exclusive Disparity at HLA-DP

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M.; Baum, Caitlin E.; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A.; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA. PMID:24755353

  3. [The Original Formulation for Toso-shu (Tusujiu), Created by the 3rd Century Chinese Physician, Hua Tuo].

    PubMed

    Mouri, Chika; Mikage, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The original formulation for "Tusujiu," which Japanese people still consume on the morning of January 1st, was created by Hua Tuo, but has not been studied in detail. The book Huatuo Shenyi Bizhuan, found in 1918, describes a concoction, "Biyijiu," that shows great similarity to the current Tusujiu; the ingredients for Biyijiu being rhubarb, atractylodes rhizome, cinnamon bark, platycodon root, zanthoxylum fruit, processed aconite root and smilax rhizome. The procedures for preparing and drinking it are to "pound the ingredients and then put them into a silk bag dyed with madder. During the daytime of the last day of the year, hang the bag in a well to soften the powder. Take the bag out early in the morning of the next day, the first day of the year. Heat the bag in fermented liquor until simmering. Drink the liquid with all family members, doing so while facing east. If one person drinks it, there will be no disease in the family. If the whole family drinks it, there will be no disease in their neighborhood in an area of one square 'li'. In this study, to determine the original formulation for Tusujiu, we examined a number of ancient medical texts from the 3rd to the 13th century that discuss Biyijiu and Tusujiu. As a result, we concluded that "Biyijiu" is likely to be the original formulation developed by Hua Tuo. PMID:26427101

  4. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  5. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  6. Evaluation of a model of dissertation supervision for 3rd year B.Sc. undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Donna; Cox, Georgina

    2016-03-01

    All English universities now offer an all degree undergraduate nursing programme. Many currently use an individual supervision model to support final year dissertation students, but with increased numbers and limited resources new models of supervision are needed. This study evaluated a mixed (group and individual) model of dissertation supervision to determine its effectiveness for a large group of undergraduate nursing students. A sample of 3rd year students and their supervisors were selected from one large university. An evaluation survey was conducted using anonymous internet-based questionnaires and focus groups. The data was analysed using Survey Monkey, SPSS and thematic analysis. A 51% (n = 56/110) response rate (students) and 65% (n = 24/37) for supervisors was obtained. The majority of students and supervisors were satisfied with the new model. There was a mixed response to the group workshops and supervision groups. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: engaging with the process, motivation to supervise and valuing the process. The supervision process is a struggle but both parties gained considerably from going through the process. In conclusion, a mixed model of supervision together with a range of other learning resources can be an effective approach in supporting students through the dissertation process. PMID:26700648

  7. To keep the catch – that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12–15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  8. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: expanding care in the interferon-free era.

    PubMed

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014⁄2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, 'Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada' is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and⁄or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  9. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  10. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  11. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA. PMID:20795337

  12. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  13. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Analysis of time-variant quadratic phase couplings in the tracé alternant EEG by recursive estimation of 3rd-order time-frequency distributions.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Marko; Schwab, Karin; Leistritz, Lutz; Eiselt, Michael; Witte, Herbert

    2006-10-15

    The quantification of transient quadratic phase couplings (QPC) by means of time-variant bispectral analysis is a useful approach to explain several interrelations between signal components. A generalized recursive estimation approach for 3rd-order time-frequency distributions (3rd-order TFD) is introduced. Based on 3rd-order TFD, time-variant estimations of biamplitude (BA), bicoherence (BC) and phase bicoherence (PBC) can be derived. Different smoothing windows and local moment functions for an optimization of the estimation properties are investigated and compared. The methods are applied to signal simulations and EEG signals, and it can be shown that the new time-variant bispectral analysis results in a reliable quantification of QPC in the tracé alternant EEG of healthy neonates. PMID:16737739

  15. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  16. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  17. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice. PMID:27077324

  18. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  19. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  20. Implications of Technology for Teaching and Learning. Annual Professional Education Seminar of Central States Colleges and Universities (3rd, November, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Asahel; Froyen, Len

    This report of the proceedings of the 3rd Annual Professional Education Seminar of the Central States Colleges and Universities centers upon the implications of technology for teaching and learning and contains addresses delivered, including "Some Concerns Related to Technology in Education," by Len Froyen; and "Implications of Technology for…

  1. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  2. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  3. Demonstration of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Technique for Short-Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodley, M.; Pernet, P.-L.

    2010-09-10

    We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique, which holds great promise for generation of high-power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonics of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  5. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  7. Multicolor cavity metrology.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kiwamu; Arai, Koji; Barr, Bryan; Betzwieser, Joseph; Brooks, Aidan; Dahl, Katrin; Doravari, Suresh; Driggers, Jennifer C; Korth, W Zach; Miao, Haixing; Rollins, Jameson; Vass, Stephen; Yeaton-Massey, David; Adhikari, Rana X

    2012-10-01

    Long-baseline laser interferometers used for gravitational-wave detection have proven to be very complicated to control. In order to have sufficient sensitivity to astrophysical gravitational waves, a set of multiple coupled optical cavities comprising the interferometer must be brought into resonance with the laser field. A set of multi-input, multi-output servos then lock these cavities into place via feedback control. This procedure, known as lock acquisition, has proven to be a vexing problem and has reduced greatly the reliability and duty factor of the past generation of laser interferometers. In this article, we describe a technique for bringing the interferometer from an uncontrolled state into resonance by using harmonically related external fields to provide a deterministic hierarchical control. This technique reduces the effect of the external seismic disturbances by 4 orders of magnitude and promises to greatly enhance the stability and reliability of the current generation of gravitational-wave detectors. The possibility for using multicolor techniques to overcome current quantum and thermal noise limits is also discussed. PMID:23201656

  8. Multi-harmonic RF test stand for RF breakdown studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Shchelkunov, S.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Solyak, N.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2012-12-21

    A multi-harmonic RF test stand is under construction at Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. It includes a frequency multiplier which can generate high power harmonics efficiently that are phase locked to the fundamental drive frequency. In a bi-modal asymmetric cavity powered by this RF source, the cavity may experience reduced exposure time to peak fields and sweeping of peak fields across their surfaces, and strong asymmetry between surfaces that may experience cathode-and anode-like fields; these phenomena are to be assessed for their influence on RF breakdown probabilities.

  9. The IPNS second harmonic RF upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Middendorf, M. E.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Horan, D.; Kustom, R. L.; Lien, M. K.; McMichael, G. E.; Moser, M. R.; Nassiri, A.; Wang, S.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is used to accelerate protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV, at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The original ring design included two identical rf systems, each consisting of an accelerating cavity, cavity bias supply, power amplifiers and low-level analog electronics. The original cavities are located 180 degrees apart in the ring and provide a total peak accelerating voltage of {approx}21 kV over the 2.21-MHz to 5.14-MHz revolution frequency sweep. A third rf system has been constructed and installed in the RCS. The third rf system is capable of operating at the fundamental revolution frequency for the entire acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak accelerating voltage of up to {approx}11 kV, or at the second harmonic of the revolution frequency for the first {approx}4 ms of the acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak voltage of up to {approx}11 kV for bunch shape control. We describe here the hardware implementation and operation to date of the third rf cavity in the second harmonic mode.

  10. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  11. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, R; Barna, A; Suta, T; Bohus, J; Földes, I B; Szatmári, S; Mikołajczyk, J; Bartnik, A; Fiedorowicz, H; Verona, C; Verona Rinati, G; Margarone, D; Nowak, T; Rosiński, M; Ryć, L

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence. PMID:25554270

  12. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; Bohus, J.; Földes, I. B.; Szatmári, S.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; Rosiński, M.; Ryć, L.

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  13. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; Földes, I. B.; Bohus, J.; Szatmári, S.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  14. A 95 GHz, 4th harmonic gyro-oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.; Scheitrum, G.P.; Bemis, T.; Higgins, L.

    1994-12-31

    There is currently an interest in medium power ({approximately}100 kW), compact 95 GHz amplifiers for future radar applications. Size, weight, and efficiency are critical for airborne applications. Litton has been investigating a 4th harmonic, 4-cavity gyro-amplifier. The key to success of the amplifier is the axis-encircling electron beam from a new type of electron gun, the advanced center post (ACP) gun. Gun simulations incorporating the actual magnetic field and thermal velocity spread in the emitted electrons show that axial velocity spreads of less than 2% are attainable, which is significantly better than other gun concepts. The amplifier utilizes coaxial-magnetron-type cavities operating in the {pi} mode. In this cavity, vanes extend nearly down to the electron beam`s outside diameter. The majority of the RF stored energy in the system is in the coaxial cavity, so that the resonant frequency and quality factor of each coaxial magnetron cavity may be adjusted by varying only the coaxial cavity. Several components are being tested individually. To test the cavity design, a 4th harmonic oscillator based on a coaxial magnetron cavity has been designed. Results of the oscillator testing will be presented.

  15. A terahertz plasmon cavity detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, G. C.; Vinh, N. Q.; Allen, S. J.; Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Reno, J. L.; Shaner, E. A.

    2010-11-08

    Sensitivity of a plasmonic detector is enhanced by integrating a broadband log-periodic antenna with a two-dimensional plasma cavity that is defined by source, drain, and multiple gates of a GaAs/AlGaAs high electron mobility transistor. Both narrow-band terahertz detection and a rich harmonic spectrum are evident. With a bolometric sensor in the channel, we report responsivity, on resonance at 235-240 GHz and at 20 K, of up to 7 kV/W and a noise equivalent power of 5x10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

  16. Workshop on Harmonic Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Zachary, W. W. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop on Harmonic Oscillators held at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland on March 25 - 28, 1992 are presented. The harmonic oscillator formalism is playing an important role in many branches of physics. This is the simplest mathematical device which can connect the basic principle of physics with what is observed in the real world. The harmonic oscillator is the bridge between pure and applied physics.

  17. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Xufeng; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, cavity magnonics has attracted much attention for potential applications of coherent information transduction and hybrid quantum devices. The magnon is a collective spin wave excitation in ferromagnetic material. It is magnetically tunability, with long coherence time and non-reciprocical interaction with electro-magnetic fields. We report the coherent coupling between magnon, microwave photon and phonon. First, we demonstrate strong coupling and ultrastrong coupling between the magnon in YIG sphere and microwave photon in three-dimensional cavity. Then, based on the hybridized magnon-photon modes, we observe the triply resonant magnon-mcirowave photon-phonon coupling, where the ultrahigh-Q mechanical vibration of YIG sphere is dispersively coupled with the magnon via magnetostrictive interaction. We observe interesting phenomena, including electromagnetically induced transparency/absorption and parametric amplification. In particular, benefit from the large tunability of the magnon, we demonstrate a tunable microwave amplifier with gain as high as 30 dB. The single crystal YIG also has excellent optical properties, and thus provide a unique platform bridging MHz, GHz and THz information carriers. Finally, we present the latest progress towards coherent magnon to optical photon conversion.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative effects of harmonic echocardiographic imaging on endocardial edge definition and side-lobe artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. N.; Yazbek, N.; Garcia, M. J.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging is a new ultrasonographic technique that is designed to improve image quality by exploiting the spontaneous generation of higher frequencies as ultrasound propagates through tissue. We studied 51 difficult-to-image patients with blinded side-by-side cineloop evaluation of endocardial border definition by harmonic versus fundamental imaging. In addition, quantitative intensities from cavity versus wall were compared for harmonic versus fundamental imaging. Harmonic imaging improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation over fundamental imaging (superior: harmonic = 71.1%, fundamental = 18.7%; similar: 10.2%; P <.001). Quantitative analysis of 100 wall/cavity combinations demonstrated brighter wall segments and more strikingly darker cavities during harmonic imaging (cavity intensity on a 0 to 255 scale: fundamental = 15.6 +/- 8.6; harmonic = 6.0 +/- 5.3; P <.0001), which led to enhanced contrast between the wall and cavity (1.89 versus 1.19, P <.0001). Harmonic imaging reduces side-lobe artifacts, resulting in a darker cavity and brighter walls, thereby improving image contrast and endocardial delineation.

  19. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  20. Perpendicular Biased Ferrite Tuned Cavities for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Awida, Mohamed; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Pellico, William; Tan, Cheng-Yang; Terechkine, Iouri; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The aging Fermilab Booster RF system needs an upgrade to support future experimental program. The important feature of the upgrade is substantial enhancement of the requirements for the accelerating cavities. The new requirements include enlargement of the cavity beam pipe aperture, increase of the cavity voltage and increase in the repetition rate. The modification of the present traditional parallel biased ferrite cavities is rather challenging. An alternative to rebuilding the present Fermilab Booster RF cavities is to design and construct new perpendicular biased RF cavities, which potentially offer a number of advantages. An evaluation and a preliminary design of the perpendicular biased ferrite tuned cavities for the Fermilab Booster upgrade is described in the paper. Also it is desirable for better Booster performance to improve the capture of beam in the Booster during injection and at the start of the ramp. One possible way to do that is to flatten the bucket by introducing second harmonic cavities into the Booster. This paper also looks into the option of using perpendicularly biased ferrite tuners for the second harmonic cavities.

  1. 34 GHz second-harmonic peniotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressman, Lawrence Jude

    Harmonic operation of gyro-devices has been proposed as a way to lower the magnetic field required to a level feasible with normal (i.e., non-superconducting) magnets. The problem is, however, that gyrotron efficiency drops dramatically at harmonics greater than two, making development of such a device of limited utility. A promising solution to this quandary is the development of a related device, the peniotron, which is believed capable of achieving both high efficiency and harmonic operation resulting in a reduction of the required axial magnetic field. Although the physics of the peniotron interaction, including its high electronic conversion efficiency, has been understood and experimentally verified, demonstration of characteristics consistent with a practical device has been more elusive. This is the goal of this effort---specifically, to demonstrate high device efficiency (defined as the actual power output as a fraction of the electron beam power) with an electron beam generated by a compact cusp electron gun consistent in size and performance with other microwave vacuum electron devices. The cavity design process revealed that the pi/2 mode couples easily to the output circular waveguide. In fact, the transition to circular waveguide produced such a low reflection coefficient that an iris was needed at the cavity output to achieve the desired Q. Integral couplers were also designed to couple directly into the slotted cavity for diagnostic purposes for simplicity in this proof-of-principle physics experiment. This eliminated the need for a high-power circular vacuum window and allowed the diagnostic coupling to be made in standard WR-28 rectangular waveguide. Although mode competition did prevent the second-harmonic peniotron mode from being tuned over its entire range of magnetic field, the peniotron mode was stable over a range sufficient to allow useful experimental data to be obtained. However, another unexpected problem which occurred during execution

  2. [Use of imaging methods in the current screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer - Professional guidelines. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Gábor; Ambrózay, Éva; Bidlek, Mária; Borbély, Katalin; Kovács, Eszter; Lengyel, Zsolt; Ormándi, Katalin; Péntek, Zoltán; Riedl, Erika; Sebõ, Éva; Szabó, Éva

    2016-09-01

    Breast radiologists and nuclear medical specialists have refreshed their previous statement text during the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting. They suggest taking into consideration this actual protocol for the screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast tumors, from now on. This recommendation includes the description of the newest technologies, the recent results of scientific research, as well as the role of imaging methods in the therapeutic processes and the follow-up. Suggestions for improvement of the Hungarian current practice and other related issues as forensic medicine, media connections, regulations, and reimbursement are also detailed. The statement text has been cross-checked with the related medical disciplines. PMID:27579719

  3. [Damage-loss relationships and integrated control of 3rd instar larvae of Actias selene nigpoana Felder in planting area of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Wang, C; Zhang, Q; Cheng, X

    1997-08-01

    In the present paper, the damage-loss model of Actias selene ningpoana to Cornus officinalis was tested and the results indicated that the yield loss rates obeyed the equation Y = 100 - EXP(4.6042 - 0.0315X). The economic threshold of the 2hd and 3rd instar larvae of A. selene nigpoana was then determined as 22 and 8 insects per tree respecitively. Suggestions for integrated control have been made based on the research of activities of A. selene ningpoana in the forest. PMID:11038910

  4. Rotationally induced vortices in optical cavity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habraken, Steven J. M.; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2009-09-01

    We show that vortices appear in the modes of an astigmatic optical cavity when it is put into rotation about its optical axis. We study the properties of these vortices and discuss numerical results for a specific realization of such a set-up. Our method is exact up to first order in the time-dependent paraxial approximation and involves bosonic ladder operators in the spirit of the quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.

  5. Design of a 50 MW, 34 GHz second harmonic coaxial gyroklystron for advanced accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Arjona, M.R.; Lawson, W.

    1999-07-01

    At the University of Maryland, the authors have been investigating the feasibility of using gyroklystrons and gyroklystrons as drivers for linear colliders and advanced accelerators for a number of years. The most recent experimental tube achieved a peak power of about 80 MW at 8.57 GHz with 32% efficiency and over 30 dB gain with a three-cavity first harmonic circuit. The current experimental effort is devoted to producing about 100 MW of peak power at 17.14 GHz with a second-harmonic three-cavity tube. Some schemes for advanced linear colliders with center-of-mass energies of 5 TeV or more expect to require higher frequency sources, perhaps near 35 GHz or 91 GHz. A design study at 95 GHz indicated that peak powers near 7 MW were possible. In this design study, they present the simulated operating characteristics of a four cavity 34 GHz second-harmonic gyroklystron tube which is capable of producing about 60 MW of peak power with an efficiency of about 40% and a gain above 50 dB. The electron gun is a single-anode magnetron injection gun. The input cavity is a TE{sub 011} cavity which is driven at 17 GHz. The remainder of the cavities are TE{sub 021} cavities which interact near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The gain cavity and the output cavities are at twice the drive frequency, but the penultimate cavity is detuned to enhance efficiency. All cavities are abrupt-transition cavities. Both systems are derived from scaled versions of the 17 GHz tube. In this paper, they present detailed designs and performance predictions for both the electron gun and the microwave circuit.

  6. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    Mechanical oscillators have been recently widely utilized to couple with optical and microwave photons in a variety of hybrid quantum systems, but they all lack the tunability. The magnetostrictive force provides an alternative mechanism to allow phonon to couple with a different type of information carrier-magnon, the collective excitation of magnetization whose frequency can be tuned by a bias magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate an intriguing hybrid system that consists of a magnonic, a mechanical, and a microwave resonator. The magnon-phonon interaction results in hallmark coherent phenomena such as magnomechanically induced transparency/absorption and magnomechanical parametric amplification. The magnetic field dependence of magnon provides our system with unprecedented tunability. Moreover, the great flexibility of our system allows us to achieve triple resonance among magnon, phonon and photon, which drastically enhances the magnomechanical interaction. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnetomechanics, opening up great opportunities in various applications, such as tunable microwave filter and amplifier, long-lifetime quantum memories, microwave-to-optics conversion.

  7. Teratoid cyst of the oral cavity: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Garde, Janardan; Bartake, Anirudha; Narang, Bindiya

    2014-01-01

    The teratoid cyst is a rare variant of the dermoid cyst which seldom occurs in the oral cavity. If seen, they generally present as slow growing cysts of the floor of mouth, reported commonly in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life in males. Histopathologically, dermoid cyst is classified as epidermoid cyst, true dermoid cyst and teratoid cyst depending on the presence of adnexal structures and derivatives of all three germ layers. Herewith we report a rare case of teratoid cyst of the floor of the mouth, in a 2-year-old female child, which was present since birth. PMID:25949009

  8. Studies of a Gyrotron with the Echelette Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, V. I.; Vlasov, S. N.; Zavolsky, N. A.; Zapevalov, V. E.; Koposova, E. V.; Kornishin, S. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Moiseev, M. A.; Khizhnyak, V. I.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a gyrotron which is operated at the first gyrofrequency harmonic and has an echelette cavity with the sinusoidal corrugation profile. A method for calculating the parameters of the echelette cavity and the gyrotron is described. The results of measuring the electrodynamic characteristics of the echelette cavity and studying experimentally the gyrotron with such a cavity are presented. It is shown that the gyrotron has a rarefied spectrum of eigenoscillations and the efficiency at the level of typical megawatt-power gyrotrons, and is characterized by a significantly lower degree of cavity wall heating. The structure of radiation from the gyrotron with the echelette cavity and the possibility of transmitting this radiation by means of a mirror waveguide, are discussed.

  9. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  10. Efficacy of a 3rd generation high-throughput sequencing platform for analyses of 16S rRNA genes from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Bernberg, Erin L; Shevchenko, Olga; Kan, Jinjun; Kaplan, Louis A

    2013-11-01

    Longer sequences of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene could provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions and advance knowledge of population dynamics within complex natural communities. We assessed the accuracy of a Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing based on DNA polymerization, a promising 3rd generation high-throughput technique, and compared this to the 2nd generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform. Amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from a known isolate, Shewanella oneidensis MR1, and environmental samples from two streambed habitats, rocks and sediments, and a riparian zone soil, were analyzed. On the PacBio we analyzed ~500 bp amplicons that covered the V1-V3 regions and the full 1500 bp amplicons of the V1-V9 regions. On the Roche 454 we analyzed the ~500 bp amplicons. Error rates associated with the isolate were lowest with the Roche 454 method (2%), increased by more than 2-fold for the 500 bp amplicons with the PacBio SMRT chip (4-5%), and by more than 8-fold for the full gene with the PacBio SMRT chip (17-18%). Higher error rates with the PacBio SMRT chip artificially inflated estimates of richness and lowered estimates of coverage for environmental samples. The 3rd generation sequencing technology we evaluated does not provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions for studies of microbial ecology. PMID:23999276

  11. Effect of non-erupted 3rd molars on distal roots and supporting structures of approximal teeth. A radiographic survey of 202 cases.

    PubMed

    Nemcovsky, C E; Libfeld, H; Zubery, Y

    1996-09-01

    Root resorption of 2nd molars in proximity to non-erupted 3rd molars has been widely reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of root resorption in second molars adjacent to non-erupted third molars. Its association to age and gender of the patient, location and inclination of the non-erupted third molar and to distal bone support of the 2nd molars was analyzed. A radiographic survey of 202 periapical radiographs taken in patients with clinically missing third molars was conducted. 3 examiners independently evaluated the radiographs and only those cases where at least 2 observers agreed were included in this report. Statistical analysis was performed on 186 radiographs. Associations were analyzed with the Pearson chi 2 test. Radiographic evidence of root resorption was found in 45 2nd molars (24.2%) of which 12 (6.5%) showed moderate to complete root resorption. Non-erupted tooth apical position and mesio-inclination of 60 degrees or more relative to the distal root of the second molar were significantly associated with root resorption (p = 0.01368 and p = 0.0194, respectively). Resorption was positively associated with age of patient (p = 0.00606). These results may support early extraction of impacted 3rd molars especially in cases with a mesio-angulation of 60 degrees or more and an apical location in proximity to the distal root of the 2nd molar. PMID:8891930

  12. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  13. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  14. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-01

    A cavity excitation circuit is described for rapidly building up and maintaining high-level oscillations in a resonant cavity. The circuit overcomes oscillation buildup slowing effects such as ion locking in the cavity by providing for the selective application of an amplified accelerating drive signal to the main cavity exciting oscillator during oscillation buildup and a direct drive signal to the oscillator thereafter.

  15. Photon storage cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    A general analysis is presented of a photon storage cavity, coupled to free-electron laser (FEL) cavity. It is shown that if the coupling between the FEL cavity and the storage cavity is unidirectional (for example, a ring resonator storage cavity) then storage is possible, but that if the coupling is bi-directional then storage is not possible. Parameters are presented for an infra-red FEL storage cavity giving an order of magnitude increase in the instantaneous photon power within the storage cavity. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  17. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").

  18. Optical harmonic generator

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1982-06-10

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).

  19. Harmonic uniflow engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  20. Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

  1. Harmonic Frequency Lowering

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. PMID:26834122

  2. [Pathological diagnosis, work-up and reporting of breast cancer. Recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Kulka, Janina; Francz, Monika; Járay, Balázs; Kálmán, Endre; Kovács, Ilona; Krenács, Tibor; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Vass, László

    2016-09-01

    There have been relevant changes in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to implement the updating of the 2010 recommendations made during the 2nd national consensus conference on the disease. Following a wide interdisciplinary consultation, the present recommendations have been finalized after their public discussion at the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer. The recommendations cover non-operative and intraoperative diagnostics, the work-up of operative specimens, the determination of prognostic and predictive markers and the content of the cytology and histology reports. Furthermore, it touches some special issues such as the current status of multigene molecular markers, the role of pathologists in clinical trials and prerequisites for their involvement, some relevant points about the future. PMID:27579721

  3. [3rd generation's TKI in lung cancer non-small cell EGFR-mutated having acquired a secondary T790M resistance].

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Solenn; Viala, Marie; Varga, Andréa; Planchard, David; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2015-09-01

    Activating EGFR mutations discovery and efficacy of 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as erlotinib or gefitinib, inaugurated the beginning of personalized medicine in the treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, all patients showed a tumor progression of 10 to 16 months after the onset of TKI therapy related to molecular resistance mechanisms as T790M mutation. Till now, patients suffering from EGFR-mutated NSCLC with acquired resistance have conventional treatment options. Two new 3rd generations' TKI, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are currently being studied in phases 1-3 studies. Preliminary results show relevant therapeutic properties in patients with T790M mutated-EGFR NSCLC. This review aims to highlight these new molecules, their effectiveness and their clinical toxicities in the treatment of advanced stages of NSCLC expressing the T790M mutation. PMID:26235419

  4. Reflections: Surgical Education-the Times they are a-Changin': Lessons Learned from the 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Radoslaw; Vetto, John T

    2015-09-01

    Technical skills are not sufficient for successful surgical care. Non-technical skills such as team work, decision-making in cancer treatment, communication with the patient, ethical challenges, situation awareness, and communication in the operating room are mandatory for favorable outcomes. Although formally taught in other high-demand disciplines, such skills were traditionally rarely discussed in surgical oncology. The 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting "Professionalism for Breast Surgeons" held in Istanbul, Turkey, 5 October 2013 was dedicated to the development of non-technical skills in the everyday activity of breast surgeons. We briefly discuss information from this very interesting and inspiring educational event and how it relates to more recent changes in surgical oncology education. PMID:25903052

  5. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  6. The IPNS RCS RF-system third cavity upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Middendorf, M.E.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J.C.; Lein, M. K.; McMichael, G. E.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    2001-12-01

    The IPNS RCS is a rapid cycling synchrotron used to accelerate protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV, 30 times per second. Currently, two single-gap, ferrite-loaded coaxial cavities, located 180 degrees apart, provide a total peak accelerating voltage of approximately 21 kV over the 2.2 MHz to 5.1 MHz revolution frequency band. An amplifier chain, which includes a 2 kW predriver, a 20 kW driver and a 100 kW final, drives each cavity. A third RF system, consisting of a cavity, cavity bias supply, and amplifier chain, is currently under construction. When complete, this upgrade will provide flexibility in operation that is expected to enhance reliability (i.e., three cavity operation at higher total accelerating voltage, three cavity operation at lower voltage per cavity, or two cavity operation with an on-line spare). In addition, the third cavity will provide an experimental station for second harmonic RF cavity studies. We report progress to date.

  7. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  8. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  9. Booster double harmonic setup notes

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  10. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  11. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  12. Design of normal conducting 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz cavities for LEReC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J. C.; Fedotov, A.; McIntyre, G.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Veshcherevich, V.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Zaltsman, A.

    2015-05-03

    To improve RHIC luminosity for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon, the Low Energy RHIC electron Cooler (LEReC) is currently under development at BNL. Two normal conducting cavities, a single cell 704 MHz cavity and a 3 cell 2.1 GHz third harmonic cavity, will be used in LEReC for energy spread correction. In this paper we report the design of these two cavities.

  13. Pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Apa, Duygu Düşmez; Görür, Kemal

    2004-09-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH), also called pyogenic granuloma, is a benign vascular tumor that is pedunculated on the skin and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. This disease occurs in all ages, but more often in the 3rd decade, and is seen in females more than males. LCH commonly appears in early childhood and affects males more than females in the pediatric age group. The gingiva, lips, tongue and buccal mucosa are the most common sites of mucosal LCH, but the nasal cavity is rare. Micro-trauma and hormonal factors are the most common etiologic factors. Epistaxis and nasal obstruction are the most marked symptoms. We describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with intra-nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presented with epistaxis and nasal obstruction. This should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood endonasal masses with bleeding. Total excision using endoscopic technique is the treatment of choice. PMID:14652770

  14. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  15. Landman's encyclopedia. 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.L.; Hankinson, R.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the guidelines for petroleum landmen and includes the new documents: partial assignment of oil, gas, and mineral lease, net profits agreement, net profit interest, ratification agreements, an additional farmout agreement form, gas balancing agreement, shut-in gas royalty, oil, gas, and mineral lease form (Exxon lease), extension agreement, Pugh clause, assignment form of lease and equipment, losses addendum for operating agreements, boundary agreement, change of lease description forms. Also included is a cross-listing of the document numbers used in this book with those used in the popular software database.

  16. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  17. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  18. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  19. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  20. Introducing Simple Harmonic Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    2002-01-01

    Explains the origin and significance of harmonic motion which is an important topic that has wide application in the world. Describes the phenomenon by using an auxiliary circle to help illustrate the key relationships between acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, and phase. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Hom dampers for ALS storage ring RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, S.; Baptiste, K.; Byrd, J.; DeSantis, S.; Julian, J.; Low, R.; Lyn, L.; Plate, D.

    2003-05-08

    The main source of narrowband impedance in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) are higher order modes (HOMs) of the two main RF and three third harmonic cavities. These HOMs drive longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities, which are controlled using active beam feedback systems. The dominant longitudinal HOMs in both systems are TM011-like modes with the R/Q factor an order of magnitude higher than all other longitudinal modes. To reduce the growth rates within the range of the longitudinal feedback system (LFB), these modes were tuned away from beam resonances by means of cooling water temperature control (main rf system), and the combination of two tuners (third harmonic system). To improve the reliability of the longitudinal dampening system, we have built and installed E-type HOM dampers for the fundamental and harmonic cavities. We present the design, commissioning and performance of the HOM dampers in this paper.

  2. Nonlinear theory for a terahertz gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Xuesong; Han Yu; Yan Yang; Lan Ying

    2012-05-15

    The fully numerical nonlinear theory for a gyrotron with a special cross-section interaction cavity has been developed in this paper. In this theory, the analytical solution to different modes in the special cross-section interaction cavity is replaced by the numerical solution based on electromagnetic simulation results. A 0.4 THz third harmonic gyrotron with an azimuthally corrugated interaction cavity has been investigated by using this theory and simulation results show that this approach has a significant advantage of developing high harmonic terahertz gyrotrons.

  3. Distribution system harmonic filter planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ortmeyer, T.H.; Hiyama, Takashi

    1996-10-01

    A planning methodology for distribution system harmonic filtering is proposed. The method is intended for use on radial distribution systems with no large harmonic sources. It is proposed that 60 hertz var planning be done first to allocate the var resources. Following this process, the harmonic filter planning can be readily accomplished. Characteristics of the distribution systems and the harmonic sources are exploited to provide a practical filter planning technique which is effective and efficient.

  4. Quaternionic Harmonic Analysis of Texture

    2012-10-01

    QHAT uses various functions and data structures native to MATLAB to analyze crystallographic texture information using harmonic functions on the space of rotations represented as normalized quaternions. These harmonic functions generalize the spherical harmonics in three dimensions, and form the basis for the irreducible representations of the four-dimensional rotation group. This allows the basis of harmonic functions to be reduced to linearly independent combinations that satisfy the crystal and sample symmetry point groups.

  5. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuning; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Keleher, Kevin; Allison, Thomas K.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, which employs frequency combs and high-finesse optical cavities. % The schematic of apparatus is shown in Figure 1. Sub-100 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 90 MHz are generated by a home-built Ytterbium fiber laser. The amplified light has a power up to 10 W, which is used to pump an optical parametric oscillator, followed by second-harmonic generation(SHG) that converts the wavelength from near-IR to visible. A pump comb at 530 nm is separately generated by SHG. Both pump and probe combs are coupled into high-finesse cavities. Compared to the conventional transient absorption spectroscopy method, the detection sensitivity can be improved by a factor of (F/π)^2 ˜ 10^5, where F is the finesse of cavity. This ultrasensitive technology enables the direct all-optical dynamics study in molecular beams. We will apply the cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of visible chromophores and then extend the wavelength to mid-IR to study vibrational dynamics of small hydrogen-bonded clusters.

  6. Harmonization, Trade, and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Candice

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the harmonization of international methods for the development and administration of product standards. Defines the term "harmonization" and discusses the harmonization of environmental policies and purposes involving product standards; environmental regulations on production methods, technologies, and practices; and life-cycle…

  7. Super-harmonic self-pulsations from a time-delayed phase-conjugate optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Bosco, Andreas Karsaklian; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc

    2014-08-01

    We provide experimental evidence of super-harmonic self-pulsation in a laser diode with a phase-conjugate optical feedback (PCF), i.e., time-periodic nearly sinusoidal oscillating output power at a frequency being multiple of the external-cavity frequency that corresponds to the long-standing predictions of so-called "external-cavity mode" [G. P. Agrawal and J. T. Klaus, Opt. Lett. 16, 1325-1327 (1991)]. High-harmonic self-pulsations have been so far limited to configurations with long time-delay, hence to relatively small frequencies (<1-2 GHz). By contrast, the reported self-pulsating solutions from PCF are stable in a larger range of feedback strength and with higher-order harmonic number when decreasing the external-cavity time-delay.

  8. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; van Neer, Paul L. M. J.; Cachard, Christian; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Basset, Olivier; de Jong, Nico

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f0 and the same amplitude P0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  9. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  10. Harmonic electron correlation operator.

    PubMed

    Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2011-07-21

    An appealing way to model electron correlation within the single determinant wave function formalism is through the expectation value of a linear two-electron operator. For practical reasons, it is desirable for such an operator to be universal, i.e., not depend on the positions and types of nuclei in a molecule. We show how a perturbation theory applied to a hookium atom provides for a particular form of a correlation operator, hence called the harmonic correlation operator. The correlation operator approach is compared and contrasted to the traditional ways to describe electron correlation. To investigate the two-electron approximation of this operator, we apply it to many-electron hookium systems. To investigate the harmonic approximation, we apply it to the small atomic systems. Directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:21786991

  11. B1 magnet harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P D

    2000-05-30

    During the B0 Overpass construction for the CDF detector at Fermilab, 33 B1 magnets were measured using a bucked tangential coil. Measurements were made on the midplane, at the centerline and at {+-} 1 inch horizontal displacement. Since the coil was only 62 inches long, measurements were made at four longitudinal positions. Because of the design of the Main Ring, it was sufficient to combine data from all positions and report the harmonic spectrum for the magnet as a whole. For modeling the Scrounge-atron, it is more useful to treat each measurement position separately. The author reports here an analysis of the harmonic spectra at each probe position, based on the original data.

  12. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  13. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  14. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  15. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  16. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  17. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  18. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects. PMID:15267113

  19. Angular spectrum characteristics of relativistic inverse compton harmonic X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.; Xiao, L.; Barber, S.; O'Shea, F. H.; Williams, O.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Pogorelsky, I.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Malone, B.; Kusche, K.; Montemagno, M.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Babzien, M.; Fedurin, M.; Yakimenko, V.

    2012-12-21

    The X-ray spectrum emitted during relativistic non-linear inverse Compton scattering is angularly resolved, and energy analyzed through the use of K-edge and attenuation filters. A 0.5 nC electron beam of 65 MeV energy was employed, colliding with a highly intense CO{sub 2} laser of normalized vector potential a{sub L}{approx}0.5. In this experiment, 2nd harmonic radiation was clearly observed. In addition, evidence for the 3rd harmonic component of the radiation, having radiation angle of < 1/{gamma} has been found. This measurement represents a significant step forward in experimental understanding the electrodynamics of ICS in the nonlinear regime.

  20. Sensitivity of cavity optomechanical field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, J.; Forstner, S.; Swaim, J.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Bowen, W. P.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a technique for modeling cavity optomechanical field sensors. A magnetic or electric field induces a spatially varying strain across the sensor. The effect of this strain is accounted for by separating the mechanical motion of the sensor into eigenmodes, each modeled by a simple harmonic oscillator. The force induced on each oscillator can then be determined from an overlap integral between strain and the corresponding eigenmode, with the optomechanical coupling strength determining the ultimate resolution with which this force can be detected.

  1. High power operation of first and second harmonic gyrotwystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Latham, P.E.; Calame, J.P.; Cheng, J.; Hogan, B.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Irwin, V.; Granatstein, V.L.; Reiser, M.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first experimental operation of overmoded first and second harmonic gyrotwystron amplifier configurations. Both devices utilize a single cavity which is driven near 9.87 GHz in the TE{sub 011} mode, heavily attenuated drift tubes, and long tapered output waveguide sections. A magnetron injection gun produces a 460 kV, 245 A beam with a maximum average perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio approximately equal to one. The axial magnetic field profile is sharply tapered in the output section. Peak powers above 21 MW are achieved in 1 {mu}s pulses with an efficiency exceeding 22% and a large signal gain near 24 dB in the first harmonic tube. The second harmonic tube achieves nearly 12 MW of the peak power with an efficiency of 11% and a gain above 21 dB. First harmonic amplifier performance is limited principally by competition from a fundamental mode output waveguide interaction; the second harmonic tube is limited by both travelling wave output modes and by a down-taper oscillation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  2. Second harmonic generation in nanoscale films of transition metal chalcogenides: Taking into account multibeam interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, S. D.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Shestakova, A. P.; Kulyuk, L.; Mishina, E. D.

    2016-05-01

    Second harmonic generation is studied in structures containing nanoscale layers of transition metal chalcogenides that are two-dimensional semiconductors and deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate. The second harmonic generation intensity is calculated with allowance for multibeam interference in layers of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide. The coefficient of reflection from the SiO2-layer-based Fabry-Perot cavity is subsequently calculated for pump wave fields initiating nonlinear polarization at every point of dichalcogenide, which is followed by integration of all second harmonic waves generated by this polarization. Calculated second harmonic intensities are presented as functions of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide layer thicknesses. The dependence of the second harmonic intensity on the MoS2 layer thickness is studied experimentally in the layer of 2-140 nm. A good coincidence of the experimental data and numerical simulation results has been obtained.

  3. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  4. Degenerate astigmatic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Jérémie; Mohamed, Ajmal; Romanini, Daniele

    2013-10-01

    At the output of a high-finesse cavity a succession of Lissajous patterns may be observed as the cavity length is finely tuned inside a “degenerate region” around a reentrant spherical configuration. This behavior is ascribed to a small parasitic astigmatism of the cavity mirrors. Simple geometrical optics modeling confirms this hypothesis, and then a more realistic analysis using transverse Gaussian modes reveals that the Lissajous patterns correspond to an organization of the astigmatism-split modes into a finer substructure of degenerate modes relative to that of a reentrant spherical cavity. This provides a thorough understanding of the field patterns observed in the degenerate region, including an intriguing spatial symmetry of the patterns corresponding to opposite displacements with respect to a specific central cavity length. This investigation represents a generalization of the theory of reentrant spherical cavities to the astigmatic case.

  5. Next generation data harmonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  6. Second harmonic FEL oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Freund, H. P.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2002-05-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by the high-average-power Jefferson Lab Infrared Free Electron Laser. The finite geometry and beam emittance allows sufficient gain for lasing to occur. We were able to lase at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM 01 mode. We present results of initial source performance measurements and comparisons with theory and simulation.

  7. Second Harmonic FEL Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2001-08-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by a free electron laser. Although such lasing is ideally forbidden, since the gain of a plane wave is zero on axis for an electron beam perfectly aligned with a wiggler, a transverse mode antisymmetry allows sufficient gain in this experiment for lasing to occur. We lased at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM01 mode.

  8. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  9. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  10. Medical school curriculum characteristics associated with intentions and frequency of tobacco dependence treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Rashelle B.; Geller, Alan C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Jolicoeur, Denise; Churchill, Linda C.; Okuyemi, Kola; David, Sean P.; Adams, Michael; Waugh, Jonathan; Allen, Sharon S.; Leone, Frank T.; Fauver, Randy; Leung, Katherine; Liu, Qin; Ockene, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students. Methods Third year medical students (N=1065, 49.3% male) from 10 U.S. medical schools completed a survey in 2009-2010 assessing student characteristics, including demographics, tobacco treatment knowledge, and self-efficacy. Tobacco curricula characteristics assessed included amount and type of classroom instruction, frequency of tobacco treatment observation, instruction, and perception of preceptors as role models. Results Greater tobacco treatment knowledge, self-efficacy, and curriculum-specific variables were associated with 5A intentions, while younger age, tobacco treatment self-efficacy, intentions, and each curriculum-specific variable was associated with greater 5A behaviors. When controlling for important student variables, greater frequency of receiving 5A instruction (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.12) and perception of preceptors as excellent role models in tobacco treatment (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.04-1.75) were significant curriculum predictors of 5A intentions. Greater 5A instruction (B = .06 (.03); p< .05) and observation of tobacco treatment (B= .35 (.02); p< .001) were significant curriculum predictors of greater 5A behaviors. Conclusions Greater exposure to tobacco treatment teaching during medical school is associated with both greater intentions to use and practice tobacco 5As. Clerkship preceptors, or those physicians who provide training to medical students, may be particularly influential when they personally model and instruct students in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:25572623

  11. US Marine 3rd Tank Battalion lubrication evaluation under hot ambient temperatures at Twenty-Nine Palms, California. Interim report, April-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, W.E.; Owens, E.C.; Frame, E.A.; Bowen, T.C.

    1988-09-01

    Military Specification MIL-L-2104D, Lubricating Oil, Internal Combustion Engines, Tactical Service, was released 1 April 1983. This specification included a multiviscosity OE/HDO-15/40 oil and eliminated a previously authorized OE/HDO-50 oil. The manufacturer of the AVDS-1790 series engines used in M60 battle tanks and M88 tank retrievers raised raised concerns about warranty coverage. The U.S. Marine Corps indicated that the use of the authorized 15W-40 grade oil did not offer sufficient lubrication for the engines and also resulted in M60 final drive leaks. As a result of these concerns, the U.S. Army Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (Belvoir RDE Center) authorized an oil comparison test that, by agreement with the U.S. Marine Corps, would be conducted at the U.S. Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (USMCAGCC) at Twenty-Nine Palms, CA using the U.S. Marine 3rd Tank Battalion (3DTKBn). The test vehicles of A Company, 3DTKBn were charged with regular issue 50-grade oil in the engine, 10-grade oil in the transmission, and 50-grade oil in the M60 final drives. B Company's test vehicles were charged with 15W-40 grade oil in the engines, transmissions, and M60 final drives. C Company's test vehicles were charged with 40-grade oil in the engines, 10-grade oil in the transmissions, and 50-grade oil in the final drives. Results from this 4-month test indicated no discernible differences in engine or transmission operating temperatures, engine oil pressures, or M60 final drive leaks.

  12. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  13. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples. PMID:24368229

  14. Characterization of cavity wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, James A.

    Scope and Method of Study. This research focused on flow over deep cavities at subsonic speeds with emphasis on the wake downstream of the cavity. Cavity wake behaviors have not been studied in detail and are a major concern for air vehicles with cavities and in particular for optical sensor systems installed in cavities. Other key behaviors for sensor survival and performance are cavity resonance and turbulence scales in the shear layer. A wind tunnel test apparatus was developed to explore cavity and wake characteristics. It consisted of a test section insert for the OSU Indraft Wind Tunnel with an additional contraction cone for significantly increased speed. The test section included a variable depth cavity in a boundary layer splitter plate/fairing assembly, a Y-Z traverse and pitot rake with in-situ pressure transducers for high frequency response. Flows were measured over clean cavities with length to depth (L/D) ratios of 4 to 1/2 and on cavities with a porous fence for resonance suppression. Measurements were taken in streamwise and cross-stream sections to three cavity lengths downstream of the cavity trailing edge. Flow visualization using laser sheet and smoke injection was also used. Findings and Conclusions. The high speed insert demonstrated a significant new capability for the OSU wind tunnel, reaching speeds of 0.35 Mach (390 feet/second) in a 14"x14" test section. Inlet room flow was found to be quite unsteady and recommendations are made for improved flow and quantitative visualization. Key findings for cavity wake flow include its highly three dimensional nature with asymmetric peaks in cross section with boundary layer thicknesses and integral length scales several times that of a normal flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Turbulent intensities (TI) of 35% to 55% of freestream speeds were measured for the clean configuration. Fence configuration TI's were 20% to 35% of free stream and, in both configurations, TI's decayed to

  15. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  16. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  17. Proposed Cavity for Reduced Slip-Stacking Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs a novel dynamical mechanism to improve the performance of slip-stacking. Slip-stacking in an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly double the proton intensity. During slip-stacking, the Recycler or the Main Injector stores two particles beams that spatially overlap but have different momenta. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused by two 53 MHz 100 kV RF cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV RF cavity, with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main RF frequencies. In simulation, we find the proposed RF cavity significantly enhances the stable bucket area and reduces slip-stacking losses under reasonable injection scenarios. We quantify and map the stability of the parameter space for any accelerator implementing slip-stacking with the addition of a harmonic RF cavity.

  18. Optimization of the BCP processing of elliptical nb srf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Cooper, C.; Rowe, A.; Galasso, G.; /Udine U.

    2006-06-01

    At present, the electropolishing (EP) process is considered the key technology unleashing the capability to produce Niobium SRF cavities performing at or above 35 MV/m. Nevertheless buffered chemical polishing (BCP) remains a cheap, simple and effective processing technique for single grain high gradient and polycrystalline lower gradient cavities. BCP will be adopted to chemically process the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities being fabricated at Fermilab [1]. The dimensions and the shape of these cavities yield a strong nonuniformity in the material removal between iris and equator of the cells. This paper describes the thermal-fluid finite element model adopted to simulate the process, the experimental flow visualization tests performed to verify the simulation and a novel device fabricated to solve the problem.

  19. CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OF A BUNCH ROTATION CAVITY FOR A PION PRODUCTION AND CAPTURE EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    RATHKE,J.; SCHULTHEISS,T.; ROSE,J.; KIRK,H.

    2001-06-18

    A conceptual design for a pion bunch rotator cavity has been performed. The cavity is an integral part of a pion production target and capture system envisioned as an experiment on the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory in support of the Muon Collider Collaboration [1]. The design specification calls for a single gap cavity operating at peak fields of 6 MV/m, limited by available RF, and an RF frequency of approximately 71 MHz, a harmonic of AGS. The cavity is located directly following the capture and matching solenoids and must accommodate the decay solenoids within the reentrant noses of the cavity. These requirements place severe restrictions upon the physical structure of the cavity. This paper will present the engineering design and supporting RF, thermal, and structural analysis to achieve a mechanically stable cavity with good steady state and transient thermal and RF performance. In addition, design details and the approach to fabrication will be discussed.

  20. Design of interaction cavity for 170 GHz, 1 MW ITER gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Nitin; Khatun, Hasina; Singh, Udaybir; Sinha, A.K. E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in; Vyas, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper the design of interaction cavity for 170 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron is presented. An in-house developed code GCOMS has been used for operating mode selection and mode competition. For 170 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron interaction cavity TE28, 7 mode excite as a operating mode at the fundamental harmonic number. The electromagnetic simulator-MAGIC, a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code has been used for the cold cavity analysis and the beam-wave interaction. More than 1MW output power has been achieved at guiding cavity magnetic field 6.77 T. (author)

  1. Gyrotron with a sectioned cavity based on excitation of a far-from-cutoff operating mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A typical problem of weakly relativistic low-power gyrotrons (especially in the case of operation at high cyclotron harmonics) is the use of long cavities ensuring extremely high diffraction Q-factors for the operating near-cutoff waves. As a result, a great share of the rf power radiated by electrons is spent in Ohmic losses. In this paper, we propose to use a sectioned cavity with π-shifts of the wave phase between sections. In such a cavity, a far-from-cutoff axial mode of the operating cavity having a decreased diffraction Q-factor is excited by the electron beam in a gyrotron-like regime.

  2. Status of 3.9 GHz superconducting RF cavity technology at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, E.; Arkan, T.; Bellantoni, L.; Carter, H.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Khabiboulline, T.; Mitchell, D.; Olis, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is involved in an effort to assemble 3.9 GHz superconducting RF cavities into a four cavity cryomodule for use at the DESY TTF/FLASH facility as a third harmonic structure. The design gradient of the cavities is 14 MV/m. This effort involves design, fabrication, intermediate testing, assembly, and eventual delivery of the cryomodule. We report on all facets of this enterprise from design through future plans. Included will be test results of single 9-cell cavities, lessons learned, and current status.

  3. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  4. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  5. Harmonic generation at high intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

  6. Liquid laser cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, S.; Filipescu, N.; Kellermeyer, G. L.; Mc Avoy, N.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid laser cavities have plenum chambers at the ends of the capillary cell which are terminated in transparent optical flats. By use of these cavities, several new europium chelates and a terbium chelate can provide laser action in solution at room temperature.

  7. Non-linear optics of ultrastrongly coupled cavity polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Liu, Bin; McMaster, Michael; Singer, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Experiments at CWRU have developed organic cavity polaritons that display world-record vacuum Rabi splittings of more than an eV. This ultrastrongly coupled polaritonic matter is a new regime for exploring non-linear optical effects. We apply quantum optics theory to quantitatively determine various non-linear optical effects including types of low harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in single and double cavity polariton systems. Ultrastrongly coupled photon-matter systems such as these may be the foundation for technologies including low-power optical switching and computing.

  8. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  9. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  10. MODEL HARMONIZATION POTENTIAL AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IPCS Harmonization Project, which is currently ongoing under the auspices of the WHO, in the context of chemical risk assessment or exposure modeling, does not imply global standardization. Instead, harmonization is thought of as an effort to strive for consistency among appr...

  11. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  12. SURFACE ENHANCED SECOND HARMONIC GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. K.; de Castro, A. R.B.; Shen, Y. R.

    1980-09-01

    Second harmonic generation at a silver-air interface was enhanced due to surface roughness by a factor of 10{sup 4}. The local field enhancement is believed to be responsible for the effect. An unusually broad luminescence background extending far beyond the antiStokes side of the second harmonic was also observed.

  13. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  14. Harmonic diffractive lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, D.W.; Sommargren, G.E.

    1995-05-10

    The harmonic diffractive lens is a diffractive imaging lens for which the optical path-length transition between adjacent facets is an integer multiple {ital m} of the design wavelength {lambda}{sub 0}. The total lens thickness in air is {ital m}{lambda}{sub 0}/({ital n} {minus} 1), which is {ital m} times thicker than the so-called modulo 2{pi} diffractive lens. Lenses constructed in this way have hybrid properties of both refractive and diffractive lenses. Such a lens will have a diffraction-limited, common focus for a number of discrete wavelengths across the visible spectrum. A 34.75-diopter, 6-mm-diameter lens is diamond turned in aluminum and replicated in optical materials. The sag of the lens is 23 {mu}m. Modulation transfer function measurements in both monochromatic and white light verify the performance of the lens. The lens approaches the diffraction limit for 10 discrete wavelengths across the visible spectrum.

  15. Galilean covariant harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single particle is described. Within the proposed formalism, all non-covariant force laws defining acting forces which become to be defined covariantly by some differential equations are rejected. Such an approach leads out of the standard classical mechanics and gives an example of non-Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that the exactly solvable linear system of differential equations defining forces contains the Galilean covariant description of harmonic oscillator as its particular case. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in Galilean covariant classical mechanics the validity of the second Newton law of dynamics implies the Hooke law and vice versa. It is shown that the kinetic and total energies transform differently with respect to the Galilean transformations.

  16. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  17. Dynamics of Flat Bunches with Second Harmonic RF

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; Bhat, Chandra; Kim, Hyung Jin; Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of longitudinally flat bunches created with a second harmonic cavity in a high energy collider. We study Landau damping in a second harmonic cavity with analytical and numerical methods. The latter include particle tracking and evolution of the phase space density. The results are interpreted in the context of possible application to the LHC. A possible path to a luminosity upgrade at the LHC is through the creation of longitudinally flat bunches. They can increase the luminosity roughly by 40% when the beam intensities are at the beam-beam limit. Lower momentum spread which can reduce backgrounds and make collimation easier as well lower peak fields which can mitigate electron cloud effects are other advantages. Use of a second harmonic rf system is a frequently studied method to create such flat bunches. Here we consider some aspects of longitudinal dynamics of these bunches in the LHC at top energy. First we consider intensity limits set by the loss of Landau damping against rigid dipole oscillations. Next we describe numerical simulations using both particle tracking and evolution of the phase space density. These simulations address the consequences of driving a bunch at a frequency that corresponds to the maximum of the synchrotron frequency.

  18. Two-pass-internal second-harmonic generation using a prism coupler.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, D. G.; Nieh, S. T. K.; Steier, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A dispersive quartz prism is used to couple the total second harmonic generated in both directions by an internal cavity frequency doubler. The study shows that the dispersion of air and mirror reflection phase shifts can be compensated for by a slight nonphase match condition in the doubler.

  19. Resonant cascaded surface-emitting second-harmonic generation: a strong third-order nonlinear process.

    PubMed

    Khurgin, J B; Ding, Y J

    1994-07-15

    A novel practical scheme for implementation of the cascaded nonlinearity with surface-emitting second-harmonic generation in the Fabry-Perot cavity is presented. We show that such a scheme can be efficiently used for optical limiting and optical phase conjugation at a pump power of lessthan 100 mW. PMID:19844518

  20. Study of the emission spectra of a 1320-nm semiconductor disk laser and its second harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochelashvili, K. S.; Derzhavin, S. I.; Evdokimova, O. N.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Podmazov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral characteristics of an optically pumped external-cavity semiconductor disk laser near λ = 1320 nm are studied experimentally. Intracavity second harmonic generation is obtained using an LBO nonlinear crystal. The output power at a wavelength of 660 nm in the cw regime was 620 mW, and the peak power in the pulsed regime was 795 mW.

  1. Vector solitons in harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habruseva, Tatiana; Mkhitaryan, Mkhitar; Mou, Chengbo; Rozhin, Aleksey; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Sergeyev, Sergey V.

    2014-05-01

    We report experimental study of vector solitons for the fundamental and harmonic mode-locked operation in erbiumdoper fiber lasers with carbon nanotubes based saturable absorbers and anomalous dispersion cavities. We measure evolution of the output pulses polarization and demonstrate vector solitons with various polarization attractors, including locked polarization, periodic polarization switching, and polarization precession.

  2. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  3. Improved Design Of A Second Harmonic Ku-Band Gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Wes; Gouveia, Emmanuel; Hogan, Bart; Huebschmann, Ben; Granatstein, Victor

    2002-11-01

    At the University of Maryland, we have been exploring the use of gyroklystrons to drive advanced linear colliders. Recently, we produced over 75 MW of peak power at 8.57 GHz with a 3 cavity 1st harmonic coaxial system and about 27 MW at 17.14 GHz with a 3 cavity, frequency-doubling system. [1,2] In the latter scheme the input cavity is driven near the cyclotron frequency in the TE011 mode, but the buncher and output cavities operate at twice the drive frequency in the TE021 mode. The output signal is extracted axially in the TE02 mode in over-moded circular waveguide. Both systems were designed for 80 MW of output power with an efficiency above 34instabilities and nonuniform beam density. Based on these results, we have designed an improved 4-cavity frequency-doubling system. The tube should be more stable to instabilities and has a high theoretical gain in order to enable us to use a phase-stable TWT driver. In addition, we have redesigned the electron emitter to enhance beam quality. The results of these efforts will be detailed, along with our preparations to use the tube to energize a linear accelerator structure. 1. J. Cheng, et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 27, pp. 1175-1187 (1999). 2. M. Castle, Ph. D. Thesis (March 2001, University of Maryland).

  4. Harmonic Ratcheting for Ferrite Tuned RF Acceleration of Charged Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathan; Brennan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    One of the most persistent difficulties in the design of RF cavities for acceleration of charged particles is the rapid and efficient acceleration of particles over a large range of frequencies. From medical synchrotrons to accelerator driven systems, there is a strong need for fast acceleration of protons and light ions over hundreds of MeV. Conventionally, this is a costly undertaking, requiring specially designed ferrite loaded cavities to be tuned over a large range of frequencies. Ferromagnetic materials allow for the precise adjustment of cavity resonant frequency, but rapid changes in the frequency as well as operation outside material specific frequency ranges result in significant Q-loss to the cavity. This leads to a considerable increase in power required and is thus undesirable for regular operation. We introduce an acceleration scheme known as harmonic ratcheting which can be used to reduce the cavity frequency range needed for accelerating an ion beam in a synchrotron. In particular, this scheme addresses the need for high rep. rate machines for applications such as radiation therapy in which low beam intensity is needed. We demonstrate with simulations the type of ramps achievable using this technique and consider its advantages over h=1 acceleration schemes.

  5. Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).

  6. Observations of High Frequency Harmonics of the Ionospheric Alfven Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Bortnik, Jacob; Milling, David; Kale, Andy; Shao, Leo; Miles, David; Rae, I. Jonathan

    We present observations of high frequency harmonics of the ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR). These are seen in the form of spectral resonance structures (SRS) recorded by a ground-based search coil magnetometer sampling at 100 samples/s at the Ministik Lake station at L=4.2 within the expanded CARISMA magnetometer array. Previous observational studies have indicated that such SRS are typically confined to frequencies <~5 Hz with only several SRS harmonics being observed. We report the first observations of clear and discrete SRS, which we believe are harmonics of the IAR, and which extend to around 20 Hz in at least 10-12 clear SRS harmonics. We additionally demonstrate the utility of the Bortnik et al. (2007) auto-detection algorithm, designed for Pc1 wavepackets, for characterising the properties of the IAR. Our results also indicate that the cavity supporting SRS in the IAR at this time must be structured to support and trap much higher frequency IAR harmonics than previously assumed. This impacts the potential importance of the IAR for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, especially in relation to the impacts of incident Alfven waves on the ionosphere including Alfvenic aurora. Our observations also highlight the potential value of IAR observations for diagnosing the structure of the topside ionosphere, not least using the observed structure of the SRS. These are the first mid-latitude observations demonstrating that the IAR can extend to frequencies beyond those of the lowest few harmonics of the Schumann resonances - significantly suggesting the possibility that the Schumann resonance modes and the IAR may be coupled. The in-situ structure of the IAR is also examined by combining satellite data with conjugate measurements from the ground, and the impacts of the IAR for magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling examined.

  7. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  8. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  9. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  10. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  11. Development of a novel high power sub-THz second harmonic gyrotron.

    PubMed

    Notake, T; Saito, T; Tatematsu, Y; Fujii, A; Ogasawara, S; Agusu, La; Ogawa, I; Idehara, T; Manuilov, V N

    2009-11-27

    Record-breaking high power coherent radiation at a subterahertz frequency region from a gyrotron utilizing second harmonic resonance modes was attained with a simple cavity. In order to aim at high power and high frequency simultaneously, the oscillation mode was selected carefully enough to realize stable radiation free from mode competition. The cavity radius was determined from the viewpoints of the oscillation frequency, the coupling coefficient between the electron beam, and the rf-electric field. The cavity length was also optimized for the highest perpendicular efficiency. In addition, a new electron gun which is capable of generating a thin laminar beam for a large current was introduced. Consequently, single mode second harmonic radiation with powers of 52 and 37 kW at frequencies of about 349 and 390 GHz, respectively, was achieved. PMID:20366101

  12. Development of a Novel High Power Sub-THz Second Harmonic Gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Notake, T.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Fujii, A.; Ogasawara, S.; Agusu, La; Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Manuilov, V. N.

    2009-11-27

    Record-breaking high power coherent radiation at a subterahertz frequency region from a gyrotron utilizing second harmonic resonance modes was attained with a simple cavity. In order to aim at high power and high frequency simultaneously, the oscillation mode was selected carefully enough to realize stable radiation free from mode competition. The cavity radius was determined from the viewpoints of the oscillation frequency, the coupling coefficient between the electron beam, and the rf-electric field. The cavity length was also optimized for the highest perpendicular efficiency. In addition, a new electron gun which is capable of generating a thin laminar beam for a large current was introduced. Consequently, single mode second harmonic radiation with powers of 52 and 37 kW at frequencies of about 349 and 390 GHz, respectively, was achieved.

  13. High Conversion Efficiency and Power Stability of 532 nm Generation from an External Frequency Doubling Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Lin, Bai-Ke; Li, Ye; Zhang, Hong-Xi; Cao, Jian-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Jun; Li, Tian-Chu; Zang, Er-Jun

    2012-09-01

    We present a high-efficiency 532 nm green light conversion from an external cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) with a periodically poled KTP crystal (PPKTP). The cavity is a bow-tie ring configuration with a unitized structure. When the impedance matching is optimized, the coupling efficiency of the fundamental is as high as 95%. Taking into account both the high power output of the second harmonic and the stability of the system, we obtain over 500 mW green passing through the output cavity mirror, corresponding to a net conversion efficiency higher than 75.2%. Under these operating conditions, the power stability is better than ±0.25% during 5 h. It is the highest conversion efficiency and power stability ever produced in the bow-tie ring cavity with PPKTP for 532 nm generation.

  14. Creation and doubling of vortices in intracavity second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Oo-Kaw; Boland, Brian; Saffman, Mark; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-05-01

    Optical vortices are topological objects whose transformation properties under propagation in linear and nonlinear optical media have been the subject of much recent interest. In this work we demonstrate generation and frequency doubling of unit charge vortices in a linear astigmatic resonator. By appropriate alignment of a near confocal cavity we couple a fundamental laser beam at 860nm to a vortical resonator mode. With a nonlinear crystal in the resonator a doubly charged vortex at the second harmonic frequency is generated. Topological instability of the double charge harmonic vortices leads to well separated vortex cores that are shown to rotate and become anisotropic, as the resonator is tuned across resonance. A simple theory that accounts for crystal induced astigmatism agrees well with the experimental measurements.

  15. [Cold agglutinin disease -  no response to glucocorticoids and rituximab, what treatment is best for the 3rd line of therapy? Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Pejchalová, A; Chlupová, G; Ríhová, L; Pour, L; Krejčí, M; Cervinek, L; Král, Z; Mayer, J

    2013-09-01

    in about one  half of treated patients and the remission duration median after rituximab administration is 11 months. A combination of rituximab with fludarabin was more effective, though more toxic; this combination, in a clinical study, led to 75% of patients responding to treatment, including 20% experiencing complete remission. The treatment response median reached over 66 months. In a small study (10 patients) an increase in the amount of rituximab administrations from 4 to 8 led to a treatment response in 6 patients in whom administration of 4 doses of rituximab had no response. When treating Waldenström macroglobulinemia, effectiveness of the following drugs and their combinations was proven: rituximab, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, fludarabin, bortezomib, lenalidomid, bendamustin and alemtuzumab. The same drugs and treatment procedures are used for the treatment of the cold agglutinin disease as for Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Successful treatment with vortezomibem, combinations of rituximab + bendamustin, rituximab + cyclophosphamide or rituximab + fludarabin + cyclophosphamide, were recorded in the form of a description as regards the cold agglutinin disease treatment. An important benefit is also shown through treatment with the monoclonal antibody antiC5, eculizumab, which is otherwise used for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Eculizumab blocks the C5 element of the component and thus stops haemolysis in a patient with cold agglutinin disease. As cold agglutinin disease is very rare, there are only a few clinical studies and when treating this rare disease we have no other option than to take into account the information contained in the descriptions of the particular cases of cold agglutinin disease and the experience of Waldenström macroglobulinemia disease treatment. The discussion seeks to solve the issue regarding what 3rd line treatment option to use in the described patient. PMID:24073955

  16. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  17. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  18. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  19. Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak

    2009-02-15

    The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.

  20. Pythagorean Triples from Harmonic Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.; Tanner, Randy J.

    2001-01-01

    Shows how all primitive Pythagorean triples can be generated from harmonic sequences. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to explore how Pythagorean triples are connected with another area of mathematics. (KHR)

  1. Rosse, 3rd Earl of [William Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1800-67) and Rosse, 4th Earl of [Laurence Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1840-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Irish astronomer and landowner, the 3rd Lord Rosse was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and Oxford as a mathematician. He became interested in astronomy and made at the family castle in Birr a 36 in reflector with the same design as William Herschel's (see HERSCEL FAMILY). Mapped the Moon, and observed nebulae with the intent to resolve them into stars. He developed the technology at Birr Cast...

  2. Image Quality of 3rd Generation Spiral Cranial Dual-Source CT in Combination with an Advanced Model Iterative Reconstruction Technique: A Prospective Intra-Individual Comparison Study to Standard Sequential Cranial CT Using Identical Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Máté E.; Meyer, Mathias; Förster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Flohr, Thomas; Leidecker, Christianne; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively intra-individually compare image quality of a 3rd generation Dual-Source-CT (DSCT) spiral cranial CT (cCT) to a sequential 4-slice Multi-Slice-CT (MSCT) while maintaining identical intra-individual radiation dose levels. Methods 35 patients, who had a non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT examination on a 4-slice MDCT within the past 12 months, underwent a spiral cCT scan on a 3rd generation DSCT. CTDIvol identical to initial 4-slice MDCT was applied. Data was reconstructed using filtered backward projection (FBP) and 3rd-generation iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm at 5 different IR strength levels. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated subjective image quality using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was assessed in white matter and nucleus caudatus with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) being subsequently calculated. Results Subjective image quality of all spiral cCT datasets was rated significantly higher compared to the 4-slice MDCT sequential acquisitions (p<0.05). Mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral compared to sequential cCT datasets with mean SNR improvement of 61.65% (p*Bonferroni0.05<0.0024). Subjective image quality improved with increasing IR levels. Conclusion Combination of 3rd-generation DSCT spiral cCT with an advanced model IR technique significantly improves subjective and objective image quality compared to a standard sequential cCT acquisition acquired at identical dose levels. PMID:26288186

  3. A novel mutation in Prph2, a gene regulated by Nr2e3, causes retinal degeneration and outer segment defects similar to Nr2e3rd7/rd7 retinas

    PubMed Central

    Nystuen, Arne M.; Sachs, Andrew J.; Yuan, Yang; Heuermann, Laura; Haider, Neena B.

    2014-01-01

    The nmf193 mutant was generated by a large-scale ENU mutagenesis screen and originally described as having a dominantly inherited phenotype characterized by fundus abnormalities. We determined that nmf193 mice exhibit outer segment defects and progressive retinal degeneration. Clinical examination revealed retinal spotting apparent at 6 weeks of age. Histological analysis of homozygous mutant mice at 6 weeks indicated an absence of outer segments (OS) and a 50% reduction of photoreceptor cells which progressed to complete loss of photoreceptors by 10 months. Mice heterozygous for the nmf193 mutation had a less severe phenotype of shortened outer segments at 2 months with progressive loss of photoreceptor cells to 50% by 10 months. A positional cloning approach using a DNA pooling strategy was performed to identify the causative mutation in nmf193 mice. The nmf193 mutation linked to chromosome 17 and fine mapped to an interval containing the peripherin/rds (Prph2) gene. Mutation analysis identified a single base change in Prph2 that causes aberrant splicing between exon 1 and 2. Interestingly, a comparative histological analysis demonstrated that Prph2nmf193/+ mutants have similar photoreceptor degeneration to that of Nr2e3rd7/rd7. We show that Prph2 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in the Nr2e3rd7/rd7 mutant compared to control littermates. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that Prph2 is a direct target of NR2E3. In addition, the down-regulation of Prph2 gene expression is similar in both the Nr2e3rd7/rd7 and Prph2nmf193/+ mutants suggesting that the reduction of Prph2 may contribute to the degenerative pathology seen in Nr2e3rd7/rd7. PMID:18763016

  4. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  5. Control of Cavity Resonance Using Steady and Oscillatory Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamp, Alison M.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study to investigate the effect of steady and oscillatory (with zero net mass flux) blowing on cavity resonance is undertaken. The objective is to study the basic mechanisms of the control of cavity resonance. An actuator is designed and calibrated to generate either steady blowing or oscillatory blowing with A zero net mass flux. The results of the experiment show that both steady and oscillatory blowing are effective, and reduce the amplitude of the dominant resonant mode by 1OdB. The oscillatory blowing is however found to be more superior in that the same effectiveness could be accomplished with a momentum coefficient an order of magnitude smaller than for steady blowing. The experiment also confirms the results of previous computations that suggest the forcing frequency for oscillatory blowing must not be at harmonic frequencies of the cavity resonant modes.

  6. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  7. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  8. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  9. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  10. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Gallegos, P.; Ahmed, H.; Ragozin, E. N.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Kawachi, T.; Sagisaka, A.; Koga, J. K.; Coury, M.; Green, J.; Foster, P.; Brenner, C.; Dromey, B.; Symes, D. R.; Mori, M.; Kawase, K.; Kameshima, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L. M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Nishimori, N.; Imazono, T.; Kondo, K.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.; Daido, H.; Rajeev, P.; Mckenna, P.; Borghesi, M.; Neely, D.; Kato, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  12. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  13. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  14. Multicolor cavity soliton.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui; Liang, Hanxiao; Lin, Qiang

    2016-07-25

    We show a new class of complex solitary wave that exists in a nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The cavity soliton consists of multiple soliton-like spectro-temporal components that exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, formed together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor cavity soliton shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which would be very useful for versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy. PMID:27464131

  15. Cooling of a mirror in cavity optomechanics with a chirped pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-11-15

    We investigate the response of a harmonically confined mirror to an optical pulse in cavity optomechanics. We show that when the pulsed coupling strength takes the form of a chirped pulse, thermal fluctuations of the mirror can be significantly transferred to the cavity field. In addition, the frequency modulation of the pulse could enable a better cooling performance by suppressing the sensitivity of the dependence of detuning and pulse areas. Using numerical investigations, we find that the pulsed cooling is mainly limited by the cavity-field decay rate.

  16. Thermally induced vibrations in a generalized thermoelastic solid with a cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Erbay, H.A.; Erbay, S.; Dost, S. )

    1991-06-01

    The present work deals with thermally induced vibrations in an infinite solid with a cavity. The medium is assumed to be linear, isotropic, temperature-rate-dependent thermoelastic. The problem is solved for the cases of cylindrical and spherical cavities. The surface of the cavity is assumed to be subjected to a temperature varying harmonically with time, and free of stress. For the cases considered, the coupled field equations admit exact solutions in terms of Hankel and the spherical Hankel functions, respectively. Numerical results are compared with those of classical thermoelasticity. The contribution of the second sound parameters in these problems becomes more significant as the frequency of applied temperature increases. 8 refs.

  17. The auroral plasma cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    A region of diminished plasma density has been found to occur at the source of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). The density within this auroral plasma cavity, determined from limited Hawkeye wave data, was less than 1/cu cm from 1.8 to 3 earth radii geocentric, at 70 deg + or - 3 deg invariant magnetic latitude. The altitude variation of the magnetic field produces a minimum in the ratio of plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency within the cavity which accounts for the observed spectrum of AKR.

  18. Experimental investigation of a phase-locked harmonic multiplying inverted gyrotwystron

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.; Rodgers, J.; Chen, S.; Walter, M.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Maryland is investigating harmonic multiplication as a means of generating high frequency, large bandwidth, high power microwaves with reduced magnetic fields and high subharmonic injection gain. The current experimental efforts are concentrated on two-stage devices. One of them is the phase-locked, harmonic-multiplying inverted gyrotwystron (phigtron) which uses a MIG produced electron beam (60 kV, 10 A), a combined mode launcher/input coupler, a Ku band fundamental gyro-TWT prebunching section, a radiation-free drift section, and a Ka band special complex cavity as output section. The bandwidth of this phigtron is expected to be improved over that of a gyroklystron since the input cavity is replaced by a traveling wave interaction structure. The second harmonic content of the beam may develop within both the input section and the drift space, and this allows the use of a smaller input signal. For a proof-of-principle experiment, a hot test tube was built. Initial experimental data will be provided in this presentation and will be compared with theoretical predictions. Finally, the feasibility of sing a phigtron configuration with second harmonic prebunching and fourth harmonic output to realize a compact, high performance MMW power source at 94 GHz will be discussed.

  19. Experimental investigation of a phased-locked harmonic multiplying inverted gyrotwystron

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H.; Rodgers, J.; Chen, S.; Walter, M.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Maryland is investigating harmonic multiplication as a means of generating high frequency, large bandwidth, high power microwaves with reduced magnetic field and high subharmonic injection gain. The current experimental efforts are concentrated don two-stage devices. One of them is the phase-locked, harmonic-multiplying inverted gyrotwystron (phigtron) which uses a MIG produced electron beam (60 kV, 10 A), a combined mode launcher/input coupler, a Ku band fundamental gyro-TWT prebunching section, a radiation-free drift section, and a Ka band special complex cavity as output section. The bandwidth of this phigtron is expected to be improved over that of a gyroklystron since the input cavity is replaced by a traveling wave interaction structure. The second harmonic content of the beam may develop within both the input section and the drift space, and this allows the use of a smaller input signal. For a proof-of-principle experiment, a hot test tube was built. Initial experimental data will be provided in this presentation and will be compared with theoretical predictions. Finally, the feasibility of using a phigtron configuration with second harmonic prebunching and fourth harmonic output to realize a compact, high performance MMW power source at 94 GHz is discussed.

  20. The influence of higher harmonic flow forces on the response of a curved circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Budz, Collin; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-09-01

    Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a curved circular cylinder (a quarter of a ring, with no extension added to either end) free to oscillate in the crossflow direction was studied experimentally. Both the concave and the convex orientations (with respect to the oncoming flow direction) were considered. As expected, the amplitude of oscillations in both configurations was decreased compared to a vertical cylinder with the same mass ratio. Flow visualizations showed that the vortices were shed in parallel to the curved cylinder, when the cylinder was free to oscillate. The sudden jump in the phase difference between the flow forces and the cylinder displacement observed in the VIV of vertical cylinders was not observed in the curved cylinders. Higher harmonic force components at frequencies twice and three times the frequency of oscillations were observed in flow forces acting on the vertical cylinder, as well as the curved cylinder. Asymmetry in the wake was responsible for the 2nd harmonic force component and the relative velocity of the structure with respect to the oncoming flow was responsible for the 3rd harmonic force component. The lock-in occurred over the same range of reduced velocities for the curved cylinder in the convex orientation as for a vertical cylinder, but it was extended to higher reduced velocities for a curved cylinder in the concave orientation. Higher harmonic force components were found to be responsible for the extended lock-in range in the concave orientation. Within this range, the higher harmonic forces were even larger than the first harmonic force and the structure was being excited mainly by these higher harmonic forces.

  1. Design of a Ka Band 35 kW CW Low-Voltage Harmonic Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Pu-Kun; Su, Yi Nong; Xu, Shou Xi; Xue, Qian Zhong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a continuous wave (CW) low-voltage second harmonic gyrotron with the conventional cavity has been preliminarily designed and evaluated with self-consistent nonlinear simulation code and the particle-in-cell code CHIPIC. The simulation results of the two codes are shown to be in agreement basically. The 35 kW CW output power of the designed harmonic gyrotron driven by a 25 kV 5.0A electron beam from a magnetron injection gun (MIG) is obtained. The maximum output power and the electronic efficiency of the gyrotron is about 35 kW and 30% respectively.

  2. Production of VUV coherent light by harmonic generation with the optical klystron of super-ACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prazeres, R.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Ortega, J. M.; Billardon, M.; Jaroszynski, D.

    1991-04-01

    The aim of the experiment presented was to develop a usable source of coherent light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range (200-50 nm) using the Super-ACO storage ring. A presentation is made of the most recent results where coherent photons have been produced at the 3rd (177 nm) and 5th (106 nm) harmonics of the incident laser. The better performance of the new machine and the laser, compared to the older ACO, is largely offset by experimental difficulties. The number of photons is, however. larger than that obtained with the ACO, but it is approximately one order of magnitude below the expected rate. This seems to be due to positron beam instabilities. The authors believe that the extremely critical alignment of the whole experiment, from the injection laser to the monochromator, does not appear to be compatible with a user facility.

  3. Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Magouroux, Thibaud; Vernet, Remi; Extermann, Jérôme; Crotty, Darragh; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Ciepielewski, Daniel; Volkov, Yuri; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Jaconi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In this visualized experiment, protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with second harmonic generation nanoparticles (HNPs). The latter are a new family of probes recently introduced for labeling biological samples for multi-photon imaging. HNPs are capable of doubling the frequency of excitation light by the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation with no restriction on the excitation wavelength. Multi-photon based methodologies for hESC differentiation into cardiac clusters (maintained as long term air-liquid cultures) are presented in detail. In particular, evidence on how to maximize the intense second harmonic (SH) emission of isolated HNPs during 3D monitoring of beating cardiac tissue in 3D is shown. The analysis of the resulting images to retrieve 3D displacement patterns is also detailed. PMID:24836220

  4. Harmonic nanoparticles for regenerative research.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Magouroux, Thibaud; Vernet, Remi; Extermann, Jérôme; Crotty, Darragh; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Ciepielewski, Daniel; Volkov, Yuri; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Jaconi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In this visualized experiment, protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with second harmonic generation nanoparticles (HNPs). The latter are a new family of probes recently introduced for labeling biological samples for multi-photon imaging. HNPs are capable of doubling the frequency of excitation light by the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation with no restriction on the excitation wavelength. Multi-photon based methodologies for hESC differentiation into cardiac clusters (maintained as long term air-liquid cultures) are presented in detail. In particular, evidence on how to maximize the intense second harmonic (SH) emission of isolated HNPs during 3D monitoring of beating cardiac tissue in 3D is shown. The analysis of the resulting images to retrieve 3D displacement patterns is also detailed. PMID:24836220

  5. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  6. Localization and vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.

  7. Quantum dynamics and spectra of vibrational Raman-resonance fluorescence in a two-mode cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Sete, Eyob A.; Liu, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We study the classically driven two-level system with its center-of-mass motion vibrating in a harmonic trap and coupled to the photons in a two-mode cavity. The first mode is resonant to the driving field and an electronic transition. The second mode is off-resonant, forming a vibrational-assisted Raman transition. Using an exact numerical method, we investigate the quantum dynamics of the light emitted by the atom and the cavity modes. We analyze and compare the corresponding atomic and intracavity photon spectra for a range of the driving laser field and the cavity coupling strengths. The results provide better understanding of the effects of the laser field and atom-cavity coupling strengths on quantum interference effects and photon blockade, particularly the Mollow's triplet and the Autler-Townes splitting in the good and bad cavity limits.

  8. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  9. Seamless/bonded niobium cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.

    2006-07-01

    Technological aspects and performance of seamless cavities produced by hydroforming are presented. Problems related to the fabrication of seamless cavities from bulk niobium are mainly solved thanks to the progress of the last years. The highest achieved accelerating gradients are comparable for both seamless and welded versions (ca. 40 MV/m) Nevertheless further development of seamless cavities is desirable in order to avoid the careful preparation of parts for welding and get reliable statistic. Fabrication of NbCu clad cavities from bimetallic tubes is an interesting option that gives new opportunity to the seamless technique. On the one hand it allows reducing the niobium costs contribution; on the other hand it increases the thermal stability of the cavity. The highest accelerating gradient achieved on seamless NbCu clad single cell cavities (ca. 40 MV/m) is comparable to the one reached on bulk Nb cavities. Fabrication of multi-cell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was recently proven.

  10. Effective Cavity Length of Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators for electron cyclotron heating and non-inductive current drive (ECH&CD) in magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas have relatively low cavity quality factors in the range of 1000 to 2000. The effective length of their cavities cannot be simply deduced from the cavity electric field profile, since this has by far not a Gaussian shape. The present paper presents a novel method to estimate the effective length of a gyrotron cavity just from the eigenvalue of the operating TEm,n mode, the cavity radius and the exact oscillation frequency which may be numerically computed or precisely measured. This effective cavity length then can be taken to calculate the Fresnel parameter in order to confirm that the cavity is not too short so that the transverse structure of any mode in the cavity is the same as that of the corresponding mode in a long circular waveguide with the same diameter.

  11. Optical-parametric-oscillator solitons driven by the third harmonic.

    PubMed

    Lutsky, Vitaly; Malomed, Boris A

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a model of a lossy second-harmonic-generating (chi(2)) cavity externally pumped at the third harmonic, which gives rise to driving terms of a new type, corresponding to a cross-parametric gain. The equation for the fundamental-frequency (FF) wave may also contain a quadratic self-driving term, which is generated by the cubic nonlinearity of the medium. Unlike previously studied phase-matched models of chi(2) cavities driven at the second harmonic or at FF, the present one admits an exact analytical solution for the soliton, at a special value of the gain parameter. Two families of solitons are found in a numerical form, and their stability area is identified through numerical computation of the perturbation eigenvalues (stability of the zero solution, which is a necessary condition for the soliton's stability, is investigated in an analytical form). One family is a continuation of the special analytical solution. At given values of the parameters, one soliton is stable and the other one is not; they swap their stability at a critical value of the mismatch parameter. The stability of the solitons is also verified in direct simulations, which demonstrate that an unstable pulse rearranges itself into a stable one, or into a delocalized state, or decays to zero. A soliton which was given an initial boost C starts to move but quickly comes to a halt, if the boost is smaller than a critical value C(cr) . If C > C(cr) , the boost destroys the soliton (sometimes, through splitting into two secondary pulses). Interactions between initially separated solitons are investigated, too. It is concluded that stable solitons always merge into a single one. In the system with weak loss, it appears in a vibrating form, slowly relaxing to the static shape. With stronger loss, the final soliton emerges in the stationary form. PMID:15697523

  12. Optical-parametric-oscillator solitons driven by the third harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsky, Vitaly; Malomed, Boris A.

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a model of a lossy second-harmonic-generating (χ(2)) cavity externally pumped at the third harmonic, which gives rise to driving terms of a new type, corresponding to a cross-parametric gain. The equation for the fundamental-frequency (FF) wave may also contain a quadratic self-driving term, which is generated by the cubic nonlinearity of the medium. Unlike previously studied phase-matched models of χ(2) cavities driven at the second harmonic or at FF, the present one admits an exact analytical solution for the soliton, at a special value of the gain parameter. Two families of solitons are found in a numerical form, and their stability area is identified through numerical computation of the perturbation eigenvalues (stability of the zero solution, which is a necessary condition for the soliton’s stability, is investigated in an analytical form). One family is a continuation of the special analytical solution. At given values of the parameters, one soliton is stable and the other one is not; they swap their stability at a critical value of the mismatch parameter. The stability of the solitons is also verified in direct simulations, which demonstrate that an unstable pulse rearranges itself into a stable one, or into a delocalized state, or decays to zero. A soliton which was given an initial boost C starts to move but quickly comes to a halt, if the boost is smaller than a critical value Ccr . If C>Ccr , the boost destroys the soliton (sometimes, through splitting into two secondary pulses). Interactions between initially separated solitons are investigated, too. It is concluded that stable solitons always merge into a single one. In the system with weak loss, it appears in a vibrating form, slowly relaxing to the static shape. With stronger loss, the final soliton emerges in the stationary form.

  13. Eddy current scanning of niobium for SRF cavities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Antoine, C.; Cooper, C.; Brinkmann, A.; /DESY

    2006-08-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for subsurface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic, the ILC, and the Proton Driver cavities. After optical inspection, more than 400 squares and disks have been scanned and when necessary checked at the optical and electron microscopes, anodized, or measured with profilometers looking for surface imperfections that might limit the performance of the cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the classification of signals being detected.

  14. The ENCCA-WP7/EuroSarc/EEC/PROVABES/EURAMOS 3rd European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting/Joint Workshop of EU Bone Sarcoma Translational Research Networks; Vienna, Austria, September 24-25, 2015. Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Kager, Leo; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hassan, Bass; Anninga, Jakob; Bennister, Lindsey; Bovée, Judith V M G; Brennan, Bernadette; Broto, Javier M; Brugières, Laurence; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Copland, Christopher; Dutour, Aurélie; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Stefano; Fiocco, Marta; Fleuren, Emmy; Gaspar, Nathalie; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerrand, Craig; Gerß, Joachim; Gonzato, Ornella; van der Graaf, Winette; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Herrero-Martín, David; Klco-Brosius, Stephanie; Kovar, Heinrich; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lancia, Carlo; LeDeley, Marie-Cecile; McCabe, Martin G; Metzler, Markus; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela; Picci, Piero; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Reinke, Denise; Rutkowski, Piotr; Scotlandi, Katia; Strauss, Sandra; Thomas, David; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Vassal, Gilles; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3rd Joint ENCCA-WP7, EuroSarc, EEC, PROVABES, and EURAMOS European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting, which was held at the Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna, Austria on September 24-25, 2015. The joint bone sarcoma network meetings bring together European bone sarcoma researchers to present and discuss current knowledge on bone sarcoma biology, genetics, immunology, as well as results from preclinical investigations and clinical trials, to generate novel hypotheses for collaborative biological and clinical investigations. The ultimate goal is to further improve therapy and outcome in patients with bone sarcomas. PMID:27315524

  15. Noise-like pulses generated at high harmonics in a partially-mode-locked km-long Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, A.; Barviau, B.; Fatome, J.; Finot, C.; Sylvestre, T.; Lee, M. W.; Grelu, P.; Millot, G.

    2012-02-01

    We present a 5-km-long Raman fiber laser that delivers pulses at high harmonics of the fundamental cavity repetition rate, up to 1 GHz. The observed nanosecond pulses that propagate in an anomalous dispersion regime possess a complex noise-like structure with a coherence time of around 1 picosecond.

  16. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  17. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  18. CAVITY CONTROL ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater

    2010-09-01

    A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.

  19. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    PubMed Central

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  20. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations. PMID:26481853

  1. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  2. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Cancer starts when cells in ... the parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

  3. Univalent harmonic mappings convex in one direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnusamy, S.; Kaliraj, A. Sairam

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a criterion for a harmonic function to be convex in one direction. Also, we discuss the class of harmonic functions starlike in one direction in the unit disk and obtain a method to construct univalent harmonic functions convex in one direction. Although the converse of classical Alexander's theorem for harmonic functions was proved to be false, we obtain a version of converse of it under a suitable additional condition.

  4. Single mode cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.W.; Levy, J.L.

    1984-01-17

    This external cavity laser utilizes an unstable resonator in conjuction with a high reflectivity stripe end mirror which is oriented substantially parallel to the plane of the maximum divergence of the laser diode output beam and whose axis is substantially parallel to the plane of the junction of the laser diode. This configuration operates with high efficiency to select only the fundamental mode of the laser diode with a minimal divergence in the output beam.

  5. Operation of a Second Harmonic, Ku-Band Gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Wes; Gouviea, Steve; Hogan, Bart; Huebschman, Ben; Spassovsky, Ivan; Granatstein, Victor

    2001-10-01

    At the University of Maryland, we have designed a 4-cavity Ku-Band second harmonic gyroklystron tube which is expected to produce peak powers in excess of 80 MW with gains above 50 dB. The first cavity is driven at about 8.57 GHz in the TE011 mode and the remainder of the cavities operate at twice the drive frequency in the TE021 mode. In this paper we describe the details of the design, cold-testing, and hot-testing of the microwave tube. We also present results for a new output waveguide system which is designed to transform the output signal of the gyroklystron into a configuration which can be used to drive a compact linear accelerator structure at 17.136 GHz. The transformation occurs in stages, with the TE02 mode converted to a TE01 mode via a rippled-wall converter, followed by a conversion to the TE20 mode in rectangular waveguide, and completed with a bifurcation and linear taper to (2) standard WR62 rectangular waveguides. Details of the theoretical and cold-test results for each subsection will be presented.

  6. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  7. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Shulte, D.; Jones, Roger M.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  8. CW, single-frequency 229nm laser source for Cd-cooling by harmonic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J. M.; Merzlyak, Yevgeny

    2015-02-01

    More than 200mW of CW 229nm for Cd atom cooling application was generated by the 4th harmonic of a single frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser using a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity. With 650mW of 458nm input, 216mW of 229nm power was observed. Conversion efficiency from 458nm to 229nm was more than 33%.

  9. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  10. Harmon Craig (1926-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Ray

    Harmon Craig, one of the great pioneers of isotope geochemistry died on 14 March after suffering a massive heart attack at his home in La Jolla, California. He was one day shy of his 77th birthday. Through an academic career of more than fifty years, Craig—or simply “Harmon,” as he was known throughout the world of geochemistry—made a remarkable number of fundamental and far-reaching contributions in a wide range of important areas concerned with the chemical and physical processes by which the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the solar system interact. While his research was broad in scope, it was also characterized by a strong emphasis on meticulous field and laboratory work, and on original and insightful interpretations of the resulting observations.

  11. High order harmonic mode-locking in an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser with a graphene oxide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. S.; Wang, Y. G.; Yan, P. G.; Zhang, G. L.; Zhao, J. Q.; Li, H. Q.; Lin, R. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A high order passive harmonic mode-locking (HML) Yb-doped all-normal-dispersion fiber laser based on a graphene oxide saturable absorber has been experimentally demonstrated. For two different pump powers and different polarization states of the laser cavity, lower order and higher order HML have been achieved. The highest 30th-order harmonic (31.86 MHz) was achieved with subnanosecond pulse duration; this is transitional from a bunched multipulse state.

  12. Superconducting cavities and modulated RF

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1981-02-01

    If a cavity has an infinite Q/sub o/, 81.5% of the energy contained in a pulse incident upon the cavity is transferred into the cavity by the end of the pulse if the cavity Q/sub e/ is chosen so that the cavity time constant is 0.796 pulse width (T/sub a/). As Q/sug o/ decreases, the energy in the cavity at the end of the pulse decreases very slowly as long as T/sub a/ is much less than the unloaded cavity time constant, T/sub co/. SC cavities with very high Q/sub o/ enable one to obtain very high gradients with a low power cw source. At high gradients, however, one often does not attain the high Q/sub o/ predicted by theory. Therefore, if one is inteerested in attaining maximum energy in the cavity, as is the case for RF processing and diagnostics, for a given available source energy there is no point in keeping the power on for longer than 0.1 T/sub co/ because the energy expended after 0.1 T/sub co/ is wasted. Therefore, to attain high fields at moderate Q/sub o/, pulsed operation is indicated. This note derives the fields and energy stored and dissipated in the cavity when Q/sub e/ is optimized for a given T/sub a/. It shows how to use this data to measure Q/sub o/ of an SC cavity as a function of field level, how to process the cavity with high RF fields, how to operate SC cavities in the pulsed mode to obtain higher efficiencies and gradients. Experimental results are also reported.

  13. Harmonic auroral kilometric radiation of natural origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1982-09-01

    When the ISIS 1 satellite passes through the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) source region the sounder receiver often detects harmonic bands of radiation associated with the fundamental AKR band. These harmonic components were earlier attributed to a nonlinear instrumental response to the strong wide-band bursty AKR fundamental signal. Evidence is here presented that indicates that these harmonics are of natural origin, namely: (1) all the harmonic signals are sometimes observed to have nearly the same bandwidth, (2) when the fundamental signal has two components the harmonic signal sometimes corresponds to the weaker rather than the stronger component, (3) a weak harmonic can be observed to be associated with a weak fundamental, and (4) a 'harmonic' signal can be observed when there is no fundamental.

  14. Harmonic auroral kilometric radiation of natural origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    When the ISIS 1 satellite passes through the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) source region the sounder receiver often detects harmonic bands of radiation associated with the fundamental AKR band. These harmonic components were earlier attributed to a nonlinear instrumental response to the strong wide-band bursty AKR fundamental signal. Evidence is here presented that indicates that these harmonics are of natural origin, namely: (1) all the harmonic signals are sometimes observed to have nearly the same bandwidth, (2) when the fundamental signal has two components the harmonic signal sometimes corresponds to the weaker rather than the stronger component, (3) a weak harmonic can be observed to be associated with a weak fundamental, and (4) a 'harmonic' signal can be observed when there is no fundamental.

  15. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Hovater; Hai Dong; Alicia Hofler; George Lahti; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2004-08-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the ne w design will use different receiver-transmitter daughter cards for each frequency. This paper discusses the development of the new RF system and reports on initial results.

  16. Cavity optomechanics - Manipulating mechanical motion at the quantum level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Cavity optomechanics is a rapidly-growing field in which mechanical degrees of freedom are coupled to modes of the electromagnetic field inside optical or microwave resonators. These devices may lead to ultra-sensitive mass and force sensors, provide long-range interaction between distant qubits, and serve as probes of quantum mechanics at increasingly large mass and length scales [for a review see e.g. Physics Today 65, 29 (2012)]. Adapting laser-cooling techniques from atomic physics several experiments have recently observed mechanical motion close to the quantum ground-state. This paves the way for exploiting mechanical systems in the quantum regime. In this talk I will address three problems. First, I will demonstrate that signatures of the intrinsically nonlinear interaction between light and mechanical motion in cavity optomechanical systems can be observed even when the cavity line width exceeds the optomechanical coupling [PRL 111, 053603 (2013)]. Second, I will discuss optomechanical systems in which the position of a mechanical oscillator modulates the line width of the cavity [NJP 15, 045017 (2013) and PRA 88, 023850 (2013)]. Finally, I will present a recent study on synchronization in a self-sustained oscillator coupled to an external harmonic drive [arXiv:1307.7044]. Work done in collaboration with Kjetil Børkje, Christoph Bruder, Steven M. Girvin, John D. Teufel, Stefan Walter, and Talitha Weiss.

  17. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Cavity-optomechanics” aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  18. Micro slant-processing by a harmonic nano-pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takahiro; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    Misapplications of tickets, bills, and cards which can be easily replicated have increased in present-day society, and there is no end to damage by misapplications. It is particularly issue that information can be easily snatched by a method of fraudulent procurement such as a card skimming. Damage of card skimming is increasing every year, but it still has had a weak damage consciousness. Effective countermeasures of misapplications are needed in order to prevent these crimes. Laser processing technology has, recently, been applied to prevent the unauthorized copies of several cards, since the laser technology is able to create a particular microfabrication that is difficult for machining. The particular microfabrication can be utilized for anticounterfeit measures. A new method of writing information has been developed as an anticounterfeit-technology in our laboratory. Information was written as a slant structure which is created by using laser power profile, and this structure makes counterfeit difficult. In this study, micro slant-processing has been carried out to metals surface as the processed single shot hole using 2nd harmonic laser and dot-matrix using 3rd harmonic laser. Consequently possibility of the micro slant-processing for writing information has been examined by observing an interference pattern.

  19. Comprehensive risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation: emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options--a report from the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Y H; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Bax, Jeroen; Hylek, Elaine; Kaab, Stefan; Schotten, Ulrich; Wegscheider, Karl; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Ezekowitz, Michael; Diener, Hans; Haegeli, Laurent; Heidbuchel, Hein; Lane, Deirdre; Mont, Luis; Willems, Stephan; Dorian, Paul; Aunes-Jansson, Maria; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Borentain, Maria; Breitenstein, Stefanie; Brueckmann, Martina; Cater, Nilo; Clemens, Andreas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Dubner, Sergio; Edvardsson, Nils G; Friberg, Leif; Goette, Andreas; Gulizia, Michele; Hatala, Robert; Horwood, Jenny; Szumowski, Lukas; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Josef; Leute, Angelika; Lobban, Trudie; Meyer, Ralf; Millerhagen, Jay; Morgan, John; Muenzel, Felix; Nabauer, Michael; Baertels, Christoph; Oeff, Michael; Paar, Dieter; Polifka, Juergen; Ravens, Ursula; Rosin, Ludger; Stegink, W; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Vincent, Alphons; Walter, Maureen; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A John

    2012-01-01

    While management of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is improved by guideline-conform application of anticoagulant therapy, rate control, rhythm control, and therapy of accompanying heart disease, the morbidity and mortality associated with AF remain unacceptably high. This paper describes the proceedings of the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET)/European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus conference that convened over 60 scientists and representatives from industry to jointly discuss emerging therapeutic and diagnostic improvements to achieve better management of AF patients. The paper covers four chapters: (i) risk factors and risk markers for AF; (ii) pathophysiological classification of AF; (iii) relevance of monitored AF duration for AF-related outcomes; and (iv) perspectives and needs for implementing better antithrombotic therapy. Relevant published literature for each section is covered, and suggestions for the improvement of management in each area are put forward. Combined, the propositions formulate a perspective to implement comprehensive management in AF. PMID:21791573

  20. Comprehensive risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation: emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options—a report from the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Bax, Jeroen; Hylek, Elaine; Kaab, Stefan; Schotten, Ulrich; Wegscheider, Karl; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Ezekowitz, Michael; Diener, Hans; Haegeli, Laurent; Heidbuchel, Hein; Lane, Deirdre; Mont, Luis; Willems, Stephan; Dorian, Paul; Aunes-Jansson, Maria; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Borentain, Maria; Breitenstein, Stefanie; Brueckmann, Martina; Cater, Nilo; Clemens, Andreas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Dubner, Sergio; Edvardsson, Nils G.; Friberg, Leif; Goette, Andreas; Gulizia, Michele; Hatala, Robert; Horwood, Jenny; Szumowski, Lukas; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Josef; Leute, Angelika; Lobban, Trudie; Meyer, Ralf; Millerhagen, Jay; Morgan, John; Muenzel, Felix; Nabauer, Michael; Baertels, Christoph; Oeff, Michael; Paar, Dieter; Polifka, Juergen; Ravens, Ursula; Rosin, Ludger; Stegink, W.; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Vincent, Alphons; Walter, Maureen; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A. John

    2012-01-01

    While management of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is improved by guideline-conform application of anticoagulant therapy, rate control, rhythm control, and therapy of accompanying heart disease, the morbidity and mortality associated with AF remain unacceptably high. This paper describes the proceedings of the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET)/European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus conference that convened over 60 scientists and representatives from industry to jointly discuss emerging therapeutic and diagnostic improvements to achieve better management of AF patients. The paper covers four chapters: (i) risk factors and risk markers for AF; (ii) pathophysiological classification of AF; (iii) relevance of monitored AF duration for AF-related outcomes; and (iv) perspectives and needs for implementing better antithrombotic therapy. Relevant published literature for each section is covered, and suggestions for the improvement of management in each area are put forward. Combined, the propositions formulate a perspective to implement comprehensive management in AF. PMID:21791573

  1. Observation of Cavity Rydberg Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Jia, Ningyuan; Ryou, Albert; Schine, Nathan; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate hybridization of optical cavity photons with atomic Rydberg excitations using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The resulting dark state Rydberg polaritons exhibit a compressed frequency spectrum and enhanced lifetime indicating strong light-matter mixing. We study the coherence properties of cavity Rydberg polaritons and identify the generalized EIT linewidth for optical cavities. Strong collective coupling suppresses polariton losses due to inhomogeneous broadening, which we demonstrate by using different Rydberg levels with a range of polarizabilities. Our results point the way towards using cavity Rydberg polaritons as a platform for creating photonic quantum materials.

  2. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  3. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  4. Extremely Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.

    2002-05-01

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which provides a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.

  5. Extremely large cusp diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.

    Extremely large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.

  6. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  7. High-power operation of a [ital K]-band second-harmonic gyroklystron

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Matthews, H.W.; Lee, M.K.E.; Calame, J.P.; Hogan, B.; Cheng, J.; Latham, P.E.; Granatstein, V.L.; Reiser, M. )

    1993-07-19

    Amplification studies of a two-cavity second-harmonic gyroklystron are reported. A magnetron injection gun produces a 440 kV, 200--245 A, 1 [mu]s beam with an average perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio slightly less than 1. The TE[sub 011] input cavity is driven near 9.88 GHz and the TE[sub 021] output cavity resonates near 19.76 GHz. Peak powers exceeding 21 MW are achieved with an efficiency near 21% and a large signal gain above 25 dB. This performance represents the current state of the art for gyroklystrons in terms of the peak power normalized to the output wavelength squared.

  8. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p < 0.05) and were on average more confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p < 0.05). Correlation of these parameters was stronger for 5th-year students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss. PMID:25103688

  9. Real-World Use of 3rd Line Therapy for Multiple Myeloma in Austria: An Austrian Myeloma Registry (AMR) Analysis of the Therapeutic Landscape and Clinical Outcomes prior to the Use of Next Generation Myeloma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Willenbacher, Ella; Weger, Roman; Rochau, Ursula; Siebert, Uwe; Willenbacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical trials demonstrate improving survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after treatment. However, it is unclear whether increased survival translates to a similar benefit in a real world setting. Methods We analyzed the overall survival of 347 multiple myeloma patients in Austria by means of a national registry (AMR), focused on results from 3rd and later lines of therapy. This benchmark was chosen to define a baseline prior to the broad application of upcoming 2nd generation drugs (carfilzomib, pomalidomide). Results Projected 10 years survival for patients with MM in Austria is estimated to be 56% in patients diagnosed in between the years 2011–2014, 21% in patients with a diagnosis made between 2000–2005, and 39% in those with a diagnosis made between 2006–2010). For the same intervals a significant increase in the use of both bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide—so called IMiDs (from 2005 onwards) and their simultaneous use in combination therapies (from 2010 onwards) could be shown. The use of autologous transplantation (ASCT) remained more or less constant at ~ 35% of patients in the 1st line setting over the whole period, comparing well to international practice patterns, while the use of 2nd line ASCT increased from 5.5% to 18.7% of patients. Patients in 3rd or later line treatment (n = 105), showed that even in relapsed and refractory disease median survival was 27 months with a considerable proportion of long-term survivors (~20%). Conclusion & Perspective With the expected emergence of additional active anti-myeloma compounds, we aim to assess survival in patients with relapsed and refractory MM. PMID:26937956

  10. Second harmonic generation in a KNbO3 nanorod and its detection by using a near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. J.; Kang, P. G.; Jung, J. H.; Lee, H. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on an observation of second harmonic generation in an individual KNbO3 nanorod by using a near-field scanning optical microscope. The second harmonic is successfully generated by irradiating with a femtosecond laser having center wavelengths of 1200, 1100, and 972 nm. Such a second harmonic yield shows a clear dependence on the incident laser polarization, where maximum yield is obtained when the incident laser polarization is parallel to the long axis of an individual nanorod. A spatially-resolved second harmonic image shows a bright spot at the edge of the nanorod, which is attributed to the elaborated intensity of both fundamental laser light and second harmonic light inside the nanowire owing to cavity-mode formation.

  11. Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, G.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This book is a standard text/reference of nuclear pharmacy. New sections in the Third Edition include: instruments used for radiation detection and measurement; disposal of radioactive materials; clinical uses of all new and existing radiopharmaceuticals; 99m Tc and 123I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, as well as radiolabeled leukocytes, platelets, and antibodies; and up-to-date descriptions of the latest FDA regulations.

  12. Cerebral computed tomography, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, L.; Nice, C.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the utilization of computed tomography in evaluating patients with intracranial and orbital disorders. It features clinical correlations and provides an overview of general principles, performance, and normal anatomy of CT. It covers evaluation of specific neurologic signs and symptoms, including stroke, metastatic disease, increased intracranial pressure, head injury, pediatric conditions, and more.

  13. Towards a hydrogen economy. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    The report is a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future. It takes a look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: Identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; Discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; Discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; Providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; Describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; Identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; Providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and Providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  14. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  15. A Beginning. Revised 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Mary K.; Root, Phyllis

    This document contains a selection of materials focusing on man acting to know, preserve, and improve his environment. The booklet is divided into three parts. Part one presents a listing of objectives. They reflect a need for all to become aware of the problems that plague our environment. Furthermore, they indicate that the ecological…

  16. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  17. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  18. Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought into a new sequence. 5. The umbrella function of WRB aims to allow the allocation of soil classes existing in a national classification system within the WRB. Characteristics that in a national system are regarded to be important must be considered in WRB - not necessarily at the highest level, but at least somewhere. The third edition of WRB allows a better accommodation of soil types, e.g., of the Australian and the Brazilian system. 6. Some environments or even ecoregions had not been well represented in WRB. The third edition allows a better accommodation of soils of ultra-continental permafrost regions, acid-sulphate soils and Technosols. 7. How to explain complicated sets of characteristics? For the third edition, efforts were made to give better structured definitions that can be more easily grasped. The editors of the third edition are convinced that the new WRB allows a more precise classification of soils including both, a better naming of pedons and a better elaboration of soil map legends.

  19. The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, David

    At one time or another, who among us has not marveled at the beauty of the snow and ice-covered Alps, or admired the tenacity of polar explorers and the adventurous spirits of climbers on the glacier-clad summits of the high Himalaya? The fascination of distant ice covered expanses has enlisted more than a few recruits into the ranks of glaciologists, but many, if not most, of today's students of glaciology are a slightly less romantic and more mathematical lot, attracted by the quantitative world of physics and the applied sciences of polar climatology, ice mechanics, and snow hydrology.Once a relatively quiet branch of geophysics filled with venturesome climbers capable of reaching the objects of their study, glaciology is now a field that is fueled by a rapid influx of talent, technology, and new ideas due to the increasingly acknowledged relationships between global climate, sea level, and ice sheets. While the understanding of glacier processes has seen significant progress, as a result there is also a sense of being overwhelmed by the voluminous and sometimes speculative theories and field observations associated with an expanding discipline.

  20. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  1. Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, Eric G.

    2004-08-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an updated and expanded section on computer applications in radiation therapy and electron beam therapy, and features enhanced user-friendliness and visual appeal with a new, easy-to-follow format, including sidebars and a larger trim size. With its user-friendly presentation and broad, comprehensive coverage of radiotherapy physics, this Third Edition doubles as a medical text and handy professional reference.

  2. Clear air handbook. 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, F.W.

    1998-07-01

    The Clean Air Act is the most complex piece of environmental legislation ever enacted, and it is constantly evolving. Regulatory proceedings to implement the act and especially the 1990 amendments are ongoing. Further amendments to the act are being considered by Congress. In addition to developing new rules, EPA also continues to supplement existing rules with guidance documents and policy statements--materials critical to evaluating your company's compliance obligations. This book not only continues to provide a broad overview of all the complex regulatory requirements but also brings you up-to-date on all of the most recent developments. Chapters covered include The Federal-State Partnership; The 1990 Amendments; Air Quality Regulations, State Implementation Plans, and the Non-Attainment Program; Control Technology Regulation; Operating and Pre-Construction Permitting Programs; Acid Deposition Control Program; Hazardous Air Pollutants; Regulation of Mobile Sources of Air Pollution; Stratospheric Ozone Protection; Enforcement and Judicial Review; and Current Regulatory and Legislative Trends.

  3. Library Research Workbook. 3rd Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchings, Donna, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be used in an English course at the University of Houston, this library skills workbook includes lessons and multiple-choice exercises on the following topics: (1) a floor plan of the main university library; (2) catalog records; (3) catalog access points; (4) using the catalogs; (5) locating books; (6) encyclopedias; (7) dictionaries;…

  4. Peace Corps. 3rd Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the third year of the Peace Corps. An introduction comments on returning volunteers and presents regional maps with tables for Latin America, Africa, Near East and South Asia, and Far East. Section 1 contains letters and reports from volunteers in Peru, Ivory Coast,…

  5. Making space for harmonic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.

  6. Symmetries of coupled harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators possesses many interesting symmetries. It is noted that the symmetry of a single oscillator is that of the three-parameter group Sp(2). Thus two uncoupled oscillator exhibits a direct product of two Sp(2) groups, with six parameters. The coupling can be achieved through a rotation in the two-dimensional space of two oscillator coordinates. The closure of the commutation relations for the generators leads to the ten-parameter group Sp(4) which is locally isomorphic to the deSitter group O(3,2).

  7. Harmonics and Resonance Issues with Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bradt, M.; Badrzadeh, Babak; Camm, E H; Castillo, Nestor; Mueller, David; Siebert, T.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind plants are susceptible to lightly-damped resonances which can attract and amplify ambient grid harmonic distortion and magnify wind turbine harmonic generation. Long-accepted harmonic modeling assumptions and practices are not appropriate for wind plants. VSCs are not ideal current sources and grid impedance is important. Attention to modeling detail and thorough evaluation over range of conditions is critical to meaningful analysis. In general, wind turbines are very slight sources of harmonics. Most harmonic issues are a result of resonance, caused by capacitor banks (for reactive power compensation) or from the extensive underground cabling in a collector system. Converter controls instability can be exacerbated by power system resonances. In some cases this has caused severe voltage distorDon and other problems. The IEEE 519 recommended guidelines are very restrictive. I recommend that they are used to resolve serious harmonic issues, and not to create petty problems.

  8. Multi-MW K-Band Harmonic Multiplier: RF Source For High-Gradient Accelerator R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A preliminary design is presented for a two-cavity harmonic multiplier, intended as a high-power RF source for use in experiments aimed at developing high-gradient structures for a future collider. The harmonic multiplier is to produce power at selected frequencies in K-band (18-26.5 GHz) using as an RF driver an XK-5 S-band klystron (2.856 GHz). The device is to be built with a TE{sub 111} rotating mode input cavity and interchangeable output cavities running in the TE{sub n11} rotating mode, with n = 7,8,9 at 19.992, 22.848, and 25.704 GHz. An example for a 7{sup th} harmonic multiplier is described, using a 250 kV, 20 A injected laminar electron beam; with 10 MW of S-band drive power, 4.7 MW of 20-GHz output power is predicted. Details are described of the magnetic circuit, cavities, and output coupler.

  9. Multi-MW K-Band 7th Harmonic Multiplier for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirschfield, J.L.; Kazakevich, G.M.; LaPointe, M.A.; /Yale U.

    2009-05-01

    A preliminary design and current status are presented for a two-cavity 7th harmonic multiplier, intended as a high-power RF source for use in experiments aimed at developing high-gradient structures for a future collider. The harmonic multiplier is to produce power in K-band using as its RF driver an XK-5 S-band klystron (2.856 GHz). The multiplier is to be built with a TE{sub 111} rotating mode input cavity and interchangeable output cavities, a principal example being a TE{sub 711} rotating mode cavity running at 20 GHz. The design that is described uses a 250 kV, 20 A injected laminar electron beam. With 8.5 MW of S-band drive power, 4.4 MW of 20-GHz output power is predicted. The design uses a gun, magnetic coils, and beam collector from an existing waveguide 7th harmonic multiplier. The gun has been re-conditioned and the desired operating parameters have been achieved.

  10. A scanning cavity microscope.

    PubMed

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm(2); we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  11. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  12. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  13. The effects of scalpel, harmonic scalpel and monopolar electrocautery on the healing of colonic anastomosis after colonic resection

    PubMed Central

    Pekcici, M. Recep; Altunkaya, Canan; Fidanci, Vildan; Kilinc, Aytul; Ozer, Huseyin; Tekeli, Ahmet; Aydinuraz, Kuzey; Guler, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In our study, the effects of harmonic scalpel, scalpel, and monopolar electrocautery usage on the health and healing of colon anastomosis after resection was investigated. Methods In this study, 120 female albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups each containing 40 rats. Group A, resection with scalpel; group B, resection with monopolar electrocautery; group C, resection with harmonic scalpel. The groups were divided into 4 subgroups consisting of 10 rats and analysed in the postoperative 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. Anastomotic bursting pressures, hydroxyproline levels and histopathological parameters were surrogate parameters for evaluating wound healing. Results The tissue hydroxyproline levels did not show any significant difference between the groups and subgroups. The mean bursting pressure of group A on the 5th day was significantly higher than groups B and C (P < 0.001). When the fibroblast and fibrosis scores were evaluated, scores of group C on the 5th day were significantly higher than the other groups, but the results of bursting pressures and biochemical parameters did not support the fibroblast and fibrosis scores. There were not any significant differences between the groups in other histopathologic parameters. Conclusion The use of monopolar electrocautery needs more attention since the device causes tissue destruction. The obliterating effect of harmonic scalpel on luminal organs is an important problem, especially if an anastomosis is planned. Despite the disadvantages of scalpel, its efficacy on early wound healing is better than the other devices. PMID:27274507

  14. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-01

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  15. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect

    Groeger, Josua

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  16. Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population Oscillations in SOAs.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Ivana; Sancho, Juan; Capmany, José; Lloret, Juan; Sales, Salvador

    2010-12-01

    We theoretically and experimentally evaluate the propagation, generation and amplification of signal, harmonic and intermodulation distortion terms inside a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) under Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) regime. For that purpose, we present a general optical field model, valid for any arbitrarily-spaced radiofrequency tones, which is necessary to correctly describe the operation of CPO based slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters which comprise an electrooptic modulator and a SOA followed by an optical filter and supplements another recently published for true time delay operation based on the propagation of optical intensities. The phase shifter performance has been evaluated in terms of the nonlinear distortion up to 3rd order, for a modulating signal constituted of two tones, in function of the electrooptic modulator input RF power and the SOA input optical power, obtaining a very good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. A complete theoretical spectral analysis is also presented which shows that under small signal operation conditions, the 3rd order intermodulation products at 2Ω1 + Ω2 and 2Ω2 + Ω1 experience a power dip/phase transition characteristic of the fundamental tones phase shifting operation. PMID:21164914

  17. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  18. Trislot-cavity microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Flush-mountable assembly composed of disk radiator sandwiched between planes of metal-clad dielectric board has greater bandwidths and beamwidths than simple disk antenna. Conducting planes connect so that disk is enclosed in cavity with Y-shaped slot in top plane. Cavity is excited by microwave energy from disk and radiates from trislot aperature.

  19. Harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanto, Michael L.; Malowicki, John E.; Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Johns, Steven T.; Vettese, Elizabeth K.; Hayduk, Michael J.

    2004-08-01

    The generation of ultrastable picosecond pulses in the 1550 nm range is required for numerous applications that include photonic analog-to-digital converter systems and high-bit rate optical communication systems. Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers (EDFLs) are typically used to generate pulses at this wavelength. In addition to timing stability and output power, the physical size of the laser cavity is of primary importance to the Air Force. The length of the erbium (Er)-doped fiber used as the gain medium may be on the order of meters or even tens of meters which adds complexity to packaging. However, with the recent advancements in the production of multi-component glasses, higher doping concentrations can be achieved as compared to silicate glasses. Even more recent is the introduction of Er-doped multi-component glass waveguides, thus allowing the overall footprint of the gain medium to be reduced. We have constructed a novel harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser using the Er-doped multi-component glass waveguide as the gain medium. The performance characteristics of this Er-doped waveguide laser (EDWL) including pulse width, spectral width, harmonic suppression, optical output power, laser stability and single sideband residual phase noise will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Magnetic mirror cavities as terahertz radiation sources and a means of quantifying radiation friction

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R. E-mail: amol.holkundkar@gmail.com; Harvey, Chris

    2014-10-15

    We propose a radiation source based on a magnetic mirror cavity. Relativistic electrons are simulated entering the cavity and their trajectories and resulting emission spectra are calculated. The uniformity of the particle orbits is found to result in a frequency comb in terahertz range, the precise energies of which are tunable by varying the electron's γ-factor. For very high energy particles, radiation friction causes the spectral harmonics to broaden and we suggest this as a possible way to verify competing classical equations of motion.

  1. Testing of the new tuner design for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Daly; G. Davis; William Hicks

    2005-05-01

    The new tuner design for the 12 GeV Upgrade SRF cavities consists of a coarse mechanical tuner and a fine piezoelectric tuner. The mechanism provides a 30:1 mechanical advantage, is pre-loaded at room temperature and tunes the cavities in tension only. All of the components are located in the insulating vacuum space and attached to the helium vessel, including the motor, harmonic drive and piezoelectric actuators. The requirements and detailed design are presented. Measurements of range and resolution of the coarse tuner are presented and discussed.

  2. Harmonic generation in free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, H. P.; Chang, C. L.; Bluem, H.

    1987-10-01

    The question of harmonic generation in FELs is addressed by considering a relativistic electron beam propagating through a loss-free rectangular waveguide in the presence of a linearly polarized wiggler magnetic field. Substantial growth rates and efficiencies at the higher harmonics are shown to be obtainable at the cost of more stringent requirements on beam quality. It is also found that the harmonic emission is far more sensitive to the effect of the thermal spread than is the fundamental. It is suggested that the higher beam currents obtainable on the forthcoming super-ACO storage ring could lead to coherent harmonic generation.

  3. A neural network model of harmonic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Clifford F.

    2003-04-01

    Harmonic detection theories postulate that a virtual pitch is perceived when a sufficient number of harmonics is present. The harmonics need not be consecutive, but higher harmonics contribute less than lower harmonics [J. Raatgever and F. A. Bilsen, in Auditory Physiology and Perception, edited by Y. Cazals, K. Horner, and L. Demany (Pergamon, Oxford, 1992), pp. 215-222 M. K. McBeath and J. F. Wayand, Abstracts of the Psychonom. Soc. 3, 55 (1998)]. A neural network model is presented that has the potential to simulate this operation. Harmonics are first passed through a bank of rounded exponential filters with lateral inhibition. The results are used as inputs for an autoassociator neural network. The model is trained using harmonic data for symphonic musical instruments, in order to test whether it can self-organize by learning associations between co-occurring harmonics. It is shown that the trained model can complete the pattern for missing-fundamental sounds. The Performance of the model in harmonic detection will be compared with experimental results for humans.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  5. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  6. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  7. Study of the spectral and angular characteristics of laser action by rhodamine 6G solutions in a short cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, V.S.; Studenov, V.I.; Rozuvanova, V.A.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been made of the spectral and angular characteristics of a laser with an ethanol solution of rhodamine 6G, pumped with the second-harmonic radiation of an LTIPCh-6 laser, as a function of the spacing of a Fabry-Perot interferometer used as a cavity laser. It is shown experimentally that when the cavity is short, the radiation of the laser studied has a distinct spectral and angular structure which is determined by the length of the cavity and is independent of the reflectancies of the cavity mirrors, activator concentration, or power of the exciting radiation. Good agreement is shown to exist between the experimental and theoretical results. It is concluded that the character of formation of the spectral and angular radiation characteristics of a dye laser is determined almost entirely by the properties of the Fabry-Perot interferometer used as the cavity.

  8. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl−, total protein, albumins, F− and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  9. Generation of high power sub-terahertz radiation from a gyrotron with second harmonic oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Teruo; Yamada, Naoki; Ikeuti, Shinji; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka; Ogasawara, Shinya; Manuilov, Vladimir N.; Shimozuma, Takashi; Kubo, Shin; Nishiura, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Kawahata, Kazuo

    2012-06-15

    New power records of second harmonic gyrotron oscillation have been demonstrated in the sub-THz band. The first step gyrotron of demountable type had succeeded in oscillation with power more than 50 kW at 350 GHz and nearly 40 kW at 390 GHz [T. Notake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 225002 (2009)]. Then, the second step gyrotron of sealed-off type was manufactured. A cavity mode was carefully selected to avoid mode competition with a neighboring fundamental harmonic mode. Matching of the selected mode with the electron gun was also circumspectly considered. The second step gyrotron has attained higher power radiation than the first gyrotron. The maximum single mode power was 62 kW at 388 GHz. Then, the electron gun was modified for use of a different cavity mode with a higher coupling coefficient than that for the 62 kW mode. The new mode proved single mode oscillation power of 83 kW at about 389 GHz. These results are new second-harmonic-oscillation power records for sub-THz gyrotrons. The present study constitutes foundations of development of high power second harmonic sub-THz gyrotron for application to collective Thomson scattering measurement on fusion plasmas, especially on high-density plasmas such as those produced in LHD [N. Ohyabu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 055002 (2006)]. This paper reports the design consideration to realize high power single mode gyrotron oscillation at second harmonic and the examination of oscillation characteristics of the gyrotron.

  10. Spectra extraction for wavelength-modulation spectroscopy of intra-cavity absorption gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wennian; Wang, Yan; Liu, Kun; Jia, Dagong; Liu, Tiegen

    2010-11-01

    Low-frequency wavelength modulation is introduced to increase sensitivity of intra-cavity absorption gas sensor (ICAGS) system. ICAGS system including erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), pump laser, tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) optical filter and gas cell is set up. Using virtual instrument technique, modulation function is generated by LabVIEW software and outputted through the AO ports of data acquisition card to tune the driving voltage of optical filter. The AI ports collect the laser power signals in a synchronous mode. Harmonic spectra can be computed by adopting the method of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). According to the characteristics of different order harmonic, even harmonics and odd harmonics are analyzed respectively. Here, second harmonic is used to determine the spectral intensity, and third harmonic is mainly used to locate the position of spectral lines. With optimum 10 Hz frequency modulation, acetylene absorption experiments were carried out. The pump current of EDFA is 60 mA and the acetylene concentration in the gas cell is 1%. After spectra extraction, in the 1526 nm to 1537 nm wavelength range, 17 absorption lines of acetylene were achieved. The results indicated that the error of wavelength position is less than 0.1 nm and the minimum detection limit of acetylene is about 120x10-6. It is possible to realize the recognition of measured gas type and multi-component gas detection for ICAGS system.

  11. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, Benno; Floettmann, Klaus; Grüner, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Accelerator applications like free-electron lasers, time-resolved electron diffraction, and advanced accelerator concepts like plasma acceleration desire bunches of ever shorter longitudinal extent. However, apart from space charge repulsion, the internal bunch structure and its development along the beam line can limit the achievable compression due to nonlinear phase space correlations. In order to improve such a limited longitudinal focus, a correction by properly linearizing the phase space is required. At large scale facilities like Flash at Desy or the European Xfel, a higher harmonic cavity is installed for this purpose. In this paper, another method is described and evaluated: Expanding the beam after the electron source enables a higher order correction of the longitudinal focus by a subsequent accelerating cavity which is operated at the same frequency as the electron gun. The elaboration of this idea presented here is based on a ballistic bunching scheme, but can be extended to bunch compression based on magnetic chicanes. The core of this article is an analytic model describing this approach, which is verified by simulations, predicting possible bunch length below 1 fs at low bunch charge. Minimizing the energy spread down to σE/E <1 0-5 while keeping the bunch long is another interesting possibility, which finds applications, e.g., in time resolved transmission electron microscopy concepts.

  13. Imaging with Second-Harmonic Generation Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    Second-harmonic generation nanoparticles show promise as imaging probes due to their coherent and stable signal with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. In this thesis, we developed and demonstrated barium titanate nanoparticles as second-harmonic radiation imaging probes. We studied the absolute second-harmonic generation efficiency of the nanoparticles on single-particle level. The polarization dependent second-harmonic signal of single nanoparticles was studied in detail. From the measured polar response, we were able to find the orientation of the nanoparticle. We developed a biochemical interface for using the second-harmonic nanoprobes as biomarkers, including in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo live animal imaging. The nanoparticles were surface functionalized with primary amine groups for stable colloidal dispersion. We achieved specific labeling of the second-harmonic nanoprobes via immunostaining where the antibodies were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. We observed no toxicity of the functionalized nanoparticles to biological cells. The coherent second-harmonic signal radiated from the nanoparticles offers opportunities for new imaging techniques. Using interferometric detection, namely harmonic holography, both amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic field can be captured. Through digital beam propagation, three-dimensional field distribution, reflecting three-dimensional distribution of the nanoparticles, can be reconstructed. We achieved a scan-free three-dimensional imaging of nanoparticles in biological cells with sub-micron spatial resolution by using the harmonic holographic microscope. We further exploited the coherent second-harmonic signal for imaging through scattering media by performing optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal. We demonstrated an all-digital optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal originated from a nanoparticle by combining harmonic holography and

  14. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  15. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  16. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  17. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  18. Practical Tools to Foster Harmonic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Among the elements required to develop a comprehensive understanding of music is students' ability to perceive, recognize, and label the harmonies they hear. Harmonic dictation is among the strategies that teachers have traditionally chosen to help students develop harmonic awareness. However, the highly idiosyncratic ways that students approach…

  19. High Power Amplifier Harmonic Output Level Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, R. M.; Hoppe, D. J.; Khan, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of the harmonic output power of high power klystron amplifiers, involving coherent hemispherical radiation pattern measurements of the radiated klystron output. Results are discussed for the operation in saturated and unsaturated conditions, and with a waveguide harmonic filter included.

  20. Quasi-optical harmonic gyrotron and gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, W.; Levush, B.

    1985-12-01

    This patent discloses a method and apparatus for suppressing lower order cyclotron harmonics in order to permit resonance within a quasi-optical gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration of a desired high order harmonic. In the gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration at least one open resonator defined by at least two mirrors is positioned downstream from an electron beam source for receiving therethrough the beam of electrons and for exchanging energy therewith. This method includes the steps for choosing a mirror radius size large enough relative to the spot size of a desired radiation cyclotron harmonic so that the harmonic oscillates within the at least one resonator, but small enough so that the spot size for the next lower cyclotron harmonic is larger than the mirror so that harmonic does not oscillate due to diffraction losses. This method further includes the step of generating an electron beam bias the electron beam source with a beam current which is greater than or equal to the starting current for the desired nth cyclotron harmonic, but less than the starting current for the nth cyclotron harmonic.

  1. Organometallic Salts Generate Optical Second Harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Series of organometallic salts exhibit large second-order dielectric susceptibilities, as evidenced by generation of second harmonics when illuminated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Investigations of these and related compounds continue with view toward development of materials for use as optical second-harmonic generators, electro-optical modulators, optical switches, piezoelectric sensors, and parametric crystals.

  2. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  3. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  4. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  5. Higher Harmonics in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangyong

    2013-03-01

    As the QGP expands and cools, it carries much information on its creation and evolution imprinted on the patterns of higher harmonic flow. In this proceeding we report on the progress in simulating and understanding the higher harmonics by the McGill group using the 3+1D event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics simulation suite named MUSIC.

  6. Novel Crab Cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Sah, R.; Rimmer, B.; Wang, H.

    2011-03-01

    A 20-50 MV integrated transverse voltage is required for the Electron-Ion Collider. The most promising of the crab cavity designs that have been proposed in the last five years are the TEM type crab cavities because of the higher transverse impedance. The TEM design approach is extended here to a hybrid crab cavity that includes the input power coupler as an integral part of the design. A prototype was built with Phase I monies and tested at JLAB. The results reported on, and a system for achieving 20-50 MV is proposed.

  7. Call for Papers: Cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, W.; Gerard, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    Cavity QED interactions of light and matter have been investigated in a wide range of systems covering the spectrum from microwaves to optical frequencies, using media as diverse as single atoms and semiconductors. Impressive progress has been achieved technologically as well as conceptually. This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is intended to provide a comprehensive account of the current state of the art of cavity QED by uniting contributions from researchers active across this field. As Guest Editors of this topical issue, we invite manuscripts on current theoretical and experimental work on any aspects of cavity QED. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletCavity QED in optical microcavities bulletSemiconductor cavity QED bulletQuantum dot cavity QED bulletRydberg atoms in microwave cavities bulletPhotonic crystal cavity QED bulletMicrosphere resonators bulletMicrolasers and micromasers bulletMicrodroplets bulletDielectric cavity QED bulletCavity QED-based quantum information processing bulletQuantum state engineering in cavities The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the

  8. Quantum wormholes and harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Luis J.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface which divides the space time manifold into two disconnected parts. Minisuperspace models which consist of a homogeneous massless scalar field coupled to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space time are considered. Once the path integral over the lapse function is performed, the requirement that the space time be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is argued that there does not exist any wave function which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. Then, the wormhole wave functions can be written as linear combinations of harmonic oscillator wave functions.

  9. Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive gravity which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure levels calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central gravity field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree gravity and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.

  10. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  11. Point-based manifold harmonics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan; Guo, Xiaohu

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to build a set of orthogonal Point-Based Manifold Harmonic Bases (PB-MHB) for spectral analysis over point-sampled manifold surfaces. To ensure that PB-MHB are orthogonal to each other, it is necessary to have symmetrizable discrete Laplace-Beltrami Operator (LBO) over the surfaces. Existing converging discrete LBO for point clouds, as proposed by Belkin et al., is not guaranteed to be symmetrizable. We build a new point-wisely discrete LBO over the point-sampled surface that is guaranteed to be symmetrizable, and prove its convergence. By solving the eigen problem related to the new operator, we define a set of orthogonal bases over the point cloud. Experiments show that the new operator is converging better than other symmetrizable discrete Laplacian operators (such as graph Laplacian) defined on point-sampled surfaces, and can provide orthogonal bases for further spectral geometric analysis and processing tasks. PMID:22879345

  12. Libsharp - spherical harmonic transforms revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecke, M.; Seljebotn, D. S.

    2013-06-01

    We present libsharp, a code library for spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs), which evolved from the libpsht library and addresses several of its shortcomings, such as adding MPI support for distributed memory systems and SHTs of fields with arbitrary spin, but also supporting new developments in CPU instruction sets like the Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) or fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) instructions. The library is implemented in portable C99 and provides an interface that can be easily accessed from other programming languages such as C++, Fortran, Python, etc. Generally, libsharp's performance is at least on par with that of its predecessor; however, significant improvements were made to the algorithms for scalar SHTs, which are roughly twice as fast when using the same CPU capabilities. The library is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/libsharp/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  13. Power Factor Correction to Mitigate Harmonic Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkov, Gary

    Many direct current (DC) devices must receive their power from the alternating current (AC) grid. Rectifiers use diodes to create DC for these devices. Due to diodes' non-linear nature however, harmonics are created and these travel back into the grid. A significant presence of harmonics causes component heating and possible malfunction. A harmonic mitigation procedure is needed. With the correct usage of transistors, the current drawn by a rectifier can be manipulated to remove almost all harmonics. This process is called power factor correction (PFC), and formally acts to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current. To investigate this, a three phase active rectifier was computer simulated and a controller was designed to provide switching signals for the transistors. Finally, the device was constructed in the laboratory to drive a DC motor, verifying its operating principle outside of the idealities of simulation.

  14. Green pulsed lidar-radar emitter based on a multipass frequency-shifting external cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Brunel, Marc; Romanelli, Marco; Vallet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the radio frequency (RF) up-conversion properties of a frequency-shifting external cavity on a laser beam. We consider an infrared passively Q-switched pulsed laser whose intensity modulation results from the multiple round-trips in the external cavity, which contains a frequency shifter. The output beam undergoes optical second-harmonic generation necessary to reach the green wavelength. We model the pulse train using a rate-equation model to simulate the laser pulses, together with a time-delayed interference calculation taking both the diffraction efficiency and the Gaussian beam propagation into account. The predictions are verified experimentally using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG whose pulse train makes multiple round-trips in a mode-matched external cavity containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter driven at 85 MHz. Second-harmonic generation is realized in a KTP crystal, yielding RF-modulated pulses at 532 nm with a modulation contrast of almost 100%. RF harmonics up to the 6th order (1.020 GHz) are observed in the green output pulses. Such a RF-modulated green laser may find applications in underwater detection and ranging. PMID:27139644

  15. High Harmonic Generation from Rotationally Excited Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Robynne M.

    2011-12-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is understood through a three-step model. A strong laser field ionizes an atom or molecule. The free electron propagates in the laser field and may recombine with the atom or molecule leading to the generation of extreme ultraviolet or soft x-ray light at odd harmonics of the fundamental. Since the wavelength of the recombining electron is on the order of internuclear distances in molecules, HHG acts as a probe of molecular structure and dynamics. Conversely, control of the molecules leads to control of the properties (intensity, phase, and polarization) of the harmonic emission. Rotationally exciting molecules provides field-free molecular alignment at time intervals corresponding to fractions of the rotational period of the molecule. Alignment is necessary for understanding how the harmonic emission depends on molecular structure and alignment. Additionally, HHG acts as a probe of the rotational wavepackets. This thesis reports three experiments on HHG from rotationally excited molecules. Before we can use HHG as a probe of complex molecular dynamics or control harmonic properties through molecules, the harmonic emission from aligned, linear molecules must first be understood. To that end, the first experiment measures the intensity and phase of harmonics generated from N 2O and N2 near times of strong alignment revealing interferences during recombination. The second experiment demonstrates HHG as a sensitive probe of rotational wavepacket dynamics in CO2 and N2O, revealing new revival features not detected by any other probe. The final experiment focuses on understanding and controlling the polarization state of the harmonic emission. Generating elliptically polarized harmonics would be very useful for probing molecular and materials systems. We observe an elliptical dichroism in polarization-resolved measurements of the harmonic emission from aligned N2 and CO2 molecules, revealing evidence for electron-hole dynamics between the

  16. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I {approximately}10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) is focused into a dense ({approximately}10{sup l7} particles/cm{sup 3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic {open_quotes}source{close_quotes}. A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  17. Assessing change in diet and biological affinity between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE in the Portuguese Estremadura: a preliminary dental comparison of Feteira II and Bolores.

    PubMed

    Horwath, B C; Waterman, A J; Lillios, K T; Irish, J D

    2014-04-01

    Although the social and political changes accompanying the transition from the Neolithic through Copper Age, between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE, in southwestern Iberia are reasonably well understood, much less is known about whether population movements and dietary changes accompanied these transformations. To address this question, human dental remains from the Middle through Late Neolithic site of Feteira II (3600-2900 cal BCE) and the Late Neolithic site of Bolores (2800-2600 cal BCE) in the Portuguese Estremadura were used to examine diet (microwear) and affinity (dental non-metrics). Microwear features were not found to be significantly different between Feteira II and Bolores, suggesting that the emergence of social complexity during this period did not result in large-scale changes in subsistence practices during the period of use at these sites. Using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System and supporting statistics, no significant difference between the samples from Feteira II and Bolores was observed, suggesting that no population replacement occurred between the Middle Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Copper Age. However, at Bolores there is some indication that there may have been demographic exchanges between southern Iberian and North African populations during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age. PMID:24642202

  18. Costs, affordability, and feasibility of an essential package of cancer control interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Gelband, Hellen; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Horton, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin O; Bray, Freddie; Cleary, James; Dare, Anna J; Denny, Lynette; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C; Jaffray, David A; Knaul, Felicia; Levin, Carol; Rabeneck, Linda; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sullivan, Terrence; Trimble, Edward L; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-05-21

    Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades. PMID:26578033

  19. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  20. Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012. PMID:22360825