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Sample records for 3rd instar larvae

  1. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  2. Feel the heat: The effect of temperature on development, behavior and central pattern generation in 3rd instar Calliphora vicina larvae.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Schlegel, Philipp; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Like in all poikilothermic animals, higher temperatures increase developmental rate and activity in Calliphora vicina larvae. We therefore could expect temperature to have a persistent effect on the output of the feeding and crawling central pattern generators (CPGs). When confronted with a steep temperature gradient, larvae show evasive behavior after touching the substrate with the cephalic sense organs. Beside this reflex behavior the terminal- and dorsal organ might also mediate long term CPG modulation. Both organs were thermally stimulated while their response was recorded from the maxillary- or antennal nerve. The terminal organ showed a tonic response characteristic while the dorsal organ was not sensitive to temperature. Thermal stimulation of the terminal organ did not affect the ongoing patterns of fictive feeding or crawling, recorded from the antennal- or abdominal nerve respectively. A selective increase of the central nervous system (CNS) temperature accelerated the motor patterns of both feeding and crawling. We propose that temperature affects centrally generated behavior via two pathways: short term changes like thermotaxis are mediated by the terminal organ, while long term adaptations like increased feeding rate are caused by temperature sensitive neurons in the CNS which were recently shown to exist in Drosophila larvae.

  3. The cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae are mechanosensitive but have no profound effect on ongoing feeding related motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The anterior segments of cyclorraphous Diptera larvae bear various sense organs: the dorsal- and terminal organ located on the cephalic lobes, the ventral- and labial organs associated with the mouthplate and the internal labral organ which lies on the dorsal surface of the esophagus. The sense organs are connected to the brain via the antennal nerve (dorsal- and labral organ) or the maxillary nerve (terminal-, ventral-, labial organ). Although their ultrastructure suggests also a mechanosensory function only their response to olfactory and gustatory stimuli has been investigated electrophysiologically. Here we stimulated the individual organs with step-, ramp-, and sinusoidal stimuli of different amplitude while extracellulary recording their afferents from the respective nerves. The external organs show a threshold of approximately 2 microm. All organs responded phasically and did not habituate to repetitive stimuli. The low threshold of the external organs combined with their rhythmically exposure to the substrate suggested a putative role in the temporal coordination of feeding. We therefore repetitively stimulated individual organs while simultaneously monitoring the centrally generated motor pattern for food ingestion. Neither the dorsal-, terminal- or ventral organ afferents had an obvious effect on the ongoing motor rhythm. Various reasons explaining these results are discussed.

  4. Cold tolerance of third-instar Drosophila suzukii larvae.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Ruth; Ahmadi, Banafsheh; Houben, Sarah; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is an emerging global pest of soft fruit; although it likely overwinters as an adult, larval cold tolerance is important both for determining performance during spring and autumn, and for the development of temperature-based control methods aimed at larvae. We examined the low temperature biology of third instar feeding and wandering larvae in and out of food. We induced phenotypic plasticity of thermal biology by rearing under short days and fluctuating temperatures (5.5-19°C). Rearing under fluctuating temperatures led to much slower development (42.1days egg-adult) compared to control conditions (constant 21.5°C; 15.7days), and yielded larger adults of both sexes. D. suzukii larvae were chill-susceptible, being killed by low temperatures not associated with freezing, and freezing survival was not improved when ice formation was inoculated externally via food or silver iodide. Feeding larvae were more cold tolerant than wandering larvae, especially after rearing under fluctuating temperatures, and rearing under fluctuating temperatures improved survival of prolonged cold (0°C) to beyond 72h in both larval stages. There was no evidence that acute cold tolerance could be improved by rapid cold-hardening. We conclude that D. suzukii has the capacity to develop at low temperatures under fluctuating temperatures, but that they have limited cold tolerance. However, phenotypic plasticity of prolonged cold tolerance must be taken into account when developing low temperature treatments for sanitation of this species.

  5. Efficacy studies of Vectobac 12as and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small plot field studies.

    PubMed

    Floore, T G; Petersen, J L; Shaffer, K R

    2004-12-01

    Efficacy studies were conducted with VectoBac 12AS and Teknar HP-D larvicides against 3rd-instar Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus in small field test plots. The products were obtained off the shelf from distributors and had different lot numbers. They were evaluated over a 2-year period in spring 2002 and 2003. Application rates were 0.29, 0.58, and 1.10 liter/ha and evaluations were made 24 and 48 h after treatment. Both products performed well in these studies, with VectoBac 12AS being more effective at the 0.29 liter/ha rate.

  6. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  7. Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control. PMID:23569922

  8. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  9. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  10. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-02-18

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region.

  11. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-02-12

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines.

  12. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality.

  13. Biochemical and histological effects of gibberellic acid on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Khemais; Ben Halima-Kamel, Monia; Acheuk, Fatma; Soltani, Noureddine; Aribi, Nadia; Hamouda, Mohamed HabibBen

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae. Newly emerged larvae were exposed to various concentrations of GA3 administered by topical application or by forced ingestion. Results showed that treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. GA3 toxicity was also demonstrated by perturbation of the moult processes. In fact, we noted that treated insects present exuviations difficulties due to the impossibility to reject the old integuments causing mortality in the 5th instar larvae. Histological study of proventriculus revealed alterations in the epithelial cells and absence of apolysis phenomenon. Data also showed that GA3 induced significant quantitative variation of haemolymph metabolites. These changes result in a significant decrease in the total concentration of proteins and carbohydrates and an increase in the total concentration of haemolymph lipids.

  14. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult.

  15. Description of the final instar larva of Pseudagrion pruinosum (Burmeister, 1839) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Tosaphol; Boonsoong, Boonsatien

    2016-10-14

    Herein the final instar larva of Pseudagrion pruinosum (Burmeister, 1839) is described and illustrated for the first time, based on reared specimens from Thailand. When compared with the other known Pseudagrion larvae, P. pruinosum is distinguished by three setae on the labial palp, five teeth on the truncate, denticulate lobe on the distal marginal end of the labial palp, one premental seta and a row of three minute setae on each side of the midline, as well as shape and tracheation of caudal gills.

  16. Description of the final instar larva of Rhionaeschna vigintipunctata (Ris, 1918) (Odonata: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José Sebastián; Molineri, Carlos

    2014-11-14

    The final instar larva of Rhionaeschna vigintipunctata (Ris) (Odonata, Aeshnidae) is described for the first time. The description is based on a series of mature female larvae collected in Tucumán (NW Argentina) and reared to imago. It shares the U-shaped distal excision of epiproct with other larvae of the Marmaraeschna group (only R. pallipes and R. brevicercia known from this stage); but the minute tubercle at each side of the cleft of ligula is absent. Other characters unique to R. vigintipunctata include: open ligula (vs. closed in other "Marmaraeschna"), and mandibular formula. A table to distinguish the larvae of the three species of "Marmaraeschna" and biological and distributional data of R. vigintipunctata are included.

  17. Evaluation of the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-05-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at final concentration of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml was mixed in the diet and the larvae were exposed to the selected doses for 6, 12, 24, 48 h. The hsp70 expression, trypan blue exclusion test, in situ histochemical β-galactosidase activity, lipid peroxidation, total protein content, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, protein carbonyl content, caspase 3 and 9 activity, apoptotic index and comet assay were taken as parameters for the study. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml for 12, 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent significant increase in the activity of β-galactosidase and lipid peroxidation but decrease in the total GSH content as compared to unexposed larvae. The decrease in protein content was observed in the larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent increase in the tissue damage, GST, caspase 3 and 9 activity, PC content, apoptosis and the DNA tail length (comet assay). The result suggests that the cefotaxime is toxic at 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of doses for the third instar larvae of transgenic D. melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at 10 and 20 μg/ml was not toxic for any duration of exposure.

  18. Late-instar larva of Scydmaenus (Parallomicrus) rufus Müller & Kunze (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-06-18

    The late-instar (most likely the last instar) larva of Scydmaenus (Parallomicrus) rufus is described. A comparative study with other known larvae of Scydmaenus (belonging to Scydmaenus s. str. and the subgenus Cholerus) is carried out and it is concluded that while the general body form and some characters are shared by immature Parallomicrus and Cholerus, there are nevertheless features present in Parallomicrus and Scydmaenus s. str. that are absent in Cholerus. A subcylindrical and strongly elongated body differentiates immature Parallomicrus from Scydmaenus s. str., while the following characters, present in Parallomicrus, are not known in Cholerus: a pair of long lateral setae on head capsule, four (and not five) pairs of dorsoanterior setae on the nasale, more than 10 teeth on the anteroventral margin of nasale instead of five only, three (and not two) solenidia on the antennomere III, three (and not two) pairs of labial setae, slightly (and not strongly) elongate abdominal segment IX, and abdominal segment X not constricted near base.

  19. Toxoneuron nigriceps parasitization delays midgut replacement in fifth-instar Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Gianluca; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Pennacchio, Francesco; de Eguileor, Magda

    2008-05-01

    We have analyzed the effects of Toxoneuron nigriceps parasitization on the midgut development of its host Heliothis virescens. In parasitized H. virescens larvae, the midgut epithelium undergoes a complete replacement, which is qualitatively not different to that observed in synchronous unparasitized larvae, with similar temporal profiles of cell death and metabolic activity. However, the whole gut replacement process is significantly delayed in parasitized larvae, with complete differentiation of the new gut epithelium being observed 4 days later than in unparasitized controls. The administration of juvenile hormone before commitment and of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) after commitment delays and fosters, respectively, the replacement process of the midgut epithelium; moreover, the injection of 20E into developmentally arrested and 20E-deficient host last-instar larvae parasitized by T. nigriceps immediately triggers regular gut development. These hormone-based experiments suggest that endocrine alterations in the larval host, induced by T. nigriceps parasitism, are responsible for the temporal alterations in the gut replacement process. The role of this parasitoid-induced developmental change in the host regulation process is discussed.

  20. Classification of forensically-relevant larvae according to instar in a closely related species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Carrion beetle larvae of Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius, 1775), and Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Silphidae: Silphinae) were studied to test the concept that a classifier of the subfamily level may be successfully used to classify larvae according to instar. Classifiers were created and validated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA generates classification functions which are used to calculate classification values for tested specimens. The largest value indicates the larval instar to which the specimen should be assigned. Distance between dorsal stemmata and width of the pronotum were used as classification features. The classifier correctly classified larvae of N. littoralis and O. thoracicum, whereas in the case of T. sinuatus and T. rugosus a few misclassifications were recorded. For this reason, a separate genus level classifier was created for larvae of Thanatophilus. We conclude that larval instar classifiers of the subfamily or genus level have very high classification accuracy and therefore they may be safely used to classify carrion beetle larvae according to instar in forensic practice.

  1. Redescription of late-instar larva of Ptinella aptera (Guérin-Méneville, 1839) (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2014-06-05

    The late-instar larva of the featherwing beetle Ptinella aptera is redescribed. A coding system for chaetotaxic structures for ptiliid larvae is proposed and possible serial homology of setae across body segments is discussed. Previous, fragmentary and inaccurate descriptions of larval stages of P. aptera are discussed. The structures of immature P. aptera are compared with those of P. tenella and possible homologies and differences are indicated.

  2. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found.

  3. Description of the final instar larva of Limnetron antarcticum Förster and notes on its female (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, Alejandro; Muzón, Javier

    2014-11-12

    The final instar larva of Limnetron antarcticum Förster is described and illustrated for the first time based on one specimen collected in Misiones Province, Argentina. It is compared with L. debile (Karsch). Color pattern and ovipositor morphology of the female imago are described.

  4. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata.

  5. Egg and fourth instar larvae gut of Aedes aegypti as a source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mario, Lara C; Borghesi, Jéssica; Crivellari-Damasceno, Wilson T; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Will, Sonia E A L; Maria, Durvanei A; Miglino, Maria A

    2016-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 2015 registered more than 1.206.172 cases of Dengue in the Americas. Recently, the Aedes aegypti has been not only related to Dengue, but also with cases of Zika virus and Chikungunya. Due to its epidemiological importance, this study characterized the morphology of the embryonated eggs of A. aegypti and provided a protocol to culture stem cells from eggs and digestive tract of fourth instar larvae in order to examine cell biology and expression of markers in these vectors. Cells were isolated and cultured in DMEM-High at 28°C, and their morphology, cell cycle and immunophenotyping were examined. Morphologically, embryos were at the end of the embryonic period and showed: head, thorax, and abdomen with eight abdominal segments. The embryonic tissues expressed markers related to cell proliferation (PCNA), pluripotency (Sox2 and OCT3/4), neural cells (Nestin), mesenchymal cells (Vimentin and Stro-1), and endosomal cells (GM130 and RAB5). In culture, cells from both tissues (eggs and larvae gut) were composed by a heterogeneous population. The cells had a globoid shape and small size. Cell cycle analysis on passage 1 (P1) showed 27.5%±2.0% of cell debris, 68% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 30.2% on S phase, 1.9%±0.5% on G2-M phase. In addition, cells on passage 2 showed: 10% of cell debris, 92.4% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 6.8% on S phase, 0.6% on G2-M phase. Embryonated eggs expressed markers involved with pluripotency (Sox2 and Oct 3/4), mesenchymal cells (vimentin and Stro-1), neural cells (Nestin), and cellular death by apoptosis (Caspase 3). Specific endosomal markers for insect cells (GM130 and RAB5) were also highly expressed. In cell culture of A. aegypti larvae gut the same labeling pattern was observed, with a small decrease in the expression of mesenchymal (vimentin and Stro-1) and neural (Nestin) markers. In summary, we were able to establish a protocol to culture embryonated eggs and larvae gut of A. aegypti

  6. Influence of instar and commodity on insecticidal effect of two diatomaceous earth formulations against larvae of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal effect of two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, SilicoSec and PyriSec, against larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Three instars were tested: first, third and fifth. The test was conducted in six commodities: barley Hordeum vulgare (L.) (Gramminae), rye Secale cereale L. (Gramminae), wheat Triticum sp. (Gramminae), wheat + 10% cracked wheat, wheat + 30% cracked wheat, and wheat flour. Quantities of these commodities were treated with the DEs at three dose rates: 250, 500, and 1000 ppm. Mortality of the exposed larvae on the DE-treated commodities was measured after 7 d of exposure. For both Des, mortality increased with dose, but this increase was lower when dose was increased from 500 to 1,000 ppm. The type of the commodity significantly affected DE effectiveness. Both DEs were equally effective on barley, rye, and wheat, whereas the presence of cracked wheat reduced larval mortality. In addition, significantly fewer larvae were dead on treated flour compared with the other five commodities. The increase of larval age significantly affected DE effectiveness. First instars were very susceptible to both DEs, and mortality with 1,000 ppm exceeded 86%. In contrast, fifth instar were the least susceptible to DEs, because mortality with 1000 ppm was < 22%.

  7. Effects of Fraxinellone on the Midgut Enzyme Activities of the 5th Instar Larvae of Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Min; Wu, Wenjun; Liu, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Isolated from Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., fraxinellone exhibited multiple bioactivities against insects. In the present paper, the changes of digestive enzymes and detoxification enzymes of Mythimna separata Walker (5th instar larvae), treated with fraxinellone, were investigated. Compared with those of the control, the α-amylase activity of the fraxinellone-treated 5th instar larvae was inhibited, whereas the level of their protease activity was increased. Based upon further studies on the specific proteases, the levels of the active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (BApNA as the substrate) and the chymotrypsin-like enzyme (BTEE as the substrate) activities of the treated larvae were declined; however, the level of activity of the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (TAME as the substrate) of the treated ones was increased. Meanwhile, the activities of two detoxification enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), of the treated larvae were increased to some extent, but the activities of NADPH-P450 reductase and O-demethylase of the treated ones declined. Therefore, protease (especially the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme), CarE and GST played important roles in the metabolism of fraxinellone in the midgut of Mythimna separata (M. separata). PMID:25216084

  8. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  9. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron D; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D

    2014-01-01

    Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  10. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  11. Redescription of late-instar larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli (Denny) Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-10-20

    The larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is redescribed. This is the first complete description of an immature Scydmoraphes with special focus on the chaetotaxic characters. The larva is unique among Cyrtoscydmini in having three pairs of stemmata, a very long sensory appendage of the antennomere II, mandibles with mesal row of microserrations interrupted by smooth portion of mandibular margin; maxillary mala with asetose apex and a row of very long, modified setae on mesal margin, and extremely elongate maxillary palpomere III and labium. A comparative study of previous descriptions resulted in recognizing a misidentification of a Scydmoraphes larva (the "Typ 2-Larve" of Schmid) as a putative Neuraphes (Pararaphes). The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures in the larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is discussed, and comparative notes on the larvae of Scydmoraphes, Neuraphes and Stenichnus are given, with an identification key.

  12. Effect of soil temperature and moisture on survival of eggs and first-instar larvae of Delia radicum.

    PubMed

    Lepage, M P; Bourgeois, G; Brodeur, J; Boivin, G

    2012-02-01

    Edaphic factors such as soil temperature and moisture influence soil-dwelling insects, whose most vulnerable stages typically are eggs and young larvae. In this study, the survival of eggs and first-instar larvae of the cabbage maggot, Delia radicum L., was measured under laboratory conditions after exposure to a range of soil temperatures and moistures. When eggs were exposed to constant temperature (20-29°C) and humidity (5-200% [wt:wt]), temperature had no significant effect on survival, whereas humidity <25% [wt:wt] caused egg mortality. The gradual exposure of eggs to high temperatures resulted in low mortality below 33°C, but <5% of eggs survived at 40°C. When first-instar larvae were exposed to constant temperature (17-29°C) and humidity (5-100% [wt:wt]), both factors as well as their interaction had a significant effect on larval survival, which was nil at 5% (wt:wt) for all temperatures but increased from 21.9 to 42.8% at 17°C and from 34.1 to 55.0% at 29°C, for soil moisture contents of 15% and 100% (wt:wt), respectively. Eggs of D. radicum are resistant to low soil moisture and high temperature conditions. Larval survival tends to increase with an increase in soil temperature and moisture. It is suggested that soil temperature be integrated into insect development simulation models instead of air temperature, to build more effective models for cabbage maggot management.

  13. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  14. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Steck, Gary J; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis.

  15. Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations of Third-Instar Larva of Cordylobia rodhaini (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Agent of Furuncular Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, M; Cultrera, R; Chicca, M; Leis, M

    2015-05-01

    A scanning electron microscopy study of the third larval instar of Cordylobia rodhaini Gedoelst (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causing obligatory furuncular myiasis, is presented here for the first time. The larvae were collected from a patient exposed to them in the tropical rainforest of Kibale National Park (Uganda). Distinctive features are described in sequence from the anterior region to the posterior region, highlighting the morphological features of antennae, maxillary palps, structures related to mouth opening, sensory structures, thoracic and abdominal spines, and anterior and posterior spiracles. The results are compared with those of other Calyptrata flies, mainly from the family Calliphoridae and, when possible, with Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the only other species of genus Cordylobia investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  17. First description and bionomic notes for the final-instar larva and pupa of an Oriental dobsonfly species, Neoneuromus sikkimmensis (van der Weele, 1907) (Megaloptera: Corydalidae).

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengquan; Tong, Chao; Chen, Shengzhi; Liu, Zhiwei; Xu, Faqiong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xingyue

    2016-10-31

    Neoneuromus van der Weele, 1909, a member of megalopteran subfamily Corydalinae, is a common and widespread dobsonfly genus of the Oriental Region. The adult taxonomy of Neoneuromus is relatively well-known but the larvae and pupae are undescribed. In this paper we describe the last-instar larva and the pupa of N. sikkimmensis (van der Weele, 1907), representing the first detailed description of any immature stage of Neoneuromus. Information on the bionomics of this species is also reported.

  18. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-01-01

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  19. Comparative Proteomics and Expression Analysis of Five Genes in Epicauta chinensis Larvae from the First to Fifth Instar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins’ function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins’ expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels. PMID:24586908

  20. Olfactory conditioning in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster using heat shock reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Sukant; Robinson, Brooks G; Wang, Zihe; Shropshire, William C; Zhong, Allen C; Garcia, Laura E; Corpuz, Jonathan; Chow, Jonathan; Hatch, Michael M; Precise, Eric F; Cady, Amanda; Godinez, Ryan M; Pulpanyawong, Terapat; Nguyen, Andrew T; Li, Wen-Ke; Seiter, Max; Jahanian, Kambiz; Sun, Jeffrey C; Shah, Ruchita; Rajani, Sunaina; Chen, William Y; Ray, Sofia; Ryazanova, Natalie V; Wakou, Dorah; Prabhu, Rohith K; Atkinson, Nigel S

    2012-01-01

    Adult Drosophila melanogaster has long been a popular model for learning and memory studies. Now the larval stage of the fruit fly is also being used in an increasing number of classical conditioning studies. In this study, we employed heat shock as a novel negative reinforcement for larvae and obtained high learning scores following just one training trial. We demonstrated heat-shock conditioning in both reciprocal and non-reciprocal paradigms and observed that the time window of association for the odor and heat shock reinforcement is on the order of a few minutes. This is slightly wider than the time window for electroshock conditioning reported in previous studies, possibly due to lingering effects of the high temperature. To test the utility of this simplified assay for the identification of new mutations that disrupt learning, we examined flies carrying mutations in the dnc gene. While the sensitivity to heat shock, as tested by writhing, was similar for wild type and dnc homozygotes, dnc mutations strongly diminished learning. We confirmed that the learning defect in dnc flies was indeed due to mutation in the dnc gene using non-complementation analysis. Given that heat shock has not been employed as a reinforcement for larvae in the past, we explored learning as a function of heat shock intensity and found that optimal learning occurred around 41 °C, with higher and lower temperatures both resulting in lower learning scores. In summary, we have developed a very simple, robust paradigm of learning in fruit fly larvae using heat shock reinforcement.

  1. Effect of olfactory and visual stimuli on the orientation of the 4th instar larvae of the stem borer Chilo partellus swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tokro, P G; Saxena, K N

    1991-01-01

    The orientational responses of 4th instar larvae of Chilo partellus to different sources of stimuli being artificial diet, leaves and stems of maize and sorghum were tested, under free choice and no-choice situations. Larvae were attracted to maize and sorghum in a moderate to high degree dependent on what choice they were given. The orientational preference of the larvae, offered a choice between the visual and the odour sources, depended upon their stimulating capacities which were represented by the percentages of individuals responding to the sources of stimuli. Odour played a greater role than visual stimuli in this close range attraction when the two competed with each other.

  2. Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas and Anteros formosus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), with a summary of known host plants for the tribe Helicopini.

    PubMed

    Mota, Luísa L; Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L

    2014-07-21

    Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) are described for the first time and compared with those of Anteros formosus, which are also described in detail. Last instars of both species present body covered with long white plumose setae, a row of orange balloon setae on the prothoracic shield, and clusters of perforated cupola organs (PCOs) near the spiracles; differences are the black cephalic capsule, the placement and format of balloon setae cluster, and the presence of enlarged black tips on some plumose setae. Pupae of O. archytas resemble that of Anteros, covered with the last instar setae and with no balloon setae. Characteristics of the immature stages of these two genera could be useful to establish the still unresolved relationship between them. A summary of the host plants of Helicopini is presented, showing a polyphagous pattern for Anteros, recorded in 21 host plant families, which contrasts with the specialized diet observed in Helicopis and Sarota. 

  3. Structural and Genetic Investigation of the Egg and First-Instar Larva of an Egg-Laying Population of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a Species of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Pimsler, Meaghan L; Pape, Thomas; Johnston, J Spencer; Wharton, Robert A; Parrott, Jonathan J; Restuccia, Danielle; Sanford, Michelle R; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Flies in the family Sarcophagidae incubate their eggs and are known to be ovoviviparous (i.e., ovolarviparous), but a laboratory-maintained colony of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) deposited clutches of viable eggs over 10 generations. A description of the egg and first-instar larva of this species is provided along with genetic data (genome size and cytochrome oxidase I sequences). The egg is similar to previously described eggs of other Sarcophagidae but differs in the configuration of the micropyle. In the first-instar larva, the oral ridges are much more developed than has been described for other species. B. plinthopyga has forensic importance, and the present descriptive information is critical for proper case management.

  4. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  5. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  6. Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Manabu; Kiuchi, Makoto

    2002-10-01

    When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100%. When 1 ng was applied in the 4th instar after a 2-day starvation, most larvae underwent an extra molt, metamorphosed to pupae, then to fertile adults. Combining starvation and fenoxycarb application thus induces a perfect extra molt efficiently. In perfect extra molting larvae, profiles of total ecdysteroid titer during the 4th and 5th instars were similar to that during the 4th instar in the control, and the ecdysteroid profile during the extra 6th instar was similar to that during the control 5th (last) instar. At ecdysteroid peaks, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ecdysone (E), generally regarded as the active molting hormone and its precursor, had similar titers in the 6th instar, whereas E was much less than 20E in the 4th and 5th instars in the extra molting larvae. E was also abundant only in the last larval instar in the control. These results suggest that both 20E and E contents are important for regulation of larval molt and metamorphosis in silkworms and that fenoxycarb triggers the extra molt by inducing an additional larval molt type of ecdysteroid surge before the last larval instar.

  7. Muscidae (Diptera) of forensic importance-an identification key to third instar larvae of the western Palaearctic region and a catalogue of the muscid carrion community.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Hall, Martin J R; Pape, Thomas; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2016-12-07

    The Muscidae is one of the main dipteran families recognized as important for medico-legal purposes. Although an association of adult flies with decomposing human and animal bodies is documented for about 200 taxa worldwide, cadavers and carrion represents a breeding habitat for considerably fewer species. Species that do colonize dead human bodies can do so under diverse environmental conditions and, under certain circumstances, Muscidae may be the only colonizers of a body. Because of difficulties in identification, many studies have identified immature and/or adult muscids only to the genus or family level. This lack of detailed species-level identifications hinders detailed investigation of their medico-legal usefulness in carrion succession-oriented experiments. Identification to species level of third instars of Muscidae of forensic importance and the utility of larval morphological characters for taxonomic purposes were subjected to an in-depth revision. A combination of characters allowing for the discrimination of third instar muscids from other forensically important dipterans is proposed. An identification key for third instar larvae, which covers the full set of cadaver-colonising species of Muscidae from the western Palaearctic (Europe, North Africa, Middle East), is provided. This key will facilitate more detailed and species-specific knowledge of the occurrence of Muscidae in forensic entomology experiments and real cases. The carrion-visiting Muscidae worldwide are catalogued, and those species breeding in animal carrion and dead human bodies are briefly discussed with regard to their forensic importance.

  8. Evaluation of the toxic potential of calcium carbide in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9).

    PubMed

    Danish, Mohd; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the toxic potential of calcium carbide (CaC2) was studied on the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). The third instar larvae were exposed to 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32×10(-3)g/ml of CaC2 in diet for 24h. The results reveal that the dose 2×10(-3)g/ml was not toxic but the remaining doses showed a dose dependent significant increase in the hsp70 expression, β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content), glutathione-S-transferase activity, expression of Caspase 3 and 9, apoptotic index and DNA damage (midgut cells). A significant reduction as compared to control group in total protein, glutathione content and acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis (ICPAES) reveals the presence of copper, iron, sodium, aluminium, manganese, calcium, nickel and mercury. The toxic effects of CaC2 in the present study may be attributed to the impurities present in it.

  9. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  10. Descriptions of the final instar larvae of seven Chinese Chlorogomphidae species, with taxonomic notes on adults (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haomiao; Tong, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    The larvae of seven species of Chlorogomphidae from South China are described based on reared larvae, i.e. Chlorogomphus kitawakii Karube, C. nasutus nasutus Needham, C. papilio Ris, C. shanicus Wilson, C. usudai Ishida, C. yokoii Karube and Chloropetalia soarer Wilson. The adult female of C. kitawakii is first described. Biological information on Chlorogomphidae is provided and a diagnosis of the family proposed.

  11. Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Izadi, H

    2014-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found

  12. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  13. Third instar larvae of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of forensic importance--critical review of characters and key for European species.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Richet, René; Pape, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Necrophagous Sarcophagidae are among the insects most frequently reported from human corpses. The broad forensic application of flesh flies is restricted by the lack of reliable tools for species identification of larval stages and mass breeding of collected flesh fly larvae to the adult stage, and more recently DNA-based methods are usually recommended for precise species identification. To overcome this situation, the following study was implemented: (1) original larval material was obtained of the European flesh flies of confirmed or potential forensic importance; (2) larval morphology was studied and documented using a combination of standard light microscopy, image-stacking stereomicroscopy and SEM; and (3) larval characters used in previously published keys were critically revised. The taxonomic value of the following characters was considered insignificant: (1) differences in level of sclerotisation of particular parts of the cephaloskeleton, (2) level of sclerotisation of the posterior spiracular peritreme and (3) the shape of posterior spiracular slits. A high taxonomic value was noticed for the general shape of anterior spiracles, pattern of arrangement of their lobes, and distribution and shape of spines/warts on the inter-band area of segments. Two character states-long window in the dorsal cornu of cephaloskeleton and deep spiracular cavity on anal division-are not found in the Miltogramminae and therefore cannot be considered as family-specific for the entire Sarcophagidae. As a comprehensive result of our studies, an identification key is presented for the third instar larvae of European flesh flies of forensic importance. The key is user-friendly and requires no dissections of larvae, as soaking the material in methyl salicylate will allow observation of all diagnostic details of the cephaloskeleton. A simple stereomicroscope (magnification about ×50) is sufficient for the observation of all characters presented in the key. This key may be

  14. Ultrastructural Effects of a Non-Steroidal Ecdysone Agonist, RH-5992, on the Sixth Instar Larva of the Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Palli, S R.; Brownwright, A J.; Davis, C N.; Tomkins, W L.; MacDonald, A; Retnakaran, A

    1997-02-19

    Force feeding of RH-5992 (Tebufenozide), a non-steroidal ecdysone agonist to newly moulted sixth instar larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) initiates a precocious, incomplete moult. Within 6h post treatment (pt) the larva stops feeding and remains quiescent. Around 12hpt, the head capsule slips partially revealing an untanned new head capsule that appears wrinkled and poorly formed. By 24hrpt, the head capsule slippage is pronounced and there is a mid-dorsal split of the old cuticle in the thoracic region but there is no ecdysis. The larva remains moribund in this state and ultimately dies of starvation and desiccation. The temporal sequence of the external and internal changes of the integument were studied using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Within 3hpt, there is hypertrophy of the Golgi complex indicating synthetic activity and soon after, large, putative ecdysial droplets are seen. Within 24h, a new cuticle that lacks the endocuticular lamellae is formed. The formation of the various cuticular components, the degradation of the old cuticle and changes in the organelles of the epidermal cells of the mesothoracic tergite are described. The difference between the natural moult and the one induced by RH-5992 are explained on the basis of molecular events that take place during the moulting cycle. The persistence of this ecdysone agonist in the tissues permits the expression of all the genes that are up-regulated by the presence of the natural hormone but those that are turned on in the absence of the hormone are not expressed.

  15. DmSAS is required for sialic acid biosynthesis in cultured Drosophila third instar larvae CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Granell, Annelise E von Bergen; Palter, Karen B; Akan, Ihan; Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Thornhill, William B; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2011-11-18

    Sialylation is an important carbohydrate modification of glycoconjugates that has been shown to modulate many cellular/molecular interactions in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), using sequence homology, several enzymes of the sialylation pathway have been cloned and their function tested in expression systems. Here we investigated whether sialic acid incorporation in cultured Dm central nervous system (CNS) neurons required endogenously expressed Dm sialic acid synthase (DmSAS). We compared neurons derived from wild type Dm larvae with those containing a DmSAS mutation (148 bp deletion). The ability of these cells to produce Sia5NAz (sialic acid form) from Ac(4)ManNAz (azide-derivatized N-acetylmannosamine) and incorporate it into their glycoconjugates was measured by tagging the azide group of Sia5NAz with fluorescent agents via Click-iT chemistry. We found that most of the wild type Dm CNS neurons incorporated Sia5NAz into their glycoconjugates. Sialic acid incorporation was higher at the soma than at the neurite and could also be detected at perinuclear regions and the plasma membrane. In contrast, neurons from the DmSAS mutant did not incorporate Sia5NAz unless DmSAS was reintroduced (rescue mutant). Most of the neurons expressed α2,6-sialyltransferase. These results confirm that the mutation was a null mutation and that no redundant sialic acid biosynthetic activity exists in Dm cells, i.e., there is only one DmSAS. They also provide the strongest proof to date that DmSAS is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sialic acids in Dm CNS neurons, and the observed subcellular distribution of the newly synthesized sialic acids offers insights into their biological function.

  16. The thoracic muscular system and its innervation in third instar Calliphora vicina Larvae. I. Muscles of the pro- and mesothorax and the pharyngeal complex.

    PubMed

    Hanslik, Ulrike; Schoofs, Andreas; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, Hans-Georg; Spiess, Roland

    2010-08-01

    An anatomical description is given by the muscles in the pro- and mesothorax, and those associated with the feeding apparatus (cephalopharyngeal skeleton, CPS) that participate in feeding behavior in third instar Calliphora larvae. The body wall muscles in the pro- and mesothoracic segments are organized in three layers: internal, intermedial, and external. The muscles were labeled with roman numerals according to the nomenclature in use for the abdominal segments. Muscles associated with the CPS are labeled according to their function. The prothorax bears five pairs of lateral symmetrically longitudinal segmental body wall muscles and lacks the transversal muscle group present in the mesothorax and abdominal segments. Additionally, four pairs of intersegmental muscles project from the prothorax to the second, fourth, and fifth segment. The mesothorax bears 15 pairs of segmental longitudinal and 18 pairs of transversal muscles. The accessory pharyngeal muscles span the CPS and the cuticle. Three pairs of protractors and retractors and two pairs of mouth hook accessors (MH(AC)) exist, which move the CPS relative to the body. The pharyngeal muscles are exclusively attached to the structures of the CPS. The mouth hook elevators and depressors, which mediate the hooks rotation are attached to the ventral arm of the CPS and project to a dorsal (elevators) or ventral (depressors) protuberance of the mouth hooks. The cibarial dilator muscles (CDM) span the dorsal arms of the CPS and the dorsal surface of the esophagus and mediate food ingestion. The labial retractors (LRs) lack antagonists and project from the ventral surface of the CPS to the unpaired labium. Contractions of these muscles open the mouth cavity.

  17. Slow and stepped re-warming after acute low temperature exposure do not improve survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Rajamohan, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We tested that hypothesis that slow re-warming rates would improve the ability of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen larvae to survive acute low temperature exposure. Four larval stages (1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd) instars and wandering stage 3(rd) instars) of four wild-type strains were exposed to -7 degrees C for periods of time expected to result in 90 % mortality. Larvae were then either directly transferred to their rearing temperature (21 degrees C), or returned to this temperature in a stepwise fashion (pausing at 0 and 15 degrees C) or by slow warming at 1 or 0.1 degrees C/min. We observed a reduced rapid cold-hardening effect and no general increase in survival of acute chilling in larvae re-warmed in a stepwise or slow fashion, and hypothesise that slow re-warming may result in accumulation of further chill injuries.

  18. Vertical transmission of Nosema fumiferanae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and consequences for distribution, post-diapause emergence and dispersal of second-instar larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Nystrom, Carl; Liu, Y

    2007-10-01

    We examined vertical transmission of Nosema fumiferanae in the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and how it affects overwintering distribution and survival and spring emergence and dispersal of second-instar larvae in outbreak populations. Females containing 5.0 x 10(5) spores or more consistently produced 100% infected progeny. Transmission efficiency was still 50% at burdens as low as 0.2 x 10(5) spores per moth. Infection intensity in offspring increased with maternal spore load but became highly variable above 25 x 10(5) spores per female. Nosema multiplied in second instars for at least 1 month after they entered dormancy, regardless of temperature (2 degrees C versus 21 degrees C). Infection did not affect the distribution of overwintering larvae in a white spruce canopy. Dormancy survival between late-summer and the following spring was lower in families from infected females and was negatively correlated with larval infection intensity. Infection delayed larval emergence from hibernacula in the spring and resulted in delayed dispersal of emerged larvae, at least when parasite prevalence and infection intensities were high. Infected larvae were less successful in establishing feeding sites after dispersal. Our results underscore the potential of Nosema infection to negatively affect processes early in the budworm life cycle.

  19. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  20. New insights for Drosophila GAGA factor in larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Marta; Piñeyro, David; Bernués, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GAGA factor plays important roles during Drosophila embryogenesis and its maternal contribution is essential for early development. Here, the role of GAGA factor was studied in 3rd instar larvae using depletion and overexpression conditions in wing disc and transcriptome analysis. We found that genes changing expression were different to those previously described using GAGA mutants in embryos. No apparent phenotypes on GAGA depletion could usually be observed at larval stages in imaginal discs but a strong effect on salivary gland polytene chromosomes was observed. In the adult, GAGA depletion produced many defects like abnormal cell proliferation in the wing, impaired dorsal closure and resulted in homeotic transformation of abdominal segment A5. Unexpectedly, no effects on Ultrabithorax expression were observed. Short overexpression of GAGA factor in 3rd instar larvae also resulted in activation of a set of genes not previously described to be under GAGA regulation, and in lethality at pupa. Our results suggest a little contribution of GAGA factor on gene transcription in wing discs and a change of the genes regulated in comparison with embryo. GAGA factor activity thus correlates with the global changes in gene expression that take place at the embryo-to-larva and, later, at the larva-to-pupa transitions. PMID:26064623

  1. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L., worldwide. While exploring conventional approaches to management and more recently bioengineering, extended research has been conducted on ways to manage its root-feeding larvae. The nee...

  2. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  3. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize.

  4. The toxicity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to larvae of the disease vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hasan, Zatul-’Iffah; Williams, Helen; Ismail, Nur M.; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Cozier, Gyles E.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Isaac, R. Elwyn

    2017-01-01

    The control of mosquitoes is threatened by the appearance of insecticide resistance and therefore new control chemicals are urgently required. Here we show that inhibitors of mosquito peptidyl dipeptidase, a peptidase related to mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), are insecticidal to larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. ACE inhibitors (captopril, fosinopril and fosinoprilat) and two peptides (trypsin-modulating oostatic factor/TMOF and a bradykinin-potentiating peptide, BPP-12b) were all inhibitors of the larval ACE activity of both mosquitoes. Two inhibitors, captopril and fosinopril (a pro-drug ester of fosinoprilat), were tested for larvicidal activity. Within 24 h captopril had killed >90% of the early instars of both species with 3rd instars showing greater resistance. Mortality was also high within 24 h of exposure of 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of An. gambiae to fosinopril. Fosinopril was also toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae, although the 1st instars appeared to be less susceptible to this pro-drug even after 72 h exposure. Homology models of the larval An. gambiae ACE proteins (AnoACE2 and AnoACE3) reveal structural differences compared to human ACE, suggesting that structure-based drug design offers a fruitful approach to the development of selective inhibitors of mosquito ACE enzymes as novel larvicides. PMID:28345667

  5. The toxicity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to larvae of the disease vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Abu Hasan, Zatul-'Iffah; Williams, Helen; Ismail, Nur M; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Cozier, Gyles E; Acharya, K Ravi; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2017-03-27

    The control of mosquitoes is threatened by the appearance of insecticide resistance and therefore new control chemicals are urgently required. Here we show that inhibitors of mosquito peptidyl dipeptidase, a peptidase related to mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), are insecticidal to larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. ACE inhibitors (captopril, fosinopril and fosinoprilat) and two peptides (trypsin-modulating oostatic factor/TMOF and a bradykinin-potentiating peptide, BPP-12b) were all inhibitors of the larval ACE activity of both mosquitoes. Two inhibitors, captopril and fosinopril (a pro-drug ester of fosinoprilat), were tested for larvicidal activity. Within 24 h captopril had killed >90% of the early instars of both species with 3(rd) instars showing greater resistance. Mortality was also high within 24 h of exposure of 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) instars of An. gambiae to fosinopril. Fosinopril was also toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae, although the 1(st) instars appeared to be less susceptible to this pro-drug even after 72 h exposure. Homology models of the larval An. gambiae ACE proteins (AnoACE2 and AnoACE3) reveal structural differences compared to human ACE, suggesting that structure-based drug design offers a fruitful approach to the development of selective inhibitors of mosquito ACE enzymes as novel larvicides.

  6. The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae)

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Tetsuo; Furuki, Takahiro; Ohoka, Wataru; Umamoto, Noritomo; Nakajo, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00′ S–7°00′ S, 101°00′ E–103°00′ E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west), larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp.) were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive) sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface. PMID:27941620

  7. The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae).

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Furuki, Takahiro; Ohoka, Wataru; Umamoto, Noritomo; Nakajo, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Chihiro

    2016-12-07

    This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00' S-7°00' S, 101°00' E-103°00' E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west), larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp.) were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive) sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface.

  8. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  9. Comparative efficacy and pathogenicity of keratinophilic soil fungi against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Prakash, Soam

    2010-09-01

    Out of seven fungal species belonging to four genera isolated from pond and wallow soils using feathers of Pavo cristatus as bait, four species viz., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium and Trichophyton ajelloi were most frequent. Chrysosporium and Trichophyton spp. were more pathogenic on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae than Aspergillus and Penicillium. The bioefficacy tests conducted as per the protocol of World Health Organization and the LC(50) values calculated by the Probit analysis showed that 3(rd)-instar C. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the conidia of above fungi. Highest mortality was observed in the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus when exposed to T. ajelloi. The density of fungal conidia was greatest on the ventral brush, palmate hair and anal region of the mosquito larvae after exposing for 72 hours. The potentiality of these fungi for use in the control of C. quinquefasciatus is discussed which can be exploited as a suitable biocontrol agent in the tropics.

  10. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P < 0.05), and the activity of larvae's antioxidant system improved significantly, showing a remarkable adaptability of the larvae to FD1. Unlike FD1, FD2 displayed definite disadvantages in most test growth indicators, as compared with CK, indicating that T. molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  11. Variability in development of the striped rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), due to instar number and last instar duration

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jing; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. This variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. It is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this variation. In this study, a laboratory population and a population recently established from the field were used to test variation in development time across instar stages. The duration of developmental time of C. suppressalis started to diverge from the 5th instar onward. Individuals pupated at the 5th, 6th, 7th or even 8th instar stage. In both populations, both the instar at which the larva pupated and the duration of the last larval instar stage determined total developmental time of an individual. There was little impact of the developmental time of early instars on total developmental duration or on instar number prior to pupation. Sex influenced the number of instars but not development time within this number. The biological and applied significance of uneven development in C. suppressalis are discussed. PMID:27731388

  12. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  13. An adaptive kernel smoothing method for classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) larval instars.

    PubMed

    Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.

  14. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  15. Consequences of the instar stage for behavior in a pit-building antlion.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Yehonatan; Barkae, Erez David; Ovadia, Ofer; Scharf, Inon

    2014-03-01

    Pit-building antlion larvae are opportunistic predators that dig conical pits in loose soils, and prey on small arthropods that fall into their traps. We investigated different behavioral traits of second and third instar larvae selected for similar body masses, while also exploring the behavioral consistency and personalities of the third instar stage. Second instar larvae constructed smaller pits than third instar larvae. The former also responded more slowly to prey and exploited prey less efficiently. Notably, all these instar-based differences disappeared after molting into the third instar stage. In addition, third instar larvae exhibited consistent behavior in their pit size, response times to prey and to less extent in relocation distances. We detected two axes of behavior. The first axis included a correlation between pit size, response time and prey exploitation efficiency, thus reflecting investment in foraging activity. The second axis seemed to represent a trade-off between response time and relocation distance, implying that individuals that responded more slowly to prey, relocated over larger distances. These results point to coordinated behavior reflecting different levels of investment in foraging, while also emphasizing the importance of instar stage, in addition to body mass, when studying the behavior of such organisms characterized by a complex life cycle.

  16. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  17. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  18. Interaction between halofenozide and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus for control of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mannion, C M; Winkler, H E; Shapiro, D I; Gibb, T

    2000-02-01

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman is a major pest of turf and ornamentals. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the potential interactions between a biological control agent, Heterorhabditis marelatus (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) IN strain and the insecticide halofenozide against both overwintered and nonoverwintered 3rd instars of Japanese beetle. Treatments consisted of all combinations of 2 rates of halofenozid with H. marelatus nematodes Imidacloprid was used as a standard. Percentage larval mortality was evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 d after treatment. No deleterious effects were observed. The nematode treatments generally produced significantly greater larval mortality relative to both chemical treatments. Twenty-one days after treatment, both rates of nematodes resulted in 100% mortality, whereas insecticide treatments did not surpass 60% mortality. No synergism was detected in any of the combination treatments. There were no significant differences in nematode reproduction in larvae exposed to halofenozide and nematodes versus larvae exposed to only nematodes.

  19. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  20. Feeding patterns of migratory and non-migratory fourth instar larvae of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake: Importance of prey ingestion rate in predicting metal bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Hare, L.; Marcoux, P.

    2003-01-01

    We studied diel variations in the feeding habits and migratory behaviors of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake (Lake Turcotte, QC, Canada). We found that although the zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers, both Chaoborus species fed mostly on chironomids and crustaceans despite the relatively low abundance of these prey types in the lake plankton. Chaoborus americanus larvae fed on those of Chaoborus punctipennis, but not vice versa. The non-migratory species (C. americanus) fed throughout the day and night whereas the migratory species (C. punctipennis) fed only at night while in the water column. The larger-bodied C. americanus consumed more prey and had a more diverse diet than did the smaller-bodied C. punctipennis. Differences in feeding habits between the Chaoborus species inhabiting Lake Turcotte (prey biomass, prey types) likely explain in part their ability to coexist. Attempts to predict Cd in the Chaoborus species using our measurements of Cd in their prey and their prey ingestion rates met with mixed success; although we correctly predicted higher Cd concentrations for C. americanus larvae than for C. punctipennis larvae, we under-predicted absolute Cd concentrations. We suggest that studies such as ours that are based on analyses of gut contents of larvae collected at intervals of 4h or longer likely underestimate prey ingestion rates.

  1. Levels of Salivary Enzymes of Apolygus Lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae), From 1st Instar Nymph to Adult, and Their Potential Relation to Bug Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiumei; Xu, Xiuping; Gao, Yong; Yang, Qinmin; Zhu, Yunsheng; Wang, Jiqing; Wan, Fanghao; Zhou, Hongxu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs. Pectinase, amylase, cellulase and protease were detected in both nymphal and adult saliva of A. lucorum, while neither polyphenol oxidase nor peroxidase was detected. Protease activity varied with food intake peaking at the 3rd-4th instar, and then slightly decreasing at the 5th instar. Levels of pectinase, amylase and cellulase increased significantly with the daily feeding level until the 3rd instar, corresponding with increasing damage to host plants. The activity of both cellulase and protease had a significant linear relationship with the average daily food intake. The increasing activity of enzymes in saliva explain stage-specific impacts of A. lucorum on the host plants, and suggest that optimal management of A. lucorum would be confined to its control threshold prior to the peak of daily feeding in the 3rd instar. PMID:28002486

  2. Diapause disruption with tebufenozide for early-instar control of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Daniel; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel; Bauce, Eric; Palli, Subba Reddy; Tomkins, Bill; Arif, Basil; Retnakaran, Arthur

    2007-08-01

    In North America, the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem., is an important coniferous pest against which tebufenozide has proven effective as a control product. By acting as an ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide can induce precocious moulting in late (fifth-sixth) instars but can also be carried over to the next generation owing to its persistence on foliage. The authors conducted laboratory experiments on first-instar larvae treated with tebufenozide dissolved in acetone. Larvae exposed to doses equal to or above 0.1 microg cm(-2) displayed precocious moulting in the second instar after hibernaculum spinning, which effectively disrupted diapause. Larger doses induced moulting in first instars. Evidence is provided that this dose-response difference is related to whether or not an effective dose of tebufenozide is ingested by the first instar prior to the peak of moulting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) in first instars. Doses ineffective to kill first instars are carried over to the second instar, where they induce a precocious moult. This type of response to tebufenozide is dependent on the presence of a moulting machinery (the EcR-USP receptor complex) that is ready for ecdysone transduction. Interestingly, ecdysone levels are low in second instars, as measured by a radioimmunoassay, which suggests that diapause in spruce budworm is maintained by a suppression of ecdysone production. Thus, diapause disruption by tebufenozide may well provide an alternative control strategy for this important pest.

  3. The Ups and Downs of 3rd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  5. PreK-3rd: How Superintendents Lead Change. PreK-3rd Policy Action Brief. No. Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Leading change to create an integrated PreK-3rd education and connect early learning programs with the K-12 system is not easy. Superintendents require courage to take the first step, persistence and political skills to encourage organizational and community engagement, and a relentless focus on results to measure progress and build momentum. As a…

  6. [Biometrical identification of larval instars of S. damnosum s.I. and S. adersi (Diptera: Simuliidae) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Elouard, J M

    1978-06-01

    The biometrical analysis of two characters measured on the postgenae of Simulium larvae allow to differentiate the seven larval instars of S. damnosum s.I. and S. adersi, and to draw the growth curves of one parameter for the different instars.

  7. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue.

    PubMed

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent's and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents' and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins' host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins' principle, and the concept of 'chemical legacy.'

  8. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  9. Nice observatory measurements of double stars (3rd series)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorel, J.-C.

    2000-12-01

    We present recent measurements of visual double stars made at the Nice Observatory (3rd series). We also report the discovery of a new double star: JCT 4. Moreover we give a more precise position of the double star DOO 35. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  10. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    core combat systems are interactive with one another, creating a synergistic outcome and capability rather than providing an additive- segmented tool ...J o i n t F o r c e Q u a r t e r l y issue 66, 3rd Quarter 2012 Achieving Force Resilience Offensive Cyber Joint System Assessments Report...cross-pollination” of students on a large scale. At a joint-minded level, we need to rethink our Service personnel systems , which could enhance the

  11. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  12. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera.

  13. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  14. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  15. 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potrakhov, N. N.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this preface a brief history, modern aspects and future tendencies in development of the X-ray technique as seen from the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique that was held on 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are described On 24–25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg on the basis of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” n. a. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) was held the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique. The tradition to hold a similar conference in our country was laid in Soviet times. The last of them, the All-Union Conference on the Prospects of X-ray Tubes and Equipment was organized and held more than a quarter century ago – on 21–23 November 1999, at the initiative and under the leadership of the chief engineer of the Leningrad association of electronic industry “Svetlana” Borovsky Alexander Ivanovich and the chief of special design bureau of X-ray devices of “Svetlana” Shchukin Gennady Anatolievich. The most active part in the organization and work of the conference played members of the department of X-ray and electron beam instruments of Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute “LETI” (the former name of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”), represented by head of the department professor Ivanov Stanislav Alekseevich.

  16. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2008-12-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was >250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO.

  17. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2009-03-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was > 250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO.

  18. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  19. 3rd Pavia international symposium on advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    Kidney cancers' natural history has radically changed in the past few years, due to the development of novel targeted agents. Despite these improvements, several unanswered questions still remain on the table, regarding the best first-line treatment, the ideal sequence of treatments, the management of specific subgroups of patients (e.g., elderly patients or those with comorbidities) and the relevance of prognostic factors, among many others. To foster discussions among clinicians and investigators working in this field, and to exchange different viewpoints concerning the newest advances in kidney cancer pathogenesis and treatment, the 3rd Pavia International Symposium on Advanced Kidney cancer was held in Pavia (Italy) between 30 June and 1 July 2011. The aim of this report is to summarize the most significant advances in the different disciplines applied to advanced kidney cancer, which were presented and discussed during the meeting, and how these advances will be changing the perspective of patients with this disease.

  20. Aedes aegypti pharate 1st instar quiescence affects larval fitness and metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Perez, Mario H; Noriega, Fernando G

    2012-06-01

    The eggs of the mosquito Aedes aegypti possess the ability to undergo an extended quiescence hosting a fully developed 1st instar larvae within the chorion. As a result of this life history trait pharate larvae can withstand months of quiescence inside the egg where they depend on stored maternal reserves. A. aegypti mosquitoes are frequently associated with urban habitats that may contain significant metal pollution. Therefore, the duration of quiescence and extent of nutritional depletion may affect the physiology and survival of larvae that hatch in a suboptimal habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an extended quiescence on larval nutrient reserves and the subsequent effects of metal exposure on larval fitness, survival and development. We hypothesized that an extended quiescence would reduce nutritional reserves and alter the molecular response to metal exposure thereby reducing larval survival and altering larval development. As a molecular marker for metal stress responses, we evaluated transcriptional changes in the metallothionein gene (AaMtn) in response to quiescence and metal exposure. Extended 1st instar quiescence resulted in a significant decrease in lipid reserves and negatively affected larval fitness and development. AaMtn transcription and metal tolerance were compromised in first instars emerged from eggs that had undergone an extended quiescence. These findings suggest that newly emerged mosquito larvae that had survived a relatively long pharate 1st instar quiescence (as might occur during a dry season) are more vulnerable to environmental stress. Pharate 1st instar quiescence could have implications for vector control strategies. Newly emerged mosquito larvae at the end of the dry season or start of the wet season are physiologically compromised, and therefore potentially more susceptible to vector control strategies than mosquito larvae hatched subsequently throughout the wet season.

  1. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  2. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Description of the larva of Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cyclosomini) with notes on biology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guilherme Ide Marques Dos

    2015-06-16

    A late instar of the Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 larva is described for the first time, and is compared with its first instar, with the larva of another Tetragonoderus species, and with the larva of one Cyclicus species. Habitus and important structures of the larva are illustrated, as well the adult's membranous wings. Some aspects of the natural history of the larva and adult are also noted.

  4. A description of the Larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) from the Restinga Forest of Southeastern Brazil (Coleoptera: Lycidae, Calopterini).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius De Souza; Costa, Cleide

    2015-02-03

    The last instar larva of Metapteron xanthomelas (Lucas, 1857) is described. This is the first description of a larva for the genus. Two live larvae collected in the Brazilian Atlantic coast Restinga Forest of Itanhaém, São Paulo, were reared, one to adult and one was fixed in the last instar. This larva differs from the known Calopterini larvae by the absence of urogomphi, the dorsal abdominal segments undivided and strongly alveolate ornamentation on the head. 

  5. Microdrilling of PCB substrate using DPSS 3rd harmonic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Chang, Won Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ku; Jeong, Sungho; Shin, Bo Sung; Whang, Kyung Hyun

    2003-02-01

    Micromachining using the DPSS 3rd Harmonic Laser (355nm) has outstanding advantages as a UV source in comparison with Excimer lasers in various aspects such as maintenance cost, maskless machining, high repetition rate and so on. It also has the greater absorptivity of many materials in contrast to other IR sources. In this paper, the process for micro-drilling of through and blind hope in Cu/PI/Cu substrate with the UV DPSSL and a scanning device is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods. It is known that there is a large gap between the ablation threshold of copper and that of PI. We use the multi path for through hole with high energy density and we use Archimedes spiral path for blind hole with different energy densities to ablate different material. Furthermore, Matlab simulations considering the energy threshold of material is performed to anticipate the ablation shape according to the duplication of pulse, and FEM thermal analysis is used to predict the ablation depth of copper. This study would be widely applicable to various laser micromachining applications including through and blind hole micro-drilling of PCB, and micromachining of semiconductor components, medical parts and printer nozzles amongst others.

  6. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  7. Bifurcation of limit cycles in 3rd-order Z2 Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei; Han, Maoan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we show that a Z2-equivariant 3rd-order Hamiltonian planar vector fields with 3rd-order symmetric perturbations can have at least 10 limit cycles. The method combines the general perturbation to the vector field and the perturbation to the Hamiltonian function. The Melnikov function is evaluated near the center of vector field, as well as near homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits.

  8. Terminal-instar larval systematics and biology of west European species of Ormyridae associated with insect galls (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Jose F.; Nieves, María Hernández; Gayubo, Severiano F.; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A systematic study of the genus Ormyrus (Chalcidoidea, Ormyridae) was conducted based on the morphology and biology of the terminal-instar larvae of ten west European species that are parasitoids of gall wasps and gallflies of the families Cynipidae, Eurytomidae and Tephritidae. The first detailed descriptions are provided of the terminal-instar larvae of these ten species using SEM images to illustrate diagnostic characters with systematic values. A key is provided for the identification of ormyrid larvae associated with galls in Europe, which is based particularly on characters of the head, mouthparts and mandibles. Although only limited informative variation in body shape was found, the setation of the head provided several characters of potential taxonomic value. The larval biology of the ten ormyrid species inhabiting different galls is also summarised. Although Ormyrus larvae are usually solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of the host larva of various gall-inhabiting insects, evidence of secondary phytophagy was observed in some species. PMID:28144185

  9. Terminal-instar larval systematics and biology of west European species of Ormyridae associated with insect galls (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jose F; Nieves, María Hernández; Gayubo, Severiano F; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study of the genus Ormyrus (Chalcidoidea, Ormyridae) was conducted based on the morphology and biology of the terminal-instar larvae of ten west European species that are parasitoids of gall wasps and gallflies of the families Cynipidae, Eurytomidae and Tephritidae. The first detailed descriptions are provided of the terminal-instar larvae of these ten species using SEM images to illustrate diagnostic characters with systematic values. A key is provided for the identification of ormyrid larvae associated with galls in Europe, which is based particularly on characters of the head, mouthparts and mandibles. Although only limited informative variation in body shape was found, the setation of the head provided several characters of potential taxonomic value. The larval biology of the ten ormyrid species inhabiting different galls is also summarised. Although Ormyrus larvae are usually solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of the host larva of various gall-inhabiting insects, evidence of secondary phytophagy was observed in some species.

  10. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2012-03-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph

  11. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    . Historical summary Every two years, the STARM (science, technologie avanc\\'ee et recherche pour la Mediterran\\'ee, http://www.starm.emcmre.org/) society is organizing an international conference entitled Euro-Mediterranean Conference on Materials and Renewable Energies (EMCMRE, http://www.emcmre.org/) in countries across the Mediterranean Sea. It is in this framework that an international meeting dedicated to silicene is organized simultaneously since 2010: 1st International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-1), Safi, Morocco, 2010 2nd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-2), Marrakech, Morocco, 2011 3rd International Meeting of Silicene (IMS-3), Istres-Marseille, France, 2013 Conference pictures are available in the PDF

  13. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  14. Potential for Significant Reductions in Dropout Rates: Analysis of an Entire 3rd Grade State Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Dorothyjean

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen percent of 1997-98 North Carolina 3rd graders were observed to drop out of high school. A series of logits predict probabilities of dropping out on determinants such as math and reading test scores, absenteeism, suspension, and retention, at the following grade levels: 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th. The same cohort and variables are used to…

  15. Comments on the biology of Sciodrepoides watsoni watsoni (Spence, 1813) with descriptions of larvae and pupa (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae).

    PubMed

    Kilian, Aleksandra; Mądra, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The late-instar larva of Sciodrepoides watsoni watsoni is redescribed and the egg, first and second instar and pupa are described for the first time. Immature stages habitus, chaetotaxy, detailed illustrations and details of life cycle are provided. Previous descriptions of larva of S. watsoni are discussed. The structures of larvae of S. watsoni are compared with those of other known larvae of Cholevinae.

  16. Desiccation resistance in pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Bauce E; Han, E

    2001-10-01

    Desiccation resistance was examined in pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), in terms of passive water evaporation under three desiccation conditions: freeze-drying, desiccant-drying at 2 degrees C and desiccant-drying at 18 degrees C. Diapausing second instar larvae and post-diapause non-feeding second instar larvae showed strongest desiccation resistance: a significant amount of water was retained after repeated drying under desiccating conditions, while pre-diapause first instar larvae and post-diapause feeding second instar larvae lost almost all their water content after one or two drying cycles. A hibernaculum covering had no effect on water evaporation. While dead larvae tended to lose significantly more water than their living counterparts, particularly among first instar larvae, such an impact was much weaker among diapausing second instar larvae. Desiccation resistance was lost when post-diapause second instar larvae were allowed access to water while the level of desiccation resistance was maintained or enhanced when the larvae did not have access to water. These results are discussed in the context of overwintering ecology of the species and possible mechanisms for the desiccation resistance are also discussed.

  17. Effect of the Extracts of the Spiderflower, Cleome arabica, on Feeding and Survival of Larvae of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ladhari, Afef; Laarif, Asma; Omezzine, Faten; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) extracts of siliquae, stems and leaves, and seeds of Cleome arabica L. (Brassicales: Capparidaceae) were evaluated in the laboratory for their antifeeding and insecticidal effect on larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), using a leaf dipping bioassay with castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), leaf discs. The polar extracts caused significant mortality. At the highest dose, C. arabica extracts exhibited significant antifeeding and phagostimulating activities against S. littoralis larvae. Under no-choice conditions, the methanol extract of siliquae was the most active, and the antifeedant index calculated over 24 hr for 3rd instar larvae varied significantly from 16 to 37%. Using nutritional indices, it was established that there was a significant decrease in growth rate concomitant with a reduction in consumption. These results suggest the presence of anti-feeding and/or toxic substances in the extracts that may be useful in developing bio-insecticides based on C. arabica extracts for use in integrated pest management of leafworm and other agricultural pests. PMID:23906290

  18. Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.

    PubMed

    Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

    2009-04-01

    Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards.

  19. Chemoreception of sucrose and amino acids in second and fourth instars of the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sandoval, M; Albert, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    We examined the responses of some gustatory neurons in various contact-chemoreceptor sensilla of second-instar larvae of the spruce budworm. These included the L1 and L2 sensilla on the maxillary palp, and the LST and MST sensilla on the galea. Our objective was to determine whether there were differences in the physiological characteristics of individual neurons between the early and late larval instars. Changes were observed in both some sugar-sensitive and amino acid-sensitive neurons. We also confirmed the presence of a water-sensitive neuron in the L2 sensillum. Our findings are discussed in relation to changes that occur during the development of both the host plant and the insect. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to examine the responses from contact-chemoreceptor sensilla of very young second-instar caterpillar larvae.

  20. First-instar western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) response to carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate corn roots.

  1. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to respond... Infantry BCTs and Heavy Armor BCTs augmented with the protection and versatility of an additional SBCT. The... socioeconomic impacts that would be associated with the stationing of the different types of Army BCTs...

  2. 15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST, 3RD TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS IN FOREGROUND WITH PUMPHOUSE AND TACKLE BOX BEHIND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. OFFSHORE VIEW OF 3RD TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TACKLE BOX IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  5. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  6. Ontogenetic dietary shift in the larvae of Cybister japonicus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Japanese rice fields.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya

    2009-06-01

    A number of fragmentary reports suggest that the endangered diving beetle Cybister japonicus larvae feed on tadpoles, fish, and aquatic insects. However, no quantitative study on the feeding habits of C. japonicus larvae has been reported. In this study, field observations and rearing experiments were carried out to show the feeding ecology of C. japonicus larvae. Unlike previous commentaries, the first- and second-instar larvae of C. japonicus preyed on insects, mainly Odonata nymphs and Notonecta triguttata, irrespective of prey availability, but did not eat vertebrates such as tadpoles and fish in the field. On the contrary, the third-instar larvae fed on both insects and vertebrates. Rearing experiments showed that the number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly more than the number of tadpoles consumed by the first and second instars but third-instar larvae ate both the Odonata nymphs and tadpoles in the tadpole-Odonata nymph mixture experiment. The total body lengths of C. japonicus new adults in the Odonata nymph and tadpole-Odonata nymph mixture treatments were statistically equal. These results suggested that the first- and second-instar larvae of C. japonicus prey mainly on insects and do not eat vertebrate animals (insectivore), whereas the third-instar larvae fed on both insects and vertebrates (generalist).

  7. Activity of Selected Formulated Biorational and Synthetic Insecticides Against Larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Vivan, L M; Torres, J B; Fernandes, P L S

    2016-12-23

    This work studied 17 insecticides belonging to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kurstaki and Bt aizawai), benzoylureas (insect growth regulators [IGRs]), carbamates, organophosphates, spinosyns, and diamides against larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), invasive species in the South American continent. Larvae of different instars were fed for 7 d with untreated or insecticide-treated diets. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 d, and surviving larvae were individually weighed on the seventh day. The NPV and Bt insecticides caused 100% mortality of first-instar larvae and first-instar and second-instar larvae, respectively. However, both NPV and Bt-based products caused low mortality of third-instar larvae and did not kill older larvae. The IGR lufenuron was highly effective against all three ages of larvae tested, whereas teflubenzuron and triflumuron produced maximum 60% mortality of second-instar larvae and lower than 50% to older larvae. Thiodicarb, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, and chlorfenapyr, irrespective of tested age, caused 100% mortality of larvae, with the last two insecticides reaching 100% mortality within 2 d of feeding on the treated diet. Flubendiamide caused lower mortality but significantly affected the weight of surviving larvae, whereas neither spinosad nor methomyl produced significant mortality or affected the weight of larvae. Based on the results, the age of H. armigera larvae plays an important role in the recommendation of NPV and Bt insecticides. Furthermore, there are potential options between biological and synthetic insecticides tested against H. armigera, and recording larval size during monitoring, in addition to the infestation level, should be considered when recommending biological-based insecticides to control this pest.

  8. Microbial Gut Diversity of Africanized and European Honey Bee Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae. PMID:23991051

  9. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Roger; Quiring, Dan T.; Lucarotti, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV) within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study) and peak (laboratory study) phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) foliage), NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups) to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e), respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage), NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae. PMID:26466722

  10. [Description and key to the main species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae of forensic importance from Colombia].

    PubMed

    Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou).

  11. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  12. Aedes aegypti pharate 1st instar quiescence: a case for anticipatory reproductive plasticity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Mario H; Noriega, Fernando G

    2013-03-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use pharate 1st instar quiescence to cope with fluctuations in water availability hosting a fully developed 1st instar larvae within the chorion. The duration of this quiescence has been shown to affect larval fitness. This study sought to determine if an extended egg quiescence can elicit a plastic response resulting in an adult phenotype distinct from adults reared from short quiescence eggs. Our findings indicate that extended pharate 1st instar quiescence affects the performance and reproductive fitness of the adult female mosquito as well as the nutritional status of its progeny via maternal effects in an adaptive manner. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity results as a consequence of the duration of pharate 1st instar quiescence and alternative phenotypes may exist for this mosquito with quiescence serving as a cue possibly signaling the environmental conditions that follow a dry period. These findings have implications for A. aegypti's success as a vector, geographic distribution, vector capacity and control.

  13. Plane stress yield function described by 3rd-degree spline curve and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aamaishi, Toshiro; Tsutamori, Hideo; Iizuka, Eiji; Sato, Kentaro; Ogihara, Yuki; Matsui, Yohei

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a plane stress yield function which is described by 3rd-degree spline curve is proposed. This yield function can predict a material anisotropy with flexibility and consider evolution of anisotropy in terms of both r values and stresses. As an application, hole expanding simulation results are shown to discuss accuracy of the proposed yield function.

  14. Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies That Support Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Shayna; Bornfreund, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of a handful of states that is often recognized as a leader in public education, and for good reason. The Commonwealth consistently outperforms most states on national reading and math tests and often leads the pack in education innovations. "Starting Young: Massachusetts Birth-3rd Grade Policies that Support Children's…

  15. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  16. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  17. The Effect of Book Blogging on the Motivation of 3rd-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…

  18. Education Reform Starts Early: Lessons from New Jersey's PreK-3rd Reform Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This report seeks to describe how New Jersey became a national leader in early education and PreK-3rd, identify its successes and challenges, draw lessons from its experience for policymakers in other states and nationally, and provide recommendations for New Jersey policymakers to translate progress to date into sustained, large scale learning…

  19. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  20. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used…

  1. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  2. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

  3. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae.

    PubMed

    Szpila, K; Hall, M J R; Pape, T; Grzywacz, A

    2013-12-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photographs and line drawings. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, cephaloskeleton, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, and posterior spiracles. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton are presented and the spinulation of the abdominal segments is described. Earlier descriptions are summarized and major discrepancies with the current study are discussed. The present results allow for the clarification, correction and, especially, complementing existing information provided by numerous authors. The first instar larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented.

  4. Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. Educator's Practice Guide. NCEE 2016-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…

  5. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe.

  6. Efficacy of an Esfenvalerate plus Methoprene Aerosol for the Control of Eggs and Fifth Instars of the Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides may provide an alternative to fumigants for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), a major insect pest of stored processed food. In this study, eggs and larvae (5th instars) of P. interpunctella were exposed to aerosol applications of the pyrethroid esf...

  7. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  8. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  9. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  11. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-08-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary study introduces and evaluates a novel technique for pinpointing learners’ misconceptions, namely, one that has learners create and interpret their own photographs (CIP). 27 high-school students and 26 pre-service teacher trainees were asked to assume the role of textbook designers and create a display—photograph plus attached verbal explanation—which, in their opinion, best depicted Newton’s 3rd law. Subsequent analysis of the participants’ photographs yielded the following six misconception categories: 3rd law not depicted; 3rd law depicts a sequence of events; tendency to introduce irrelevant entities in explanations; the word ‘reaction’ used colloquially; tendency to restrict the application of the third law to dynamic situations; and informal explanations in which the word “force” is absent. The findings indicate that, indeed, the CIP method can be effectively employed to elicit, detect, and investigate learners’ misconceptions. The CIP method joins the growing efforts to utilize the yet relatively untapped potential of visual tools for science education purposes.

  12. Effects of buprofezin on the ultrastructure of the third instar cuticle of the insect Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    De Cock, A; Degheele, D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with buprofezin at the beginning of the third instar of Trialeurodes vaporariorum results in death of the larvae at the time of moulting. Electron microscopic observations, after treatment of the larvae with 20 mg a.i./l buprofezin, does not reveal any difference in the ultrastructural profile before apolysis, however formation of a normal lamellate procuticle is disturbed. The pharate procuticle is amorphous, varying in thickness and the mean thickness is greatly reduced. The subcuticle is interrupted several times at locations corresponding with the thinnest places of the pharate cuticle. Epidermal cells contain unusual structures such as myelin figures and hypertrophied mitochondria indicating that buprofezin may have an additional toxic effect on epidermal cells.

  13. Examination of the migration of first instar larvae of the parasite OEstrus ovis (Linne 1761) [Diptera: OEstridae] in the upper respiratory tract of artificially infected lambs and daily measurements of the kinetics of blood eosinophilia and mucosal inflammatory response associated with repeated infection.

    PubMed

    Yacob, H T; Jacquiet, Ph; Prevot, F; Bergeaud, J P; Bleuart, C; Dorchies, Ph; Hoste, H

    2004-12-15

    Twelve lambs were divided into two groups: Group C control, non-infected, and Group O infected once a week for 5 weeks with OEstrus ovis L1 through the same nostril. The first objective of this experiment was to check whether larvae moving through a given nostril remain in the same side nasal cavity or might to spread in both nasal cavities. It has been observed that larvae invade and spread through the entire nasal cavities. The only possible passage way between both sides is via the choanae and velum palatinum. The second objective was to follow the kinetics of blood eosinophilia. A primary peak in eosinophil numbers was noted 4 days following infection, with a higher peak following the second infection. After that, no major changes were seen. Nevertheless, the numbers of eosinophils were always higher than in control animals until the end of the follow-up. The third objective of the study was an enumeration of reactive cells (mast cells, globule leucocytes, and eosinophils) in the mucosae of the upper and lower respiratory tract after necropsy of the animals of the two groups. As observed in previous experiments, there was a large accumulation of these cells in mucosae of the upper respiratory tract. It was also worth noting a significant accumulation of eosinophils in the tissues of the trachea, bronchae and lungs even though OE. ovis was not present there. This "distant" eosinophilic reaction may have important consequences on patho-physiology of other parasites living in these locations: eosinophils have the potential to kill them even though these cells are not activated by their specific antigens.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  15. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  16. Multi-year survival of sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) larvae in cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet root maggots (Tetanops myopaeformis), as third-instar larvae have been successfully maintained in cold (6 ± 1ºC) storage for up to six years. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae undergoing prolonged diapause, comparative studies on respir...

  17. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  18. [Antifeeding effects of crude lantadene from Lantana camara on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yizhi; Zhang, Maoxin; Ling, Bing

    2005-12-01

    In this study, crude lantadene was extracted from Lantana canmara leaves, and its antifeeding effects on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae were tested. In no-choice test, crude lantadene at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had antifeeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae and 1st instar S. litura larvae, with the antifeeding rate being 62.4% and 33.1%, respectively within 48 h. In choice test, even a low concentration (0.4 mg x ml(-1)) crude lantadene still had anti-feeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae, and the antifeeding rate at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration was 52.7%, 55.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Crude lantadene only at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had anti-feeding effects on the 1st instar S. litura larvae, and the antifeeding rate was 33.0%. For the 2nd instar S. litura larvae, crude lantadene had no antifeeding effects both in no-choice and in choice test.

  19. Growth and development of Aedes aegypti larvae at limiting food concentrations.

    PubMed

    Levi, Tal; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Shahi, Preeti; Borovsky, Dov; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes have a complex life-cycle with dramatic changes in shape, function, and habitat. Aedes aegypti was studied by growing individual larvae at different concentrations of a defined rich food source. At higher food concentrations, rate of larval growth was faster, but the time required for 4th instar larvae to molt into the pupal stage was unexpectedly extended. These opposite tendencies resulted in constant times from hatching to pupation and up to adult eclosion at permissive food concentrations. The results demonstrate that nutritional conditions of 4th instar larvae impact initiation of the first metamorphic molt.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  1. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  2. [Modern surgical treatment of breast cancer. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue into the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations.

  3. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area.

  4. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  5. Extreme and Local 3rd Harmonic Response of Niobium (Nb) Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oripov, Bakhrom; Tai, Tamin; Anlage, Steven

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are being widely used in new generation particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are based on bulk Nb. Based on the needs of the SRF community to identify defects on Nb surfaces, a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope was successfully built using a magnetic writer from a conventional magnetic recording hard-disk drive1. This magnetic writer can create an RF magnetic field, localized and strong enough to drive Nb into the vortex state. This probe enables us to locate defects through scanning and mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency range. Recent measurements have shown that 3rd harmonic nonlinear response is far more sensitive to variations in input power and temperature then linear response, thus we mainly study the 3rd harmonic response. Moreover, the superconductor is usually the only source for nonlinear response in our setup, thus there is less chance of having noise or background signal. Understanding the mechanism responsible for this non-linear response is important for improving the performance of SRF cavities. Besides Nb we also study various other superconductors such as MgB2 and the cuprate Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) for potential applications in SRF cavities. This work is funded by US Department of Energy through Grant # DE-SC0012036T and CNAM.

  6. The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3rd IGMC, 2015): overall activities and outcome highlights.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Dallol, Ashraf; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Kalamegam, Gauthaman; Al-Hamzi, Emad; Shay, Jerry W; Scherer, Stephen W; Agarwal, Ashok; Budowle, Bruce; Gari, Mamdooh; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2016-10-17

    The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3(rd) IGMC) was organised by the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This conference is a continuation of a series of meetings, which began with the first International Genomic Medicine Conference (1(st) IGMC, 2011) followed by the second International Genomic Medicine Conference (2(nd) IGMC, 2013). The 3(rd) IGMC meeting presented as a timely opportunity to bring scientists from across the world to gather, discuss, and exchange recent advances in the field of genomics and genetics in general as well as practical information on using these new technologies in different basic and clinical applications. The meeting undoubtedly inspired young male and female Saudi researchers, who attended the conference in large numbers, as evidenced by the oversubscribed oral and poster presentations. The conference also witnessed the launch of the first content for npj Genomic Medicine, a high quality new journal was established in partnership by CEGMR with Springer Nature and published as part of the Nature Partner Journal series. Here, we present a brief summary report of the 2-day meeting including highlights from the oral presentations, poster presentations, workshops, poster prize-winners and comments from the distinguished scientists.

  7. Editorial: 3rd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy. There is also broad recognition that while these problems extend throughout the population, they disproportionately impact economically disadvantaged populations and other vulnerable populations and represent a major contributor to health disparities. Thus, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing health disparities, which receives special attention in this 3rd Special Issue. We also devote considerable space to the longstanding challenges of reducing cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco and nicotine delivery products in vulnerable populations, obesity, and for the first time food insecurity. Across each of these topics we include contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges. PMID:27693562

  8. 3rd Circuit hints it may reconsider McNemar reasoning.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The [name removed] v. The Disney Store ruling is under criticism and the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals may reconsider its 1996 decision to not allow employees who receive disability benefits to sue under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A panel of 3rd Circuit judges, working on [name removed] v. American Sterilizer Co., asserts that the [name removed] decision should not be used to assume that an individual's ADA claims are barred because of prior representations of disability. [Name removed] is suing American Sterilizer under the retaliation provisions of the ADA. Other courts are criticizing the [name removed] decision, including the District of Columbia Court in [name removed] v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. The [name removed] court assets that a statement made in the context of a disability application does not preclude an ADA claim brought by a worker for illegal discrimination because the ADA and the Social Security Act differ in their statutory intent. AIDS advocates state that the [name removed] decision places a plaintiff in the position of having to choose between asserting a legal right or maintaining an income. Alan Epstein, who represented [name removed], is pleased by the criticism but explains that [name removed], who died this summer, will not be vindicated.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  10. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  11. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  12. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  13. A two-pulse technique for extracting 3rd harmonic from ultrasound contrast agent echo signal.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-hee; Kim, Sang-min; Song, Tai-kyong

    2008-01-01

    Multi-pulse techniques like CPS (contrast pulse sequence) and TPS (triplet pulse sequence) are the most popular methods for separating the 3rd harmonic signals from received signal. Those two methods, however, transmit a pulse at least three times along each scanline with different phase and amplitude, which results in the frame rate reduction. In this paper, we propose a technique using two pulses whose phase difference is 90 degrees and a simple digital filter. The second harmonic signal is eliminated by summing two received signals as their phase difference becomes 180 degrees and then the fundamental signals are eliminated by using a digital filter. Computer simulations are performed for different values of signal bandwidths and filter specifications. The results show the maximum error is -35.5 dB compared to TPS.

  14. Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Sage, Julien

    2013-11-21

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Beyond this role in early cell cycle decisions, Rb family members regulate DNA replication and mitosis, chromatin structure, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and cell death. While the RB pathway has been extensively studied in the past three decades, new investigations continue to provide novel insights into basic mechanisms of cancer development and, beyond cancer, help better understand fundamental cellular processes, from plants to mammals. This meeting report summarizes research presented at the recently held 3rd International Rb Meeting.

  15. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  16. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan].

    PubMed

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure.

  17. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  18. Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd Edition (by T. P. Coultate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carandang, Rachelle; Ziegler, Greg

    1998-02-01

    Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd edition, by T. P. Coultate, is an excellent textbook in food chemistry for undergraduates. It is a concise version of the very detailed Food Chemistry by Fennema and similar to, but with advantages over, Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry by Wong and Principles of Food Chemistry by Deman. The book assumes knowledge of biochemistry and basic principles in organic chemistry, but presents very practical examples that allow the student to see the obvious link between theory and practice. The examples are described almost as if the author is performing a demonstration in a classvery vivid to the imagination. This is important because students are expected in the future to perform and put into practice their knowledge of food chemistry.

  19. Retrospective Dosimetry of Vver 440 Reactor Pressure Vessel at the 3RD Unit of Dukovany Npp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Sus, F.; Klupak, V.; Rataj, J.; Hogel, J.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) residual lifetime of the Czech VVER-440 is currently monitored under Surveillance Specimens Programs (SSP) focused on reactor pressure vessel materials. Neutron fluence in the samples and its distribution in the RPV are determined by a combination of calculation results and the experimental data coming from the reactor dosimetry measurements both in the specimen containers and in the reactor cavity. The direct experimental assessment of the neutron flux density incident onto RPV and neutron fluence for the entire period of nuclear power plant unit operation can be based on the evaluation of the samples taken from the inner RPV cladding. The Retrospective Dosimetry was also used at Dukovany NPP at its 3rd unit after the 18th cycle. The paper describes methodology, experimental setup for sample extraction, measurement of activities, and the determination of the neutron flux and fluence averaged over the samples.

  20. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, R L; Siegfried, B D; Sears, M K; Stanley-Horn, D E; Daniels, M J; Mattila, H R; Spencer, T; Bidne, K G; Lewis, L C

    2001-10-09

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently <2% corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings.

  1. Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, José M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae

  2. Simulation of robustness of a new e-beam column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, K.; Fuse, T.; Kinoshita, H.; Parker, N. William

    2008-03-01

    We are now investigating a new concept column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique, in order to obtain fine resolution and high current density beams for electron beam direct writing (EBDW) suitable for below 32nm technology nodes. From the first experimental verification, it is found that the 3 rd-order imaging has a benefit of increasing the beam current compared with conventional Gaussian beam without any beam blurring. However, in order to realize such a column which can work stably in the sub 32nm technology node generations, it is important to clarify how robust the 3 rd-order imaging is against the mechanical tolerances in column manufacturing. This paper describes the tolerance analysis for errors of column manufacturing by simulation. The column has an electron gun with small virtual source and two (Gun and Main) lenses. A patterned beam defining aperture, which enables the 3 rd-order imaging, is set between the 1 st and the 2 nd lenses. The influences of errors such as concentricity, offset and tilt between optical parts on the beam shape, beam current density distribution, and beam edge acuity on a wafer is analyzed for this column. According to these results, the 3 rd-order imaging appears to have sufficiently large allowance compared to the error budget for column manufacturing required in the sub 32nm technology node patterning.

  3. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...

  4. Light-dependent effects of alpha-terthienyl in eggs, larvae, and pupae of mosquitoAedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J; Kagan, E; Patel, S; Perrine, D; Bindokas, V

    1987-03-01

    Alpha-terthienyl is toxic toAedes aegypti larvae in the dark, but its activity is much enhanced in the presence of ultraviolet light. The development of first-instar larvae treated with alpha-terthienyl and ultraviolet light was followed until the emergence of adults. The LC50 value for first instars was about 0.002 ppm. Practically all the larvae which survived 24 hr reached adulthood. Fourth-instar larvae were also sensitive to photochemical treatment. When their development into adults was followed, the LC50 value was 0.45 ppm. Contrary to earlier reports, alpha-terthienyl was also phototoxic in pupae, but not when the adults were about to emerge. The LC50 value was ca. 0.06 ppm for pupae which were 1 or 2 days old. This is the first example where the activity of a photoinsecticide has been demonstrated in pupae. Alpha-terthienyl did not affect the hatching of eggs.

  5. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  6. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  7. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  8. Geysers Characteristics before and after Landslide of June 3-rd, 2007 (Geysers Valley, Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droznin, V. A.; Kiryukhin, A. V.; Muraviev, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1990 cycling characteristics of five geysers (Maly, Bolshoy, Shel, Velican, Troynoy) were contentiously monitoring using automatic telemetric system (V A Drosnin, http://www.ch0103.emsd.iks.ru/ ). The most powerful geyser Velikan erupted steam clouds at 300 m height. 1:20 UTC June 3-rd, 2007 lower basin of the Geysers Valley was in a few minutes buried under 10 mln m3 of mud, debris, and blocks of rocks. Some indications were found, that landslide triggered by steam eruption in the upstream area of Vodopadny creek. As a result of this three famous geysers (Pervenets, Sakharny,Troynoy) located at lower elevations were sealed under 10-30 m thick caprock as well as Vodopadny hot creek, a rock dumb trap Geysernaya river and lifted water into 20 m deep lake, which flooded three famous geysers (Conus, Bolshoy and Maly) terminating their cycling activity. Nevertheless Bolshoy and Maly activity continues in a form of discharge of water circulated in the former geysers channels and a clear plume at a lake surface above exits observed. Shortly after landslide continuous monitoring of the cycling characteristics of the upper basin geysers, including Velikan and lake level, accomplished by temperature loggers - restarted. There are some indications time periods of the geysers cycling decrease.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  10. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  11. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis.

    PubMed

    Wieser, A; Debuyst, R; Fattibene, P; Meghzifene, A; Onori, S; Bayankin, S N; Blackwell, B; Brik, A; Bugay, A; Chumak, V; Ciesielski, B; Hoshi, M; Imata, H; Ivannikov, A; Ivanov, D; Junczewska, M; Miyazawa, C; Pass, B; Penkowski, M; Pivovarov, S; Romanyukha, A; Romanyukha, L; Schauer, D; Scherbina, O; Schultka, K; Shames, A; Sholom, S; Skinner, A; Skvortsov, V; Stepanenko, V; Tielewuhan, E; Toyoda, S; Trompier, F

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose.

  12. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  13. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  14. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  15. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  16. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  17. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and…

  18. Exemplary Institute. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (3rd, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Scholarship Fund, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This proceedings contains presentations and workshop summaries from the 3rd Annual Exemplary Institute for educators of Native American students. Presentations include: "Quality in Learning: Romancing the Journey" (quality management at Mount Edgecumbe High School, Alaska) (Todd Bergman); "Creating a School-wide Literacy Climate" (Sig Boloz); "How…

  19. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  20. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  1. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  2. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  3. A Program Evaluation of ClassScape Used in 3rd Grade Classes in a Rural County in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Misha Neely

    2012-01-01

    The research study will examine the impact of using the ClassScape program and targeted interventions on 3rd grade reading levels of performance. The conceptual and theoretical framework for the study suggests the need to connect formative, benchmark, and summative assessments in North Carolina. Furthermore, the review of the literature will…

  4. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) focuses on the earliest stages of human development, and provides a novel paradigm to complement other strategies for lifelong prevention of common chronic health conditions. The 3rd International Congress on DOHaD, held in 2005, retained the most ...

  5. Visual Arts Teaching in Kindergarten through 3rd-Grade Classrooms in the UAE: Teacher Profiles, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet; Shaban, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    This study portrayed a picture of kindergarten through 3rd-grade teachers who teach visual arts, their perceptions of the value of visual arts, their visual arts teaching practices, visual arts experiences provided to young learners in school, and major factors and/or influences that affect their teaching of visual arts. The sample for this study…

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Large-Scale Changes in Axenic Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Valzania, Luca; Coon, Kerri L.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar. Results showed that conventional and gnotobiotic larvae exhibited no differences in growth, timing of molting, or number of bacteria in their digestive tract. Axenic larvae in contrast grew minimally and never achieved the critical size associated with molting by conventional and gnotobiotic larvae. In the second part of the study we compared patterns of gene expression in conventional, gnotobiotic and axenic larvae by conducting an RNAseq analysis of gut and nongut tissues (carcass) at 22 h post-hatching. Approximately 12% of Ae. aegypti transcripts were differentially expressed in axenic versus conventional or gnotobiotic larvae. However, this profile consisted primarily of transcripts in seven categories that included the down-regulation of select peptidases in the gut and up-regulation of several genes in the gut and carcass with roles in amino acid transport, hormonal signaling, and metabolism. Overall, our results indicate that axenic larvae exhibit alterations in gene expression consistent with defects in acquisition and assimilation of nutrients required for growth. PMID:28060822

  7. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Large-Scale Changes in Axenic Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Kevin J; Valzania, Luca; Coon, Kerri L; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar. Results showed that conventional and gnotobiotic larvae exhibited no differences in growth, timing of molting, or number of bacteria in their digestive tract. Axenic larvae in contrast grew minimally and never achieved the critical size associated with molting by conventional and gnotobiotic larvae. In the second part of the study we compared patterns of gene expression in conventional, gnotobiotic and axenic larvae by conducting an RNAseq analysis of gut and nongut tissues (carcass) at 22 h post-hatching. Approximately 12% of Ae. aegypti transcripts were differentially expressed in axenic versus conventional or gnotobiotic larvae. However, this profile consisted primarily of transcripts in seven categories that included the down-regulation of select peptidases in the gut and up-regulation of several genes in the gut and carcass with roles in amino acid transport, hormonal signaling, and metabolism. Overall, our results indicate that axenic larvae exhibit alterations in gene expression consistent with defects in acquisition and assimilation of nutrients required for growth.

  8. Biotransformation of alpha-terpineol by the larvae of common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ohsawa, Masashi

    2002-08-14

    Biotransformation of alpha-terpineol by the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae was investigated. alpha-Terpineol was mixed in an artificial diet, and the diet was fed to the larvae (fourth-fifth instar) of S. litura. Metabolites were isolated from the frass and analyzed spectroscopically. Main metabolites were 7-hydroxy-alpha-terpineol (p-menth-1-ene-7,8-diol) and oleuropeic acid (8-hydroxy-p-menth-1-en-7-oic acid). Intestinal bacteria from the frass of larvae did not participate in the metabolism of alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol was preferentially oxidized at the C-7 position (allylic methyl group) by S. litura larvae.

  9. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  10. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.

  11. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  12. 3 rd generation 1280 x 720 FPA development status at Raytheon Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. F.; Radford, W. A.; Patten, E. A.; Graham, R. W.; McEwan, T. F.; Vodicka, J. G.; Bornfreund, R. E.; Goetz, P. M.; Venzor, G. M.; Johnson, S. M.; Jensen, J. E.; Nosho, B. Z.; Roth, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed and demonstrated the first-ever 1280 x 720 pixel dual-band MW/LWIR focal plane arrays (FPA) to support 3rd-Generation tactical IR systems under the U.S. Army's Dual-Band FPA Manufacturing (DBFM) program. The MW/LWIR detector arrays are fabricated from MBE-grown HgCdTe triple-layer heterojunction (TLHJ) wafers. The RVS dual-band FPA architecture provides highly simultaneous temporal detection in the MWIR and LWIR bands using time-division multiplexed integration (TDMI) incorporated into the readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The TDMI ROIC incorporates a high degree of integration and output flexibility, and supports both dual-band and single-band full-frame operating modes, as well as high-speed LWIR "window" operation at 480 Hz frame rate. The ROIC is hybridized to a two-color detector array using a single indium interconnect per pixel, which makes it highly producible for 20 μm unit cells and exploits mature fabrication processes currently used to produce single-color FPAs. High-quality 1280 x 720 MW/LWIR FPAs have been fabricated and excellent dual-band imagery produced at 60 Hz frame rate. The 1280 x 720 detector arrays for these FPAs have LWIR cutoff wavelengths >=10.5 μm at 78K. These FPAs have demonstrated high-sensitivity at 78K with MW NETD values < 20 mK and LW NETD values <30 mK with f/3.5 apertures. Pixel operability greater than 99.9% has been achieved in the MW band and greater than 98% in the LW band.

  13. Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles N; Donkor, Peter; Gawande, Atul; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E; Debas, Haile T

    2015-05-30

    The World Bank will publish the nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition, in 2015-16. Volume 1--Essential Surgery--identifies 44 surgical procedures as essential on the basis that they address substantial needs, are cost effective, and are feasible to implement. This report summarises and critically assesses the volume's five key findings. First, provision of essential surgical procedures would avert about 1·5 million deaths a year, or 6-7% of all avertable deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Second, essential surgical procedures rank among the most cost effective of all health interventions. The surgical platform of the first-level hospital delivers 28 of the 44 essential procedures, making investment in this platform also highly cost effective. Third, measures to expand access to surgery, such as task sharing, have been shown to be safe and effective while countries make long-term investments in building surgical and anaesthesia workforces. Because emergency procedures constitute 23 of the 28 procedures provided at first-level hospitals, expansion of access requires that such facilities be widely geographically diffused. Fourth, substantial disparities remain in the safety of surgical care, driven by high perioperative mortality rates including anaesthesia-related deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. Feasible measures, such as WHO's Surgical Safety Checklist, have led to improvements in safety and quality. Fifth, the large burden of surgical disorders, cost-effectiveness of essential surgery, and strong public demand for surgical services suggest that universal coverage of essential surgery should be financed early on the path to universal health coverage. We point to estimates that full coverage of the component of universal coverage of essential surgery applicable to first-level hospitals would require just over US$3 billion annually of additional spending and yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 10:1. It would

  14. A collaborative study to establish the 3rd International Standard for tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Sands, Dawn; Whitton, Colin M; Merton, R Elizabeth; Longstaff, Colin

    2002-08-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to replace the 2nd International Standard (IS) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The 2nd IS for tPA (86/670) was used to calibrate the replacement Standard, which was selected from two candidate materials included in the collaborative study. Participants were provided with five sets of four samples (A, B, C, D) and asked to use sample A (2nd IS, 86/670, 850 IU/ml) to determine the activity of B (86/624, approximately 850 IU/ml), C and D (coded duplicates of the same material, 98/714 approximately 11,000 IU/ml). A total of 14 laboratories returned results from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, providing data from 60 independent assays. Four laboratories used a reference method based on a published monograph from the European Pharmacopoeia for Alteplase for Injection, 1998, and the remaining 10 used their own method. Fibrin was used as promoter of tPA activity by 12 out of the 14 laboratories, the remaining two used kits where fibrinogen fragments were the promoter. Data from this collaborative study and the previous study to establish the 2nd IS for tPA show that tPA from melanoma cells and recombinant tPA from CHO cells are both suitable materials as International Standards. It was agreed that sample C, D, recombinant tPA, 98/714, be established as the 3rd International Standard for tPA with a potency of 10,000 IU per ampoule, calculated as the mean value from laboratories using fibrin as a promoter of tPA activity. The standard was established by WHO in November 2000.

  15. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  16. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  17. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  18. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    PubMed Central

    Kitvatanachai, S; Apiwathnasorn, C; Leemingsawat, S; Wongwit, W; Overgaard, HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 µg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 µg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques. PMID:23569727

  19. Oestrosis in Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica): a case report and molecular characterization of larvae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Antonio; Caparrós, Noelia; Ostrowski, Stephane; Sarasa, Mathieu; Pérez, Jesús M

    2017-03-15

    Three third-instar Oestrus larvae were found in the frontal sinus of an adult female Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Tian Shan mountain range, Kyrgyzstan. The larvae were identified as Oestrus ovis based on morphology and after sequencing and analyzing a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. In light of this identification and the fact that Asiatic ibex and livestock are sympatric in many areas in Central Asia, we discuss the risks of interspecific parasite spillover.

  20. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Vargas, Hector A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  1. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  2. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  3. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  4. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  5. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  6. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  8. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  9. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid: meeting summary of the 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin 2013, Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC.

  10. Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA Project Leader Larry D. Welch, IDA David L...3693 Proceedings of the 3rd IDA-CIISS Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security and the Business of Defense Stephen J. Balut, IDA...Welch on “ Challenges and Opportunities of Common Security for the United States and China.” Also included are presentations by Senior Colonel Jiang

  11. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  12. Carabid larvae as predators of weed seeds: granivory in larvae of Amara eurynota (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Saska, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Up to date we do not have much information about predation on seeds by larvae of ground beetles. One of the reasons why such knowledge is important is that granivorous larvae contribute to predation of weed seeds. In this study, the food requirements of larvae of autumn breeding carabid species Amara eurynota (Panzer) were investigated in the laboratory and a hypothesis, that they are granivorous was tested. Insect diet (Tenebrio molitor larvae), three seed diets (seeds of Artemisia vulgaris, Tripleurospermum inodorum or Urtica dioica or a mixed diet (T. molitor + A. uulgaris) were used as food. For larvae of A. eurynota, seeds are essential for successful completion of development, because all those fed pure insect diet died before pupation. However, differences in suitability were observed between pure seed diets. Larvae fed seeds of A. vulgaris had the lowest mortality and fastest development of the seed diets. Those fed seeds of T. inodorum had also low mortality, but the development was prolonged in the third instar. In contrast, development of larvae reared on seeds of U. dioica was slowest of the tested diets and could not be completed, as all individuals died before pupation. When insects were included to seed diet of A. vulgaris (mixed diet), the duration of development shortened, but mortality remained the same when compared to seed diet of A. vulgaris. According to the results it was concluded that larvae of A. eurynota are granivorous. A mixed diet and seed diets of A. uulgaris and T. inodorum were suitable and insect diet and seeds of U. dioica were unsuitable diets in this experiment.

  13. Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  14. Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2016-08-22

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  15. Volume of larvae Is the most important single predictor of mass temperatures in the forensically important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  16. A global drought climatology for the 3rd edition of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Carrao, Hugo; Naumann, Gustavo; Antofie, Tiberiu; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    A new version of the World Atlas of Desertification (WAD) is being compiled in the framework of cooperation between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This initiative aims at mapping the global land degradation and desertification, as well as introducing the reader with complex interactions of geo-physical, socio-economic, and political aspects that affect the environmental sustainability. Recurrent extreme events resulting from climate change, such as more severe droughts, combined with non-adapted land use practices can affect the resilience of ecosystems tipping them into a less productive state. Thus, to describe the effects of climatological hazards on land degradation and desertification processes, we computed a World drought climatology that will be part of the 3rd edition of the WAD and will replace and update to 2010 the results presented in the 2nd edition in 1997. This paper presents the methodology used to compute three parameters included in the WAD drought climatology, i.e. drought frequency, intensity and duration, and discusses their spatio-temporal patterns both at global and continental scales. Because drought is mainly driven and triggered by a rainfall deficit, we chose the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) as the drought indicator to estimate our climatological parameters. The SPI is a statistical precipitation-based drought indicator widely used in drought-related studies. We calculated the SPI on three different accumulation periods: 3 months (SPI-3), 6 months (SPI-6), and 12 months (SPI-12), in order to take into account meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought-related features. Each quantity has been calculated on a monthly basis using the baseline period between January 1951 and December 2010. As data input, we used the Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 (0.5˚x0.5˚) of gridded monthly precipitation provided by the Global Precipitation

  17. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  19. Effect of kaolin on fitness and behavior of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Sackett, T E; Buddle, C M; Vincent, C

    2005-10-01

    The mechanisms by which kaolin, a clay particle film formulation, affects the fitness and behavior of larvae of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), were investigated. Feeding experiments tested kaolin as a physical barrier versus a physiological toxin for larvae that consumed kaolin applied either to apple (Malus spp.) leaves or mixed in artificial diet. Behavioral experiments tested the effects of kaolin applied to apple leaves on neonate dispersal and leaf rolling by third and fourth instars. When larvae fed on apple leaves sprayed with kaolin, mortality and time to pupation of larvae increased significantly, whereas pupal mass significantly decreased. When larvae consumed kaolin mixed into an artificial diet, however, the effects on mortality, pupation time, and pupal mass were negligible. There may be minor physiological effects from consumption because male time to pupation was delayed for larvae fed diets containing the highest concentration of kaolin. In behavioral experiments, neonate larvae dispersed more quickly off plants covered with kaolin than control plants, and kaolin delayed the construction of leaf shelters by third and fourth instars. We showed that the effects of kaolin on C. rosaceana larvae are primarily physical, causing changes in dispersal and rolling behaviors and as a physical barrier to feeding.

  20. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  1. Predation of Chaoborus punctipennis on larvae of Dorosoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, N.S.; Mattice, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the significance of predation of Chaoborus punctipennis on Dorosoma larvae. Only third (III) and fourth (IV) instars of Chaoborus consumed shad larvae in the laboratory studies. Predation was directly related to shad density and chaoborus size, but was not related to age (or size) of yolk-sac Dorosoma or to temperature in the range of 20 to 25/sup 0/C prevalent during shad spawning. Analysis of evening plankton samples collected in Blue Springs Cove, Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee, during the shad spawning season suggested that interactions between the two species were reduced by spatial, temporal, and seasonal separation. Shad larvae were most abundant near the water surface, particularly near the shoreline and near dawn; III and IV instar Chaoborus were most abundant at 3 or 5 meter depths below the surface and highest concentrations were in deeper water areas between 2100 and 0300. In Blue Springs Cove in 1980, densities of shad and Chaoborus were too low to expect predation to occur based on the extrapolation of predation rates derived from the laboratory studies. This conclusion received further support from the fact that no signs of shad larvae were found in the crops of narcotized Chaoborus collected in Blue Springs Cove.

  2. Are Aristolochic Acids Responsible for the Chemical Defence of Aposematic Larvae of Battus polydamas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)?

    PubMed

    Morais, A B B; Brown, K S; Stanton, M A; Massuda, K F; Trigo, J R

    2013-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are thought to be responsible for the chemical protection of the aposematic larvae Battus polydamas (L.) (Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants. Studying the role of the chemical protection of the second and fifth instars of B. polydamas against potential predators, we found that the consumption of larvae by the carpenter ant Camponotus crassus Mayr and young chicks Gallus gallus domesticus was dependent on larval developmental stage. Second instars were more preyed upon than fifth instars; however, the assassin bug Montina confusa Stål was not deterred by chemical defences of the fifth instar B. polydamas. Laboratory bioassays with carpenter ants and young chicks using palatable baits topically treated with a pure commercial mixture of AAs I and AAs II in concentrations up to 100 times those previously found in B. polydamas larvae showed no activity. Similar results were found in field bioassays, where palatable baits treated as above were exposed to the guild of predators that attack B. polydamas larvae and were also consumed irrespective of the commercial AA concentration used. These results suggest that the mixture of AAs I and AAs II have no defensive role against predators, at least against those investigated in the present work. Other compounds present in Aristolochia host plants such as O-glycosylated AAs; benzylisoquinoline alkaloids; and mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenes, which can be sequestered by Troidini, could act as deterrents against predators.

  3. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  4. Spectral sensitivity of the principal eyes of sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), larvae.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Layne, John E; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2011-11-01

    The principal eyes of sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus, larvae are among the most unusual eyes in the animal kingdom. They are composed of long tubes connecting bifocal lenses with two retinas: a distal retina situated a few hundred micrometers behind the lens, and a proximal retina that is situated directly beneath. A recent molecular study on first instar larvae suggests that the distal retina expresses a long-wavelength-sensitive opsin (TmLW), whereas the proximal retina predominantly expresses an ultraviolet-sensitive opsin (TmUV II). Using cloning and in situ hybridization we here confirm that this opsin distribution is, for the most part, maintained in third instar larvae (with the exception of the TmUV I that is weakly expressed only in proximal retinas of first instar larvae). We furthermore use intracellular electrophysiological recordings and neurobiotin injections to determine the spectral sensitivity of individual photoreceptor cells. We find that photoreceptors of the proximal retina have a sensitivity curve that peaks at 374-375 nm. The shape of the curve is consistent with the predicted absorbance of a single-opsin template. The spectral response of photoreceptors from the distal retina confirms their maximum sensitivity to green light with the dominant λ-peak between 520 and 540 nm, and the secondary β-peak between 340 and 360 nm. These physiological measurements support molecular predictions and represent important steps towards understanding the functional organization of the unusual stemmata of T. marmoratus larvae.

  5. Assessment of human exposure to 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) through consumption of broiler meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, P; Persoons, D; Uyttendaele, M; Butaye, P; De Zutter, L; Dierick, K; Herman, L; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Dewulf, J

    2012-09-17

    Acquired resistance of Escherichia coli to 3rd generation cephalosporin antimicrobials is a relevant issue in intensive broiler farming. In Belgium, about 35% of the E. coli strains isolated from live broilers are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins while over 60% of the broilers are found to be carrier of these 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant E. coli (CREC) after selective isolation. A model aimed at estimating the exposure of the consumer to CREC by consumption of broiler meat was elaborated. This model consists of different modules that simulate the farm to fork chain starting from primary production, over slaughter, processing and distribution to storage, preparation and consumption of broiler meat. Input data were obtained from the Belgian Food Safety agencies' annual monitoring plan and results from dedicated research programs or surveys. The outcome of the model using the available baseline data estimates that the probability of exposure to 1000 colony forming units (cfu) of CREC or more during consumption of a meal containing chicken meat is ca. 1.5%, the majority of exposure being caused by cross contamination in the kitchen. The proportion of CREC (within the total number of E. coli) at primary production and the overall contamination of broiler carcasses or broiler parts with E. coli are dominant factors in the consumer exposure to CREC. The risk of this exposure for human health cannot be estimated at this stage given a lack of understanding of the factors influencing the transfer of cephalosporin antimicrobial resistance genes from these E. coli to the human intestinal bacteria and data on the further consequences of the presence of CREC on human health.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of predation on mosquito larvae by Australian mangrove fish.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Lachlan

    2014-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments compared predation rates of three native eastern Australian mangrove fish species (Psuedomugil signifer, Hyseleotris galii, Pseudogobius sp.) and the exotic Gambusia holbrooki on 2nd and 4th instar Aedes vigilax larvae, in order to determine their potential as mosquito control agents in mangrove forests. All four species preyed on significant numbers of both 2nd and 4th instar larvae. All showed a similar pattern of larval consumption, gorging on larvae in the first hour of each experiment, before reducing to a relatively constant background feeding rate. Gambusia holbrooki showed the highest larval consumption rates, but is unsuitable as a mosquito control agent due to it being an exotic pest species in Australia. Of the three native species, P. signifer showed the greatest potential as a mosquito control agent, having consumption rates comparable to G. holbrooki, and was the only species that did not show a significant reduction in larval consumption in the night experiments.

  7. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY2015: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis B.

    2015-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments.

  8. A 3rd Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) Produced by Dual Stabilization Heat Treatment (DSHT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hao; Michal, Gary M.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2013-10-01

    A 3rd generation advanced high-strength steel containing, in wt pct, 0.3 C, 4.0 Mn, 1.5 Al, 2.1 Si, and 0.5 Cr has been produced using a dual stabilization heat treatment—a five stage thermal processing schedule compatible with continuous galvanized steel production. In excess of 30 vol pct retained austenite containing at least 0.80 wt pct C was achieved with this alloy, which had tensile strengths up to 1650 MPa and tensile elongations around 20 pct.

  9. Tunnelling of the 3rd kind: A test of the effective non-locality of quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Simon A.; Gies, Holger; Jaeckel, Joerg; Wallace, Chris J.

    2013-03-01

    Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this letter we argue that tunnelling of the 3rd kind —where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance— provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.

  10. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes targeting caged last-instar plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Michigan cherry and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Pereault, R J; Whalon, M E; Alston, D G

    2009-08-01

    The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America. We tested the efficacy of five pathogens over the course of three seasons in 10 Michigan apple and cherry orchards, with introductions of larvae to caged pots containing pathogen-treated soil. The nematode Steinernema riobrave was the most effective pathogen in the 2 yr it was tested, but only in soils with the highest sand content (81-88%) and when it was applied 1 h or 5 d after last instars of plum curculio. S. carpocapsae in an organic formulation was less effective, but significantly reduced plum curculio emergence in 1 yr of the study when applied 3 d before C. nenuphar larvae were introduced. Beauveria bassiana was effective in only 1 of the 3 yr it was tested, only in soils with lower sand content, and only when it was introduced within 1 h of plum curculio larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ineffective. Michigan orchards may require sprinkler irrigation coupled with precise timing recommendations and oviposition monitoring to enhance entomopathogen application efficacy against soil-dwelling last instars.

  11. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Israel, with a key to the larval stages

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between twoground beetlesspecies Epomis dejeani (Dejean, 1831) and Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, 1812). We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. An identification key is given for the three larval instars of the two Epomis species. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults’ length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females. PMID

  12. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae.

  13. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  14. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  15. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min(-1) using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466-592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts.

  16. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva.

  17. Ultrastructure of larvae and puparia of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; De Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2012-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala is a forensic important fly, and its immature forms also cause myiasis. The adults are the first insects to reach a carcass and can oviposit just a few hours after arrival. Therefore, the knowledge of immature stages of flies is essential for correct identification of the species found on corpses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characters that can help identify the immature forms of flies. The aim of this study is to identify larvae and puparia of C. megacephala using SEM. The larval instar body of C. megacephala is similar at all instars. The integument is smooth with small spines located at the limit of all segments. The cephalic region has a group of robust spines with one or two tips. The puparia are very similar to third instar larvae, except for the cephalic structures that are retracted. The integument shows the wrinkles from the third instar larvae and posterior spiracle disc with three spiracular openings localized on the top of an elevation. In conclusion, SEM provides some characteristics to distinguish among Chrysomya species that could help entomologists to identify immature found on corpses.

  18. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-09-18

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term.

  19. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214.

  20. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  1. Detailed morphological description of the mature larva of Globicornis corticalis (Eichhoff, 1863) (Dermestidae: Megatominae) with comparisons to related species.

    PubMed

    Kadej, Marcin; Jaroszewicz, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    A description of the last larval instar (based on exuviae) of Globicornis corticalis (Eichhoff, 1863) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is presented. Morphological characters of Globicornis larvae are characterized and discussed, including antenna, epipharynx, mandible, maxilla, ligula with labial palpi, hastisetae, legs, tergites, and condition of the antecostal suture. Structural differences among mature larvae of G corticalis (Eichhoff, 1863), G emarginata (Gyllenhal, 1808) and G nigripes (Fabricius, 1792) are compared and summarized.

  2. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  3. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  4. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  5. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  6. Palaeocommunity dynamics across the Lower to Middle Miocene 3rd order sequence boundary of the Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd order sequence boundary from the Lower to the Middle Miocene of the Paratethys is characterized by a well-known major change of the molluscan fauna. This change was mainly studied based on regional species lists, which suggest a transition from low-diversity Karpatian (Upper Burdigalian) to highly diverse Badenian (Langhian and Lower Serravallian) assemblages. Here, we present quantitative data from 4 Karpatian and 6 Badenian localities to capture the anatomy of this faunal transition by comparing species-abundance patterns of local assemblages. 223 bulk samples, comprising more than 65,000 shells, were taken from shell beds; all molluscs > 1mm were studied quantitatively and sorted into 496 species. Independent sources (e.g., palaeogeographic position of localities and environmental data from foraminifera) suggest a water depth ranging from the intertidal to several tens of meters for the studied assemblages. Ordination methods indicate that benthic assemblages in the study area developed along the same depth-related environmental gradient across the 3rd order sequence boundary. Due to strong facies shifts at the boundary, the Karpatian faunas are mostly preserved in nearshore settings, but the Badenian faunas range from intertidal to shelf depth. Statistical analyses indicate that differences between the total of Karpatian and the total of Badenian assemblages are smaller than any differences among individual localities. The striking differences among the studied localities are most likely due to heterogeneous environments present on the Lower and Middle Miocene shelf of the Central Paratethys. Clearly, the immigration of several thermophilic molluscan families and superfamilies (e.g., Strombidae, Tonnoidea, Isognomonidae, and Carditidae) reflects climatic changes at the onset of the Langhian transgression. Our quantitative approach, however, favours the strong facies shift at the Lower / Middle Miocene boundary as the main reason for the pretended faunal

  7. Early acute antibody-mediated rejection of a negative flow crossmatch 3rd kidney transplant with exclusive disparity at HLA-DP.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Beata; Schroder, Paul M; Baum, Caitlin E; Blair, Annette; Smith, Connie; Duquesnoy, Rene J; Marrari, Marilyn; Gohara, Amira; Malhotra, Deepak; Kaw, Dinkar; Liwski, Robert; Rees, Michael A; Stepkowski, Stanislaw

    2014-08-01

    Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) to HLA-DP may cause antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), especially in re-transplants. We describe the immunization history of a patient who received 3 kidney transplants; the 3rd kidney was completely matched except at DPA1 and DPB1. Prior to the 3rd transplant, single antigen bead analysis (SAB) showed DSA reactivity against DPA1 shared by the 1st and 3rd donors, but B and T flow crossmatch (FXM) results were negative. Within 11 days the 3rd transplant underwent acute C4d+ AMR which coincided with the presence of complement (C1q)-binding IgG1 DSA against donor DPA1 and DPB1. Using HLAMatchmaker and SAB, we provide evidence that eplet (epitope) spreading on DPA1 and eplet sharing on differing DPB1 alleles of the 1st and 3rd transplants was associated with AMR. Since weak DSA to DPA1/DPB1 may induce acute AMR with negative FXM, donor DPA1/DPB1 high resolution typing should be considered in sensitized patients with DP-directed DSA.

  8. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  9. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  10. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  11. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-04-26

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes.

  12. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  13. Superoxide dismutase in the anal gills of the mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti: its inhibition by alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Nivsarkar, M; Kumar, G P; Laloraya, M; Laloraya, M M

    1991-01-01

    The anal gills of the mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti were shown to possess superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) activity, which increased with the maturation of the larvae from instar 1 to instar 4. This enzyme was highly inhibited upon treatment of the larvae with alpha-terthienyl (2,2':5,2"-terthiophene) and subsequent exposure to long-wave ultraviolet light. Inhibition also occurred with treatment of the crude enzyme extract in a similar fashion. Exposure of the enzyme to the ultraviolet light alone or the treatment of the enzyme with alpha-terthienyl in darkness could not manifest this inhibition. This finding adds a new dimension to the complex mechanism(s) proposed for the photodynamic toxicity of alpha-terthienyl.

  14. Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae) extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, F; Hilje, L; Mora, G A; Castro, V H; Salazar, R

    2001-06-01

    Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis) and a semi purified fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri) on mahogany shootborer larvae (Hypsipyla grandella) was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%); afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h), mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight). The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%).

  15. The larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842) (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

    PubMed

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2014-09-29

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842). Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of A. genei keys together with A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758), A. commutatus (Rostock 1874), A. leucophaeus (Rambur 1842) and Athripsodes tavaresi (Navás 1916). These species differ in the number of ventral edge setae at the 1st tibia and in the shape and colour of the submentum. With respect to zoogeography, Athripsodes genei is a (micro-)endemic of the collin and planar regions of Sardinia and Corsica (Graf et al. 2008). According to mandible morphology, A. genei is a collector-gatherer, shredder and, to a minor extent, also a predator.

  16. Working with dauer larvae.

    PubMed

    Karp, Xantha

    2016-07-14

    Dauer diapause is a stress-resistant, developmentally quiescent, and long-lived larval stage adopted by Caenorhabditis elegans when conditions are unfavorable for growth and reproduction. This chapter contains methods to induce dauer larva formation, to isolate dauer larvae, and to study pre- and post-dauer stages.

  17. Description of the larva of Epigomphus crepidus Kennedy, 1936 (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gómez-Anaya, José Antonio; Smith-Gómez, Sergio Alejandro

    2015-10-06

    The larva of Epigomphus crepidus Kennedy is described and figured and compared with other described congeners. It is characterized by 3rd antennomere spindle-shaped, flattened dorso-ventrally, twice longer than its widest part; ventral pad of hypopharynx pentagonal; prementum subrectangular, with lateral margins slightly convex on apical 0.60; ligula very poorly developed, with a ventral row of nine short, truncate teeth on middle, and dorsal rows of short, stout piliform setae. Abdomen lacking dorsal protuberances, lateral spines on S7-9 divergent; sternites 3-8 divided into five plates, sternites 2 and 9 divided into three plates; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles rounded apically and divergent at basal 0.30. It differs from other species mainly in 3rd antennomere, sides of prementum and serrations on lateral margins of S7-9.

  18. Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hulbert, Steve; Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shapiro, David; Shen, Qun; Baltser, Jana

    2011-09-01

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  19. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  20. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  1. From bottom to top: Identification to precision measurement of 3rd-generation quarks with the atlas detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapp, Kevin

    The 3rd-generation quarks, bottom ( b) and top (t), are recent additions to the Standard Model of particle physics, and precise characterization of their properties have important implications to searching for new physics phenomena. This thesis presents two analyses which use 4.6 fb-1 of pp collision data at √s = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to measure their properties. The first is an analysis which measures our ability to identify jets originating from b quarks with machine-learning algorithms applied to simulated and real data, so the result in simulation can be corrected to match that in data. This measurement has implications for our ability to identify processes with b quarks in their final state; t quarks decay to a b quark and a weak vector boson W more than 99% of the time. The second analysis presented measures properties of the t → Wb decay channel associated with phenomena not predicted by the Standard Model, through a set of effective couplings which preserve Lorentz covariance. The kinematic information of the final-state particles is used to construct an event-specific coordinate system, and probability density is estimated as a function of solid angle in these coordinates. A parameterization of the effective couplings is extracted via a novel unfolding method, finding their values consistent with the Standard Model expectation, contributing the first measurement of the correlation between the parameters, and improving on previous limits.

  2. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  3. Photoperiodic and thermal regulation of development and cold hardiness in larvae of the clover leaf weevil, Hypera punctata.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M

    2000-06-01

    Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the development and cold hardiness were investigated in larvae of Hypera punctata. At a relatively low temperature (15 degrees C), the larvae fed less and developed more slowly under a 12L:12D (SD) photoperiod than under a 16L:8D photoperiod (LD). SD larvae had lower gut weight against the whole body weight and lower supercooling point (SCP) than the LD counterparts for the same instar and same body weight. This was because the larval SCP is markedly affected by the quantity of the gut content. Laboratory experiments indicated that the low temperature mortality of this larvae occurred mainly due to freezing irrespective of the photoperiod and temperature, suggesting that the lower lethal temperature (LLT) depends on the supercooling ability of larvae. The SD larvae tended to have a lower SCP and hence a lower LLT than the LD counterparts at 15 or 10 degrees C, unlike at 20 degrees C. Thus, the slower larval development under SD conditions at relatively low temperatures may prevent larvae from reaching the later instar, which have a higher SCP and thus less cold tolerance, during the coldest season. The suppressed feeding activity under SD conditions would lower the SCP, thereby reducing the possibility of lethal tissue freezing. Such a photoperiodic and thermal regulation of the larval development and the supercooling ability appear to represent adaptive mechanisms for winter survival in this beetle.

  4. Monthly variations of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infesting donkeys in Egypt: Morphological and molecular identification of third stage larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hilali, Mosaad A.; Mahdy, Olfat A.; Attia, Marwa M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and monthly intensity of Rhinoestrus (R) spp. among donkeys slaughtered at Giza Zoo abattoir, Egypt. A total of 144 donkeys were examined at postmortem through two visits per month from January 2010 to December 2010. All donkeys were infested with one or more larval stages during all months of the examination period (100%). The 1st and 2nd stage larvae (L1 and L2) were mostly observed in the turbinate bones and seldom in the nasal passages, whereas the 3rd stage larvae (L3) were observed mostly in ethmoid and lamina cribrosa and rarely in nasal passages and pharynx. The highest monthly intensity of infestation with the total number of larval stages was recorded in January and August, while the lowest occurred in September. L1 was observed during all months with two peaks in January and June. L2 occurred from February to April, July, and August. L3 was present from March to May, August, and September. The ranked size of infestation with the total number of the 3 larval stages of Rhinoestrus spp. showed that a total of 107 donkeys had 1–10 larvae; 34 had 11–30 larvae; and 3 harbored 31–50 larvae. The morphology and molecular characterization of the third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. were investigated. Morphologically, two morphotypes (1 and 2) of Rhinoestrus spp. (R. usbekistanicus like and the other R. purpureus like) were reported. Whereas molecular sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase subunit I showed 99% homology with those of R. usbekistanicus. In conclusion, Rhinoestrus spp. present in Egypt is mainly R. usbekistanicus, which includes two morphotypes, R. usbekistanicus like and R. purpureus like. PMID:26644940

  5. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  6. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  7. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  8. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  10. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  11. "Elderly Deafblindness." Proceedings of the European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network (3rd, Marcelli di Numana, Italy, October 2-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deafblind International, London (England).

    This text includes all of the plenary presentations from the 3rd European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network. This international conference was the first to focus specifically on older people with dual sensory impairment. Presentations addressed the awareness of the needs of older people with deafblind or dual…

  12. PREFACE: Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors Special section featuring selected papers from the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados, Xavier; Sánchez, Àlvar; López-López, Josep

    2012-10-01

    The development of superconducting applications and superconducting engineering requires the support of consistent tools which can provide models for obtaining a good understanding of the behaviour of the systems and predict novel features. These models aim to compute the behaviour of the superconducting systems, design superconducting devices and systems, and understand and test the behavior of the superconducting parts. 50 years ago, in 1962, Charles Bean provided the superconducting community with a model efficient enough to allow the computation of the response of a superconductor to external magnetic fields and currents flowing through in an understandable way: the so called critical-state model. Since then, in addition to the pioneering critical-state approach, other tools have been devised for designing operative superconducting systems, allowing integration of the superconducting design in nearly standard electromagnetic computer-aided design systems by modelling the superconducting parts with consideration of time-dependent processes. In April 2012, Barcelona hosted the 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS), the third in a series of workshops started in Lausanne in 2010 and followed by Cambridge in 2011. The workshop reflected the state-of-the-art and the new initiatives of HTS modelling, considering mathematical, physical and technological aspects within a wide and interdisciplinary scope. Superconductor Science and Technology is now publishing a selection of papers from the workshop which have been selected for their high quality. The selection comprises seven papers covering mathematical, physical and technological topics which contribute to an improvement in the development of procedures, understanding of phenomena and development of applications. We hope that they provide a perspective on the relevance and growth that the modelling of HTS superconductors has achieved in the past 25 years.

  13. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-15

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  14. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany E.; Miller, Dini M.

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  15. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  16. Neonate larvae of the specialist herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera do not exploit the defensive volatile (E)-ß-caryophyllene in locating maize roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavior of the neonate larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (western corn rootworm, WCR) was assessed in presence of maize root constitutively emitting (E)-ß-caryophylene (EßC). This root volatile has been shown to attract both second instar WCR and insect-killing nematodes, offerin...

  17. Early Detection of Baculovirus Expression and Infection in Lepidopteran Larvae Fed Occlusion Bodies of an AcMNPV Recombinant Carrying a Red Fluorescent Protein Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method has been devised utilizing a baculovirus recombinant (AcMNPV hsp70Red) carrying a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene under the early heat shock promoter (hsp70) to assess potential infectivity of larvae fed occlusion bodies. A time study was employed whereby first and third instars of Trich...

  18. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice.

  19. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  20. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  1. Visceral larva migrans

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Causes Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is ... parasites) that are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Eggs produced by these worms are ...

  2. Infection by the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix (Microspora: Microsporidia) elevates juvenile hormone titres in larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Down, Rachel E; Bell, Howard A; Bryning, Gareth; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Edwards, John P; Weaver, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    The effects of infection by a microsporidium, Vairimorpha necatrix (Kramer), on the endogenous levels of juvenile hormones in tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea L.) larvae were investigated. Levels of juvenile hormone II (JH II) were 10-fold greater in the infected larvae on day two of the sixth stadium but no significant difference was observed on day seven. Juvenile hormone I (JH I) was also detected in day two and day seven sixth instar infected larvae but was not detected in non-infected larvae. The duration of the fifth and sixth stadia was significantly longer for infected larvae when compared with non-infected larvae. No evidence was found to suggest that supernumerary moults are a feature of infection by V. necatrix in L. oleracea larvae. Experiments were performed to determine whether the elevation in JH levels, which probably prevents pupation, is an adaptive mechanism of the microsporidium for extending the growth phase of the host, thereby allowing increased spore production. A proportion of infected larvae were collected on days 9 and 24 of the sixth stadium and spore extracts prepared from each larva. These days represent the average duration of the sixth stadium required for uninfected larvae to reach pupation, and the average number of days that V. necatrix-infected larvae survive in the sixth stadium before dying from infection. The mean spore yields from infected larvae 24 days into the sixth stadium were significantly higher than the spore yields obtained from day nine sixth instar larvae. The hypothesis that V. necatrix manipulates host endocrinology (i.e. prolong the host larval state to maximise spore yield) is discussed in context with the results obtained.

  3. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  4. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    PubMed

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system.

  5. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  6. The larva of Aphylla protracta (Hagen, 1859), and a redescription of the larva of A. angustifolia Garrison, 1986 (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2014-11-17

    The larva of Aphylla protracta is described and figured. It is characterized by 3rd antennomere subcylindrical, flattened on ventral surface, 4.2 times longer than its widest part. Abdomen with dorsal protuberances well developed on S2-4, reduced on S5, vestigial or absent on S6-9; lateral spines lacking entirely, tergites 5-8 with minute reddish setae, tergite 9 with abundant, small, reddish setae on most of its surface and the whole posterior margin; S10 cylindrical, very long, five times longer than its base, much longer than S6+7+8+9. Also, a redescription and figures of A. angustifolia are provided, and a comparison of both species is made. Mainly differences between both species were found in abdominal dorsal protuberances and the presence/absence of small setae on abdominal tergites.

  7. The structure and morphogenic changes of antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) in different instars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Yingping; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the functioning and morphogenic changes of the antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in different instars, the antennae are examined using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of M. matsumurae display three different styles in morphology and sensillar distribution in different instars. The antennae of first instar nymphs are relatively simple, including one campaniform sensillum (Ca), four smooth aporous trichoid sensilla (SAt), two intersegmental sensilla (Ins), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), three multiporous pegs (Mp) and four uniporous pegs (Up). The antennae of adult females and third instar male nymphs both possess similar antennae, and exhibit seven types of sensilla. Adult female antennae have in total 82-108 sensilla, including 9-16 Böhm's bristle (Bb), 3-7 Ca, 50-75 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 3-10 Co, 8 Mp and 5 Up, whereas third instar male nymph antennae possess approximately 62-79 sensilla. Adult male antennae are the most developed, possessing 259-312 sensilla, including 7-15 Bb, 2-5 Ca, 7-11 grooved aporous trichoid sensilla, 4-9 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 2-7 Co, 23-29 knobbed seta sensilla, 179-230 multiporous trichoid sensilla and 8 Mp. Based on these results, the main functions and morphogenic changes of antennae M. matsumurae in different instars are discussed.

  8. Effects of age and food source on secondary chemistry of larvae of Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Deml, R

    2004-04-01

    Haemolymph and osmeterial secretions of caterpillars of Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus) and L. concolor Walker were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for low molecular weight secondary metabolites. The similarities of their chemical compositions were determined by means of cluster analysis techniques in order to characterize possible chemical variations related to developmental stage or food of the larvae. For this purpose, two dissimilarity coefficients (Euclidean distances, Canberra metrics) and four clustering methods (UPGMA, WPGMA, WPGMC, single linkage) were combined. The patterns of secondary compounds obtained from the haemolymph and osmeterial secretions studied did not differ statistically significantly between two groups of L. monacha larvae fed with either larch, Larix decidua Mil., or Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), indicating no relevant influence of plant chemistry. However, haemolymph of penultimate instar larvae of L. concolor fed on Rhododendron contained a mixture of compounds differing statistically significantly from that of last instar caterpillars. The total compositions of the corresponding gland secretions were statistically identical though the presence/amounts of individual compounds varied. This suggested that the haemolymph composition reflected changing physiological requirements of the successive instars, whereas the composition of the defensive mixtures remained comparatively constant, possibly due to a constant spectrum of potential enemies. A more pronounced age-dependence of larval chemistry was shown by a similar analysis of data from various developmental stages of L. dispar (Linnaeus) and one of its food plants. This analysis suggested plant composition affected the secondary chemistry of early larval instars of L. dispar. The results are discussed in terms of the roles of secondary metabolites in defence against natural enemies.

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  10. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  11. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  12. An aquatic light trap designed for live capture of predatory Tropisternus sp (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) larvae in Arkansas rice fields.

    PubMed

    Dennett, J A; Meisch, M V

    2001-12-01

    Construction of an aquatic light trap developed for the live capture of 3rd-stage larvae of predatory Tropisternus sp. for use in laboratory bioassays against larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae is described. On 10 occasions, an average of 5.2 traps was used per evening, resulting in 52 trap-nights that accumulated 106.7 h of trapping time, or an average of 10.6 h per trap. Use of 2 heavy-duty alkaline D-sized batteries and appropriate in-circuit resistance effectively increased bulb life and trap operating time, ranging from 22 to 36 h. During both seasons, approximately 3 wk after permanent flooding of large rice fields was the most productive period in which to capture larvae of Tropisternus sp. Live trapping worked well and provided numerous larvae of Tropisternus sp. for use in laboratory predation bioassays with An. quadrimaculatus and Ps. columbiae larvae. Six hundred fifteen 3rd-stage larvae of Tropisternus sp. and 740 adult Tropisternus lateralis were captured in aquatic light traps in 1999 and 2000. Of traps containing larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis, average numbers of 15.3 and 19.4 were captured per trap, respectively. Among all traps, the largest nightly captures of larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis consisted of 263 and 404 specimens, respectively. The largest single trap captures for larval Tropisternus sp. and adult T. lateralis were 94 and 184, respectively. Additionally, 478 rice water weevils (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus) also were captured. Rice water weevils averaged 36.7 per trap, with the largest single trap capture of 102 weevils on an evening where 287 weevils were captured among all traps. Other predatory insect species were captured infrequently, consisting primarily of 3rd-stage larvae of Hydrophilus triangularis and adult belostomatids, dytiscids, and notonectids. Predatory larvae of H. triangularis may have been attracted to the traps by the presence of larval Tropisternus sp. Larval

  13. A Low Distortion 3rd-Order Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for a Worldwide Digital TV-Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Koji; Matsukawa, Kazuo; Mitani, Yosuke; Takayama, Masao; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Sakiyama, Shiro; Dosho, Shiro

    This paper presents a low distortion 3rd-order continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for a worldwide digital TV-receiver whose peak SNDR is 69.8dB and SNR is 70.2dB under 1V power supply. To enhance SNDR performance, the mechanisms to occur harmonic distortions at feedback current-steering DAC and flash ADC have been analyzed. A low power tuning system using RC-relaxation oscillator has been developed in order to achieve high yield against PVT variations. A 3rd-order modulator with modified single opamp resonator contributes to cost reduction by realizing a very compact circuit. Reduction schemes of the distortions enabled the modulator to achieve FOM of 0.18pJ/conv-step.

  14. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gorb, Stanislav N; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-02-06

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment.

  15. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  16. The temperature field and heat transfer in the porthole of the Space Shuttle - Outer surface under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Heping; Yu, Qizheng; Zhang, Jizhou

    In this paper, the transient combined heat transfer in the silicon glass porthole of Space Shuttle is studied by control volume method, ray tracing method and spectral band model. The temperature field in the silicon glass and heat flux entering the space cabin are given under the 3rd kind nonlinear boundary condition. The computational results show, if the radiation in the silicon glass is omitted, the errors for temperature fields are not too evident, but for heat flux are quite large.

  17. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  18. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts.

    PubMed

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S

    2011-01-01

    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  19. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents.

  20. Predatory efficiency of the water bug Sphaerodema annulatum on mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus) and its effect on the adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Bhattacharyya, S; Kundu, N; Saha, G K; Raut, S K

    2004-11-01

    The daily number of IV instar larva of Culex quinquefasciatus killed, rate of pupation and adult emergence was noted in presence of the predatory water bug Sphaerodema annulatum for a period of seven consecutive days, experimentally, in the laboratory. The rate of IV instar larva killed by the water bugs on an average was 65.17 per day. The rate of pupation ranged between 7.6 and 48 in control while in presence of water bugs it ranged between 6 and 35. The rate of adult emergence in control experiments varied between 1.4 and 4.8 per day, which was reduced to only 0.4-28.8 per day in case of the water bugs. The results clearly indicate that the water bugs on its way of predation reduces the rate of pupation and adult emergence of Cx. quinquefasciatus significantly which calls for an extensive field trials.

  1. Supercooling Point Plasticity During Cold Storage in the Freeze-tolerant Sugarbeet Root Maggot Tetanops myopaeformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), overwinters as a freeze-tolerant 3rd instar larva. While most larvae are thought to overwinter for only one year, some may exhibit prolonged diapause in the field. In the laboratory, they can live for over five years using a combination of ...

  2. Bean alpha-amylase inhibitors in transgenic peas inhibit development of pea weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Majer, Maria José; Hardie, Darryl C; Turner, Neil C; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2007-08-01

    This glasshouse study used an improved larval measurement procedure to evaluate the impact of transgenic pea, Pisum sativum L., seeds expressing a-amylase inhibitor (AI)-1 or -2 proteins on pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Seeds of transgenic 'Laura' and 'Greenfeast' peas expressing alpha-(AI)-1 reduced pea weevil survival by 93-98%. Larval mortality occurred at an early instar. Conversely, in nontransgenic cultivars, approximately 98-99% of the pea weevils emerged as adults. By measuring the head capsule size, we determined that larvae died at the first to early third instar in alpha-(AI)-1 transgenic peas, indicating that this inhibitor is highly effective in controlling this insect. By contrast, transgenic Laura and 'Dundale' expressing alpha-(AI)-2 did not affect pea weevil survival, but they did delay larval development. After 77 d of development, the head capsule size indicated that the larvae were still at the third instar stage in transgenic alpha-(AI)-2 peas, whereas adult bruchids had developed in the nontransgenic peas.

  3. Description of male, pupa and larva of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli and redescription of the female (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.

  4. Insights into How Longicorn Beetle Larvae Determine the Timing of Metamorphosis: Starvation-Induced Mechanism Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Yukio; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of holometabolous insects must determine the timing of their metamorphosis. How they determine this timing has only been studied in detail for a few insect species. In a few species of Coleoptera, starvation is known to be a cue for metamorphosis, leading to the formation of smaller adults (starvation-induced pupation, SiP). We investigated the occurrence of SiP in the beetle Psacothea hilaris. When P. hilaris larvae were starved late in the feeding phase of the last (5th) instar, they exhibited typical SiP characterized by constancy of the time from food deprivation to pupation (TTP) irrespective of the body weight upon food deprivation or the length of prior feeding. In contrast, when larvae were starved early in the feeding phase, TTP decreased by roughly 1 day as the feeding became 1 day longer. The change in the response to starvation was estimated to occur on day 5.9 in the last instar. A series of refeeding experiments suggested that whereas SiP occurred readily in the larvae starved in the late feeding phase, activation of SiP was suspended until day 5.9 in the larvae starved early in the feeding phase. When P. hilaris larvae were fed continuously, they eventually ceased feeding spontaneously and pupated. The time length between spontaneous cessation of feeding and pupation was approximately equal to the TTP in SiP. This suggests that the same mechanism was activated by food deprivation in the late feeding phase and by spontaneous cessation of ad libitum feeding. PMID:27386861

  5. Semiochemicals released by pecan alleviate physiological suppression in overwintering larvae of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Arispuro, I; Corella-Madueño, M A G; Harris, M K; Martínez-Téllez, M A; Gardea, A A; Fu-Castillo, A; Orozco-Avitia, A

    2013-10-01

    Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (pecan nut casebearer) is a monophagous herbivore of Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch (pecan); both are indigenous to North America, where Carya has evolved for ≈60 million years. We hypothesized that this close association may have resulted in a parallel evolution allowing casebearer to use pecan volatiles to synchronize seasonality. Casebearer overwinters in diapause as a first-instar larva in a hibernaculum attached to a dormant pecan bud. Larval emergence from this structure after diapause or postdiapause quiescence coincides with the onset of pecan bud growth in the spring, and this interaction was the subject of this study. Dormant pecan twigs with hibernacula-infested buds were exposed to a water control or pecan volatiles from 'Western Schley' cultivar, and monitored to observe larval response by using a microcalorimeter. Initial testing showed that metabolic heat produced by overwintering larvae remained low and unchanged when exposed to water vapor and significantly increased within a few hours after exposure to volatiles from new pecan foliage. This shows that these larvae in hibernacula are in a physiologically suppressed state of diapause or postdiapause quiescence, from which they detect and respond to these pecan volatiles. Further studies to quantify larval responses showed that 90 and 80% of the larvae became active and emerged from their hibernacula ≈6 d after exposure to Western Schley and 'Wichita' volatiles, respectively. Mixtures of 13 sesquiterpenes from those pecan volatiles were identified to induce physiological activity within larvae after hours of exposure, followed some days later by larval emergence from hibernacula. Host volatiles, to our knowledge, have not previously been reported to induce early instar larvae in hibernacula to rouse from a state of physiological arrest to resume normal growth and development. This also has potential for use in pest management.

  6. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  7. Effectiveness of aerial- and ground-applied Bacillus formulations against Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots.

    PubMed

    Dennett, J A; Meisch, M V

    2000-09-01

    Experimental Bacillus larvicides designed to float on or near the water surface were compared to labeled standard Bacillus corn-cob-based larvicides using sentinel Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots during the 1998 growing season. Experimental floating formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis applied at 5.58 and 11.18 kg/ha provided up to 100% control of 3rd- and 4th-stage Anopheles larvae within 24-48 h, whereas the water-dispersible granule formulations containing Bacillus sphaericus required 48-72 h to yield >75% mortality in 0.16-ha plots at 11.18 kg/ha. Detecting and targeting the smaller developmental stages (1st- and 2nd-stage larvae) could increase the effectiveness of the tested compounds against An. quadrimaculatus in Arkansas and other rice-growing regions.

  8. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing S.; Gelman, Dale B.; Blackburn, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4–5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd–3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence

  9. Instar development of the douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, R.C.; Grimble, D.G.; Weatherby, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all practical purposes, areas can be released for spraying when third instars are initially found.

  10. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  11. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy against larvae of Aedes aegypti: confocal microscopy and fluorescence-lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.

  12. Detailed investigation of the sequential pathological changes in silkworm larvae infected with Bombyx densovirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsuhiko; Kidokoro, Kurako; Shimura, Sachiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1) is a pathogen causing flacherie disease in silkworms. BmDNV-1 multiplies only in the nuclei of the columnar cells of larval midgut epithelium. Although several immunohistochemical studies using anti-BmDNV-1 antibody have been reported to date, sequential pathological changes in BmDNV-1-infected larvae have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, sequential investigations were performed on the pathological features of BmDNV-1-infected larvae and BmDNV-1 propagation. Oral infection experiments using newly ecdysed 4th instar larvae revealed that the larvae began to die 9 days post infection (dpi), and the remaining died 10 dpi. Histological observations revealed phenotypic alterations in the midgut cells from 4 dpi, and complete disruption of the midgut structure at 9 dpi. Quantitative RT-PCR of two BmDNV-1 genes indicated that BmDNV-1 began to propagate from 4 dpi, and gradually increased until the larvae died. These expression patterns revealed marked correlation with the histological changes observed in the virus-infected midgut cells. Moreover, bioassays using larvae at various developmental stages clearly indicated that the pathogenicity of this virus is not dependent on the larval stage or the molting process.

  13. Efficacy of VectoLex WDG against Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae larvae in Arkansas and Mississippi rice.

    PubMed

    Dennett, J A; Meek, C L; Meisch, M V

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an aerial application of VectoLex WDG (water-dispersible granules) at 1.68 and 0.56 kg/ha, applied against sentinel 3rd-stage larvae of Psorophora columbiae installed in 0.42-ha rice plots 48 h after treatment, provided no control at 72 and 96 h after treatment. Less than 10% reduction was obtained at both rates 8 and 9 days after treatment against larvae of Ps. columbiae installed at 7 days after treatment. In a later test, VectoLex WDG manually applied at 5.04 and 1.68 kg/ha to small rice plots containing sentinel 3rd-stage larvae of Ps. columbiae and Anopheles quadrimaculatus obtained 90 and 97% control of Ps. columbiae at both rates, respectively, 24 h after treatment. A 2nd installation of Ps. columbiae at 24 h after treatment resulted in 7% and no control at both rates, respectively, even in the presence of larval carcasses from the 1st installation. VectoLex WDG was not effective against Ps. columbiae after 24 h atter treatment at either rate. Poor control was obtained at both rates against An. quadrimaculatus 24 h and 48 h after treatment for both installations. Two types of commercial rice fields containing native populations of larvae of An. quadrimaculatus were used for field tests in Cleveland, MS. In 1999, VectoLex WDG, aerially applied at 1.68 and 0.56 kg/ha to 0.2-ha plots in a contoured rice field, produced 81 and 85% reductions in early (neonate and 1st- and 2nd-stage) larvae and 94 and 76% reductions in late (3rd- and 4th-stage) larvae 2 days after treatment, respectively. At 2 days after treatment, means for all 4 developmental groupings (early larvae, late larvae, pupae, and combined stages) were significantly higher in untreated plots. Both VectoLex WDG rates did not differ significantly from one another. At 8 days after treatment, untreated plots contained significantly greater mean numbers of early larvae, late larvae, and combined stages, whereas both VectoLex WDG treatments were not significantly different. In 2000, VectoLex WDG

  14. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  15. High resolution three-dimensional (256 to the 3rd) spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Werner J. A.; Buch, Kenneth A.

    Results from highly resolved three-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field zeta(x,t) in a turbulent shear flow. Each of these experiments consists of 256 to the 3rd individual point measurements of the local instantaneous conserved scalar value in the flow. The spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements reach beyond the local Kolmogorov scale and resolve the local strain-limited molecular diffusion scale in the flow. The results clearly show molecular mixing occurring in thin strained laminar diffusion layers in a turbulent flow.

  16. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 38%, 29% and 31%, respectively, as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Significant reductions were also observed in weight of engorged females and egg mass, in ERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and

  17. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs < or = third instars at 44, 46, and 50 degrees C, third instars < or = eggs at 48 degrees C, and wild third instars < the laboratory-reared third instars. Comparison between Mediterranean fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  18. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  19. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  20. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  1. Efficacy of fungus mediated silver and gold nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Chrysosporium tropicum is a pathogenic fungus. It is known to be an effective mosquito control agent. In the present study, we have synthesized the silver and gold nanoparticles using C. tropicum. These nanoparticles have been characterized through Microscan reader, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, and further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The characterization study confirmed the spherical shape and size (2-15 and 20-50 nm) of gold and silver nanoparticles. These silver and gold nanoparticles have been tested as a larvicide against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The larvicidal efficacy was noted when performed against all instars of A. aegypti at six different log concentrations, and significant results could be observed. The gold nanoparticles used as an efficacy enhancer have shown mortality at three times higher concentration than the silver nanoparticles. The larval mortality was observed after different time of exposures. The mortality values were obtained using the probit analysis. The larvae of A. aegypti were found to be highly susceptible for the silver nanoparticles. The second instar larvae have shown 100% mortality against the silver nanoparticles after 1 h, whereas the first, third, and fourth instars have shown efficacy (LC(50) = 3.47, 4, and 2; LC(90) = 12.30, 8.91, and 4; LC(99) = 13.18, 13.18, and 7.58, respectively) after 1 h. The results could suggest that the use of fungus C. tropicum, silver, and gold nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for mosquito control. This could lead us to a new possibility in vector control strategy.

  2. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  3. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  4. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  5. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    PubMed Central

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta. PMID:27030539

  6. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain.

    PubMed

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-31

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  7. Density-dependent population dynamics in larvae of the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, J

    1987-05-01

    Several features of dragonfly population biology suggest that population regulation occurs in the larval stage. This study was designed to determine if density-dependent interactions among larval odonates can affect survival, growth and emergence. First-instar larvae of the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis were raised in outdoor experimental ponds at initial densities of 38, 152, and 608 larvae · m(-2), under two levels of food availability. Food availability was supplemented in half the pools by volumetric addition of zooplankton every other day. Pools in the low food treatment did not receive the zooplankton supplement.There was a strong negative effect of density on the mean growth rate of survivors, which included both emerging tenerals and individuals overwintering in the larval stage. A higher proportion emerged from low density than high density pools. Metamorphs from high density populations were smaller and emerged slightly later than those from low density, but the absolute number of metamorphs did not differ significantly among density treatments. Food supplementation significantly increased the proportion of overwintering larvae. There were no significant food-by-density interactions, indicating that food and density acted independently on larval population dynamics. Density-dependent mechanisms can clearly contribute to odonate population regulation, especially by controlling the number of larvae which emerge and the average age at reproduction. Population-level responses to density may be a result of interference among larvae.

  8. Learning in mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti): Habituation to a visual danger signal.

    PubMed

    Baglan, Hugo; Lazzari, Claudio; Guerrieri, Fernando

    2017-01-07

    In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus. We first aimed at confirming habituation of the escape response in mosquito larvae (4th instar). Then, we determined whether a mnesic trace was established. Larvae were individually stimulated with a visual danger stimulus inducing the escape response. We set up a protocol for testing larvae individually, allowing the control of different parameters that are crucial for the study of cognitive abilities. After 15 trials, the escape response of mosquitoes was significantly lower. A disturbance stimulus presented after the 15th trial, induced the escape response and reversed habituation. Retention was confirmed up to 1h after the last habituation trial. This original bioassay can be adapted for studying the physiology of learning and memory in mosquito larvae, for analysing the effects of chemicals in the water, the characterisation of the cognitive abilities related to the life history of different mosquito species across preimaginal stages.

  9. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  10. Utilisation of prey by antlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) in terms of energy and nutrients.

    PubMed

    De K Van Der Linde, T C.; Van Der Westhuizen, M C.; Van Zyl, A

    1997-07-01

    Prey utilisation at low prey densities was determined for third instar Cueta sp., Furgella intermedia (Markl) and Palpares annulatus (Stitz) larvae in terms of wet weight, dry weight, energy and nutrients. Prey utilisation was similar to other insects on a wet weight (42-47%), dry weight (46-49%), energetic (40-58%) and nutritive basis (62-79%). Lipids (33-36%) provided energetically the highest contribution of the nutrients ingested. The quantities of water, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates extracted by the antlion larvae were in proportion to their availability in their prey, the Hodotermes mossambicus larvae. The quantities of nutrients extracted by the antlion larvae at low prey densities were not significantly influenced by the differences in mandible size, antlion body weight or the trapping method (building a pit or not) of the antlion species. It is proposed that a low metabolic rate and the accumulation of fat reserves, and not the extent of prey utilisation, enable P. annulatus larvae to tolerate a 123-d starvation period in which 22.3% of their body weight is lost.

  11. Host specificity in the host-seeking larva of the dipteran parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda and the influence of age on parasitism decisions.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, M E; Castelo, M K

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the robber fly Mallophora ruficauda are ectoparasitoids of white grubs and adults are an important apiculture pest in Argentina. Females oviposit on tall grasses and the second instar larva actively searches and locates hosts. There are nine potential hosts in the distribution area of this parasitoid and Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is the most parasitized in the field. However, M. ruficauda has a certain degree of behavioural flexibility towards different host species, and not being a strict specialist. The conditions under which the parasitoid orientates and accepts different hosts' species are unknown. We studied the host specificity of M. ruficauda towards three species of Cyclocephala genus and we determined whether this specificity depends on larval age. We also evaluated whether larva orientation towards Cyclocephala species changes with chemical cue concentration. We assessed host specificity measuring the orientation and acceptance behaviours towards kairomones extracts and live individuals of Cyclocephala species using M. ruficauda larvae of low and high life expectancy (i.e., young and aged second instar larvae). We observed that young larvae orientated only towards C. signaticollis chemical stimulus, whereas aged larvae orientated also towards C. modesta, and the same was observed with increasing stimuli's concentration. Both young and aged M. ruficauda larvae orientate towards live C. signaticollis and C. putrida species and rejected C. modesta. Also, we found that larvae accepted all Cyclocephala hosts. In conclusion, our results indicate that specificity in the laboratory, observed through host orientation and host acceptance behaviours, depends not only on the availability of host species, but also on the nature of the host's stimuli combined with parasitoid age.

  12. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  13. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  14. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  15. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  16. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  17. Heating rate and induced thermotolerance in Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, a quarantine pest of citrus and mangoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Shellie, K C

    2000-08-01

    A bioassay and graduated temperature water baths were used to document the induction of thermotolerance in third-instar Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The 99% lethal time dose for larvae exposed to 44 degrees C core temperatures in artificial fruit is 61.5 min when a slow heating rate (120 min ramp) is applied, but only 41.9 min when a fast heating rate (15 min ramp) is applied. In electrophoretic profiles a heat inducible protein of molecular weight 32 kDa was detected in 76% of the larvae exposed to the slow ramp treatment, but only 42% of the larvae in the fast ramp treatment. Results from this research demonstrate that thermotolerance can be induced under conditions used to commercially disinfest fresh produce and highlight the necessity for specifying heating rates in quarantine treatment schedules.

  18. Survival and behavioral responses of larvae of the caddis fly Hydropsyche angustipennis to copper and diazinon

    SciTech Connect

    Geest, H.G. van der; Greve, G.D.; Haas, E.M. De; Scheper, B.B.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Stuijfzand, S.C.; Augustijn, K.H.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-09-01

    This study reports on newly developed short-term survival and behavioral tests with larvae of the caddis fly Hydropsyche angustipennis using two model toxicants, copper and diazinon. Mortality of first instar larvae was shown to be a reliable endpoint, and it was demonstrated that H. angustipennis is among the more sensitive aquatic insects in terms of both copper and diazinon. In addition, short-term behavioral responses were found to be indicative of adverse effects of ecologically relevant low doses of copper. Using the tests developed in this study, hydropsychid species are excellent tools for discerning the effects of individual toxicants present in large European rivers, and these species may help in defining the conditions for ecological rehabilitation.

  19. A Method for Evaluating Insecticide Efficacy against Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, Eggs and First Instars.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2017-03-15

    Standard toxicity evaluations of insecticides against insect pests are primarily conducted on adult insects. Evaluations are based on a dose-response or concentration-response curve, where mortality increases as the dose or concentration of an insecticide is increased. Standard lethal concentration (LC50) and lethal dose (LD50) tests that result in 50% mortality of a test population can be challenging for evaluating toxicity of insecticides against non-adult insect life stages, such as eggs and early instar or nymphal stages. However, this information is essential for understanding insecticide efficacy in all bed bug life stages, which affects control and treatment efforts. This protocol uses a standard dipping bioassay modified for bed bug eggs and a contact insecticidal assay for treating nymphal first instars. These assays produce a concentration-response curve to further quantify LC50 values for insecticide evaluations.

  20. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  1. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species.

  2. Morphology and identification of first instars of African blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) commonly of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Villet, Martin H

    2011-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy images of the first instars of Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke, 1876; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818); Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann, 1830); and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are presented for the first time, and the following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antenna, maxillary palpus, facial mask, labial lobe, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles, and anal pads. Light microscopy photographs and line illustrations are provided for the cephaloskeleton in lateral and ventral views, and the "ectostomal sclerite" and "chitinized teeth" of the cephaloskeleton are recognized as integral parts of the mouthhooks. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. These results allow refinement, clarification, and correction of earlier descriptions, which are reviewed. The relative taxonomic importance of various morphological characters of the first instars of necrophagous blow flies is discussed, and details of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are highlighted as the characters most useful for species identification. Finally, a key for identifying first instars of common African carrion blow flies is provided.

  3. A case of auricular, anal and umbilical myiasis caused by the larvae of Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in neonatal kittens.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Didem; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Açıcı, Mustafa; Gökalp, Güvenç; Tütüncü, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of feline myiasis is rare. Massive infestations of dipteran larvae can lead to death if not treated at an early stage. Auricular, anal and umbilical myiasis was detected in three neonatal kittens. The dipteran larvae were collected, fixed in 70% alcohol and clarified with 10% KOH for a few days. Later, larvae were dissected under the stereomicroscope, mounted on slides and then identified as the third instar of the black blowfly, Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), according to their stigmatic and cephaloskeleton structures. Original measurements and figures are presented. Treatment included mechanical removal of larvae and cleansing of the area by applying polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex. The presence of P. regina in cats has been reported here for the first time in Turkey.

  4. The First Complete 3D Reconstruction of a Spanish Fly Primary Larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Ślipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta. PMID:23300692

  5. The first complete 3D reconstruction of a Spanish fly primary larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Slipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta.

  6. Efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S

    2008-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of Anopheles pharoensis and Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. A. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. Conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. The fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. In M. domestica the conc. from 50%-100% completely killed the larvae. Conc. of 25%, 5%, 2% & 1% caused mortality of 88.9%, 55.6%, 33.3% & 22.2% respectively. Less conc. of C. zeylanicum was not tested. The fecundity of the emerged adults was 0%, 66.7%, 66.7% & 83.3%. Only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile in the two cases.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV.

  8. Efficacy of encapsulated Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial containers.

    PubMed

    Rueda, L M; Patel, K J; Axtell, R C

    1990-12-01

    Presporangial mycelia of Lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract were encapsulated in calcium alginate and added once (July 18) to outdoor (Raleigh, NC) caged tires, wood and concrete containers populated with first instars of Culex quinquefasciatus or Aedes aegypti. First instars were added twice weekly (for 10 wk) to simulate natural oviposition. The fungus persisted for 10 wk and recycled in the mosquito larvae of both species. The overall reductions of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti immatures were higher in tires (55 and 45%, respectively) and wood (67 and 38%) than in concrete containers (17 and 14%). There were low correlations of the numbers of mosquito immatures with measurements of water quality (chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and conductivity) in the containers.

  9. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  10. First fossil larvae of Berothidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber, with notes on the biology and termitophily of the family.

    PubMed

    Wedmann, Sonja; Makarkin, Vladimir N; Weiterscham, Thomas; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Four fossil larvae of Berothidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber are described in detail, and the main characters of a fifth larva are discussed briefly. Two first instars very probably belong to the Berothinae; the subfamilial affinities of three othe (probably full-grown) larvae are unclear. The latter are characterized by features not found so far in extant taxa of Berothi dae: antennae and labial palps with six to seven segments; ecdysial cleavage lines consist of only frontal and coronal sutures (the lateral suture is absent); pronotal sclerites large and very close to each other along midline. However, these larvae belong with certainty to Berothidae as indicated by the structure of their mouthparts, and their general appearance. Morphological and biological data on the larvae of Berothidae are summarized and analyzed. It is presumed that termitophily might have evolved during the Cretaceous (or in the early Cenozoic), and only in Berothinae (or in subfamilies closely related to this group). The Baltic amber berothid assemblage apparently included both termitophilous and noni termitophilous larvae.

  11. Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights.

    PubMed

    Robin, Ninon; Foldi, Imre; Godinot, Marc; Petit, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).

  12. Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Ninon; Foldi, Imre; Godinot, Marc; Petit, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).

  13. Thermal summation model and instar determination of all developmental stages of necrophagous beetle, Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Necrophagous beetles are underrepresented in forensic entomology studies despite their undeniable utility for the field. In the present article, information is presented regarding the developmental biology and instar determination of Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence, 1813), a very common species occurring across the Holarctic region. Wild collected beetles were kept in climate chambers at constant temperature (12, 15, 18, 21 and 28 °C) and their development was regularly documented. Parameters of thermal summation models and standard errors were calculated for each developmental stage. These models may be used for an estimation of post-mortem interval in legal investigations after further validation on local populations of S. watsoni. An additional methodology is introduced for future studies of size-based characteristics, addressing instar identification bias. The methodology provided estimations (mean, standard error and standard deviation) of S. watsoni larval head capsule width for preliminary larval instar determination. The methodology may be used with other morphological features to improve instar determination accuracy. PMID:27123379

  14. Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Rawls, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results.We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to

  15. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  16. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  17. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  18. The relative abundance of hemocyte types in a polyphagous moth larva depends on diet.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Hemocytes are crucial cells of the insect immune system because of their involvement in multiple immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis and encapsulation. There are various types of hemocytes, each having a particular role in immunity, such that variation in their relative abundance affects the outcome of the immune response. This study aims to characterize these various types of hemocytes in larvae of the grapevine pest insect Eupoecilia ambiguella, and to assess variation in their concentration as a function of larval diet and immune challenge. Four types of hemocytes were found in the hemolymph of 5th instar larvae: granulocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes and spherulocytes. We found that the total concentration of hemocytes and the concentration of each hemocyte type varied among diets and in response to the immune challenge. Irrespective of the diet, the concentration of granulocytes increased following a bacterial immune challenge, while the concentration of plasmatocytes and spherulocytes differentially varied between larval diets. The concentration of oenocytoids did not vary among diets before the immune challenge but varied between larval diets in response to the challenge. These results suggest that the resistance of insect larvae to different natural enemies critically depends on the effect of larval diet on the larvae's investment into the different types of hemocytes.

  19. Velcro-Like System Used to Fix a Protective Faecal Shield on Weevil Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Stejskal, Robert; Trnka, Filip; di Giulio, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Eucoeliodes mirabilis (A. Villa & G. B. Villa, 1835) (Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchini) are described using drawings and SEM images and are compared and keyed with already described larvae of 58 other ceutorhynchinae taxa. The larval body has an effective combination of morphological adaptations that assist a unique biological defensive strategy. All larval stages of E. mirabilis feed ectophytically on leaves of Euonymus europaeus L. (Celastraceae), and the larval body is covered with a thick faecal shield. The fixation of this protective shield on the larval back is performed by a peculiar dorsal microsculpture composed of a dense carpet of microtrichia on the thorax and abdomen, which serves effectively as a velcro system. Because of this strategy, macrosetae on the larval and pupal body of E. mirabilis are completely reduced. Larvae of E. mirabilis also have distinct morphological adaptations for protecting the spiracles against intrusion of faeces and avoiding occlusion of the tracheal system: a) microtrichia around spiracles are slightly shorter, distinctly stronger and are arranged with high-density and in clusters and b) spiracles are protected by an external safety valve. This strategy of E. mirabilis larvae is unique, although somewhat similar to that of Criocerinae and Blepharida-group leave beetles (Galerucinae) (both Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), but with distinctly different morphological adaptations. PMID:28125664

  20. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  1. Leaf and floral parts feeding by orange tip butterfly larvae depends on larval position but not on glucosinolate profile or nitrogen level.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Chew, Frances S; Olsen, Carl Erik; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to identify chemical signals governing the general flower and silique feeding behavior of larvae of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines (L.), we investigated feeding behavior and chemistry of two major host plants: Cardamine pratensis L. and Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (garlic mustard). Larvae reportedly feed mainly on flowers and siliques rather than leaves in nature, and did so when observed on the original host plants. Behavioral experiments, using detached A. petiolata branches, however, showed that larvae readily accepted leaves and only the final instar showed a tendency for directed movement towards floral parts. To search for semiochemicals that control plant part preference and to assess possible nutritional consequences of floral parts feeding, we determined glucosinolate profiles and total nitrogen levels of floral parts and leaves. There was only moderate difference between glucosinolate profiles of leaves and floral parts within each of two host plant species. In contrast, the profiles of floral parts differed significantly between them. A. petiolata was dominated by 2-propenyl glucosinolate, while C. pratensis was dominated by aromatic glucosinolates and branched aliphatic glucosinolates, with considerable variation among populations. Nitrogen levels tended to be higher in floral parts than in leaves in A. petiolata, but not in C. pratensis, so floral feeding could not generally be attributed to higher N content. With the exception of a tendency of last instar larvae (L5) to move to the apex and ingest flowers and upper stem, we did not find either a plant chemistry basis or larval acceptance/rejection behavior that could explain the usual feeding of floral parts by orange tip larvae of all instars. However, by artificial manipulation of vertical larval position on host plants, we found that the frequency of leaf vs. flower feeding during 24 hr depended significantly on the initial larval position. Hence, we

  2. Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Third Instar Larval Ring Glands Points to Novel Functions and Uncovers a Cytochrome p450 Required for Development

    PubMed Central

    Christesen, Danielle; Yang, Ying Ting; Somers, Jason; Robin, Charles; Sztal, Tamar; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, the ring gland (RG) is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum, and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the RG’s broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval RGs has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signaling in this organ. We have found strong enrichment of expression of two gene pathways not previously associated with the RG: immune response and fatty acid metabolism. We have also uncovered strong expression for many uncharacterized genes. Additionally, RNA interference against RG-enriched cytochrome p450s Cyp6u1 and Cyp6g2 produced a lethal ecdysone deficiency and a juvenile hormone deficiency, respectively, flagging a critical role for these genes in hormone synthesis. This transcriptome provides a valuable new resource for investigation of roles played by the RG in governing insect development. PMID:27974438

  4. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extract with anti-developmental activity against larval instars of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Nalini Padmanabhan, Madanagopal; Sivaprasath, Prabhu; Kishmu, Lingan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. Aqueous leaf extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. were investigated for their efficacy against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae). The biologically synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by atomic force microscopy. Further, on exposure of the larvae to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf and Ag NPs for 24 h, these Ag NPs showed 100 % mortality from first to fourth instars and pupae of A. aegypti at 0.25 %, which is the highest concentration, tested, wherein it was the lowest concentration of aqueous leaf extract alone which showed only 10-18 % of mortality. Lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of Ag NPs against the larval and pupal stages were 0.029, 0.027, 0.047, 0.086, and 0.018 % with no mortality in control. These results suggest that the use of P. tithymaloides silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer bio-pesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target vector.

  5. Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to season and gender in Central Amazônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Y B; Hamada, N; Magni-Darwich, S

    2001-08-01

    Number of larval instars, age structure and environmental effects on these parameters represent basic information in the study of insect population biology. When species have economic importance, this information is essential in order to choose the best period to apply different control methods and to determine the stages of the life cycle of the insect that are most susceptible to each treatment. The family Simuliidae has many species of medical/veterinary importance in the world, and some studies in the temperate region have suggested that the number of larval instars and the larval size can vary according to the season, gender and some environmental factors, such as temperature and diet. This study, with the zoophilic species Simulium perflavum Roubaud, is the first in the Neotropics observing some of these factors and will serve as a template for other species of medical importance in the region. S. perflavum larvae were collected in five streams in Central Amazônia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties, State of Amazonas), in Sept./Oct. 1996 (dry season) and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season). These larvae were measured (lateral length of head capsule and width of cephalic apodema) to determine the number of larval instars (n=3985), to compare the larval size between seasons and genders (last and penultimate larval instars, n=200). Seven larval instars were determined for this species using frequency distributions, t-tests and Crosbýs growth rule. Significant differences were not detected (t-test, p>0.05) in larval size between seasons and genders. Our results differ from some found in temperate regions suggesting that in the Neotropical region the larval size in different seasons and different genders remains constant, although some environmental parameters, such as diet, change depending on the season.

  6. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  7. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  8. The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk of injury from competition and training on natural grass and 3rd generation artificial turf

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe professional soccer players’ perceptions towards injuries, physical recovery and the effect of surface related factors on injury resulting from soccer participation on 3rd generation artificial turf (FT) compared to natural grass (NG). Methods Information was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by 99 professional soccer players from 6 teams competing in Major League Soccer (MLS) during the 2011 season. Results The majority (93% and 95%) of the players reported that playing surface type and quality influenced the risk of sustaining an injury. Players believed that playing and training on FT increased the risk of sustaining a non-contact injury as opposed to a contact injury. The players identified three surface related risk factors on FT, which they related to injuries and greater recovery times: 1) Greater surface stiffness 2) Greater surface friction 3) Larger metabolic cost to playing on artificial grounds. Overall, 94% of the players chose FT as the surface most likely to increase the risk of sustaining an injury. Conclusions Players believe that the risk of injury differs according to surface type, and that FT is associated with an increased risk of non-contact injury. Future studies should be designed prospectively to systematically track the perceptions of groups of professional players training and competing on FT and NG. PMID:24581229

  9. Trends in the nature of provision in ophthalmology services and resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing: 3rd National UK survey.

    PubMed

    Czuber-Dochan, Wladyslawa J; Waterman, Christine G; Waterman, Heather A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade in the United Kingdom (UK), the roles of nurses have become increasingly specialised to support a more efficient and effective health service. In ophthalmology, the changes are most visible in the growing number of patients being treated as day case and the greater nursing contribution to patient outcomes. To support this change there is a continuing need for educational institutions to create opportunities to meet the training needs of nurses working in both specialised areas and at the advance level of practice. This article reports on a 3rd national survey the aims of which were to investigate trends in the nature and provision of ophthalmic services and the resources and barriers to education in ophthalmic nursing. The results demonstrate that over the three surveys there has been a significant increase of pre-operative assessment units and a significant decrease of designated ophthalmic wards. Between the second and third survey, the results indicate fewer difficulties with funding but there has been an increase of respondents stating a lack of training institutions offering ophthalmic courses. The survey shows that at a time when nurses need to acquire ophthalmic nursing skills and knowledge there appear to be fewer opportunities for them to access ophthalmic courses.

  10. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  11. The origin of anomalous 3rd neighbor exchange in 2D triangular magnets (NiGa2S4 and others)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Igor

    2008-03-01

    2D magnetic materials with triangular lattices have been attracting much interest. Among them one finds the parent compound of an exotic superconductor, NaxCoO2.yH2O, A-type antiferromagnets like NaNiO2, in-plane antiferromagnetism (LiCrO2), spin-liquid type materials (NiGa2S4), charge-order (AgNiO2). The main structural motif in all of them is the AB2 plane, where A is a transition metal and B is oxygen or sulfur. Experiments and calculations inevitably find anomalously strong 3rd neighbor exchange coupling in all these triangular planes, despite different band fillings and different magnetic ground states. I will explain why this happens, why this effect is so universal, and why it can be understood entirely on a one-electron level. I will use as an example NiGa2S4, with a reference to NaxCoO2 as well.

  12. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  13. Effectiveness of Microbial and Chemical Insecticides for Supplemental Control of Bollworm on Bt and non-Bt cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides for supplemental control of bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) on non-Bt (DP1441®) and Bt (DP1321®) cottons. Neonate and 3rd instar larvae survival were evaluated on leaf tissue treat...

  14. Does 3rd age plus 3rd world equal 3rd class?

    PubMed

    Tout, K

    1992-04-01

    The patterns of care of the aged population are being influenced by demographic changes, migration, and industrialization in developing countries. There is no longer a secure place for the elders in the community as chiefs, sages, or useful members of the household. In very large mega-cities the aged living in an extended family are more prone to psychological problems than in a lone living situation. There are many variations in the degree of abandonment or loss of dignity, which are described in examples from Vilcabamba, Potosi, Lima, and Belize. For example in Belize, there are no cities to migrate to so people leave to seek their fortunes in the US or the UK. Solutions are possible within the community. The experiences of HelpAge International are reported for Pro Vida, Colombia; India; and Sri Lanka. In Colombia efforts were made to acquire a bakery so that the elderly could be employed in bread baking, donating loaves to institutions, and selling half the loaves on the street. Other projects involved improving living conditions for lone old people in shanty towns and training social workers. The institutional aim was to concentrate on a locale. Attention was given to providing instruction in classrooms to enlighten youth about the needs of the elderly. HelpAge in India concentrated on eye problems of the elderly in remote areas through awareness and fundraising campaigns. HelpAge Sri Lanka has set up seminars and training programs which have been models for similar programs in Thailand. Shared experience with the problems of aged beggars suggests that funding must come from nongovernmental agencies. The cultivation and sale of herbs by the elderly was promoted in Vilcabamba; in Jamaica a memory bank was established for preserving cultural traditions. Abandoned industries have been revived. The needs of the organizers, who are primarily volunteers, are organization skills. Governments can supplement meager funds by enhancing traditional life, by removing obstacles to foreign aid, and by avoiding spending on prestige projects and questionable projects imported from Western countries. Reinforcement of families and of local community groups is needed.

  15. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  16. Effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Li, Bao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. Lysiphlebus ambiguus (Aphidiidae, Hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including Aphis fabae. In this study, A. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitism. L. ambiguus launched significantly more attacks on symbiotic L(2) (the second instar), aposymbiotic L(3) (the third instar) and L(4) (the forth instar) hosts than on the corresponding hosts at the same age. L. ambiguus also parasitized more L(1) aphids compared with adults irrespective of whether the aphid was asymbiotic or not. Pupa mortality rate of parasitoid progeny was significantly lower from aposymbiotic hosts than from the corresponding symbiotics at all stages. Female-biased parasitoid progeny was produced from aposymbiotic aphids without respect to host ages, but female progeny increased linearly with host ages at parasitism from symbiotic aphids. Body size of parasitoid progeny increased linearly with host instars at parasitism in symbiotic aphids but did not significantly change across host instars in aposymbiotic aphids. The offspring parasitoids turned out to be generally large in body size from attacking aposymbiotic aphids compared with the symbiotics. Development time of egg-to-adult of parasitoid progeny decreased with host instars in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids but was generally much longer in aposymbiotic aphids than in symbiotic aphids. Our study suggests that age or body size of host aphids may not be the only cue exercised by L. ambiguus to evaluate host quality and that offspring parasitoids may be able to compensate for the nutrition stress associated with disruption of primary endosymbiotc bacteria in aposymbiotic aphids.

  17. Digestion of Yeasts and Beta-1,3-Glucanases in Mosquito Larvae: Physiological and Biochemical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Raquel Santos; Diaz-Albiter, Hector Manuel; Dillon, Vivian Maureen; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti larvae ingest several kinds of microorganisms. In spite of studies regarding mosquito digestion, little is known about the nutritional utilization of ingested cells by larvae. We investigated the effects of using yeasts as the sole nutrient source for A. aegypti larvae. We also assessed the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in digestion of live yeast cells. Beta-1,3-glucanases are enzymes which hydrolyze the cell wall beta-1,3-glucan polyssacharide. Larvae were fed with cat food (controls), live or autoclaved Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and larval weight, time for pupation and adult emergence, larval and pupal mortality were measured. The presence of S. cerevisiae cells inside the larval gut was demonstrated by light microscopy. Beta-1,3-glucanase was measured in dissected larval samples. Viability assays were performed with live yeast cells and larval gut homogenates, with or without addition of competing beta-1,3-glucan. A. aegypti larvae fed with yeast cells were heavier at the 4th instar and showed complete development with normal mortality rates. Yeast cells were efficiently ingested by larvae and quickly killed (10% death in 2h, 100% in 48h). Larvae showed beta-1,3-glucanase in head, gut and rest of body. Gut beta-1,3-glucanase was not derived from ingested yeast cells. Gut and rest of body activity was not affected by the yeast diet, but head homogenates showed a lower activity in animals fed with autoclaved S. cerevisiae cells. The enzymatic lysis of live S. cerevisiae cells was demonstrated using gut homogenates, and this activity was abolished when excess beta-1,3-glucan was added to assays. These results show that live yeast cells are efficiently ingested and hydrolyzed by A. aegypti larvae, which are able to fully-develop on a diet based exclusively on these organisms. Beta-1,3-glucanase seems to be essential for yeast lytic activity of A. aegypti larvae, which possess significant amounts of these enzyme in all parts investigated. PMID

  18. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding.

  19. The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

    2010-09-01

    The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments.

  20. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples.

  1. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  2. Stellar Occultations by Large TNOs on 2012: The February 3rd by (208996) 2003 AZ84, and the February 17th by (50000) Quaoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Ribas, Felipe; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Lecacheux, J.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Tanga, P.; Sposetti, S.; Brosch, N.; Kaspi, S.; Manulis, I.; Baug, T.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Ganesh, S.; Jain, J.; Mohan, V.; Sharma, A.; Garcia-Lozano, R.; Klotz, A.; Frappa, E.; Jehin, E.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Behrend, R.; Roques, F.; Widemann, T.; Morales, N.; Thirouin, A.; Mahasena, P.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Daassou, A.; Rinner, C.; Ofek, E. O.

    2012-10-01

    On February 2012, two stellar occultation's by large Trans-neptunian Objects (TNO's) were observed by our group. On the 3rd, an event by (208996) 2003 AZ84 was recorded from Mont Abu Observatory and IUCAA Girawali Observatory in India and from Weizmann Observatory in Israel. On the 17th, a stellar occultation by (50000) Quaoar was observed from south France and Switzerland. Both occultations are the second observed by our group for each object, and will be used to improve the results obtained on the previous events. The occultation by 2003 AZ84 is the first multi-chord event recorded for this object. From the single chord event on January 8th 2011, Braga-Ribas et al. 2011 obtained a lower limit of 573 +/- 21 km. From the 2012 occultation the longest chord has a size of 662 +/- 50 km. The other chords will permit to determine the size and shape of the TNO, and derive other physical parameters, such as the geometric albedo. The Quaoar occultation was observed from south of France (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, TAROT telescope and Valensole) and from Gnosca, Switzerland. Unfortunately, all three sites in France are almost at the same Quaoar's latitude, so in practice, we have two chords that can be used to fit Quaoar's limb. The resulting fit will be compared with the results obtained by Braga-Ribas et al. 2011. Braga-Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.Ribas F., Sicardy B., et al. 2011, EPSC-DPS2011, 1060.

  3. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: TR and TCh. Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection.

  4. Trophic discrimination factor of nitrogen isotopes within amino acids in the dobsonfly Protohermes grandis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae) larvae in a controlled feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Hayashi, Fumio; Sasaki, Yoko; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    The trophic discrimination factor (TDF) of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids, between a stream-dwelling dobsonfly larva (Protohermes grandis: Megaloptera; Corydalidae) and its diet (chironomid larvae), was determined in controlled feeding experiments. Last-instar larvae of P. grandis were collected from the Yozawa-gawa River, central Japan, and reared in the laboratory. After fed to satiation for 1 month, one group of larvae was each fed one living chironomid larva per day for 4 weeks, while a second group was starved for 8 weeks. The larvae were harvested at intervals and the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid (δ(15)NGlu) and phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe) were determined to calculate TDF. The mean TDF of satiated and starved larvae were 7.1‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 3) and 7.3‰ ± 0.5‰ (n = 5), respectively. Thus, the TDF for P. grandis larvae in this study was similar to that reported for other arthropods (approximately 7‰) and was independent of satiation or starvation. A previous study of wild P. grandis larvae, based on the δ(15)NGlu and δ(15)NPhe values, estimated its trophic position (TP) as approximately 2.0 ± 0.1 (n = 5), a low value close to that of algivores, although they are generally characterized as carnivores (usually accepted as TP ≥ 3). The TDF for P. grandis larvae suggests that their low TPs in nature were caused by incorporation of vascular plant-derived amino acids (with a different δ(15)N profile from that of algae) and not by an unusually low TDF or by the effects of the satiation/starvation on amino acid metabolism.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of a phytosteroid compound of mature leaves of Day Jasmine (Solanaceae: Solanales) against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget organisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2008-07-01

    Crude mature leaves extract of Day Jasmine, Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae: Solanales), was investigated for larvicidal activities against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of human filariasis. All the graded concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% v/v) showed significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality, and results of regression equations revealed that the mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the extract (R (2) close to 1). LC(50), LC(95), and LC(99) values were calculated at different time intervals, and the lowest value was recorded at the 72-h bioassay for third-instar larvae. Significant changes in the larval mortality (F < 0.05) was also recorded between the periods of exposure and between instars during t test and single analysis of variance analysis. No mortality was noticed for nontarget organisms, such as Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Chironomid larvae within 72 h of postexposure to 1%, 2%, and 3% crude plant extract under the laboratory condition. Qualitative and chromatographic analysis of the crude extract of C. diurnum revealed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals. The bioassay experiment with the third-instar larval form established that the presence of a steroid compound (R (f), 0.67) was responsible for mosquitocidal activity.

  6. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size.

    PubMed

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  7. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  8. Changes in physicochemical properties of chitin at developmental stages (larvae, pupa and adult) of Vespa crabro (wasp).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Sofi, Karwan; Sargin, Idris; Mujtaba, Muhammad

    2016-07-10

    It is already known that chitin in a single organism can exhibit huge differences depending on the functions it serves in different body parts, but the alterations in the characteristics of chitin in course of developmental stages of an organism still remain unknown. This study presents findings on how chitin matrix is changing physicochemically through discrete morphological stages - larva, pupa and adult - of an insect (Vespa crabro). Chitin content of the organisms were found to increase gradually as the organism grew; 2.1, 6.2 and 10.3%, with a dramatic increase in chitin deposition (nearly 3 folds) during the instar from larva to pupa. Enzymatic digestion test demonstrated that chitin isolates were close to pure. Chitin isolates were also subjected to thermal pyrolysis and no variations were observed in the thermal stability of the samples. However, it was observed that surface characteristics of chitin changed greatly as the insect grew.

  9. Morphology and histology of secretory setae in terrestrial larvae of biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Giłka, Wojciech; Szadziewski, Ryszard

    2011-11-01

    Apneustic larvae of the genus Forcipomyia possess unique secretory setae located on the dorsal surface along the body in two rows, one pair on each thoracic and abdominal segment and two pairs on the head. Morphological and histological studies of secretory setae in fourth instar larvae of Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) and Forcipomyia nigrans Remm indicate they are modified mechanoreceptors (sensilla trichodea) in which the trichogen cell is a glandular cell producing a hygroscopic secretion. The cytoplasm of the glandular trichogen cell fills the lumen of a secretory seta, which shows one or more pores on the apex. The cytoplasm contains numerous microtubules responsible for transportation of proteinaceous vesicles, and an extremely large polyploid nucleus typical of gland cells. The main role of the hygroscopic secretion is to moist the body and thus facilitate cuticular respiration.

  10. Toxicity studies for indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Malang city, East Java on Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Suharjono; Setyowati, Faridah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis)isolates from Malang City for controlling Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. Methods Soil samples were taken from Purwantoro and Sawojajar sub-districts. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates were obtained with the simple matching method. The growth and prevalence of spores were determined by the Total Plate Count method, and toxicity tests were also performed on the third instar larval stage of Ae. aegypti. The percentage of larval mortality was analysed using probit regression. The LC50 was analysed by ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD interval was 95%. Results Among the 33 selected bacterial isolates, six were obtained (PWR4-31, PWR4-32, SWJ4-2b, SWJ4-4b, SWJ-4k and SWJ5-1) that had a similar phenotype to reference B. thuringiensis. Based on the dendrogram, all of the bacterial isolates were 71% similar. Three isolates that had a higher prevalence of reference B. thuringiensis were PWR4-32, SWJ4-4b and SW5-1, of which the spore prevalence was 52.44%, 23.59%, 34.46%, respectively. These three indigenous isolates from Malang City successfully killed Ae. aegypti larvae. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing the larvae. Conclusions Six indigenous B. thuringiensis isolates among the 33 bacterial isolates found in the Sawojajar and Purwantoro sub-districts were toxic to the third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. The PWR4-32 isolates were identical to the reference B. thuringiensis and had 88% phenotype similarity. The PWR4-32 isolates had the highest spore prevalence (52.44%), and the early stationary phase occurred at 36 h. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50-72 h=2.3×108 cells/mL). PMID:23593589

  11. The Impact of Environmental Heterogeneity and Life Stage on the Hindgut Microbiota of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has diverse ecological and evolutionary effects on its hosts. However, the ways in which it responds to environmental heterogeneity and host physiology remain poorly understood. To this end, we surveyed intestinal microbiota of Holotrichia parallela larvae at different instars and from different geographic regions. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and clones were subsequently screened by DGGE and sequenced. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the major phyla, and bacteria belonging to Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families were commonly found in all natural populations. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1 and Shannon indices) and community structure varied across host populations, and the observed variation can be explained by soil pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen, and the climate factors (e.g., mean annual temperature) of the locations where the populations were sampled. Furthermore, increases in the species richness and diversity of gut microbiota were observed during larval growth. Bacteroidetes comprised the dominant group in the first instar; however, Firmicutes composed the majority of the hindgut microbiota during the second and third instars. Our results suggest that the gut's bacterial community changes in response to environmental heterogeneity and host's physiology, possibly to meet the host's ecological needs or physiological demands. PMID:23437336

  12. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Thirumalapura Krishnaiah; Shivanna, Kumuda Sathigal; Achuttan, Vijayan Valiakottukal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts. Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi. Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi. Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. reticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound. PMID:27308289

  13. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  14. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  15. Influence of plant severing on movement of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae in Zea mays hybrid seed production fields.

    PubMed

    Reardon, K T; Hellmich, R L; Sumerford, D V; Lewis, L C; Reardon, B J; Calvin, D D

    2007-08-01

    Genetically engineered corn hybrids that contain a cry gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are gaining popularity for controlling the corn pest Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Continuous use of Bt corn, however, could select for O. nubilalis that are resistant to this corn. Monitoring for insect resistance is important, because it could help maintain the Bt technology. A possible monitoring method is to collect larval insects in commercial drying bins after harvest from Bt seed production fields. A drawback to this method is that these collections may be contaminated by insects that moved as later instars from severed non-Bt male rows into the adjacent Bt female rows. These larvae have little to no exposure to Bt toxin, resulting in possible "false positives." The objectives of this study were to first find which combination of planting and severing dates produces the least number of larvae that move from non-Bt male plants to Bt female plants and to assess O. nubilalis larval movement from severed non-Bt male rows to Bt female rows. Field studies in 2002 and 2003 were designed to simulate a hybrid seed production field. Results suggest that movement of O. nubilalis larvae from male corn is minimized when corn is planted early and male plants are severed by 2 wk post-anthesis. This reduces the likelihood of false positives by reducing the number of susceptible larvae moving between Bt and non-Bt plants. Also, larvae moved to all four female rows that were adjacent to the severed rows, but there were significantly more larvae found in the closest row compared with the other three. These results could be used to develop a monitoring program to find O. nubilalis larvae with resistance to Bt corn in field populations of O. nubilalis.

  16. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  17. Geographic Origin and Host Cultivar Influence on Digestive Physiology of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Golikhajeh, Neshat; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2017-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity in three geographic strains (Miandiab, Kalposh and Moghan regions) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different sugar beet cultivars (Dorothea, Rozier, Persia and Perimer) was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photo period of 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). The results of this study demonstrated that digestive protease and amylase activity of S. exigua larvae was affected by both geographic origin of the pest and host plant cultivar. Three strains reared on the same sugar beet cultivars demonstrated different levels of proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth and fifth instars. The highest proteolytic and amylolytic activity, in most cases, was observed in larvae collected from Kalposh region. Among different sugar beet cultivars, the highest protease activity in three strains was observed on cultivars Rozier and Perimer. Nevertheless, the highest amylase activity was seen on cultivar Dorothea, and the lowest activity was seen on cultivar Rozier. This study suggested that variations in digestive enzymatic activity of three geographic strains of S. exigua might be attributed to local adaptation with their local host plant and environmental conditions inherent by larvae. PMID:28069730

  18. Similarity analysis of PAH and PCB bioaccumulation patterns in sediment-exposed Chironomus tentans larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.W.; O`Keefe, P.; Bush, B.

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of the aquatic insect Chironomus tentans were exposed at the third or fourth instar stage to sediments collected near the outfalls of two aluminum foundries and an aluminum fabrication plant. Biota and sediment bioaccumulation factors (BFs), based on wet tissue weights and dry sediment weights, ranged from 0.07 to 0.27 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from 0.22 to 1.42 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A higher rate of metabolism of PAHs compared with PCBs could explain the differences in BF values for the two groups of chemicals. It was found, using community similarity procedures from the field of ecology, that the congener patterns for PAHs and PCBs bioaccumulated by the larvae differed from the pattern of the same compounds in the sediments to which they were exposed. Affinity analysis indicated that the larvae favored the higher molecular weight PAH and PCB congeners. Preferential ingestion of sediments with defined particle size ranges, metabolism, and octanol/water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) are factors that may have influenced the bioaccumulation patterns. However, no single factor could adequately account for the differences between the larval and sediment patterns.

  19. Burrowing dragonfly larvae as biosentinels of methylmercury in freshwater food webs.

    PubMed

    Haro, Roger J; Bailey, Sean W; Northwick, Reid M; Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G

    2013-08-06

    We assessed the utility of larval burrowing dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) as biosentinels of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination. Gomphids were the most abundant family of dragonflies sampled during 2008-2010 from 17 lakes in four national parks of the northwestern Laurentian Great Lakes region. Ten species of burrowing gomphids were sampled; 13 lakes contained 3 or more species, and 2 species of Gomphus co-occurred in 12 lakes. Most of the total Hg (THg) in whole, late-instar larvae was MeHg, with mean percent MeHg exceeding 60% in 16 lakes. Mean MeHg in larvae of a given species varied greatly among lakes, ranging from 4 to 109 ng g(-1) dry weight. Methylmercury levels in larvae, however, were much less variable within a given lake and species. The mean concentration of MeHg in burrowing gomphids was positively correlated with mean MeHg concentration in unfiltered lake water. Mean concentrations of THg and MeHg in multispecies assemblages of Gomphus were also positively correlated with mean THg in coexisting prey fish and game fishes. We recommend-and provide guidance on-the application of burrowing gomphids as biosentinels of MeHg contamination, which can extend the bioassessment of MeHg to fishless fresh waters.

  20. Morphology of juvenile stages of Kuschelina bergi (Harold) with biological information (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro; Telesnicki, Marta; Julien, Mic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kuschelina bergi (Harold, 1881) is being studied to be evaluated as a natural enemy of Phyla nodiflora var. minor (Hook.) N. O’Leary & Múlgura (Verbenaceae), an invasive weed in Australia. Eggs, and 1st and 3rd instar larvae are described and illustrated for the first time. The following characters distinguish Kuschelina bergi: presence of two medial setae in prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, absence of tubercle on sternum I and eight setae in abdominal segment IX. The 3rd instar larvae of Kuschelina bergi resemble Kuschelina gibbitarsa (Say) larvae: the body shape and details of mouthparts are similar, but the morphology of the mandible is different, as is the tarsungulus which has a single seta. Differences between Kuschelina bergi and other known larvae of Oedionychina are discussed. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observation are also presented and discussed. PMID:27006616

  1. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  2. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  3. Rosse, 3rd Earl of [William Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1800-67) and Rosse, 4th Earl of [Laurence Parsons, Lord Rosse, Lord Oxmantown] (1840-1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Irish astronomer and landowner, the 3rd Lord Rosse was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and Oxford as a mathematician. He became interested in astronomy and made at the family castle in Birr a 36 in reflector with the same design as William Herschel's (see HERSCEL FAMILY). Mapped the Moon, and observed nebulae with the intent to resolve them into stars. He developed the technology at Birr Cast...

  4. Simultaneous Larva Migrans and Larva Currens Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Corte, Liliam Dalla; da Silva, Mariana Vale Scribel; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins

    2013-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, which penetrate the skin, go through the lymphatic circulation, and migrate to the lungs before reaching the intestines. They mature and may cause cutaneous strongyloidiasis, known as larva currens because of the quick migratory rate of the larva. The authors describe a case in which the larvae did not follow their natural lymph route, and after penetrating into the intertriginous area, they migrated to the dermis, developing larva migrans in the early phase, and later associated with the typical lesions of larva currens. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of larva in the skin biopsy. PMID:23476820

  5. Laboratory evaluation of Novaluron for toxicity to nymphal instars of field collected southern green stink bug on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of novaluron (Diamond [TM] 0.83 EC) on cotton against nymphs of different instars of field collected southern green stink bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (L.), was investigated in a spray table using two nozzles, 650033 and 8002E. The nozzles delivered spray rates of 18.7 and 46.7 L/ha, re...

  6. Analysis of growth and development in the final instar of three species of predatory Coccinellidae under varying prey availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insects like aphidophagous lady beetles, whose preferred food naturally varies in space and time, variation in adult body size is most likely a reflection of food acquired and allocated to growth by the final larval instar. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the nature of variation in ...

  7. Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Gee, C.L.; Sherertz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    Although studies on the aflatoxins have involved test systems ranging from cell cultures to laboratory animals, there appears to be a general lack of information on the ecological and economic effects of aflatoxins on insects. However, this situation is gradually changing. These studies involved the toxic responses of fifth instar milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) to AFB/sub 1/. Milkweed bugs pass through five distinct nymphal instars. In the fifth instar stage, the insect is marked with lateral spots on all of the abdominal pleurites and median spots on the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth dorsal abdominal tergites. The apex of the ventral abdominal surface is black and the remainder of the body is reddish-orange. Also, the adult is elongate to oval, and it is black and red in color. Because of this insect's ability to live and reproduce normally when provided dried sunflower seeds and water, it is a very desirable model to study through out the year. It is thought that juvenile insect stages are more sensitive to AFT than are adults, thus the instar and its developmental and sexual responses to aflatoxins are of interest.

  8. Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) survive burial: Evidence of ascending vertical dispersal.

    PubMed

    Balme, G R; Denning, S S; Cammack, J A; Watson, D W

    2012-03-10

    This study was undertaken to determine if immature blow flies could complete development following burial and emerge from the soil as adults. Two species of blow flies, Cochliomyia macellaria and Protophormia terraenovae, were placed at three depths and at three different life stages, in a simulated burial to evaluate the impact of soil on ascending vertical dispersal and fly survival. In soil columns, immature stages of each species were covered with 5, 25 and 50cm of soil. Emerging adult flies of both species reached the surface from all depths at all three immature stages (2nd instar, 3rd instar and pupae). At the 50-cm depth, flies were least successful in reaching the surface when buried as pupae and most successful as late 3rd instar larvae (prepupae). Collectively, more adult flies emerged from the soil if buried as 3rd instars (79.6%) than either 2nd instars or pupae (59.6% and 59.3%, respectively (F(2,159)=14.76, P<0.0001)). Similarly, at shallow burial depths of 5 and 25cm, 75.6% and 70.4% of the adults successfully reached the surface, compared with 52.6% at the 50-cm depth (F(2,159)=15.95, P<0.0001). Second instars demonstrated ascending vertical dispersal behaviours in the soil column by pupating closer to the surface. Nearly half (46.6%) of the C. macellaria 2nd instars buried in 25cm of soil pupated nearer to the surface. Similarly, 45.4% of the P. terraenovae 2nd instars pupated nearer to the surface. When buried at 50cm, approximately 25% of 2nd instars of both species pupated nearer to the surface. When 3rd instars of C. macellaria and P. terraenovae were buried at 120cm, 40% and 4.3% of the adults, respectively, successfully reached the soil surface.

  9. High temperature slows down growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) under food restriction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew B; Jiao, Lihong; Tsao, Tsu-hsuan; King, Ian; Jennings, Michael; Hou, Chen

    2015-03-01

    When fed ad libitum (AL), ectothermic animals usually grow faster and have higher metabolic rate at higher ambient temperature. However, if food supply is limited, there is an energy tradeoff between growth and metabolism. Here we hypothesize that for ectothermic animals under food restriction (FR), high temperature will lead to a high metabolic rate, but growth will slow down to compensate for the high metabolism. We measure the rates of growth and metabolism of 4 cohorts of 5th instar hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) reared at 2 levels of food supply (AL and FR) and 2 temperatures (20 and 30 °C). Our results show that, compared to the cohorts reared at 20 °C, the ones reared at 30 °C have high metabolic rates under both AL and FR conditions, but a high growth rate under AL and a low growth rate under FR, supporting this hypothesis.

  10. An evaluation of some Trinidadian plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Azad; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-06-01

    In recent times, bioprospecting for plants that show bioactive properties has yielded many chemicals that can be used in controlling mosquitoes. Crude extracts of 4 terrestrial and 3 mangrove plants were assayed against 2-3 larval instars of Aedes aegypti. Among the plants tested, Cordia curassavica showed the highest levels of activity for all the extracts tested. Azadirachta indica showed the least activity, whereas the 2 cultivars of Mangifera indica showed substantial activity for the aqueous extracts. The mangrove species proved to be relatively nontoxic to Ae. aegypti larvae when compared to the terrestrial plants. The results of this study suggest that some common plants in Trinidad may be highly effective in controlling the urban vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, Ae. aegypti.

  11. Effects of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam rice seed treatments on egg numbers and first instar survival of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lanka, S K; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Stout, M J

    2013-02-01

    Effects of treatment of rice seeds with an anthranilic diamide, chlorantraniliprole, and a neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam, on egg laying and first instar survival in rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, were examined under greenhouse conditions. Exposure of adult weevils to rice (6-7 leaf stage) grown from seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam resulted in reduction in numbers of eggs and first instars. The low egg numbers by adults exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plants was confirmed as a sublethal effect on adults: adult survival was not impacted after 4 d of feeding on foliage from chlorantraniliprole-treated plants but the number of eggs laid by these weevils was reduced when released on untreated plants. Furthermore, a comparison of first instar emergence from chlorantraniliprole-treated plants and from untreated plants infested with weevils previously exposed to this chemical suggested that chlorantraniliprole was also reducing egg or first instar survival. In contrast, adults that fed on foliage from thiamethoxam-treated plants showed increased mortality. Possible sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on the number of eggs laid by adults were investigated by infesting untreated plants with weevils that survived exposure to thiamethoxam via foliar feeding (7 microg active ingredient/seed). Prior exposure to thiamethoxam through adult feeding reduced egg numbers. However, potential larvicidal or ovicidal effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments could not be detected in this study because of low first instar emergence from both thiamethoxam-treated plants and from untreated plants infested with weevils previously exposed to this chemical. These experiments revealed that the two seed treatments accomplish weevil control in different ways.

  12. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  13. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  14. Toxicity of Sulfide and Ammonium to Aedes triseriatus Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Water-Filled Tree Holes and Tires.

    PubMed

    Walker, Edward D

    2016-05-01

    Ammonium and sulfide in water of tree hole and tire habitats of Aedes triseriatus Say larvae could accumulate to toxic levels, limiting growth and production of larvae and adults. Both ions were detected in water samples taken in longitudinal series over 11 dates from 10 habitats of each type during the larval growth season, at concentrations suggestive of reducing conditions in these habitats. Ammonium was more concentrated overall in water of both habitat types, while sulfide was more concentrated in tires than in tree holes. Water of tree holes was more acidic, whereas water in tires tended to be more basic, an important difference relative to the tendency of ammonium to form the more toxic ammonia moiety under basic conditions. Oxygen saturation was low in both habitat types, indicative of hypoxic conditions such that aerobic respiration would be limited. First-and fourth-instar larvae were sensitive to ammonium and sulfide in acute dose-response assays, but LC50 values were above maximum concentrations observed under field conditions, suggesting that toxic effects of ammonium and sulfide on larvae are not acute, but could be chronic.

  15. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  16. Description of larvae of two closely related species Cassida palaestina Reiche, 1858 and Cassida rubiginosa Müller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae).

    PubMed

    Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Moradian, Hossein; Borowiec, Lech; Ostovan, Hadi

    2013-11-29

    Larvae of two closely related species Cassida palaestina Reiche, 1858 and Cassida rubiginosa Müller, 1776 are described in detail including SEM microstructures. First instars are extremely similar with no clear diagnostic characters, larvae of Cassida palaestina are slightly more contrastingly coloured than larvae of C. rubiginosa, the latter having darker scoli, basal part of supra-anal processes and legs. Last instars differ in very subtle but constant characters: lateral scoli of C. palaestina are slightly shorter than those of C. rubiginosa, in C. palaestina tops of the lateral branches are armed apically with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum while in C. rubiginosa tops of the lateral branches are more often armed with a pointed seta than with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum, and cauliflower-shaped sensilla on tergites are less elongate in C. palaestina than in C. rubiginosa. These differences accompanied by distinguishing characters of adults and their distribution range indicate that both taxa are probably vicariant species with partial parapatric occurrence. Centaurea behen is a new host plant for C. palaestina.

  17. Bioactivity of seagrass against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0 604 ± 0.0 040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0 972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity. PMID:23569973

  18. Marked depletion of polar lipid and non-essential fatty acids following settlement by post-larvae of the spiny lobster Jasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Andrew G; Phleger, Charles F; Nelson, Matthew M; Mooney, Ben D; Nichols, Peter D

    2002-02-01

    The development from the non-feeding post-larva (puerulus) to the first instar juvenile of spiny lobsters is highly energetically demanding. These demands may greatly compromise the energy reserves of the lobsters following settlement, leading to reduced growth and survival in the wild, and also in aquaculture. Therefore, the lipid class and fatty acid composition of wild caught pueruli and first instar juveniles of the spiny lobster Jasus verreauxi (H. Milne Edwards, 1851) were analysed by thin layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection and capillary gas chromatography. Pueruli contained substantially more lipid than first instar juveniles (mean difference =3.5 mg, or 41.9%) and most of this difference was due to the presence of greater amounts of polar lipid (mean difference =3.9 mg or 49.2%) in pueruli. First instar juveniles contained significantly more triacylglycerol (mean =0.2 mg), consistent with the polar lipid being converted to a more readily metabolised lipid class in the hepatopancreas. These results indicate that polar lipid is the major energy store during the non-feeding puerulus stage of spiny lobsters from the genus Jasus. Overall, the essential, polyunsaturated linoleic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids did not show a significant decrease between the two developmental stages, despite the absence of feeding. However, significant reductions in the abundance of both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids between the two stages were identified (decrease of 811 and 783 microg per individual, respectively). This suggested that selective depletion of non-essential fatty acids may be occurring, with resultant sparing of the essential fatty acids. Supplying diets rich in these depleted fatty acids, and in particular the essential fatty acids, preferably in polar lipid, is likely to result in increased survival and growth of J. verreauxi and other spiny lobsters from first instar juveniles in aquaculture.

  19. Chronic lead exposure alters presynaptic calcium regulation and synaptic facilitation in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    He, T; Hirsch, H V B; Ruden, D M; Lnenicka, G A

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to inorganic lead (Pb(2+)) during development has been shown to influence activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain, possibly by altering the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of Pb(2+) exposure on [Ca(2+)](i) regulation and synaptic facilitation at the neuromuscular junction of larval Drosophila. Wild-type Drosophila (CS) were raised from egg stages through the third larval instar in media containing either 0 microM, 100 microM or 250 microM Pb(2+) and identified motor terminals were examined in late third-instar larvae. To compare resting [Ca(2+)](i) and the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) produced by impulse activity, the motor terminals were loaded with a Ca(2+) indicator, either Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) or fura-2 conjugated to a dextran. We found that rearing in Pb(2+) did not significantly change the resting [Ca(2+)](i) nor the Ca(2+) transient produced in synaptic boutons by single action potentials (APs); however, the Ca(2+) transients produced by 10 Hz and 20 Hz AP trains were larger in Pb(2+)-exposed boutons and decayed more slowly. For larvae raised in 250 microM Pb(2+), the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) during an AP train (20 Hz) was 29% greater than in control larvae and the [Ca(2+)](i) decay tau was 69% greater. These differences appear to result from reduced activity of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA), which extrudes Ca(2+) from these synaptic terminals. These findings are consistent with studies in mammals showing a Pb(2+)-dependent reduction in PMCA activity. We also observed a Pb(2+)-dependent enhancement of synaptic facilitation at these larval neuromuscular synapses. Facilitation of EPSP amplitude during AP trains (20 Hz) was 55% greater in Pb(2+)-reared larvae than in controls. These results showed that Pb(2+) exposure produced changes in the regulation of [Ca(2+)](i) during impulse activity, which could affect various

  20. Chronic lead exposure alters presynaptic calcium regulation and synaptic facilitation in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    He, T.; Hirsch, H.V.B.; Ruden, D. M.; Lnenicka, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to inorganic lead (Pb2+) during development has been shown to influence activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain, possibly by altering the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of Pb2+ exposure on [Ca2+]i regulation and synaptic facilitation at the neuromuscular junction of larval Drosophila. Wild-type Drosophila (CS) were raised from egg stages through the third larval instar in media containing either 0, 100 μM or 250 μM Pb2+ and identified motor terminals were examined in late third-instar larvae. To compare resting [Ca2+]i and the changes in [Ca2+]i produced by impulse activity, the motor terminals were loaded with a Ca2+ indicator, either Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 (OGB-1) or fura-2 conjugated to a dextran. We found that rearing in Pb2+ did not significantly change the resting [Ca2+]i nor the Ca2+ transient produced in synaptic boutons by single action potentials (APs); however, the Ca2+ transients produced by 10 and 20 Hz AP trains were larger in Pb2+-exposed boutons and decayed more slowly. For larvae raised in 250 μM Pb2+, the increase in [Ca2+]i during an AP train (20 Hz) was 29% greater than in control larvae and the [Ca2+]i decay τ was 69% greater. These differences appear to result from reduced activity of the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), which extrudes Ca2+ from these synaptic terminals. These findings are consistent with studies in mammals showing a Pb2+-dependent reduction in PMCA activity. We also observed a Pb2+-dependent enhancement of synaptic facilitation at these larval neuromuscular synapses. Facilitation of EPSP amplitude during AP trains (20 Hz) was 55% greater in Pb2+-reared larvae than in controls. These results showed that Pb2+ exposure produced changes in the regulation of [Ca2+]i during impulse activity, which could affect various aspects of nervous system development. At the mature synapse, this altered [Ca2+]i

  1. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%–5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%–37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%–77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%–42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%–0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem

  2. Functional significance of parasitism-induced suppression of juvenile hormone esterase activity in developmentally delayed Choristoneura fumiferana larvae.

    PubMed

    Cusson, M; Laforge, M; Miller, D; Cloutier, C; Stoltz, D

    2000-03-01

    The parasitic wasp Tranosema rostrale transmits a polydnavirus (PDV) to its host, Choristoneura fumiferana, during oviposition. Last-instar C. fumiferana larvae parasitized by T. rostrale early in the stadium fail to undergo metamorphosis, and injection of the wasp's calyx fluid (CxF; contains PDV) into healthy caterpillars induces a dose-dependent delay in initiation of metamorphosis (D. Doucet and M. Cusson, 1996, Entomol. Exp. Appl. 81, 21-30). In the present work, parasitization and injection of CxF (0.5 female equivalent) on the first day of the last stadium both prevented the rise in hemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE) titer observed between day 4 and day 7 in control and saline-injected larvae. Similarly, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity was depressed following parasitization or CxF injection, whereas control larvae displayed a peak on day 4. However, neither parasitism nor injection of CxF on day 1 prevented the JH-producing glands from turning off during the first half of the last stadium. Likewise, low but clearly detectable JH titers were observed in the first hours following the molt but very low titers, at or near the detection limit of our radioimmunoassay, were seen in both control and parasitized larvae on day 4. Prothoracic glands showed no apparent sign of degeneration 4 days after injection of CxF but had significantly smaller cells than saline-injected larvae 7 days postinjection. It is not clear whether this was a direct effect of T. rostrale PDV. Thus, disruption of spruce budworm metamorphosis by T. rostrale CxF involves depression of 20HE titers but is not associated with a measurable increase in the level of JH, as shown for some other host-parasitoid systems. In view of the latter observation, we put forward three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of the observed suppression of JHE activity in developmentally arrested C. fumiferana larvae.

  3. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Marcus J.; Prager, Sean M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  4. Susceptibility of Ceraeochrysa cubana larvae and adults to six insect growth-regulator insecticides.

    PubMed

    Ono, Éric Kodi; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Aguiar Santos, Kenia Fernanda; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of six insect growth-regulators were assessed on the predator Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) larvae and adults. Our results showed that diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen caused 100% larva mortality, whereas buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were similar to control treatment. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the duration of larval stage, while methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the predator larva development time. Buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the C. cubana duration and survival of pupal stage, fecundity and fertility. However, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced predator female and male longevities. Based on a reduction coefficient, diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen were highly harmful to first instar larvae, while buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were considered slightly harmful to the predator. Estimating the life table parameters, our results showed that buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the C. cubana Ro, r and λ. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the T and methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide shortened the predator T. In adults, our results showed that the insecticides did not cause significant mortality, but diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen reduced the C. cubana fecundity and longevity. Diflubenzuron and lufenuron also reduced the C. cubana fertility. Based on a reduction coefficient, diflubenzuron and lufenuron were highly harmful to C. cubana adults, while pyriproxyfen was slightly harmful and buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were considered harmless to the predator. Therefore, insect growth-regulators affect the C. cubana biological or populational parameters, and they can harm the integrated pest management programs that aim the predator conservation and/or augmentation in agroecosystems.

  5. [DNA reduplication cycle during chromosome polytenization in the salivary gland cells of Chironomus thummi larvae. III. The determination of the duration of the DNA synthesis period].

    PubMed

    Gundrina, L I; Sherudilo, A I; Mitina, R L

    1984-08-01

    The duration of DNA synthesis in the salivary gland cells of Chironomus thummi larvae of the IV instar was determined by means of autoradiography and cytophotometry. Cells of different levels of ploidy differ in the duration of their DNA synthesis period. The tS of 2(10)c and 2(11)c cells was equal to 17 and 22 hours, respectively. The doubling of DNA content of the chironomid salivary gland cells leads to a 1.3 time increase in the duration of S-phase.

  6. The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L E; Cribb, B W; Hanan, J; Zalucki, M P

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.

  7. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  8. RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Xin, Hu-hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Wang, Mei-xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Zhang, Deng-pan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-06-01

    Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C-terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth-instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.

  9. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens.

  10. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7 dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6 dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7 dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  11. The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Science and the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning, the science symposium of Arctic Science Summit Week 2015 (ISAR-4/ICARPIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, Peter; Kodama, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    The 4th International Symposium for Arctic Research (ISAR-4) with the theme of "Rapid change of the Arctic climate system and its global influence" was held as the science symposium of the Arctic Science Summit Week 2015, together with the 3rd International Conference for Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII) with the theme of "Integrating Arctic Research: a Roadmap for the Future," in Toyama, Japan, from April 27 to April 30, 2015. There were 340 oral and 177 poster presentations, totalling 511 presentations. Among them, 38 papers were submitted to this special issue and 30 were accepted. 16 sessions in which those accepted papers were presented are described.

  12. Type 1 Diabetes and NKT Cells: A Report on the 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation, September 2004, Heron Island, QLD, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Julie M.; Jordan, Margaret A.; Baxter, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    NKT cells play a major role in regulating the vigor and character of a broad range of immune responses. Defects in NKT cell numbers and function have been associated with type 1 diabetes, especially in the NOD mouse model. The 3rd International Workshop on NKT Cells and CD1-Mediated Antigen Presentation provided an opportunity for researchers in the field of NKT cell biology to discuss their latest results, many of which have direct relevance to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:17491677

  13. The ENCCA-WP7/EuroSarc/EEC/PROVABES/EURAMOS 3rd European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting/Joint Workshop of EU Bone Sarcoma Translational Research Networks; Vienna, Austria, September 24-25, 2015. Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Kager, Leo; Whelan, Jeremy; Dirksen, Uta; Hassan, Bass; Anninga, Jakob; Bennister, Lindsey; Bovée, Judith V M G; Brennan, Bernadette; Broto, Javier M; Brugières, Laurence; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Copland, Christopher; Dutour, Aurélie; Fagioli, Franca; Ferrari, Stefano; Fiocco, Marta; Fleuren, Emmy; Gaspar, Nathalie; Gelderblom, Hans; Gerrand, Craig; Gerß, Joachim; Gonzato, Ornella; van der Graaf, Winette; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; Herrero-Martín, David; Klco-Brosius, Stephanie; Kovar, Heinrich; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lancia, Carlo; LeDeley, Marie-Cecile; McCabe, Martin G; Metzler, Markus; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela; Picci, Piero; Potratz, Jenny; Redini, Françoise; Richter, Günther H S; Reinke, Denise; Rutkowski, Piotr; Scotlandi, Katia; Strauss, Sandra; Thomas, David; Tirado, Oscar M; Tirode, Franck; Vassal, Gilles; Bielack, Stefan S

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3rd Joint ENCCA-WP7, EuroSarc, EEC, PROVABES, and EURAMOS European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting, which was held at the Children's Cancer Research Institute in Vienna, Austria on September 24-25, 2015. The joint bone sarcoma network meetings bring together European bone sarcoma researchers to present and discuss current knowledge on bone sarcoma biology, genetics, immunology, as well as results from preclinical investigations and clinical trials, to generate novel hypotheses for collaborative biological and clinical investigations. The ultimate goal is to further improve therapy and outcome in patients with bone sarcomas.

  14. Tri-trophic effects of seasonally variable induced plant defenses vary across the development of a shelter building moth larva and its parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history.

  15. Life history traits and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Lymantria dispar L. (lepidoptera, lymantriidae) larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Increased presence of benzo[a]pyrene in the environment underlines the need for development of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring. Antioxidative enzymes could be used as early-warning signals because of their sensitivity and applicability. The activity of 2 antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in midgut tissues of fifth instar Lymantria dispar larvae exposed to different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: 2 ng, 10 ng, 20 ng, 100 ng, 200 ng, and 2000 ng benzo[a]pyrene/g dry food weight. Larval development, larval mass, and relative growth rate were also monitored. The authors detected prolonged larval development, as well as reduced larval mass and relative growth rate in larvae exposed to all benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. The L. dispar midgut SOD activity was significantly increased, and 2 SOD isoforms were detected on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the control group had only 1 isoform. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all benzo[a]pyrene-treated larvae. Native gel electrophoresis showed that a switch in active CAT isoforms occurred after benzo[a]pyrene treatment. Thus, SOD and CAT in polyphagous herbivorous L. dispar larvae are very sensitive to low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Therefore, they could be used as biomarkers for exposure and effects of this toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

  16. Enhancement of the efficacy of a combination of Mesocyclops aspericornis and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis by community-based products in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kosiyachinda, Pahol; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2003-08-01

    Prolonged efficacy of a combination of bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [Bti] and copepods (Mesocyclops aspericornis) in controlling immature forms of Aedes aegypti in peridomestic water containers was achieved by adding various products from local villages as supplementary food for copepods. In all experiments, 100 first-instar larvae were added into the breeding containers every day for eight weeks. Combinations of biological control agents and each local supplementary food were applied once at the beginning of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the average number of mosquito larvae in containers with a combination of copepods and Bti with one gram of rice grain had decreased to only 0.5% of that with no control agent. In comparison, the average numbers of mosquito larvae in containers with Bti only, or copepods only, were approximately 10% and 33% of those in containers with no control agents, respectively. In addition, the number of copepods in containers with mosquito larvae and supplementary food was at least three times higher than those with mosquito larvae alone.

  17. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  18. Choice of hunting site as a consequence of experience in late-instar crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Morse, Douglass H

    1999-08-01

    Earlier experiences may play an important role in the choice of hunting sites, but their effects on the foraging repertoire of most animals remain poorly understood. I tested the role of previous flower choices (hunting sites) by penultimate-instar female crab spiders Misumena vatia in making subsequent patch-choice decisions. M. vatia is a sit-and-wait predator, and the two flower species used, ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum and common buttercup Ranunculus acris, are important hunting sites. Spiders with different immediate experience showed similar short-term (<1 day) giving-up times on the two flower species, independent of their previous substrate. However, four-fifths of the individuals that remained a day or longer tended to leave buttercups sooner than daisies, especially if they had previously occupied daisies. Thus they may directly assess the quality of a potential hunting site, perhaps in response to prey abundance, but previous experience may play a minor role as well. Of spiders that made several consecutive choices of hunting sites, those on daisies often confined these runs to daisies (one of two years); those on buttercups did not exhibit comparable fidelity. Spiders molting into the adult stage almost always subsequently chose the same flower species (either daisy or buttercup) as the one on which they molted. Thus, juvenile experiences may influence adults, the critical stage when virtually all of the spiders' reproductive resources are gathered, even if this resulted from imprinting on their molt sites rather than carrying information over the molt.

  19. [Galleria mellonella larva model in evaluating the effects of biofilm in Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Karaman, Meral; Alvandian, Ali; Bahar, I Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections are chronic infections that cause serious increase in morbidity and mortality as well as significant economic loss. Galleria mellonella larva is shown as a reliable animal model for in vivo toxicology and pathogenicity tests due to its large size, ease of practice, ability to survive at 15-37°C and its similarity to mammals' natural immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects biofilm activity of Candida albicans in a G.mellonella larva model. Two C.albicans strains isolated as a disease agent were used for the model, where one was positive (BP), and the other one was negative (BN) for biofilm production. Eighty healthy G.mellonella larvae, all in the last larval stage and 2-2.5 cm long, were divided into 4 groups of equal size. Group 1 was set as the control group. Group 2 was injected with sterile phosphate buffer (PBS) group. Group 3 was injected with BP C.albicans strain and group 4 with BN C.albicans strain. A 5 μL volume of C.albicans prepared at 5 × 10(5) cfu/ml concentration with PBS was injected into the last left rear-legs of the larvae. The larvae were kept in sterile petri dishes at 37°C. They were observed for a total of 96 hours, for 4 hours in the first 24 hours, then in 12 hours intervals. Melanization, survival, total hemocyte count and fungal burden were evaluated as infection indicators. Melanization and death were not observed throughout the study period in group 1. One larva died in group 2. Small melanization spots (dark spots) and subsequent progressive melanization were observed from 3rd hour in the larvae infected with C.albicans. When compared with the BN C.albicans infected group, survival rate was 20% for BP C.albicans infected larvae at the end of 24 hours. Total hemocyte count was very low in the infected groups compared to groups 1 and 2, also significantly lower in group 3 than in group 4. In quantitative cultures, growth of C.albicans was detected in groups 3 and 4 while not in

  20. Visualization of proprioceptors in Drosophila larvae and pupae.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, Naomi; Nachman, Atalya; Salzberg, Adi

    2012-06-13

    Proprioception is the ability to sense the motion, or position, of body parts by responding to stimuli arising within the body. In fruitflies and other insects proprioception is provided by specialized sensory organs termed chordotonal organs (ChOs). Like many other organs in Drosophila, ChOs develop twice during the life cycle of the fly. First, the larval ChOs develop during embryogenesis. Then, the adult ChOs start to develop in the larval imaginal discs and continue to differentiate during metamorphosis. The development of larval ChOs during embryogenesis has been studied extensively. The centerpiece of each ChO is a sensory unit composed of a neuron and a scolopale cell. The sensory unit is stretched between two types of accessory cells that attach to the cuticle via specialized epidermal attachment cells. When a fly larva moves, the relative displacement of the epidermal attachment cells leads to stretching of the sensory unit and consequent opening of specific transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels at the outer segment of the dendrite. The elicited signal is then transferred to the locomotor central pattern generator circuit in the central nervous system. Multiple ChOs have been described in the adult fly. These are located near the joints of the adult fly appendages (legs, wings and halters) and in the thorax and abdomen. In addition, several hundreds of ChOs collectively form the Johnston's organ in the adult antenna that transduce acoustic to mechanical energy. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about the development of ChOs in embryonic stages, very little is known about the morphology of these organs during larval stages. Moreover, with the exception of femoral ChOs and Johnston's organ, our knowledge about the development and structure of ChOs in the adult fly is very fragmentary. Here we describe a method for staining and visualizing ChOs in third instar larvae and pupae. This method can be applied together with genetic tools to

  1. [Studies on filariasis in Korea: On the morphology and development of larvae of Brugia malayi in Aedes togoi

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kwan; Seo, Byong Seol

    1968-06-01

    muscles of the mosquitoes within 10 hours, after two moults in the mosquito host, the length of the developing 3rd stage larvae reached in size of 1.3~1.7 mm X 23~32 microns with anal ratio, 2.6 to 3.6. The first appearance of 3rd stage larvae in the mosquito host in this experiment was in 8th day after infection. The larvae were observed in the various cavities of mosquito, such as head, thoracic cavity, abdomen, halters, eye and legs. During the larval development in larval development in the host, the shortening of body length was first observed and then elnongation was followed until becoming 3rd stage larvae. 4)Aedes togoi was proved to be the most suitable host for this species of microfilaria malayi in the above endemic areas.

  2. Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, M O; Fasoranti, J O; Ande, A T; Olayemi, I K

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p < 0.05) lower among the irradiated treatments than control. Pattern of distribution of HCW was different from that of BW; as HCW increased with irradiation dose from 10-50 Gy during the 3rd and 4th larval instars. Also, HCW during the 5th instar larvae among the irradiated treatments (range = 5.256 +/- 0.012 to 5.662 +/- 0.026 mm) were not higher than that of the 6th instar in the control group (6.065 +/- 0.010 mm). These results suggest promising potentials of the use of gamma irradiation in sustainably improving the productivity of C. forda larvae for entomophagy.

  3. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  4. Evaluation of indigenous plant extracts against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Vadivelu, M; Zahir, A Abduz; Elango, G; Pandiyan, G

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the larvicidal potential of indigenous plant extracts from commonly used medicinal herbs as an environmentally safe measure to control the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The early fourth-instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, reared in the laboratory, were used for larvicidal assay with water, hot water, acetone, chloroform, and methanol leaf, stem-bark, and flower extracts of Acacia arabica Willd. Sans, Cedrus deodara Roxb, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Mangifera indica L., Nerium indicum Mill., Nicotiana tabacum Linn., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, and Solanum nigrum Linn. All plant extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm; however, the highest larval mortality was found in stem-bark hot water, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. deodara (LC50 = 133.85, 141.60, and 95.19 ppm, LC90 = 583.14, 624.19, and 639.99 ppm) and leaf hot water, acetone, methanol, and chloroform extracts of N. tabacum (LC50 = 76.27, 163.81, 83.38, and 105.85 ppm, LC90 = 334.72, 627.38, 709.51, and 524.39 ppm) against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  5. Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A.

    1995-11-01

    Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

  6. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  7. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  8. Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies.

    PubMed

    Millan, Carolina; Borges, Simone Silva; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone (D. iulia) or together (D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

  9. Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, Carolina; Borges, Simone Silva; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone ( D. iulia) or together ( D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  11. Host plant pubescence: Effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Dale B.; Gerling, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4th instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred in nymphs that had attained a depth of 0.2 to 0.25 mm (Stage 3 – 4). When reared on glabrous-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred earlier, in nymphs that had attained a depth of only 0.15–0.18 mm (Stage 2 Old - early 3). Therefore, based on ecdysteroid concentration, it appears that Stage-2, -3 and -4/5 nymphs reared on pubescent-leafed plants are physiologically equivalent to Stage-1, -2 Young and -2 Old/3, respectively, nymphs reared on glabrous-leafed plants. The host plant affected the width but not the height of the nymphal-adult premolt ecdysteroid peak. However, leaf pubescence was not the determining factor. Thus, host plant

  12. Aggregation in yellow mealworms,Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae : I. Individual and group attraction to frass and isolation of an aggregant.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D K; McFarlane, J E; Alli, I

    1989-05-01

    Late-instar larvalTenebrio molitor L. were found to be attracted to aqueous extracts of conspecific larval frass. The attraction was evident at both the individual and group level. The attraction of larval groups to frass indicated the possibility of an aggregation pheromone that would be chemically distinct in the mealworm environment. Chemical analysis of short carbon chain acids present in both the mealworm frass and the diet indicated that lactic acid was present in the mealworm frass only. Acetic acid was identified in both the diet and the larval frass. Larvae aggregated on filter papers treated with aqueous frass extracts that had been dried and also on those freshly wetted. The larvae also aggregated on dried or freshly wetted papers treated with lactic acid, but failed to aggregate on freshly wetted papers or dried papers treated with acetic acid. The role of excreted lactic acid as a discriminant of already infested and, therefore, safer environmental regions is discussed.

  13. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  14. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  19. Long-Term Cold Acclimation Extends Survival Time at 0°C and Modifies the Metabolomic Profiles of the Larvae of the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Rozsypal, Jan; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Tomčala, Aleš; Šimek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster is a chill-susceptible insect. Previous studies on this fly focused on acute direct chilling injury during cold shock and showed that lower lethal temperature (LLT, approximately −5°C) exhibits relatively low plasticity and that acclimations, both rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-term cold acclimation, shift the LLT by only a few degrees at the maximum. Principal Findings We found that long-term cold acclimation considerably improved cold tolerance in fully grown third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster. A comparison of the larvae acclimated at constant 25°C with those acclimated at constant 15°C followed by constant 6°C for 2 d (15°C→6°C) showed that long-term cold acclimation extended the lethal time for 50% of the population (Lt50) during exposure to constant 0°C as much as 630-fold (from 0.137 h to 86.658 h). Such marked physiological plasticity in Lt50 (in contrast to LLT) suggested that chronic indirect chilling injury at 0°C differs from that caused by cold shock. Long-term cold acclimation modified the metabolomic profiles of the larvae. Accumulations of proline (up to 17.7 mM) and trehalose (up to 36.5 mM) were the two most prominent responses. In addition, restructuring of the glycerophospholipid composition of biological membranes was observed. The relative proportion of glycerophosphoethanolamines (especially those with linoleic acid at the sn-2 position) increased at the expense of glycerophosphocholines. Conclusion Third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster improved their cold tolerance in response to long-term cold acclimation and showed metabolic potential for the accumulation of proline and trehalose and for membrane restructuring. PMID:21957472

  20. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  1. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community.

  2. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants.

  3. Selective inhibitors of digestive enzymes from Aedes aegypti larvae identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Soares, Tatiane Sanches; Soares Torquato, Ricardo Jose; Alves Lemos, Francisco Jose; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a serious disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti during blood meal feeding. It is estimated that the dengue virus is transmitted to millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue control strategies have been based on controlling the vector, Ae. aegypti, using insecticide, but the emergence of resistance poses new challenges. The aim of this study was the identification of specific protease inhibitors of the digestive enzymes from Ae. aegypti larvae, which may serve as a prospective alternative biocontrol method. High affinity protein inhibitors were selected by all of the digestive serine proteases of the 4th instar larval midgut, and the specificity of these inhibitors was characterized. These inhibitors were obtained from a phage library displaying variants of HiTI, a trypsin inhibitor from Haematobia irritans, that are mutated in the reactive loop (P1-P4'). Based on the selected amino acid sequence pattern, seven HiTI inhibitor variants were cloned, expressed and purified. The results indicate that the HiTI variants named T6 (RGGAV) and T128 (WNEGL) were selected by larval trypsin-like (IC(50) of 1.1 nM) and chymotrypsin-like enzymes (IC(50) of 11.6 nM), respectively. The variants T23 (LLGGL) and T149 (GGVWR) inhibited both larval chymotrypsin-like (IC(50) of 4.2 nM and 29.0 nM, respectively) and elastase-like enzymes (IC(50) of 1.2 nM for both). Specific inhibitors were successfully obtained for the digestive enzymes of Ae. aegypti larvae by phage display. Our data also strongly suggest the presence of elastase-like enzymes in Ae. aegypti larvae. The HiTI variants T6 and T23 are good candidates for the development as a larvicide to control the vector.

  4. Relationships between body weight of overwintering larvae and supercooling capacity; diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential in Chilo suppressalis Walker.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Wang, Ming-Liang; Ding, Nan; Ma, Wei-Hua; Li, Yan-Ning; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-05-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, overwinters in China as a larva in facultative diapause. The instars and body weights of overwintering larvae vary widely. In this paper, the relationships between body weight and supercooling capacity, diapause intensity and post-diapause reproductive potential of overwintering larvae collected in late-stage rice field were examined. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight, instar, and head capsule width, thus the overwintering larvae were divided into five groups based on body weight (I, up to 35.0mg; II, 35.1-57.0mg; III, 57.1-79.0mg; IV, 79.1-101.0mg; and V, over 101.1mg) for further analysis. The body water content of the lighter group (I) was significantly higher than that of the heavier groups (IV-V). However, the mean supercooling point decreased with an increase of the mean larval body weight in five groups; mean supercooling point of group I was significantly lower than that of group V, except in January 2009. After transfer of overwintering larvae to 15, 20 and 25°C on different dates, smaller individuals pupated slightly faster than larger ones at the same temperature, suggesting that diapause was less intense in smaller overwintering larvae. On 19 March 2009 there was a strong positive correlation between larval body weight and the weight of 3 day-old pupae, and the number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females at 15, 20 and 25°C. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females differed significantly among different groups. The average number of eggs carried by 2 day-old adult females in group V was significantly greater than those of other groups, and that of group I was significantly lower than those of other groups, suggesting that post-diapause reproductive potential was determined, to a certain extent, by body weight of the overwintering larvae.

  5. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  6. Hyperparasitism of mosquitoes by water mite larvae.

    PubMed

    Werblow, Antje; Martin, Peter; Dörge, Dorian D; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Hyperparasitism of ectoparasitic water mite larvae on mosquitoes is still a neglected relationship and was investigated only in a few studies. We analysed 2313 female mosquitoes from six different sampling localities with regard to their degree of parasitism with water mite larvae. In total, we found 38 mosquito individuals parasitized by 93 water mite larvae, ranging from 1 to 12 larvae per mosquito. Water mite larvae detected are members of the two species Parathyas cf. barbigera (n = 92) and Arrenurus cf. globator (n = 1). Out of the analysed mosquitoes, individuals out of the species Aedes vexans, Anopheles claviger, Ochlerotatus communis, the Ochlerotatus cantans/annulipes group, Ochlerotatus cataphylla and Ochlerotatus sticticus were tested to be parasitized by water mite larvae. The highest prevalence was found within the species Oc. cataphylla (28.6 %) and Oc. cantans/annulipes (21.7 %). No water mite larvae were found, e.g. on individuals of Aedes cinereus, Coquillettidia richiardii, the Culex pipiens/torrentium group, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus dorsalis or Ochlerotatus punctor. All of the attachment sites were located between the neck and abdomen with the ventral thorax site being the most frequent one.

  7. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  8. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  9. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT50, and LT90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  10. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  11. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue.

  12. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  13. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers.

  14. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  15. Variation in C:N:S Stoichiometry and Nutrient Storage Related to Body Size in a Holometabolous Insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E.; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physio