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Sample records for 3rd instar larval

  1. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  2. An adaptive kernel smoothing method for classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) larval instars.

    PubMed

    Cen, Guanjun; Yu, Yonghao; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks' rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby's growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods.

  3. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  4. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars.

    PubMed

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M; Anderson, Kirk E

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae. PMID:23991051

  5. Microbial Gut Diversity of Africanized and European Honey Bee Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M.; Anderson, Kirk E.

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae. PMID:23991051

  6. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars.

    PubMed

    Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Rehan, Sandra M; Anderson, Kirk E

    2013-01-01

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial communities in honey bee larvae. The larval gut is the target of highly pathogenic bacteria and fungi, highlighting the need to understand interactions between typical larval gut flora, nutrition and disease progression. Here we show that the larval gut is colonized by a handful of bacterial groups previously described from guts of adult honey bees or other pollinators. First and second larval instars contained almost exclusively Alpha 2.2, a core Acetobacteraceae, while later instars were dominated by one of two very different Lactobacillus spp., depending on the sampled site. Royal jelly inhibition assays revealed that of seven bacteria occurring in larvae, only one Neisseriaceae and one Lactobacillus sp. were inhibited. We found both core and environmentally vectored bacteria with putatively beneficial functions. Our results suggest that early inoculation by Acetobacteraceae may be important for microbial succession in larvae. This assay is a starting point for more sophisticated in vitro models of nutrition and disease resistance in honey bee larvae.

  7. Whole-genome expression analysis in the third instar larval midgut of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Thomas W R; Pearce, Stephen L; Daborn, Phillip J; Batterham, Philip

    2014-09-05

    Survival of insects on a substrate containing toxic substances such as plant secondary metabolites or insecticides is dependent on the metabolism or excretion of those xenobiotics. The primary sites of xenobiotic metabolism are the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body. In general, gene expression in these organs is reported for the entire tissue by online databases, but several studies have shown that gene expression within the midgut is compartmentalized. Here, RNA sequencing is used to investigate whole-genome expression in subsections of third instar larval midguts of Drosophila melanogaster. The data support functional diversification in subsections of the midgut. Analysis of the expression of gene families that are implicated in the metabolism of xenobiotics suggests that metabolism may not be uniform along the midgut. These data provide a starting point for investigating gene expression and xenobiotic metabolism and other functions of the larval midgut.

  8. Whole-Genome Expression Analysis in the Third Instar Larval Midgut of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, Thomas W. R.; Pearce, Stephen L.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Survival of insects on a substrate containing toxic substances such as plant secondary metabolites or insecticides is dependent on the metabolism or excretion of those xenobiotics. The primary sites of xenobiotic metabolism are the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body. In general, gene expression in these organs is reported for the entire tissue by online databases, but several studies have shown that gene expression within the midgut is compartmentalized. Here, RNA sequencing is used to investigate whole-genome expression in subsections of third instar larval midguts of Drosophila melanogaster. The data support functional diversification in subsections of the midgut. Analysis of the expression of gene families that are implicated in the metabolism of xenobiotics suggests that metabolism may not be uniform along the midgut. These data provide a starting point for investigating gene expression and xenobiotic metabolism and other functions of the larval midgut. PMID:25193493

  9. The circadian timing system in the brain of the fifth larval instar of Rhodnius prolixus (hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Terry, Katherine L; Steel, Colin G H

    2010-04-15

    The brain of larval Rhodnius prolixus releases neurohormones with a circadian rhythm, indicating that a clock system exists in the larval brain. Larvae also possess a circadian locomotor rhythm. The present paper is a detailed analysis of the distribution and axonal projections of circadian clock cells in the brain of the fifth larval instar. Clock cells are identified as neurons that exhibit circadian cycling of both PER and TIM proteins. A group of eight lateral clock neurons (LNs) in the proximal optic lobe also contain pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) throughout their axons, enabling their detailed projections to be traced. LNs project to the accessory medulla and thence laterally toward the compound eye and medially into a massive area of arborizations in the anterior protocerebrum. Fine branches radiate from this area to most of the protocerebrum. A second group of clock cells (dorsal neurons [DNs]), situated in the posterior dorsal protocerebrum, are devoid of PDF. The DNs receive two fine axons from the LNs, indicating that clock cells throughout the brain are integrated into a timing network. Two axons of the LNs cross the midline, presumably coordinating the clock networks of left and right sides. The neuroarchitecture of this timing system is much more elaborate than any previously described for a larval insect and is very similar to those described in adult insects. This is the first report that an insect timing system regulates rhythmicity in both the endocrine system and behavior, implying extensive functional parallels with the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus. PMID:20151359

  10. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  11. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  12. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Marcus J.; Prager, Sean M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  13. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  14. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size.

    PubMed

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  15. An easy field method for estimating the abundance of culicid larval instars.

    PubMed

    Carron, Alexandre; Duchet, Claire; Gaven, Bruno; Lagneau, Christophe

    2003-12-01

    A new method is proposed that avoids manual counting of mosquito larvae in order to estimate larval abundance in the field. This method is based on the visual comparison between abundance, in a standardized sampling tray (called an abacus), with 5 (abacus 5) or 10 (abacus 10) diagrammatically prepared abundance classes. Accuracy under laboratory and field conditions and individual bias have been evaluated and both abaci provide a reliable estimation of abundance in both conditions. There is no individual bias, whether people are familiar or not with its use. They could also be used for a quick estimation of larval treatment effectiveness, for the study of population dynamics and spatial distribution.

  16. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of Plutella xylostella third instar larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416 bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10(-5). Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense.As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  17. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses.

  18. Antibacterial activity inducible in the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by injection of formalin-treated Escherichia coli K-12 during the fifth larval instar and pharate adult development.

    PubMed

    Sumida, M; Ichimori, H; Johchi, S; Takaoka, A; Yuhki, T; Mori, H; Matsubara, F

    1992-01-01

    1. Antibacterial activity inducible in the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by immunization, i.e. by injection of formalin-treated Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12 during the fifth larval instar and pharate adult development that was reared aseptically on an artificial diet was determined by inhibition zone assay using the same bacterium as a test organism. 2. A peak of antibacterial activity was observed in each development stage; approximately 8 mm in diameter of a clear zone at days 3 or 4 in the fifth larval instar and approximately 5 mm at day 1 in the pharate adults. 3. Acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immunized haemolymph followed by overlay assay showed that an activity band was associated with two peptide bands that were similar to the cecropin-like peptides A and B that were reported in the silkworm (Morishima et al., 1988, Agri. Biol. Chem. 52, 929-934). Any other activity bands were not observed. No activity band was detectable from the haemolymph of non-immunized insects. 4. Fractionation of antibacterial peptides in immunized haemolymph on a CM-cellulose column resulted in separation of two groups of activity, both in the fifth instar larvae and in the pharate adults with a slight difference in elution conditions. 5. Duration of high antibacterial activity induced by a single immunization was approximately 12 hr in the fifth instar day 3 larvae and 48 hr in the day 2 pharate adults.

  19. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize. PMID:24874160

  20. Divergence of larval resource acquisition for water conservation and starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Ravi; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal; Ranga, Poonam; Singh, Divya

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory selection experiments have evidenced storage of energy metabolites in adult flies of desiccation and starvation resistant strains of D. melanogaster but resource acquisition during larval stages has received lesser attention. For wild populations of D. melanogaster, it is not clear whether larvae acquire similar or different energy metabolites for desiccation and starvation resistance. We tested the hypothesis whether larval acquisition of energy metabolites is consistent with divergence of desiccation and starvation resistance in darker and lighter isofemale lines of D. melanogaster. Our results are interesting in several respects. First, we found contrasting patterns of larval resource acquisition, i.e., accumulation of higher carbohydrates during 3rd instar larval stage of darker flies versus higher levels of triglycerides in 1st and 2nd larval instars of lighter flies. Second, 3rd instar larvae of darker flies showed ~40 h longer duration of development at 21°C; and greater accumulation of carbohydrates (trehalose and glycogen) in fed larvae as compared with larvae non-fed after 150 h of egg laying. Third, darker isofemale lines have shown significant increase in total water content (18%); hemolymph (86%) and dehydration tolerance (11%) as compared to lighter isofemale lines. Loss of hemolymph water under desiccation stress until death was significantly higher in darker as compared to lighter isofemale lines but tissue water loss was similar. Fourth, for larvae of darker flies, about 65% energy content is contributed by carbohydrates for conferring greater desiccation resistance while the larvae of lighter flies acquire 2/3 energy from lipids for sustaining starvation resistance; and such energy differences persist in the newly eclosed flies. Thus, larval stages of wild-caught darker and lighter flies have evolved independent physiological processes for the accumulation of energy metabolites to cope with desiccation or starvation stress.

  1. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  2. Variability in development of the striped rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), due to instar number and last instar duration

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jing; Yang, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important insect pest of rice which shows substantial variation in developmental duration among individuals. This variation is currently poorly characterized but it is important from a control perspective because pesticides can only target early sensitive instars. It is unclear whether there are key stages that determine the length of developmental duration of individuals and/or whether variation in instar number contributes to this variation. In this study, a laboratory population and a population recently established from the field were used to test variation in development time across instar stages. The duration of developmental time of C. suppressalis started to diverge from the 5th instar onward. Individuals pupated at the 5th, 6th, 7th or even 8th instar stage. In both populations, both the instar at which the larva pupated and the duration of the last larval instar stage determined total developmental time of an individual. There was little impact of the developmental time of early instars on total developmental duration or on instar number prior to pupation. Sex influenced the number of instars but not development time within this number. The biological and applied significance of uneven development in C. suppressalis are discussed. PMID:27731388

  3. Structures IVHM for 3rd Generation RLVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of a Structures Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system for 3rd generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) is to provide near 100% structural sensing coverage and thus eliminate both routine, and especially unplanned, inspections which are costly and time consuming. To meet this goal, significant advances in sensing and measurement system technology, data systems architectures, and structures based analysis methodology will be required to enable the needed large numbers of sensors with little weight penalty. This program will leverage X-33, 2nd Gen RLV, Shuttle, and Aviation Safety SIVHM system development experience to address this goal.

  4. Timing and ecdysteroid regulation of the molt in last instar greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Gelman, D B.; Blackburn, M B.; Hu, J S.

    2002-01-01

    A system of markers has been devised to track the development of 3rd and 4th instar/pharate adult greenhouse whiteflies. Instars were identified based on measurements of body width and body length. Depending upon the host plant, the product of the two measurements was exceptionally useful in distinguishing between instars. Body depth was used to divide the 3rd instar into eight stages and body depth and color and appearance of the developing adult eye were used to divide the 4th instar/pharate adult into nine stages. Under conditions of L:D 16:8 and a temperature of 26+/-2 degrees C, the body depth of 3rd instars reared on greenbean increased from 0.025 (stage 1) to 0.2mm (stage 8) and the instar duration was approximately 3 days. The body depth of 4th instars increased from approximately 0.1+/-0.02 (Stage 1) to 0.3+/-0.03mm (Stage 5) and then remained constant or decreased slightly during adult development. Ecdysteroid titers peaked at approximately 120fg/&mgr;g protein during Stages 3 through 6 of the 4th instar. Based on an external examination of developing 4th instars and the fluctuations in ecdysteroid titer, it appears that adult development is initiated in Stage 4 or 5 4th instars. Results from histological studies support this view. In Stage 4 nymphs, a subtle change was observed in the corneagenous cells of the eye. However, most Stage 4 4th instars possessed wing development characteristic of earlier, immature stages. In all Stage 5 insects, wing development had been initiated and the corneagenous cells had become quite distinct. In Stage 6 whiteflies, the wing buds were deeply folded and by Stage 7, spines were observed on the new cuticle, indicating that the adult cuticle was well-formed by this stage. Our study is the first to investigate the timing and regulation of the molt, to monitor ecdysteroid titers in precisely staged 4th instar whiteflies and to examine the internal anatomical changes associated with metamorphosis in these tiny homopteran

  5. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.

    1996-08-01

    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs.

  6. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  7. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  8. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (CIMMEC2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    From October 14th to 16th 2014, The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality, and Technology (Inmetro) and the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) organized the 3rd International Congress on Mechanical Metrology (3rd CIMMEC). The 3rd CIMMEC was held in the city of Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Anticipating the interest and enthusiasm of the technical-scientific community, the Organizing Institutions invite people and organizations to participate in this important congress, reiterating the commitment to organize an event according to highest international standards. This event has been conceived to integrate people and organizations from Brazil and abroad in the discussion of advanced themes in metrology. Manufacturers and dealers of measuring equipment and standards, as well as of auxiliary accessories and bibliographic material, had the chance to promote their products and services in stands at the Fair, which has taken place alongside the Congress. The 3rd CIMMEC consisted of five Keynote Speeches and 116 regular papers. Among the regular papers, the 25 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Mechanical Metrology, were selected to be published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series to the scientific community to promote further research in Mechanical Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by CIMMEC 2014.

  10. The Ups and Downs of 3rd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Kelsey Augst; Akos, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 2nd to 3rd grade has received little notice in education research--yet the authors' experience in elementary school counseling convinced them that most students undergo a seismic shift during this period. Third grade is not only the first year students will encounter standardized end-of-grade tests, but also a year in which…

  11. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... 3rd ACR at Fort Hood is being selected because the unit will have maximum time to convert and train... required for an SBCT, and has adequate maneuver space to accommodate SBCT training. The 3rd ACR will...

  12. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  13. The 3rd Annual Controlled Structures Technology Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of presentations at the Controlled Structures Technology (CST) MIT Space Engineering Research Center 3rd Annual Symposium are included. Topics covered include optical interferometer testbed; active impedence matching of complex structural systems; application of CST to adaptive optics; middeck 0-G dynamics Experiment (MODE); inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems; the middeck active control experiment (MACE); robust control for uncertain structures; cost averaging techniques for robust structural control; and intelligent structures technology.

  14. Thermal summation model and instar determination of all developmental stages of necrophagous beetle, Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Necrophagous beetles are underrepresented in forensic entomology studies despite their undeniable utility for the field. In the present article, information is presented regarding the developmental biology and instar determination of Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence, 1813), a very common species occurring across the Holarctic region. Wild collected beetles were kept in climate chambers at constant temperature (12, 15, 18, 21 and 28 °C) and their development was regularly documented. Parameters of thermal summation models and standard errors were calculated for each developmental stage. These models may be used for an estimation of post-mortem interval in legal investigations after further validation on local populations of S. watsoni. An additional methodology is introduced for future studies of size-based characteristics, addressing instar identification bias. The methodology provided estimations (mean, standard error and standard deviation) of S. watsoni larval head capsule width for preliminary larval instar determination. The methodology may be used with other morphological features to improve instar determination accuracy. PMID:27123379

  15. Precipitation Model Validation in 3rd Generation Aeroturbine Disc Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, G. B.; Jou, H.-J.; Jung, J.; Sebastian, J. T.; Misra, A.; Locci, I.; Hull, D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of application of the DARPA-AIM methodology to the accelerated hybrid thermal process optimization of 3rd generation aeroturbine disc alloys with quantified uncertainty, equilibrium and diffusion couple experiments have identified available fundamental thermodynamic and mobility databases of sufficient accuracy. Using coherent interfacial energies quantified by Single-Sensor DTA nucleation undercooling measurements, PrecipiCalc(TM) simulations of nonisothermal precipitation in both supersolvus and subsolvus treated samples show good agreement with measured gamma particle sizes and compositions. Observed longterm isothermal coarsening behavior defines requirements for further refinement of elastic misfit energy and treatment of the parallel evolution of incoherent precipitation at grain boundaries.

  16. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  17. Designing a 3rd generation, authenticatable attribute measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan; Karpius, Peter; Santi, Peter; Smith, Morag; Vo, Duc; Williams, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Attribute measurement systems (AMS) are designed to measure potentially sensitive items containing Special Nuclear Materials to determine if the items possess attributes which fall within an agreed-upon range. Such systems could be used in a treaty to inspect and verify the identity of items in storage without revealing any sensitive information associated with the item. An AMS needs to satisfy two constraints: the host party needs to be sure that none of their sensitive information is released, while the inspecting party wants to have confidence that the limited amount of information they see accurately reflects the properties of the item being measured. The former involves 'certifying' the system and the latter 'authenticating' it. Previous work into designing and building AMS systems have focused more on the questions of certifiability than on the questions of authentication - although a few approaches have been investigated. The next step is to build a 3rd generation AMS which (1) makes the appropriate measurements, (2) can be certified, and (3) can be authenticated (the three generations). This paper will discuss the ideas, options, and process of producing a design for a 3rd generation AMS.

  18. The development of 3rd generation IR detectors at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, J.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, M.; Schallenberg, T.; Scheibner, R.; Wendler, J.; Wenisch, J.; Wollrab, R.; Daumer, V.; Rehm, R.; Rutz, F.; Walther, M.

    2011-06-01

    3rd generation IR modules - dual-color (DC), dual-band (DB), and large format two-dimensional arrays - require sophisticated production technologies such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as new array processing techniques, which can satisfy the rising demand for increasingly complex device structures and low cost detectors. AIM will extend its future portfolio by high performance devices which make use of these techniques. The DC MW / MW detectors are based on antimonide type-II superlattices (produced by MBE at Fraunhofer IAF, Freiburg) in the 384x288 format with a 40 μm pitch. For AIM, the technology of choice for MW / LW DB FPAs is MCT MBE on CdZnTe substrates, which has been developed in cooperation with IAF, Freiburg. 640x512, 20 μm pitch Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) have been processed at AIM. The growth of MW MCT MBE layers on alternate substrates is challenging, but essential for competitive fabrication of large two-dimensional arrays such as megapixel (MW 1280x1024, 15 μm pitch) FPAs. This paper will present the development status and latest results of the above-mentioned 3rd Gen FPAs and Integrated Detector Cooler Assemblies (IDCAs).

  19. 3rd grade English language learners making sense of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Enrique; Otero, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive body of research that supports scientific inquiry and argumentation as cornerstones of physics learning, these strategies continue to be virtually absent in most classrooms, especially those that involve students who are learning English as a second language. This study presents results from an investigation of 3rd grade students' discourse about how length and tension affect the sound produced by a string. These students came from a variety of language backgrounds, and all were learning English as a second language. Our results demonstrate varying levels, and uses, of experiential, imaginative, and mechanistic reasoning strategies. Using specific examples from students' discourse, we will demonstrate some of the productive aspects of working within multiple language frameworks for making sense of physics. Conjectures will be made about how to utilize physics as a context for English Language Learners to further conceptual understanding, while developing their competence in the English language.

  20. 3rd annual symposium of chemical and pharmaceutical structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Naidong; Zheng, Jenny; Lee, Mike

    2012-08-01

    The 3rd Annual Symposium on Chemical and Pharmaceutical Structure Analysis was once again held in Shanghai, where a rich history of 'East meets West' continued. This meeting is dedicated to bringing together scientists from pharmaceutical companies, academic institutes, CROs and instrument vendors to discuss current challenges and opportunities on the forefront of pharmaceutical research and development. The diversified symposia and roundtables are highly interactive events where scientists share their experiences and visions in a collegial setting. The symposium highlighted speakers and sessions that provided first-hand experiences as well as the latest guidance and industrial/regulatory thinking, which was reflected by the theme of this year's meeting 'From Bench to Decision Making - from Basics to Application.' In addition to the highly successful Young Scientist Excellence Award, new events were featured at this year's meeting, such as the Executive Roundtable and the inaugural Innovator Award.

  1. Results from the UK 3rd generation programme: Albion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. K.; Axcell, C.; Knowles, P.; Hoade, K. P.; Wilson, M.; Dennis, P. N. J.; Backhouse, P.; Gordon, N. T.

    2008-10-01

    Following the development of 1st Generation systems in the 1970s, thermal imaging has been in service with the UK armed forces for over 25 years and has proven itself to be a battle winning technology. More recently the wider accessibility to similar technologies within opposing forces has reduced the military advantage provided by these 1st Generation systems and a clear requirement has been identified by the UK MOD for thermal imaging sensors providing increased detection, recognition and identification (DRI) ranges together with a simplified logistical deployment burden and reduced through-life costs. In late 2005, the UK MOD initiated a programme known as "Albion" to develop high performance 3rd Generation single waveband infrared detectors to meet this requirement. At the same time, under a separate programme supporting higher risk technology, a dual waveband infrared detector was also developed. The development phase of the Albion programme has now been completed and prototype detectors are now available and have been integrated into demonstration thermal imaging cameras. The Albion programme has now progressed into the second phase, incorporating both single and dual waveband devices, focussing on low rate initial production (LRIP) and qualification of the devices for military applications. All of the detectors have been fabricated using cadmium mercury telluride material (CMT), grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on low cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrates and bump bonded to the silicon read out circuit (ROIC). This paper discusses the design features of the 3rd Generation detectors developed in the UK together with the results obtained from the prototype devices both in the laboratory and when integrated into field deployable thermal imaging cameras.

  2. Analysis of growth and development in the final instar of three species of predatory Coccinellidae under varying prey availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insects like aphidophagous lady beetles, whose preferred food naturally varies in space and time, variation in adult body size is most likely a reflection of food acquired and allocated to growth by the final larval instar. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the nature of variation in ...

  3. Beyond 3rd generation MCT: SXGA QWIP (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Stewart; Skivington, Tracey; Craig, Robert; Haining, Andrew; Costard, Eric; Belhaire, Eric; Bois, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    Successful past experience of implementing long wave MCT 1st and 2nd Generation thermal imagers has demonstrated to THALES Optronics that MCT presents difficult challenges when correcting non-uniformity errors caused by rapidly changing detector element gain and offset drifts. These problems become even more demanding when the move is made from long linear arrays to focal plane arrays due to the significantly larger number of detector elements. Relaxation of these demands would make a significant impact on the price/performance trade which inevitably occurs in a camera development. In recognition of the need to offer UK MOD best value, THALES Optronics has initiated a programme to achieve a SXGA resolution camera and is working with UK MOD, over a two year period, to investigate whether an alternative technology can maintain the high resolution required whilst achieving a downward step change in price. The selected technology is 3rd Generation Gallium Arsenide long wave Quantum Well Infra-red Photodiode (QWIP) chosen because initial indications are that drift rates are orders of magnitude slower than MCT. The programme involves studies to determine effects of defect clusters, bimodalism, non-uniformity correction levels and higher than normal operating temperatures on achieving acceptable performance, including logistics, in user scenarios whilst maximising detector yield. Development of demonstrator IR camera hardware (technology readiness level 6/7) based on a THALES Research & Technology QWIP array is also part of the programme.

  4. Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

    1997-09-01

    The LBNL 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. This new ECR ion source will combine the recent ECR ion source techniques that significantly enhance the production of high charge state ions. The design includes a plasma chamber made from aluminum to provide additional cold electrons, three separate microwave feeds to allow multiple-frequency plasma heating (at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz) and very high magnetic mirror fields. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype superconducting magnet structure which consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole has been tested in a vertical dewar. After training, the sextupole magnet reached 105% of its design current with the solenoids off. With the solenoids operating at approximately 70% of their full design field, the sextuple coils operated at 95% of the design value which corresponds to a sextupole field strength at the plasma wall of more than 2.1 T.

  5. Immune Defense Varies within an Instar in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kimberly; Cambron, Lizzette; Fisher, Nathan; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2015-01-01

    Research on how insect immunity changes with age as insects develop within an instar, or larval developmental stage, is limited and contradictory. Insects within an instar are preparing for the next developmental stage, which may involve changes in morphology or habitat. Immunity may also vary accordingly. To determine how immunity varies in the fifth instar, we tested humoral immune responses, antimicrobial peptide activity, and phenoloxidase activity using the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We determined that while M. sexta have more robust antimicrobial peptide and phenoloxidase responses at the beginning of their fifth instar, this did not translate into better survival of bacterial infection or lower bacterial load in the hemolymph. We also determined that M. sexta injected with bacteria early in the fifth instar experience lower growth rates and longer development times than caterpillars of the same age injected with sham. This could indicate a shift in energy allocation from growth and development to metabolically costly immune responses. Because of the importance of insects as pests and pollinators, understanding how immunity varies throughout development is critical. PMID:25730277

  6. 80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. GENERAL VIEW TO NORTH ON 3RD AVENUE EL AT GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EL EXPRESS IS VISIBLE ABOVE THE 3RD AVENUE EL WHICH JOINED ONTO THE SAME STRUCTURE AT GUN HILL ROAD. NOTE: GUN HILL ROAD IS THE NORTH TERMINUS OF THE 3RD AVENUE ELEVATED. TRAINS DID NOT CARRY PASSENGERS BEYOND THIS POINT, ALTHOUGH THE 3RD AVENUE TRACK DID EXTEND FURTHER NORTH FOR SWITCHING PURPOSES AND INTO THE YARDS. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  7. Design of the 3rd generation ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.; Xie, Z.Q.; Taylor, C.E.

    1997-02-01

    Development of the 3rd Generation ECR ion source has progressed from a concept described in the last ECR Ion Source Workshop to the fabrication of a full scale prototype superconducting magnet structure. The prototype consists of three solenoid coils and six race track coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The design calls for mirror fields of 4 T at injection and 3 T at extraction and for a radial field strength at the wall of 2.4 T. The prototype magnet will be tested this spring in an existing vertical cryostat to determine its operating characteristics including maximum operating values, training characteristics and to study the interaction between the solenoid and sextupole coils. Design of the ECR plasma chamber includes aluminum walls to provide an enhanced source of cold electrons, up to three separate microwave feeds to allow simultaneous heating of the plasma electrons at 10, 14 and 18 GHz or at 6, 10 and 14 GHz. Water cooling of the plasma chamber walls and the injection and extraction plates is planned so that up to 10 kW of microwave power can be used without excessive heating of the chamber components. Experience with the AECR-U at LBNL shows that increasing the magnetic fields and using two frequency heating allows operation at lower neutral pressures and higher microwave power density. Both of these conditions are needed to produce very high charge states from elements with masses greater than xenon and the resulting higher energy, more intense heavy beams from the 88-Inch Cyclotron would provide new research opportunities.

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M. L.; Dolganova, I. N.; Gevorgyan, N.; Guzman, A.; Papoyan, A.; Sarkisyan, H.; Yurchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The SPIE.FOCUS Armenia: 3rd International Symposium ''Optics and its Applications'' (OPTICS-2015) http://rau.am/optics2015/ was held in Yerevan, Armenia, in the period October 1 - 5, 2015. The symposium was organized by the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), the Armenian SPIE student chapter with collaboration of the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-PYRKAL, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the SPIE & OSA student chapters of BMSTU, the Armenian OSA student chapter, and the SPIE student chapters of Lund University and Wroclaw University of Technology. The symposium OPTICS-2015 was dedicated to the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies. OPTICS-2015 was devoted to modern topics and optical technologies such as: optical properties of nanostructures, silicon photonics, quantum optics, singular optics & its applications, laser spectroscopy, strong field optics, biomedical optics, nonlinear & ultrafast optics, photonics & fiber optics, and mathematical methods in optics. OPTICS-2015 was attended by 100 scientists and students representing 17 countries: Armenia, China, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Ukraine, and USA. Such a broad international community confirmed the important mission of science to be a uniting force between different countries, religions, and nations. We hope that OPTICS-2015 inspired and motivated students and young scientists to work in optics and in science in general. The present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes proceedings of the symposium covering various aspects of modern problems in optics. We are grateful to all people who were involved in the organization process. We gratefully acknowledge support from

  9. Suitability of morphological parameters for instar determination of pestiferous midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes (Diptera: Chironomidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Ali, Arshad; Lobinske, Richard J

    2002-09-01

    The midges Chironomus crassicaudatus and Glyptotendipes paripes were reared in the laboratory on artificial food under constant temperature (30 degrees C) and a 14:10 h light: dark photoperiod for 31 days, from eggs laid by field-collected females. Sequential samples of developing immature stages were taken and measured. Eggs were on average 254 microm long and 102 microm wide at the widest point for C. crassicaudatus and 286 microm long and 113 microm wide at the widest point for G. paripes. Mean larval lengths ranged from 0.9 mm after hatching to 16.3 mm before pupation in C. crassicaudatus and from 0.8 mm after hatching to 9.7 mm before pupation in G. paripes. Mean length of pupae was 8.7 mm and 8.3 mm in C. crassicaudatus and G. paripes, respectively. Four morphometric head parameters (length, width, mentum width, and cephalolabial length) were tested for differentiation of larval instars. All parameters revealed 4 larval instars in both species, with head capsule width apparently the most sensitive indicator for instar differentiation. The cephalolabial length was the most sensitive indicator of sex differentiation in last instar. All investigated morphological parameters of head capsule of both species followed Dyar's law. PMID:12322946

  10. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  11. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  12. PREFACE: 3rd International Congress on Ceramics (ICC3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihara, Koichi; Ohji, Tatsuki; Sakka, Yoshio

    2011-10-01

    Early in 2005, the American Ceramic Society, the European Ceramic Society and the Ceramic Society of Japan announced a collaborative effort to provide leadership for the global ceramics community that would facilitate the use of ceramic and glass materials. That effort resulted in an agreement to organize a new biennial series of the International Congress on Ceramics, convened by the International Ceramic Federation (ICF). In order to share ideas and visions of the future for ceramic and glass materials, the 1st International Congress on Ceramics (ICC1) was held in Canada, 2006, under the organization of the American Ceramic Society, and the 2nd Congress (ICC2) was held in Italy, 2008, hosted by the European Ceramic Society. Organized by the Ceramic Society of Japan, the 3rd Congress (ICC3) was held in Osaka, Japan, 14-18 November 2010. Incorporating the 23rd Fall Meeting of the Ceramic Society of Japan and the 20th Iketani Conference, ICC3 was also co-organized by the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation, and was endorsed and supported by ICF, Asia-Oceania Ceramic Federation (AOCF) as well as many other organizations. Following the style of the previous two successful Congresses, the program was designed to advance ceramic and glass technologies to the next generation through discussion of the most recent advances and future perspectives, and to engage the worldwide ceramics community in a collective effort to expand the use of these materials in both conventional as well as new and exciting applications. ICC3 consisted of 22 voluntarily organized symposia in the most topical and essential themes of ceramic and glass materials, including Characterization, design and processing technologies Electro, magnetic and optical ceramics and devices Energy and environment related ceramics and systems Bio-ceramics and bio-technologies Ceramics for advanced industry and safety society Innovation in traditional ceramics It also contained the Plenary Session and the

  13. Phenoloxidase and its zymogen are required for the larval-pupal transition in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ping-Ping; Xie, Yi-Fei; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Phenoloxidases (POs) play a key role in melanin production, are involved in invertebrate immune mechanisms, and are considered important enzymes in the insect development process. In the present study, we report the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns of BdPPO1 and PO activity from Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that the activity of PO and its zymogen expression were closely related to the development of B. dorsalis during the larval-pupal transition, particularly in the integument. Additionally, biochemical characterization showed that PO from different developmental stages and tissues all had maximum activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C. After feeding a metal ion-containing artificial diet, the activity of PO and expression of BdPPO1 were significantly increased, indicating that PO was a metalloprotein and it could be activated by Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cu2+. The functional analysis showed that the expression of BdPPO1 could be regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) after injection. Furthermore, injection of the double-stranded RNA of BdPPO1 into the 3rd instar larvae significantly reduced mRNA levels after 24 h and 48 h, and resulted in a lower pupation rate and abnormal phenotype. These results expand the understanding of the important role of PO and its zymogen in the growth of B. dorsalis. PMID:25450426

  14. 1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE AND ENTRY, FROM ACROSS 3RD STREET, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. The outcomes of therapeutic decision in lower 3rd rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsin; Wei, Po-Li; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Lin, En-Kwang; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Lu, Yen-Jung; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the outcomes of the selective neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in lower 3rd rectal cancer patients in different groups (with or without neoadjuvant CCRT), especially in survival rate, local recurrence rate, and sphincter preservation rate.From January 1999 to December 2012, 69 consecutive patients who had histologically proven adenocarcinoma of lower 3rd rectum, defined preoperatively as lower tumor margin within 7 cm from the anal verge as measured by rigid sigmoidoscopy, received total mesorectum excision (TME). Our inclusion criteria of neoadjuvant CCRT are lower 3rd rectal cancer, stage II/III, and large (diameter >5 cm or >1/2 of circumference). Neoadjuvant concurrent CCRT had begun to apply lower 3rd rectal cancer patients or not. The radiation techniques of neoadjuvant CCRT for lower 3rd rectal cancer patients were all conventional fraction intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy.Five-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, and local recurrence rate for lower 3rd rectal cancer patients in group I were 51%, 45%, and 25%, respectively. On the contrary, 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, and local recurrence rate for lower rectal cancer patients in group II were 70%, 70%, and 3%, respectively. The 5-year sphincter sparing rate was increased from 38.2% to 100% after the beginning of neoadjuvant CCRT. Analyzing local recurrence, overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and sphincter sparing rate in group II were statistically significant superior to group I.Five-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, and sphincter sparing rate for lower 3rd rectal cancer patients were improved after the addition of neoadjuvant CCRT. No unacceptable toxicity was noted after conventional fraction IMRT and concurrent fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy. Our study showed neoadjuvant CCRT could be valuable for lower 3rd rectal cancer patients

  16. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  17. Description of the second- and third-instar larva of South African Stenomastigus longicornis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Kilian, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The second- and third-instar larvae of the South African species of Mastigini, Stenomastigus longicornis, are described. The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures and differences between larval instars are discussed. The larva of Stenomastigus is very similar to that of Palaeostigus, but differences in proportions of body parts, number of setae on the head, thorax and abdomen and possibly also the shape of the antennal sensory appendage can be used to distinguish them. A frontal impression surrounded by modified setae with greatly enlarged surface, presumably functioning as a glandular evaporation apparatus, and the antennomere II subdivided into three sections, are suggested as synapomorphies of Mastigini; within Mastigitae this tribe is also unique in lacking the urogomphs, which are present in larvae of Leptomastacini and Clidicini. Geniculate and slender antennae with a strongly oblique distal margin of antennomere II are a putative larval synapomorphy of Mastigitae. PMID:27615878

  18. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  19. Classification of forensically-relevant larvae according to instar in a closely related species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Carrion beetle larvae of Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius, 1775), and Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Silphidae: Silphinae) were studied to test the concept that a classifier of the subfamily level may be successfully used to classify larvae according to instar. Classifiers were created and validated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA generates classification functions which are used to calculate classification values for tested specimens. The largest value indicates the larval instar to which the specimen should be assigned. Distance between dorsal stemmata and width of the pronotum were used as classification features. The classifier correctly classified larvae of N. littoralis and O. thoracicum, whereas in the case of T. sinuatus and T. rugosus a few misclassifications were recorded. For this reason, a separate genus level classifier was created for larvae of Thanatophilus. We conclude that larval instar classifiers of the subfamily or genus level have very high classification accuracy and therefore they may be safely used to classify carrion beetle larvae according to instar in forensic practice. PMID:27071758

  20. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 3rd international standard for neomycin.

    PubMed

    Rautmann, G; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the World Health Organization (WHO) 3(rd) International Standard (IS) for neomycin. Ten laboratories from different countries participated in the collaborative study. The potency of the candidate material, a freeze-dried preparation, was estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 2(nd) IS for neomycin was used as a standard. Based on the results of the study, the 3(rd) IS for neomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2012 with an assigned potency of 19,050 IU per vial. The 3(rd) IS for neomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  1. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction.

  2. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  3. Development of the larval ovary in the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Beckemeyer, E F; Shirk, P D

    2004-11-01

    The morphogenesis of ovaries and the organization of germ cells within them were visualized during the larval stages of the moth, Plodia interpunctella. The germ cells were observed by utilizing confocal microscopy coupled with immuno-fluorescent staining for the alpha-crystallin protein 25 (alphaCP25). The alphaCP25 was previously shown to be specific to germ cells of pupae and adults, and this study shows that alphaCP25 is present in larval germ cells as well. A cluster of 28 germ cells that stain for alphaCP25 was found in the gonads of newly hatched first instar larvae. The founding germ cells became segregated into four clusters, most likely by somatic cell intrusion, around the beginning of the second instar. Division of the primary germ cells began by the end of the second instar and the formation of all cystoblasts appeared to be completed within the four ovarioles by the end of the third instar. Within the ovarioles of third instar larvae, the germ cells were organized with a distal cap of seven germ cells which was segregated from the majority of the germ cells. The main body of germ cells was arranged around a central germ cell-free core as a spiral. Divisions of the cystoblasts to form cystocyte clusters were nearly completed during the fourth (last) larval instar. These features suggest that the strategy to produce follicles in moths is fundamentally different from the fruitfly, Drosophila. It appears that during the initial stages of ovary development in P. interpunctella, the primary germ cells undergo stage-complete divisions that are completed prior to the onset of the next set of divisions, which results in a complete complement of follicles available by the time of adult eclosion, while in Drosophila the primary germ cell divisions are initiated in the adult stage, and follicles are produced individually as resources are available.

  4. 16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVEROLL TOILET SOAP MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 3RD FLOOR, J.M. LEHMANN CO. FIVE-ROLL TOILET SOAP MILL INSTALLED 1950, TO WEST; BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM 2ND FLOOR SOAP PRESSES TO 5TH FLOOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a...

  6. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: results of the 3rd ECCO pathogenesis scientific workshop (I).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Shaji; Hernández, Vincent; Myrelid, Pär; Kariv, Revital; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Toruner, Murat; Marti-Gallostra, Marc; Spinelli, Antonino; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Yuksel, Elif Sarıtas; Gasche, Christoph; Ardizzone, Sandro; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an increased risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A detailed literature review was conducted on epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, chemoprevention and outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) in IBD as part of the 3rd ECCO scientific pathogenesis workshop.

  7. PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? Policy to Action Brief. No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    2009-01-01

    In an era of intense fiscal pressures, educators are focusing on those investments most likely to lift student achievement. They are also trying to make more strategic use of existing resources. To achieve these goals, a growing number of policymakers are considering integrated PreK-3rd approaches. Increasingly, they are recognizing that the first…

  8. Evaluation of the "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liller, Karen D.; Perrin, Karen; Nearns, Jodi; Pesce, Karen; Crane, Nancy B.; Gonzalez, Robin R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MORE HEALTH "Respect Not Risk" Firearm Safety Lesson for 3rd-graders in Pinellas County, Florida. Six schools representative of various socioeconomic levels were selected as the test sites. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. A total of 433 matched pretests/posttests were used to…

  9. Prediction of High School Dropout or Graduation from 3rd Grade Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

    Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and tested achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of 3rd graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts or graduates. Results showed that as early as five to eight years before leaving school, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, tested…

  10. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  11. The Effect of Book Blogging on the Motivation of 3rd-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Kristen N.; Legutko, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    A Web 2.0 technology was implemented during reading instruction in one 3rd-grade classroom in suburban southeastern Pennsylvania. Trained preservice teachers provided feedback to students via the World Wide Web to enhance their performance and social connections. Motivation scores were measured before and after the intervention was implemented. A…

  12. Larval susceptibility of an insecticide-resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population to soil insecticides: laboratory bioassays, assays of detoxification enzymes, and field performance.

    PubMed

    Wright, R J; Scharf, M E; Meinke, L J; Zhou, X; Siegfried, B D; Chandler, L D

    2000-02-01

    Soil insecticides were evaluated in laboratory and field studies against larvae of an insecticide resistant population (Phelps County, NE) of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Insecticide toxicity was evaluated by topical application of technical insecticides to 3rd instars from Saunders County, NE (susceptible) and Phelps County populations. Resistance ratios (LD50 Phelps County/LD50 Saunders County) for the insecticides methyl parathion, tefluthrin, carbofuran, terbufos, and chlorpyrifos were 28.0, 9.3, 8.7, 2.6 and 1.3, respectively. Biochemical investigation of suspected enzymatic resistance mechanisms in 3rd instars identified significant elevation of esterase activity (alpha and beta naphthyl acetate hydrolysis [3.8- and 3.9-fold]). Examination of 3rd instar esterases by native PAGE identified increased intensity of several isoenzymes in the resistant population. Assays of cytochrome P450 activity (4-CNMA demethylation and aldrin epoxidation) did not identify elevated activity in resistant 3rd instars. Granular soil insecticides were applied at planting to corn, Zea mays L., in replicated field trials in 1997 and 1998 at the same Phelps County site as the source of resistant rootworms for the laboratory studies. In 1997, planting time applications of Counter 20CR, Counter 15 G (terbufos), and Lorsban 15 G (chlorpyrifos) resulted in the lowest root injury ratings (1-6 Iowa scale); 2.50, 2.55, 2.65, respectively (untreated check root rating of 4.55). In 1998, all insecticides performed similarly against a lower rootworm density (untreated check root rating of 3.72). These studies suggest that resistance previously documented in adults also is present in 3rd instars, esterases are possibly involved as resistance mechanisms, and resistance to methyl parathion in adults is also evident in larvae, but does not confer cross-resistance in larvae to all organophosphate insecticides.

  13. Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. Educator's Practice Guide. NCEE 2016-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…

  14. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J.; Leming, Matthew T.; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. PMID:25750414

  15. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe.

  16. 3rd Workshop on Semantic Ambient Media Experience (SAME) - In Conjunction with AmI-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur; Stockleben, Bjoern; Kaario, Juha; Pogorelc, Bogdan; Risse, Thomas

    The SAME workshop takes place for the 3rd time in 2010, and it's theme in this year was creating the business value-creation, vision, media theories and technology for ambient media. SAME differs from other workshops due to its interactive and creative touch and going beyond simple powerpoint presentations. Several results will be published by AMEA - the AMbient Media Association (www.ambientmediaassociation.org.

  17. Higher order modes of a 3rd harmonic cavity with an increased end-cup iris

    SciTech Connect

    T. Khabibouline; N. Solyak; R. Wanzenberg

    2003-05-19

    The cavity design for a 3rd harmonic cavity for the TTF 2 photoinjector has been revised to increase the coupling between the main coupler and the cavity cells. The iris radius of the end cup of the cavity has been increased to accomplish a better coupling. The basic rf-parameters and the higher order modes of the modified design are summarized in this report.

  18. Insights from the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, D.; Goodlet, B.; Weaver, J.; Spanos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) was a forum for presenting the "state-of-the-art" in the ICME discipline, as well as for charting a path for future community efforts. The event concluded with in an interactive panel-led discussion that addressed such topics as integrating efforts between experimental and computational scientists, uncertainty quantification, and identifying the greatest challenges for future workforce preparation. This article is a summary of this discussion and the thoughts presented.

  19. 13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of 1920 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, 3RD FLOOR BALCONY AND FIRE ESCAPES, including plans for skylight and North Elevation. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast negative of an enlargement made from microfiche. Original is in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  1. Using Photographs to Probe Students' Understanding of Physical Concepts: The Case of Newton's 3rd Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-08-01

    The starting point of the present research is the following question: since we live in an age that makes increasing use of visual representations of all sorts, is not the visual representation a learner constructs a window into his/her understanding of what is or is not being learned? Following this direction of inquiry, the present preliminary study introduces and evaluates a novel technique for pinpointing learners’ misconceptions, namely, one that has learners create and interpret their own photographs (CIP). 27 high-school students and 26 pre-service teacher trainees were asked to assume the role of textbook designers and create a display—photograph plus attached verbal explanation—which, in their opinion, best depicted Newton’s 3rd law. Subsequent analysis of the participants’ photographs yielded the following six misconception categories: 3rd law not depicted; 3rd law depicts a sequence of events; tendency to introduce irrelevant entities in explanations; the word ‘reaction’ used colloquially; tendency to restrict the application of the third law to dynamic situations; and informal explanations in which the word “force” is absent. The findings indicate that, indeed, the CIP method can be effectively employed to elicit, detect, and investigate learners’ misconceptions. The CIP method joins the growing efforts to utilize the yet relatively untapped potential of visual tools for science education purposes.

  2. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  3. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study.

  4. Microbial gut diversity of Africanized and European honey bee larval instars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first step in understanding gut microbial ecology is determining the presence and potential niche breadth of associated microbes. While the core gut bacteria of adult honey bees is becoming increasingly apparent, there is very little and inconsistent information concerning symbiotic bacterial co...

  5. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  6. [Modern surgical treatment of breast cancer. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Bursics, Attila; Farsang, Zoltán; Harsányi, László; Kósa, Csaba; Maráz, Róbert; Mátrai, Zoltán; Paszt, Attila; Pavlovics, Gábor; Tamás, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Therapy for breast cancer today is characterised by ever more precise diagnostic methods and ever more effective oncological treatments, a trend which will certainly continue into the future. Breast preservation and the application of oncoplastic principles are increasingly popular. A sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of the axilla is primary, with the indication for axillary block dissection (ABD) narrowing and radiation therapy becoming an alternative to ABD in certain cases. This publication summarises our recommendations on the surgical treatment of breast cancer based on the content of the 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Conference and considering the latest international studies and professional recommendations. PMID:27644928

  7. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10–12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  8. NURSING EMERGING. ANA Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, (2015) 3rd Edition.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    AHNA Past-President Carla Mariano recently had the privilege of serving on the American Nurses Association's (ANA) Nursing Scope and Standards Revision Workgroup. Representing the specialty practice of holistic nursing, Carla's presence within this workgroup contributed greatly to the inclusion of holistic principles and values throughout the new 2015 Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 3rd edition, the foundational document that informs and guides professional nursing practice within the United States. This is a significant step forward for holistic nursing and an indicator of our growing influence as specialty practice. PMID:27305802

  9. Preface to Special Topic: Invited Papers of the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S L

    2016-03-01

    The ability to visualize the real-time dynamics of atomic, magnetic, and electronic structure is widely recognized in many fields as a key element underpinning many important processes in chemistry, materials science, and biology. The need for an improved understanding of such processes becomes acute as energy conversion processes on fast time scales become increasingly relevant to problems in science and technology. This special issue, containing invited papers from participants at the 3rd International Conference on Ultrafast Structural Dynamics held June 10-12, 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses several recent developments in this area. PMID:27191008

  10. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  11. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult. PMID:12458831

  12. Extreme and Local 3rd Harmonic Response of Niobium (Nb) Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oripov, Bakhrom; Tai, Tamin; Anlage, Steven

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are being widely used in new generation particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are based on bulk Nb. Based on the needs of the SRF community to identify defects on Nb surfaces, a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope was successfully built using a magnetic writer from a conventional magnetic recording hard-disk drive1. This magnetic writer can create an RF magnetic field, localized and strong enough to drive Nb into the vortex state. This probe enables us to locate defects through scanning and mapping of the local electrodynamic response in the multi-GHz frequency range. Recent measurements have shown that 3rd harmonic nonlinear response is far more sensitive to variations in input power and temperature then linear response, thus we mainly study the 3rd harmonic response. Moreover, the superconductor is usually the only source for nonlinear response in our setup, thus there is less chance of having noise or background signal. Understanding the mechanism responsible for this non-linear response is important for improving the performance of SRF cavities. Besides Nb we also study various other superconductors such as MgB2 and the cuprate Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) for potential applications in SRF cavities. This work is funded by US Department of Energy through Grant # DE-SC0012036T and CNAM.

  13. Treatment of 3rd molar-induced periodontal defects with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Oxford, G E; Quintero, G; Stuller, C B; Gher, M E

    1997-07-01

    Recent reports provide evidence of increased attachment levels when using guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques for the treatment of periodontal defects. Periodontal defects frequently occur at the distal aspect of mandibular 2nd molars which are next to mesioangular impacted 3rd molars that have oral communication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of GTR can enhance probing attachment levels (PALs) following extraction of mesioangular impacted third molars. 12 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular 3rd molars entered this split mouth study. After extractions, the previously exposed distal root surface of the 2nd molars were debrided. The defects on the randomly selected experimental sites were covered with expanded polytetraflouro-ethylene (e-PTFE) membrane and the tissue was replaced to cover the membrane. Membranes were removed after 6 weeks. Control sites were treated identically except no membrane was placed. GI, P1I, PD, PAL and BOP records were obtained at 0, 3 and 6 months. The use of barrier material did not provide statistically-significant differences in PAL when comparing experimental versus control sites. Nevertheless, PAL gain was consistently greater at 3 and 6 months when GTR techniques were used in sites with deep impactions. PMID:9226386

  14. Identification of genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Du-Juan; He, Hong-Juan; Chai, Lian-Qin; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2007-01-01

    Background Larval molting and metamorphosis are important physiological processes in the life cycle of the holometabolous insect. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis. Results We performed SSH between tissues from a variety of developmental stages, including molting 5th and feeding 6th instar larvae, metamorphically committed and feeding 5th instar larvae, and feeding 5th instar and metamorphically committed larvae. One hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and included 73 putative genes with similarity to known genes, and 27 unknown ESTs. SSH results were further characterized by dot blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR. The expression levels of eleven genes were found to change during larval molting or metamorphosis, suggesting a functional role during these processes. Conclusion These results provide a new set of genes expressed specifically during larval molt or metamorphosis that are candidates for further studies into the regulatory mechanisms of those stage-specific genes during larval molt and metamorphosis PMID:17588272

  15. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Riazalman; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mohd. Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Che Ghani, Saiful Anwar; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2015-12-01

    The 3rd ICMER2015 is the continuity of the NCMER2010. The year 2010 represents a significant milestone in the history for Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) Malaysia with the organization of the first and second national level conferences (1st and 2nd NCMER) at UMP on May 26-27 and Dec 3-4 2010. The Faculty then changed the name from National Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (NCMER) to International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER) in 2011 and this year, 2015 is our 3rd ICMER. These proceedings contain the selected scientific manuscripts submitted to the conference. It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER2015)" that is held at Zenith Hotel, Kuantan, Malaysia. The call for papers attracted submissions of over two hundred abstracts from twelve different countries including Japan, Iran, China, Kuwait, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines, Morocco, Germany, UAE and more. The scientific papers published in these proceedings have been revised and approved by the technical committee of the 3rd ICMER2015. All of the papers exhibit clear, concise, and precise expositions that appeal to a broad international readership interested in mechanical engineering, combustion, metallurgy, materials science as well as in manufacturing and biomechanics. The reports present original ideas or results of general significance supported by clear reasoning and compelling evidence, and employ methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors clearly state the questions and the significance of their research to theory and practice, describe how the research contributes to new knowledge, and provide tables and figures that meaningfully add to the narrative. In this edition of ICMER representatives attending are from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and

  16. Malaria and Fetal Growth Alterations in the 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Ultrasound Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Minja, Daniel; Oesterholt, Mayke; Pehrson, Caroline; Suhrs, Hannah Elena; Boström, Stéphanie; Lemnge, Martha; Magistrado, Pamela; Rasch, Vibeke; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnancy associated malaria is associated with decreased birth weight, but in-utero evaluation of fetal growth alterations is rarely performed. The objective of this study was to investigate malaria induced changes in fetal growth during the 3rd trimester using trans-abdominal ultrasound. Methods An observational study of 876 pregnant women (398 primi- and secundigravidae and 478 multigravidae) was conducted in Tanzania. Fetal growth was monitored with ultrasound and screening for malaria was performed regularly. Birth weight and fetal weight were converted to z-scores, and fetal growth evaluated as fetal weight gain from the 26th week of pregnancy. Results Malaria infection only affected birth weight and fetal growth among primi- and secundigravid women. Forty-eight of the 398 primi- and secundigravid women had malaria during pregnancy causing a reduction in the newborns z-score of −0.50 (95% CI: −0.86, −0.13, P = 0.008, multiple linear regression). Fifty-eight percent (28/48) of the primi- and secundigravidae had malaria in the first half of pregnancy, but an effect on fetal growth was observed in the 3rd trimester with an OR of 4.89 for the fetal growth rate belonging to the lowest 25% in the population (95%CI: 2.03–11.79, P<0.001, multiple logistic regression). At an individual level, among the primi- and secundigravidae, 27% experienced alterations of fetal growth immediately after exposure but only for a short interval, 27% only late in pregnancy, 16.2% persistently from exposure until the end of pregnancy, and 29.7% had no alterations of fetal growth. Conclusions The effect of malaria infections was observed during the 3rd trimester, despite infections occurring much earlier in pregnancy, and different mechanisms might operate leading to different patterns of growth alterations. This study highlights the need for protection against malaria throughout pregnancy and the recognition that observed changes in fetal growth might be a

  17. Meeting Report: 3rd International Workshop on Insulin & Cancer Heidelberg, Germany, October 30-31, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Insulin & Cancer was held on October 30-31, 2010 at the German Cancer Research Centre in Heidelberg/Germany. The topics followed-up the discussions of the previous workshops: possible differences in mitogenicity between natural insulin and genetically engineered insulin derivatives (insulin analogues), as shown by laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies alike; molecular studies on the links between metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin, and of hyperinsulinaemia in particular; epidemiologic evidence of interferences between insulin and other hormones, particularly sex hormones, and obesity-associated cancer; the involvement of inflammatory cytokines produced by fat tissue in obesity-associated cancer; aspects of drug-design (binding drugs to albumin) and, last but not least, detection and investigation of circulating cancer cells. PMID:21176129

  18. Meeting report: 3rd international workshop on insulin & cancer heidelberg, Germany, october 30-31, 2010.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, Ernst; Mayer, Doris

    2010-01-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Insulin & Cancer was held on October 30-31, 2010 at the German Cancer Research Centre in Heidelberg/Germany. The topics followed-up the discussions of the previous workshops: possible differences in mitogenicity between natural insulin and genetically engineered insulin derivatives (insulin analogues), as shown by laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies alike; molecular studies on the links between metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin, and of hyperinsulinaemia in particular; epidemiologic evidence of interferences between insulin and other hormones, particularly sex hormones, and obesity-associated cancer; the involvement of inflammatory cytokines produced by fat tissue in obesity-associated cancer; aspects of drug-design (binding drugs to albumin) and, last but not least, detection and investigation of circulating cancer cells.

  19. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  20. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  1. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  2. Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd Edition (by T. P. Coultate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carandang, Rachelle; Ziegler, Greg

    1998-02-01

    Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 3rd edition, by T. P. Coultate, is an excellent textbook in food chemistry for undergraduates. It is a concise version of the very detailed Food Chemistry by Fennema and similar to, but with advantages over, Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry by Wong and Principles of Food Chemistry by Deman. The book assumes knowledge of biochemistry and basic principles in organic chemistry, but presents very practical examples that allow the student to see the obvious link between theory and practice. The examples are described almost as if the author is performing a demonstration in a classvery vivid to the imagination. This is important because students are expected in the future to perform and put into practice their knowledge of food chemistry.

  3. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  4. Analysis of synaptic growth and function in Drosophila with an extended larval stage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel L.; Ballard, Shannon L.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for the genetic and molecular analysis of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and synaptic development. However, its use for studying age-dependent processes, such as maintenance of neuronal viability and synaptic stability, are temporally limited by the onset of pupariation and metamorphosis. Here we characterize larval NMJ growth, growth regulation, structure, and function in a developmental variant with an extended third instar. RNAi-knockdown of the prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, torso, in the ring gland of developing larvae leaves the timing of first and second instar molts largely unchanged, but triples duration of the third instar from 3 to 9.5 days (McBrayer et al., 2007; Rewitz et al., 2009). During this extended third instar (ETI) period, NMJs undergo additional growth (adding over 50 boutons/NMJ), and this growth remains under the control of the canonical regulators Highwire and the TGF-β/BMP pathway. NMJ growth during the ETI period occurs via addition of new branches, satellite boutons and interstitial boutons, and continues even after muscle growth levels off. Throughout the ETI, organization of synapses and active zones remains normal, and synaptic transmission is unchanged. These results establish the ETI larval system as a viable model for studying motor neuron diseases and for investigating time-dependent effects of perturbations that impair mechanisms of neuroprotection, synaptic maintenance, and response to neural injury. PMID:23035089

  5. Simulation of robustness of a new e-beam column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, K.; Fuse, T.; Kinoshita, H.; Parker, N. William

    2008-03-01

    We are now investigating a new concept column with the 3 rd-order imaging technique, in order to obtain fine resolution and high current density beams for electron beam direct writing (EBDW) suitable for below 32nm technology nodes. From the first experimental verification, it is found that the 3 rd-order imaging has a benefit of increasing the beam current compared with conventional Gaussian beam without any beam blurring. However, in order to realize such a column which can work stably in the sub 32nm technology node generations, it is important to clarify how robust the 3 rd-order imaging is against the mechanical tolerances in column manufacturing. This paper describes the tolerance analysis for errors of column manufacturing by simulation. The column has an electron gun with small virtual source and two (Gun and Main) lenses. A patterned beam defining aperture, which enables the 3 rd-order imaging, is set between the 1 st and the 2 nd lenses. The influences of errors such as concentricity, offset and tilt between optical parts on the beam shape, beam current density distribution, and beam edge acuity on a wafer is analyzed for this column. According to these results, the 3 rd-order imaging appears to have sufficiently large allowance compared to the error budget for column manufacturing required in the sub 32nm technology node patterning.

  6. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  7. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  8. Relative sensitivity of Chironomus tentans instars to various toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Norberg-King, T.J.; Juenemann, P.S.; Juenemann, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    During the recent efforts by the US Environmental Protection Agency to standardize the sediment toxicity test methods, the authors conducted experiments to evaluate the influence of instar on the sensitivity of C. tentans to seven toxicants with varying modes of action. These experiments consisted of water only 96 h acute toxicity tests using C. tentans larvae that were 4-d, 6-d, 8-d, 10-d, and 12-d post-hatch. These ages covered the first, second, third, and fourth instar stages. Toxicants used were copper, nickel, zinc, potassium chloride, diazinon, a surfactant, and ammonia. Each acute test was also conducted using larvae cultured on two different amounts of the same Tetrafin{reg_sign} food. For the type of toxicant, differences in the sensitivity were observed with respect to the age of the animals for the two feeding levels. However, the overall age-specific difference was variable for the type of toxicant. For most of the toxicants, the LC50s varied by 50% or less among the ages tested for either feeding level while the older animals were more sensitive to the surfactant tested yet for potassium chloride the fourth instar was the least sensitive. The trends observed will be discussed. Additional information on identifying the instar and useful measurements will be discussed.

  9. Larval and female footprints as feeding deterrent cues for immature stages of two congeneric ladybird predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2014-10-01

    In the present study predation parameters, i.e. consumption rate, conversion efficiency and growth rate, and total developmental duration of immature stages of two congeneric ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Coccinella transversalis F., have been evaluated in presence of conspecific and heterospecific fourth instar larval and adult female tracks. We hypothesized that the semiochemicals within larval/adult female tracks might act as foraging/feeding deterrent pheromones (FDPs) and would reduce the predation parameters; and would prolong total developmental duration of ladybird predators. Results of the study positively affirmed our hypothesis. The deterrence in prey consumption and reduction in conversion efficiency and growth rate was density dependent with species-specific variations. Consumption rate, conversion efficiency, and growth rate of larval instars decreased and the total developmental duration of immature stages increased when exposed to an increasing density of zero, two, three, and four conspecific/heterospecific larval/adult female tracks. Between ladybird species, C. septempunctata had higher consumption rate, growth rate, and total developmental durations, whereas conversion efficiency was higher in C. transversalis. Despite the presence of semiochemical tracks as foraging barriers, early instars showed higher conversion efficiencies and growth rates, whereas fourth instars had highest consumption rate in all experimental treatments. The present study, therefore, suggests that semiochemical tracks significantly reduce the predation potential and prolong developmental duration of conspecifics and heterospecifics. They, thus behave as FDP. PMID:24963549

  10. Larval and female footprints as feeding deterrent cues for immature stages of two congeneric ladybird predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2014-10-01

    In the present study predation parameters, i.e. consumption rate, conversion efficiency and growth rate, and total developmental duration of immature stages of two congeneric ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Coccinella transversalis F., have been evaluated in presence of conspecific and heterospecific fourth instar larval and adult female tracks. We hypothesized that the semiochemicals within larval/adult female tracks might act as foraging/feeding deterrent pheromones (FDPs) and would reduce the predation parameters; and would prolong total developmental duration of ladybird predators. Results of the study positively affirmed our hypothesis. The deterrence in prey consumption and reduction in conversion efficiency and growth rate was density dependent with species-specific variations. Consumption rate, conversion efficiency, and growth rate of larval instars decreased and the total developmental duration of immature stages increased when exposed to an increasing density of zero, two, three, and four conspecific/heterospecific larval/adult female tracks. Between ladybird species, C. septempunctata had higher consumption rate, growth rate, and total developmental durations, whereas conversion efficiency was higher in C. transversalis. Despite the presence of semiochemical tracks as foraging barriers, early instars showed higher conversion efficiencies and growth rates, whereas fourth instars had highest consumption rate in all experimental treatments. The present study, therefore, suggests that semiochemical tracks significantly reduce the predation potential and prolong developmental duration of conspecifics and heterospecifics. They, thus behave as FDP.

  11. Ecology of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): factors influencing larval abundance in mesocosms in southern California.

    PubMed

    Walton, W E; Tietze, N S; Mulla, M S

    1990-01-01

    Colonization and succession of mosquitoes and macroinvertebrate predators were studied in 30-m2 ponds (mesocosms) during summer and fall 1987. Larval abundance of Cx. tarsalis Coquillette was lower during the hot, summer months than during the fall. In all studies, larval populations declined markedly 2-3 wk after habitat flooding. Although predator abundances differed in these studies, sometimes by an order of magnitude, the common predators colonized mesocosms in the following order: Triops, hydrophilid beetle larvae, dytiscid beetle larvae, mesoveliids, dragonfly and damselfly naiads, and notonectids. The similarity of the colonization phenologies probably resulted from the vagility of the adult insects and species-specific developmental rates. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify factors potentially affecting larval mosquito populations. For most studies, coleopteran larvae were related inversely to per capita change in the entire larval population and the third- and fourth-instar subpopulation (i.e., large coleopteran larval populations were associated with large declines in the Cx. trasalis larval population). Maximum water temperatures and pond age (days after flooding) also were identified as significant factors affecting larval abundance and per capita change of mosquitoes. Potentially lethal water temperatures (greater than or equal to 35 degrees C) occurred during the summer; however, the declines in larval abundance of Cx. tarsalis were not restricted to (or obviously associated with) periods of high water temperature. Our results indicated that predation by coleopteran larvae and factor(s) associated with pond age, such as mosquito ovipositional preferences, significantly affected Cx. tarsalis larval populations.

  12. Butterfly oviposition preference is not related to larval performance on a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2016-05-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis predicts that female insects maximize their fitness by utilizing host plants which are associated with high larval performance. Still, studies with several insect species have failed to find a positive correlation between oviposition preference and larval performance. In the present study, we experimentally investigated the relationship between oviposition preferences and larval performance in the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines. Preferences were assessed using both cage experiments and field data on the proportion of host plant individuals utilized in natural populations. Larval performance was experimentally investigated using larvae descending from 419 oviposition events by 21 females on plants from 51 populations of two ploidy types of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis. Neither ploidy type nor population identity influenced egg survival or larval development, but increased plant inflorescence size resulted in a larger final larval size. There was no correlation between female oviposition preference and egg survival or larval development under controlled conditions. Moreover, variation in larval performance among populations under controlled conditions was not correlated with the proportion of host plants utilized in the field. Lastly, first instar larvae added to plants rejected for oviposition by butterfly females during the preference experiment performed equally well as larvae growing on plants chosen for oviposition. The lack of a correlation between larval performance and oviposition preference for A. cardamines under both experimental and natural settings suggests that female host choice does not maximize the fitness of the individual offspring. PMID:27217940

  13. TEC obtained from 3rd Stokes parameter for improved quality of SMOS salinity retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergely, Jean-Luc; Waldteufel, Philippe; Boutin, Jacqueline; Yin, Xiaobin; Spurgeon, Paul

    2014-05-01

    While SMOS was designed with full polarimetric capability, the 3rd Stokes parameter information has not been introduced so far in the data processing. The analysis reported in the present contribution proposes to estimate from this information the total ionospheric electron content (TEC). Indeed the Faraday effect generated by the ionospheric electrons on the path from Earth to satellite is believed to be responsible for large uncertainties in the evening half-orbits (circa 06 PM local time) when the ionospheric content is close to its diurnal maximum. It is shown that the 3rd Stokes parameter exhibits a maximal sensitivity to TEC in a restricted area located at the front of the SMOS 2D field of view. However, since the Faraday angle depends on the scalar product between line-of-sight and magnetic field vectors, a latitudinal zone is found where this sensitivity vanishes. This zone occurs around 15° N a latitude nearly invariant with longitude around the Earth. Accordingly it is possible, when carrying out the TEC estimation over a descending half-orbit, to isolate over this "blind zone" the so-called "Ocean Target Transformation" parameter, which aims at correcting for pixel dependent biases. TEC maps obtained in this way compare favorably with maps built from GPS measurements, which have been introduced so far in the SMOS processing chain as auxiliary data. The space resolution is somewhat improved, allowing a better selection of the relevant electron content in zones exhibiting large horizontal TEC gradients. In a latter step, based on the TEC maps, it becomes possible to recompute the OTT correction for those brightness temperature components to be used as input in the salinity retrieval. Then the additional information impacts the salinity retrieval both directly (as the quality of the TEC auxiliary data is improved) and indirectly (as the empirical OTT correction is no longer contaminated by spurious Faraday rotation effects). The respective contributions of

  14. The Power of PreK-3rd: How a Small Foundation Helped Push Washington State to the Forefront of the PreK-3rd Movement. FCD Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The New School Foundation was not born from a commission, legislative mandate, research project, think tank, or even the mind of a leading education scholar. One of Washington state's pioneering PreK-3rd initiatives began as the brainchild of a wealthy Seattle businessman, Stuart Sloan, 20 years ago. The New School Foundation and its ideas were…

  15. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron D; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D

    2014-01-01

    Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  16. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  17. Effects of notetaking instruction on 3rd grade student's science learning and notetaking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.

  18. The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics: Global Perspectives, Common Concerns, Worldwide Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2009-03-01

    The 3^rd International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP), held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008, brought together 300 participants from 57 countries, including a diverse 22-member U.S. Delegation, for a 3-day summit of stimulating discussions, thought-provoking presentations, inspirational posters, and networking. Held under the auspices of the Working Group on Women in Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), this meeting built on the successes of the 1^st (Paris, 2002) and 2^nd (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) Conferences and further clarified the importance of diversifying the field of physics worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made since 2002, it was clear that the global scientific workforce is still under-utilizing a large percentage of the available female talent pool. If human society is to benefit to its fullest from various contributions that the field of physics can offer in addressing global issues of economic crisis, energy, environment, water, health, poverty, and hunger, women of all races and nationalities need to become fully included and engaged in the national and international physical community. To address these and many other issues, the ICWIP unanimously approved a five-part resolution to IUPAP recommending actions to promote the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in physics and related fields.

  19. Measuring the cascade rate in anisotropic turbulence through 3rd order structure functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2014-05-01

    We employ the Von-Karman-Howart-Yaglom-Politano-Poquet (KHYPP)law, to compute the cascade rate by means of 3rd order structure functions in homogeneous, forced, DNS at high resolution. We consider first the isotropic case (no guide field) and verify that the cascade rate is consistent with the dissipation rate. Then we consider an anisotropic case (with guide field) for which the isotropic KHYPP law does not apply. We compute the parallel and perpendicular cascade rates and find that the latter basically accounts for the total dissipation rate, as expected for anisotropic turbulence. Also, the cascade rate derived from the isotropic law is found to be a good approximation for the total cascade rate. Recent works have shown that the hypothesis of stationary turbulence must be probably relaxed in the solar wind. We present preliminary results on the measure of the cascade rate in the expanding solar wind, obtained with DNS of MHD turbulence in the expanding box model. Such model incorporates the basic physic of expansion thus inducing anisotropies driven by both the magnetic field and expansion, along with an energy decrease due to the conservation of linear invariants (angular momentum and magnetic flux). The correction due to non-stationary conditions is found to be important and to become negligible only at small scales, thus suggesting that solar wind measurements over- estimate the actual cascade rate.

  20. Measurement and correction of the 3rd order resonance in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, F.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    At Fermilab Tevatron BPM system has been recently upgraded resulting much better accuracy of beam position measurements and improvements of data acquisition for turn-by-turn measurements. That allows one to record the beam position at each turn for 8000 turns for all BPMs (118 in each plane) with accuracy of about 10-20 {micro}m. In the last decade a harmonic analysis tool has been developed at CERN that allows relating each FFT line derived from the BPM data with a particular non-linear resonance in the machine. In fact, one can even detect the longitudinal position of the sources of these resonances. Experiments have been performed at the Tevatron in which beams have been kicked to various amplitudes to analyze the 3rd order resonance. It was possible to address this rather large resonance to some regular machine sextupoles. An alternative sextupole scheme allowed the suppression of this resonance by a good factor of 2. Lastly, the experimental data are compared with model calculations.

  1. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  2. Geysers Characteristics before and after Landslide of June 3-rd, 2007 (Geysers Valley, Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droznin, V. A.; Kiryukhin, A. V.; Muraviev, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1990 cycling characteristics of five geysers (Maly, Bolshoy, Shel, Velican, Troynoy) were contentiously monitoring using automatic telemetric system (V A Drosnin, http://www.ch0103.emsd.iks.ru/ ). The most powerful geyser Velikan erupted steam clouds at 300 m height. 1:20 UTC June 3-rd, 2007 lower basin of the Geysers Valley was in a few minutes buried under 10 mln m3 of mud, debris, and blocks of rocks. Some indications were found, that landslide triggered by steam eruption in the upstream area of Vodopadny creek. As a result of this three famous geysers (Pervenets, Sakharny,Troynoy) located at lower elevations were sealed under 10-30 m thick caprock as well as Vodopadny hot creek, a rock dumb trap Geysernaya river and lifted water into 20 m deep lake, which flooded three famous geysers (Conus, Bolshoy and Maly) terminating their cycling activity. Nevertheless Bolshoy and Maly activity continues in a form of discharge of water circulated in the former geysers channels and a clear plume at a lake surface above exits observed. Shortly after landslide continuous monitoring of the cycling characteristics of the upper basin geysers, including Velikan and lake level, accomplished by temperature loggers - restarted. There are some indications time periods of the geysers cycling decrease.

  3. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  4. Resurgence of duckweed research and applications: report from the 3rd International Duckweed Conference.

    PubMed

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Sree, K Sowjanya; Fakhoorian, Tamra; Lam, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Duckweed, flowering plants in the Lemnaceae family, comprises the smallest angiosperms in the plant kingdom. They have some of the fastest biomass accumulation rates reported to date for plants and have the demonstrated ability to thrive on wastewater rich in dissolved organic compounds and thus could help to remediated polluted water resources and prevents eutrophication. With a high quality genome sequence now available and increased commercial interest worldwide to develop duckweed biomass for renewables such as protein and fuel, the 3rd International Duckweed Conference convened at Kyoto, Japan, in July of 2015, to update the community of duckweed researchers and developers on the progress in the field. In addition to sharing results and ideas, the conference also provided ample opportunities for new-comers as well as established workers in the field to network and create new aliances. We hope this meeting summary will also help to disseminate the key advances and observations that have been presented in this conference to the broader plant biology community in order to encourage increased cross-fertilization of ideas and technologies. PMID:26506824

  5. Resurgence of duckweed research and applications: report from the 3rd International Duckweed Conference.

    PubMed

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Sree, K Sowjanya; Fakhoorian, Tamra; Lam, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Duckweed, flowering plants in the Lemnaceae family, comprises the smallest angiosperms in the plant kingdom. They have some of the fastest biomass accumulation rates reported to date for plants and have the demonstrated ability to thrive on wastewater rich in dissolved organic compounds and thus could help to remediated polluted water resources and prevents eutrophication. With a high quality genome sequence now available and increased commercial interest worldwide to develop duckweed biomass for renewables such as protein and fuel, the 3rd International Duckweed Conference convened at Kyoto, Japan, in July of 2015, to update the community of duckweed researchers and developers on the progress in the field. In addition to sharing results and ideas, the conference also provided ample opportunities for new-comers as well as established workers in the field to network and create new aliances. We hope this meeting summary will also help to disseminate the key advances and observations that have been presented in this conference to the broader plant biology community in order to encourage increased cross-fertilization of ideas and technologies.

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Webb, Jeff; Ding, Jun

    2015-05-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing, Optimization, Industrial and Material Engineering (MOIME 2015) was held at the Sheraton Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, from 28 - 29 March 2015. The MOIME 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. MOIME 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within Material Engineering, Industrial Engineering and all areas that relate to Optimization. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program, as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 99 papers and after rigorous review, 24 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There were four parallel sessions and two invited speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee, the organizing secretariat and the financial support from the conference sponsors that allowed the success of MOIME 2015. The Editors of the MOIME 2015 Proceedings Dr. Ford Lumban Gaol Jeff Webb, Ph.D Prof. Jun DING, Ph.D

  7. Exploiting stem cell therapy: the 3rd meeting of stem cell research Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Piva, Roberta; Giordano, Antonio; Galderisi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    The study of stem cells is one of the most exciting areas of contemporary biomedical research. During the 3rd Joint Meeting of Stem Cell Research Italy (June 2012, Ferrara, Italy), scientists from different multidisciplinary areas explored new frontiers of basic and applied stem cell research with key lectures and oral presentations. There was a public debate on ethics during the opening ceremony, specifically on the limits and potentialities of adult and embryonic stem cells. Some scientists presented basic research data showing evolutionary aspects, which could be of interest in understanding specific biological phenomena. Others focused on "dangerous liaisons" between gene transfer vectors and the human genome. Some speakers provided insight into current stem cell therapies, such as those involving human epithelial stem cells for treatment of skin diseases. Other researchers presented data on close-to-therapy findings, such as the use of mesenchymal stem cells in brain repair. Of note, during the meeting, spotlights were focused on major issues that have to be considered for GMP stem cell production for cell therapy. In "Meet the Expert" sessions, specialists presented innovative technologies such as a next-generation sequencing system. Finally, the meeting provided an excellent opportunity for young scientists to show their findings, and to discuss with each other and with internationally recognized experts.

  8. Constancy and Variability: Dialogic Literacy Events as Sites for Improvisation in Two 3rd-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.; Santori, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This multisite study investigates dialogic literacy events that revolved around narrative and informational texts in two 3rd-grade classrooms. The authors offer a metaphor of musical improvisation to contemplate dialogic literacy events as part of the repertoire of teaching and learning experiences. In literacy learning, where there is much…

  9. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  10. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  11. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2007-08. Research Brief. Volume 0702

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2008-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10 graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  12. The Lived Experiences of 3rd Generation and beyond U.S.-Born Mexican Heritage College Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychosocial and identity challenges of 3rd generation and beyond U.S.-born (3GAB-USB) Mexican heritage college students. Alvarez (1973) has written about the psychosocial impact "hybridity" can have on a U.S.- born (USB) Mexican individual who incorporates two distinct cultures (American and Mexican)…

  13. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  14. Iowa Acceleration Scale Manual: A Guide for Whole-Grade Acceleration K-8. (3rd Edition, Manual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann; Forstadt, Leslie; Lipscomb, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    Feedback from years of nationwide use has resulted in a 3rd Edition of this unique, systematic, and objective guide to considering and implementing academic acceleration. Developed and tested by the Belin-Blank Center at the University of Iowa, the IAS ensures that acceleration decisions are systematic, thoughtful, well reasoned, and defensible.…

  15. A Program Evaluation of ClassScape Used in 3rd Grade Classes in a Rural County in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Misha Neely

    2012-01-01

    The research study will examine the impact of using the ClassScape program and targeted interventions on 3rd grade reading levels of performance. The conceptual and theoretical framework for the study suggests the need to connect formative, benchmark, and summative assessments in North Carolina. Furthermore, the review of the literature will…

  16. 3rd Annual PIALA Conference Saipan--Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Conference Proceedings. October 13-15, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Margaret, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This PIALA 1993 Proceedings contains many of the papers presented at the 3rd annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives. This publication is the first time papers from this Micronesian regional library and archives conference have ever been published. The conference addressed various topics of interest to…

  17. amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the prohormone processing protease PC2, is required during embryogenesis and early larval development.

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Lowell Y M; Gooding, Holly C; Choksi, Semil P; Maloney, Dhea; Kidd, Ambrose R; Siekhaus, Daria E; Bender, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Biosynthesis of most peptide hormones and neuropeptides requires proteolytic excision of the active peptide from inactive proprotein precursors, an activity carried out by subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) in constitutive or regulated secretory pathways. The Drosophila amontillado (amon) gene encodes a homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, an SPC that functions in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine tissues. We have identified amon mutants by isolating ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced lethal and visible mutations that define two complementation groups in the amon interval at 97D1 of the third chromosome. DNA sequencing identified the amon complementation group and the DNA sequence change for each of the nine amon alleles isolated. amon mutants display partial embryonic lethality, are defective in larval growth, and arrest during the first to second instar larval molt. Mutant larvae can be rescued by heat-shock-induced expression of the amon protein. Rescued larvae arrest at the subsequent larval molt, suggesting that amon is also required for the second to third instar larval molt. Our data indicate that the amon proprotein convertase is required during embryogenesis and larval development in Drosophila and support the hypothesis that AMON acts to proteolytically process peptide hormones that regulate hatching, larval growth, and larval ecdysis. PMID:12586710

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsnes, Magne, Prof; Gusev, Alexander, Dr; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr; Bogdan, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The 3rd International Youth Conference "Interdisciplinary Problems of Nanotechnology, Biomedicine and Nanotoxicology" (Nanobiotech2015) was held on 21-22 May 2015 in Tambov, Russia, and was jointly organized by Tambov Derzhavin State University (Russia), the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway), the National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russia), Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) and Tomsk State University. The conference gathered experienced and young researchers, post-docs and students, working in the fieldof nanotechnologies, nanomedicine, nano(eco)toxicology and risk assessment of nanomaterials, in order to facilitate the aggregation and sharing of interests and results for better collaboration and visibility of activity. The goal of Nanobiotech2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on nanotechnology-specific risks to occupational and environmental health and assessing how to reduce these potential risks. The main objective of the conference is to identify, systematize and solve current scientific problems inthe sphere of nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, in order to join forces todetermine prospective areas and compose working groups of interested co-workers for carrying out interdisciplinary research projects. The topics of Nanobiotech2015 were: (1) Nanotechnologies in pharmaceutics and medicine; (2) Sources and mechanisms of nanoparticle release into the environment; (3) Ecological and biological effects of nanoparticles; (4) (Eco)toxicology of nanomaterials; (5) Methods for detection of nanoparticles in the environment and in biological objects; and (6) Physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles in the environment. We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the universities and sponsors supporting the conference,and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their contribution towards the conference and for their contributions to these

  19. 3rd hand smoking; heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren; Dubowski, Yael

    2010-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is well known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has it been recognized that the impact of Tobacco smoking may continue even after the cigarette has been extinguished (i.e., third hand smoke) due to the effect of indoor surfaces. These surfaces may affect the fate of tobacco smoke in the form of secondary reactions and pollutants, including secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry with Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) in tandem with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing (SMPS) system was used to monitor the ozonation of cellulose sorbed nicotine and resulting SOA formation. SOA formation began at onset of ozone introduction ([O3] = 60 ± 5 ppb) with a size distribution of dp ≤ 25 nm, and was determined to be a result of heterogeneous reaction (opposed to homogeneous). SOA yield from reacted surface nicotine was on the order of 10 %. Simultaneous to SOA monitoring, FTIR-ATR spectra showed surface changes in the nicotine film as the reaction progressed, revealing a pseudo first-order surface reaction rate of 0.0026 ± 0.0008 min-1. Identified surface oxidation products included: cotinine, myosmine, methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine. Surface reaction rate was found to be partially inhibited at high relative humidity. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products (e.g., cotinine has shown potential mutagenicity and teratogenicity) and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to 3rd hand smoke ozonation products may pose additional health risks.

  20. [BIO-INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGA (L.) ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE).

    PubMed

    Pumchan, A; Puangsomchit, A; Temyarasilp, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the bio-efficacy of four Alpinia galanga rhizome crude extracts against the second and third instars of Spodoptera litura, an important field pest. The growth of younger larvae was significantly affected while that of the older larval stage was less influenced. In both stages, the methanol crude extract showed the greatest efficiency which caused the highest number of abnormal adults to occur and produced a large LD₅₀ value (12.816 µg/ larvae) pupicidal percentage after treatment, whereas, hexane extract caused the highest mortality during the larval-pupal stage after treatment with an LD₅₀ value of 6.354 µg/ larvae. However, the larval development was not significantly different among all treated larvae compared to the control. This study suggests that secondary larval instars of S. litura are more susceptible to the larval growth inhibitory action of Alpinia galanga extracts and these extracts could also be applied for use in the management of pests.

  1. Effect of soil temperature and moisture on survival of eggs and first-instar larvae of Delia radicum.

    PubMed

    Lepage, M P; Bourgeois, G; Brodeur, J; Boivin, G

    2012-02-01

    Edaphic factors such as soil temperature and moisture influence soil-dwelling insects, whose most vulnerable stages typically are eggs and young larvae. In this study, the survival of eggs and first-instar larvae of the cabbage maggot, Delia radicum L., was measured under laboratory conditions after exposure to a range of soil temperatures and moistures. When eggs were exposed to constant temperature (20-29°C) and humidity (5-200% [wt:wt]), temperature had no significant effect on survival, whereas humidity <25% [wt:wt] caused egg mortality. The gradual exposure of eggs to high temperatures resulted in low mortality below 33°C, but <5% of eggs survived at 40°C. When first-instar larvae were exposed to constant temperature (17-29°C) and humidity (5-100% [wt:wt]), both factors as well as their interaction had a significant effect on larval survival, which was nil at 5% (wt:wt) for all temperatures but increased from 21.9 to 42.8% at 17°C and from 34.1 to 55.0% at 29°C, for soil moisture contents of 15% and 100% (wt:wt), respectively. Eggs of D. radicum are resistant to low soil moisture and high temperature conditions. Larval survival tends to increase with an increase in soil temperature and moisture. It is suggested that soil temperature be integrated into insect development simulation models instead of air temperature, to build more effective models for cabbage maggot management. PMID:22525071

  2. Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    Description, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larvae and pupae of Nearctic species Hexatoma (Eriocera) californica, H. (E.) fuliginosa and East Palaearctic species H. (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, H. (E.) ussuriensis and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa. Hexatoma (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa are reported new for Mongolia based on larval and reared adult collections. There are no distinguishing morphological characters to separate last instar larvae of the subgenera H. (Eriocera) and H. (Hexatoma), while pupae of these subgenera can be separated by the size and shape of the spines on the terminal segments. This study indicates that microscopic setae on the last abdominal segment, length of maxillary palpi, sclerotization of the spiracular field, length of spiracular lobes, length of setae on the apical part of the ventral lobes, the shape of the labrum and the arrangement of sensory structures on the labrum are the main larval characters to distinguish among species in this genus. The shape and length of the respiratory horns, size and number of the horns of the cephalic crest, length of the antennal sheaths, the lengths of the sheaths of the legs, size and shape of tubercles on the antennal scape are the main distinguishing pupal characters for the species of this genus. Nearly all known species of Hexatoma develop in sand or gravel in bottom of large and medium size rivers, smaller streams and creeks while last instar larvae and pupae can be found in the riparian zone, usually in gravel, sand or under stones. PMID:26624121

  3. Transcription factor broad suppresses precocious development of adult structures during larval-pupal metamorphosis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Tan, A; Bai, H; Palli, Subba R

    2008-01-01

    Broad (br), a transcription factor containing the Broad-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac (BTB) and zinc finger domains was shown to mediate 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) action and pupal development in Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta. We determined the key roles of br during larval-pupal metamorphosis using RNA interference (RNAi) in a coleopteran insect, Tribolium castaneum. Two major peaks of T. castaneum broad (Tcbr) mRNA, one peak at the end of feeding stage prior to the larvae entering the quiescent stage and another peak during the quiescent stage were detected in the whole body and midgut tissue dissected from staged insects. Expression of br during the final instar larval stage is essential for successful larval-pupal metamorphosis, because, RNAi-mediated knock-down of Tcbr during this stage derailed larval-pupal metamorphosis and produced insects that showed larval, pupal and adult structures. Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae caused reduction in the mRNA levels of genes known to be involved in 20E action (EcRA, E74 and E75B). Tcbr dsRNA injected into the final instar larvae also caused an increase in the mRNA levels of JH-response genes (JHE and Kr-h1b). Knock-down of Tcbr expression also affected 20E-mediated remodeling of midgut during larval-pupal metamorphosis. These data suggest that the expression of Tcbr during the final instar larval stage promotes pupal program while suppressing the larval and adult programs ensuring a transitory pupal stage in holometabolous insects. PMID:18083350

  4. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3) was held at KGU Kannai Media Center, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama, Japan, from May 26 to 30, 2014. Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan, about 25 km southeast of Tokyo. The first workshop of the series was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008 and the second one was in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. The purpose of SOTANCP3 was to discuss the present status and future perspectives of the nuclear cluster physics. The following nine topics were selected in order to cover most of the scientific programme and highlight an area where new ideas have emerged over recent years: (1) Cluster structures and many-body correlations in stable and unstable nuclei (2) Clustering aspects of nuclear reactions and resonances (3) Alpha condensates and analogy with condensed matter approaches (4) Role of tensor force in cluster physics and ab initio approaches (5) Clustering in hypernuclei (6) Nuclear fission, superheavy nuclei, and cluster decay (7) Cluster physics and nuclear astrophysics (8) Clustering in nuclear matter and neutron stars (9) Clustering in hadron and atomic physics There were 122 participants, including 53 from 17 foreign countries. In addition to invited talks, we had many talks selected from contributed papers. There were plenary, parallel, and poster sessions. Poster contributions were also presented as four-minute talks in parallel sessions. This proceedings contains the papers presented in invited and selected talks together with those presented in poster sessions. We would like to express our gratitude to the members of the International Advisory Committee and those of the Organizing Committee for their efforts which made this workshop successful. In particular we would like to present our great thanks to Drs. Y. Funaki, W. Horiuchi, N. Itagaki, M. Kimura, T. Myo, and T. Yoshida. We would like also to thank the following organizations for their sponsors: RCNP

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  7. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  8. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  9. A Binding Site for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Is Lost during Larval Development in Two Forest Pests

    PubMed Central

    Rausell, Carolina; Martínez-Ramírez, Amparo Consuelo; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, María Dolores

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins towards the forest pests Thaumetopoea pityocampa (processionary moth) and Lymantria monacha (nun moth) were investigated. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac were highly toxic (corresponding 50% lethal concentration values: 956, 895, and 379 pg/μl, respectively) to first-instar T. pityocampa larvae. During larval development, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxicity decreased with increasing age, although the loss of activity was more pronounced for Cry1Ab. Binding assays with 125I-labelled Cry1Ab and brush border membrane vesicles from T. pityocampa first- and last-instar larvae detected a remarkable decrease in the overall Cry1Ab binding affinity in last-instar larvae, although saturable Cry1Ab binding to both instars was observed. Homologous competition experiments demonstrated the loss of one of the two Cry1Ab high-affinity binding sites detected in first-instar larvae. Growth inhibition assays with sublethal doses of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac in L. monacha showed that all three toxins were able to delay molting from second instar to third instar. Specific saturable binding of Cry1Ab was detected only in first- and second-instar larvae. Cry1Ab binding was not detected in last-instar larvae, although specific binding of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac was observed. These results demonstrate a loss of Cry1Ab binding sites during development on the midgut epithelium of T. pityocampa and L. monacha, correlating in T. pityocampa with a decrease in Cry1Ab toxicity with increasing age. PMID:10742241

  10. Analysis of synaptic growth and function in Drosophila with an extended larval stage.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel L; Ballard, Shannon L; Ganetzky, Barry

    2012-10-01

    The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for the genetic and molecular analysis of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and synaptic development. However, its use for studying age-dependent processes, such as maintenance of neuronal viability and synaptic stability, are temporally limited by the onset of pupariation and metamorphosis. Here we characterize larval NMJ growth, growth regulation, structure, and function in a developmental variant with an extended third instar (ETI). RNAi-knockdown of the prothoracicotropic hormone receptor, torso, in the ring gland of developing larvae leaves the timing of first and second instar molts largely unchanged, but triples duration of the third instar from 3 to 9.5 d (McBrayer et al., 2007; Rewitz et al., 2009). During this ETI period, NMJs undergo additional growth (adding >50 boutons/NMJ), and this growth remains under the control of the canonical regulators Highwire and the TGFβ/BMP pathway. NMJ growth during the ETI period occurs via addition of new branches, satellite boutons, and interstitial boutons, and continues even after muscle growth levels off. Throughout the ETI, organization of synapses and active zones remains normal, and synaptic transmission is unchanged. These results establish the ETI larval system as a viable model for studying motor neuron diseases and for investigating time-dependent effects of perturbations that impair mechanisms of neuroprotection, synaptic maintenance, and response to neural injury. PMID:23035089

  11. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet and field corn genotypes.

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Efrom, C F S

    2003-11-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns), and BR PAMPA (field corn). In laboratory conditions (25 +/- 1 masculine C; 70 +/- 10% RH; photophase 12 hours), 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm(2) sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width), to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA. PMID:15029373

  12. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Israel, with a key to the larval stages

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between twoground beetlesspecies Epomis dejeani (Dejean, 1831) and Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, 1812). We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. An identification key is given for the three larval instars of the two Epomis species. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults’ length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females. PMID

  13. Additional circular intercostal space created by bifurcation of the left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the thorax there are normally 11 pairs of intercostal spaces: the spaces between adjacent ribs. The intercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles, intercostal nerves and vessels. Case presentation During a routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, we observed a variation involving the left 3rd rib and 3rd costal cartilage in the cadaver of a man of Indian ethnicity aged about 65 years. The left 3rd rib and its costal cartilage were bifurcated at their costochondral junction enclosing a small circular additional intercostal space. Muscle tissue covered by deep fascia was present in this circular intercostal space. The muscle in the circular intercostal space received its nerve supply from a branch of the 2nd intercostal nerve. Conclusions Knowledge of such variations is helpful to surgeons operating on the anterior thoracic wall involving ribs and intercostal spaces. Knowing the possibility of the presence of an additional space between normal intercostal spaces can guide a surgeon through to a successful surgery. PMID:23298541

  14. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  15. Does 3rd Age + 3rd World = 3rd Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Demographic changes, migration, and industrialization are having drastic effects on older adults in developing nations. Local programs such as Pro Vida in Colombia, supported by Help Age International, rely on the support of volunteers to improve the quality of life for elderly people. (SK)

  16. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  17. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  18. PREFACE: 3rd Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Marco; Migliorato, Max; Probert, Matt

    2012-05-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 3rd International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK on 18-20 January 2012. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-speed computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Tight Binding, Semiempirical Pseudopotential Methods, Effective Mass Models, Empirical Potential Methods and Multiscale Approaches. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical and Transport Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Graphene, Lasers, Photonic Structures, Photovoltaic and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognised experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several

  19. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  20. Modelling developmental changes in the carbon and nitrogen budgets of larval brachyuran crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.

    1990-03-01

    The uptake and partitioning of nutritional carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were studied during the complete larval development of a brachyuran crab, Hyas araneus, reared under constant conditions in the laboratory. Biochemical and physiological data were published in a foregoing paper, and complete budgets of C and N were now constructed from these data. Regression equations describing rates of feeding ( F), growth ( G), respiration ( R), and ammonia excretion ( U) as functions of time during individual larval moult cycles were inserted in a simulation model, in order to analyse time-dependent (i.e. developmental) patterns of variation in these parameters as well as in bioenergetic efficiencies. Absolute daily feeding rates ( F; per individual) as well as carbon and nitrogen-specific rates ( F/C, F/N) are in general maximum in early, and minimum in late stages of individual larval moult cycles (postmoult and premoult, respectively). Early crab zoeae may ingest equivalents of up to ca 40% body C and 30% body N per day, respectively, whereas megalopa larvae usually eat less than 10%. Also growth rates ( G; G/C, G/N) reveal decreasing tendencies both during individual moult cycles and, on the average, in subsequent instars. Conversion of C and N data to lipid and protein, respectively, suggests that in all larval instars there is initially an increase in the lipid: protein ratio. Protein, however, remains clearly the predominant biochemical constituent in larval biomass. The absolute and specific values of respiration ( R; R/C) and excretion ( U; U/N) vary only little during the course of individual moult cycles. Thus, their significance in relation to G increases within the C and N budgets, and net growth efficiency ( K 2) decreases concurrently. Also gross growth and assimilation efficiency ( K 2; A/F) are, in general, maximum in early stages of the moult cycle (postmoult). Biochemical data suggest that lipid utilization efficiency is particularly high in early moult

  1. FOREWORD: 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 3rd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2013 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 22 May 2013, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational

  2. Tunnelling of the 3rd kind: A test of the effective non-locality of quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Simon A.; Gies, Holger; Jaeckel, Joerg; Wallace, Chris J.

    2013-03-01

    Integrating out virtual quantum fluctuations in an originally local quantum field theory results in an effective theory which is non-local. In this letter we argue that tunnelling of the 3rd kind —where particles traverse a barrier by splitting into a pair of virtual particles which recombine only after a finite distance— provides a direct test of this non-locality. We sketch a quantum-optical setup to test this effect, and investigate observable effects in a simple toy model.

  3. Larval feeding behavior and ant association in frosted elfin, Callophrys irus (Lycaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albanese, G.; Nelson, M.W.; Vickery, P.D.; Sievert, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Callophrys irus is a rare and declining lycaenid found in the eastern U.S., inhabiting xeric and open habitats maintained by disturbance. Populations are localized and monophagous. We document a previously undescribed larval feeding behavior in both field and lab reared larvae in which late instar larvae girdled the main stem of the host plant. Girdled stems provide a unique feeding sign that was useful in detecting the presence of larvae in the field. We also observed frequent association of field larvae with several species of ants and provide a list of ant species. We suggest two hypotheses on the potential benefits of stem-girdling to C. irus larvae: 1) Stem girdling provides phloem sap as a larval food source and increases the leaf nutrient concentration, increasing larval growth rates and providing high quality honeydew for attending ants; 2) Stem girdling reduces stem toxicity by inhibiting transport of toxins from roots to the stem.

  4. Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija

    2009-05-01

    Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1)=10microg and Cd(2)=30microg Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker.

  5. Physiological and biochemical changes during the larval development of a brachyuran crab reared under constant conditions in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Püschel, C.; Seeger, B.

    1989-06-01

    Larvae of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared in the laboratory at constant conditions (12°C; 32‰S), and their feeding rate ( F), oxygen consumption ( R), nitrogen excretion ( U), and growth were measured in regular intervals of time during development from hatching to metamorphosis. Growth was measured as dry weight ( W), carbon ( C), nitrogen ( N), hydrogen ( H) protein, and lipid. All these physiological and biochemical traits revealed significant changes both from instar to instar and during individual larval moult cycles. Average F was low in the zoea I, reached a maximum in the zoea II, and decreased again in the megalopa. In the zoeal instars, it showed a bell-shaped pattern, with a maximum in the middle (zoea I) or during the first half of the moult cycle (zoea II). Maximum F in the megalopa was observed still earlier, during postmoult. Respiration ( R) increased in the zoeal instars as a linear function of time, whereas it showed a sinusoidal pattern in the megalopa. These findings on variation in F and R during larval development confirm results obtained in previous studies on H. araneus and other decapod species. Excretion ( U) was measured for the first time with a high temporal resolution in crab larvae. It showed in all three larval instars a bell-shaped variation pattern, with a maximum near the middle of the moult cycle, and significantly increasing average values from instar to instar. The atomic O/N ratio followed an inverse pattern, suggesting a maximum utilization of protein as a metabolic substrate during intermoult. Growth data from the present study and from a number of previous studies were compiled, showing consistency of growth patterns, but a considerable degree of variability between larvae from different hatches reared under identical conditions. The data show the following consistent tendencies: during the first part of each larval moult cycle (in postmoult, partly in intermoult), lipids are accumulated at a higher rate than

  6. Live Imaging of Drosophila Larval Neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lerit, Dorothy A.; Plevock, Karen M.; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate two progeny cells with unequal fate potential: a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating cell. Given their relevance to development and disease, understanding the mechanisms that govern asymmetric stem cell division has been a robust area of study. Because they are genetically tractable and undergo successive rounds of cell division about once every hour, the stem cells of the Drosophila central nervous system, or neuroblasts, are indispensable models for the study of stem cell division. About 100 neural stem cells are located near the surface of each of the two larval brain lobes, making this model system particularly useful for live imaging microscopy studies. In this work, we review several approaches widely used to visualize stem cell divisions, and we address the relative advantages and disadvantages of those techniques that employ dissociated versus intact brain tissues. We also detail our simplified protocol used to explant whole brains from third instar larvae for live cell imaging and fixed analysis applications. PMID:25046336

  7. Romanomermis culicivorax: penetration of larval mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Shamseldean, M M; Platzer, E G

    1989-09-01

    In the presence of second larval instars of three mosquito species the preparasites of Romanomermis culicivorax swam near the water surface in an orthokinetic manner. When the preparasites were ca. 1 mm from the host, they stopped and swam klinotactically toward the host. During this phase, the preparasites secreted a small amount of a putative adhesive material from the anterior region and host contact was completed. The adhesive appeared to aid in attachment of the preparasites to the host and initiation of the search-boring phase. The preparasites glided over the host until a suitable penetration site was found. The penetration phase was initiated by probing with the odontostyle. This was followed by partial paralysis, decreased intestinal peristaltic movement, and temporary cardiac arrest in all host mosquitoes which was probably related to injection of esophageal secretions. SEM observations showed that the abdominal walls were the most frequent site for penetration. As the preparasites entered through the penetration hole, microorganisms adhering to the cuticle of the preparasites were retained by the adhesive which accumulated around the penetration site. Thus, microbial contamination of the host was avoided by a mechanical cleansing mechanism. Penetration was usually completed in less than 10 min.

  8. Poly(2-oxazoline) based micelles with high capacity for 3rd generation taxoids: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhijian; Schulz, Anita; Wan, Xiaomeng; Seitz, Joshua; Bludau, Herdis; Alakhova, Daria Y; Darr, David B; Perou, Charles M; Jordan, Rainer; Ojima, Iwao; Kabanov, Alexander V; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-06-28

    The clinically and commercially successful taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel suffer from two major drawbacks, namely their very low aqueous solubility and the risk of developing resistance. Here, we present a method that overcomes both drawbacks in a very simple manner. We formulated 3rd generation taxoids, able to avoid common drug resistance mechanisms with doubly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), a safe and highly efficient polymer for the formulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs. We found excellent solubilization of different 3rd generation taxoids irrespective of the drug's chemical structures with essentially quantitative drug loading and final drug to polymer ratios around unity. The small, highly loaded micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100nm are excellently suited for parenteral administration. Moreover, a selected formulation with the taxoid SB-T-1214 is about one to two orders of magnitude more active in vitro than paclitaxel in the multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line LCC6-MDR. In contrast, in wild-type LCC6, no difference was observed. Using a q4d×4 dosing regimen, we also found that POx/SB-T-1214 significantly inhibits the growth of LCC6-MDR orthotropic tumors, outperforming commercial paclitaxel drug Taxol and Cremophor EL formulated SB-T-1214.

  9. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  10. Proteomics of larval hemolymph in Bombyx mori reveals various nutrient-storage and immunity-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Song, Qianru; Gu, Peiming; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-04-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect for its production of silk. The larvae of many lepidopteran insects are major agricultural pests and often silkworm is explored as a model organism for other lepidopteran pest species. The hemolymph of caterpillars contains a lot of nutrient and immune components. In this study, we applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to gain a better understanding of the larval hemolymph proteomics in B. mori. We identified 752 proteins in hemolymph collected from day-4 fourth instar and day-7 fifth instar. Nearly half the identified proteins (49%) were predicted to function as binding proteins and 46% were predicted to have catalytic activities. Apolipophorins, storage proteins, and 30K proteins constituted the most abundant groups of nutrient-storage proteins. Of them, 30K proteins showed large differences between fourth instar larvae and fifth instar larvae. Besides nutrient-storage proteins, protease inhibitors are also expressed very highly in hemolymph. The analysis also revealed lots of immunity-related proteins, including recognition, signaling, effectors and other proteins, comprising multiple immunity pathways in hemolymph. Our data provide an exhaustive research of nutrient-storage proteins and immunity-related proteins in larval hemolymph, and will pave the way for future physiological and pathological studies of caterpillars. PMID:24402669

  11. Earth's Volcanoes and their Eruptions; the 3rd edition of the Smithsonian Institution's Volcanoes of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, L.; Simkin, T.; Kimberly, P.

    2010-12-01

    The 3rd edition of the Smithsonian Institution’s Volcanoes of the World incorporates data on the world’s volcanoes and their eruptions compiled since 1968 by the Institution’s Global Volcanism Program (GVP). Published this Fall jointly by the Smithsonian and the University of California Press, it supplements data from the 1994 2nd edition and includes new data on the number of people living in proximity to volcanoes, the dominant rock lithologies at each volcano, Holocene caldera-forming eruptions, and preliminary lists of Pleistocene volcanoes and large-volume Pleistocene eruptions. The 3rd edition contains data on nearly 1550 volcanoes of known or possible Holocene age, including chronologies, characteristics, and magnitudes for >10,400 Holocene eruptions. The standard 20 eruptive characteristics of the IAVCEI volcano catalog series have been modified to include dated vertical edifice collapse events due to magma chamber evacuation following large-volume explosive eruptions or mafic lava effusion, and lateral sector collapse. Data from previous editions of Volcanoes of the World are also supplemented by listings of up to the 5 most dominant lithologies at each volcano, along with data on population living within 5, 10, 30, and 100 km radii of each volcano or volcanic field. Population data indicate that the most populated regions also contain the most frequently active volcanoes. Eruption data document lava and tephra volumes and Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) assignments for >7800 eruptions. Interpretation of VRF data has led to documentation of global eruption rates and the power law relationship between magnitude and frequency of volcanic eruptions. Data with volcanic hazards implications include those on fatalities and evacuations and the rate at which eruptions reach their climax. In recognition of the hazards implications of potential resumption of activity at pre-Holocene volcanoes, the 3rd edition includes very preliminary lists of Pleistocene

  12. Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) insecticides are biological and structural mimics of JH, a key insect developmental hormone. Toxic and anti-developmental effects of the JHA insecticides methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen were investigated on the larval and pupal stages of Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioassays showed that fenoxycarb has the highest toxicity and fastest speed of kill in 2nd instar S. littoralis. All three JHAs affected the development of 6th instar (i.e., final instar) and pupal S. frugiperda. JH esterase (JHE) is a critical enzyme that helps to regulate JH levels during insect development. JHE activity in the last instar S. littoralis and S. frugiperda was 11 and 23 nmol min(-1) ml(-1) hemolymph, respectively. Methoprene and pyriproxyfen showed poor inhibition of JHE activity from these insects, whereas fenoxycarb showed stronger inhibition. The inhibitory activity of fenoxycarb, however, was more than 1000-fold lower than that of OTFP, a highly potent inhibitor of JHEs. Surprisingly, topical application of methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen on 6th instars of S. littoralis and S. frugiperda prevented the dramatic reduction in JHE activity that was found in control insects. Our findings suggest that JHAs may function as JH agonists that play a disruptive role or a hormonal replacement role in S. littoralis and S. frugiperda. PMID:26969437

  13. 3rd Tech DeltaSphere-3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer infrared laser scanner hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-02-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the 3rd Tech model DeltaSphere-3000{reg_sign} Laser 3D Scene Digitizer, infrared laser scanner model based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers. The portable scanner system is used in the Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL). This scanning system had been proposed to be a demonstrator for a new application. The manufacture lists the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) as less than 2 meters. It was necessary that SNL validate this NOHD prior to its use as a demonstrator involving the general public. A formal laser hazard analysis is presented for the typical mode of operation for the current configuration as well as a possible modified mode and alternative configuration.

  14. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  15. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  16. The larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes oviposits in conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasu, Keiji; Hoang Le, K.

    2007-03-01

    Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid of Helicoverpa/Heliothis spp. In the course of mass rearing of M. croceipes, we found that females oviposited in the conspecific adults in rearing cages. When 20 pairs of inexperienced females and males or of experienced females and males were reared in a cage, the males lived for 14-15 days and the females for 18-20 days on average. At their death, 37-42% of the males and 50-57% of the females contained conspecific eggs or first instar larvae in their abdominal cavity. When two of inexperienced females met on a host-infested leaf of soybean, they attempted to sting each other. Of the attacked females, 30% contained a conspecific egg laid in their abdomen. In abdominal cavity of the adults parasitized by a conspecific female, the majority of the parasitoid eggs laid disappeared within 1 day after oviposition. Only 10-30% of the parasitoid eggs laid in conspecific adults hatched 3-4 days after oviposition, but those larvae never molted to second instar. When the adults were stung by one or two conspecific females, their subsequent longevity was significantly shorter than that for the control adults. Oviposition in conspecific adults may be prevalent in other parasitic wasps that quickly oviposit without intensive host examination, and have cuticle and size of abdomen to be stung by conspeicifcs.

  17. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  18. Larval growth of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and resulting root injury to three citrus varieties in two soil types.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S; Mccoy, C W; Graham, J H

    2000-04-01

    Larval growth and intraspecific competition of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) larvae and consequent root injury in container-grown citrus in the greenhouse were evaluated. Roots of Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.; Cleopatra mandarin, C. reticulata Blanco, and Swingle citrumelo, C. paradisi Macf. x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. rootstock seedlings grown in Candler fine sand and potting soil were colonized with different populations of D. abbreviatus larvae. Larvae were exposed to the seedlings for 79 d. Larval growth and development increased steadily for approximately 70 d on all rootstock-soil combinations, at which time most larvae were instars 6-8. Most feeding injury occurred to roots when larvae were between instars 3 and 6. Larval weight reached a plateau at approximately 70 d, but often declined between 70 and 79 d. When larvae were small, injury to seedlings developed slowly, primarily on fibrous roots, then feeding increased rapidly, often resulting in total consumption of both fibrous root and bark tissue. Although not statistically significant, root injury developed slightly slower on Swingle citrumelo compared with Carrizo and Cleopatra rootstocks, but damage was comparable by 79 d. Little or no difference in consumptive benefit to the larvae was found between the rootstocks. Based on larval weight days, little feeding injury occurred during the first 21 d, but increased rapidly between 21 and 60 d. Soil type affected the rate of larval growth and development, with potting soil contributing to greater growth rates. Detritus in potting soil provided little or no nutritional resource, suggesting that the effect of potting soil on larval development was primarily physical. In addition, fewer inoculated larvae per seedling exhibited greater weight gains than higher infestation densities, suggesting that intraspecific competition for nutritional resources influenced larval development.

  19. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  20. Identification and phenology of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) nymphal instars.

    PubMed

    Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Mori, N; Martini, M

    2012-10-01

    Urtica dioica and Convolvulus arvensis are the main host plants of Hyalesthes obsoletus and play an important role in the epidemiology of Bois noir of grapevines. The earliest survey, which was carried out to compare the phenology of nymphal instars on U. dioica and C. arvensis, had highlighted some problems in the identification of the instars. Therefore, the correct identification of nymphs to species and instar level became a preliminary aim of this research. Adults and nymphs attributable to H. obsoletus were collected during 2008-2010 in three flatland vineyard habitats of northern Italy on U. dioica, C. arvensis and Artemisia verlotorum. Nymphs and morphologically identified adults of H. obsoletus were submitted to molecular identification. Morphometric and morphological studies were carried out on nymphs collected in the field or obtained in laboratory rearings. Molecular methods not only confirmed the identity of adults, but also allowed the assignment of the nymphs to this species. Morphometric and morphological characteristics (e.g. body and head-thoracic lengths, number of thoracic pits) showed the existence of five nymphal instars. Morphometric differences between newly hatched and older first-instar nymphs were observed. A key to distinguish the five instars was proposed. Evident differences between H. obsoletus nymphs studied here and elsewhere were identified. According to differences in adult-flight period, an earlier phenology of nymphs on C. arvensis than on U. dioica was observed. In particular, the typical overwintering instar was the second on U. dioica and the third on C. arvensis.

  1. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany E.; Miller, Dini M.

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  2. Third instar larvae of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of forensic importance--critical review of characters and key for European species.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Richet, René; Pape, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Necrophagous Sarcophagidae are among the insects most frequently reported from human corpses. The broad forensic application of flesh flies is restricted by the lack of reliable tools for species identification of larval stages and mass breeding of collected flesh fly larvae to the adult stage, and more recently DNA-based methods are usually recommended for precise species identification. To overcome this situation, the following study was implemented: (1) original larval material was obtained of the European flesh flies of confirmed or potential forensic importance; (2) larval morphology was studied and documented using a combination of standard light microscopy, image-stacking stereomicroscopy and SEM; and (3) larval characters used in previously published keys were critically revised. The taxonomic value of the following characters was considered insignificant: (1) differences in level of sclerotisation of particular parts of the cephaloskeleton, (2) level of sclerotisation of the posterior spiracular peritreme and (3) the shape of posterior spiracular slits. A high taxonomic value was noticed for the general shape of anterior spiracles, pattern of arrangement of their lobes, and distribution and shape of spines/warts on the inter-band area of segments. Two character states-long window in the dorsal cornu of cephaloskeleton and deep spiracular cavity on anal division-are not found in the Miltogramminae and therefore cannot be considered as family-specific for the entire Sarcophagidae. As a comprehensive result of our studies, an identification key is presented for the third instar larvae of European flesh flies of forensic importance. The key is user-friendly and requires no dissections of larvae, as soaking the material in methyl salicylate will allow observation of all diagnostic details of the cephaloskeleton. A simple stereomicroscope (magnification about ×50) is sufficient for the observation of all characters presented in the key. This key may be

  3. Third instar larvae of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of forensic importance--critical review of characters and key for European species.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Richet, René; Pape, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Necrophagous Sarcophagidae are among the insects most frequently reported from human corpses. The broad forensic application of flesh flies is restricted by the lack of reliable tools for species identification of larval stages and mass breeding of collected flesh fly larvae to the adult stage, and more recently DNA-based methods are usually recommended for precise species identification. To overcome this situation, the following study was implemented: (1) original larval material was obtained of the European flesh flies of confirmed or potential forensic importance; (2) larval morphology was studied and documented using a combination of standard light microscopy, image-stacking stereomicroscopy and SEM; and (3) larval characters used in previously published keys were critically revised. The taxonomic value of the following characters was considered insignificant: (1) differences in level of sclerotisation of particular parts of the cephaloskeleton, (2) level of sclerotisation of the posterior spiracular peritreme and (3) the shape of posterior spiracular slits. A high taxonomic value was noticed for the general shape of anterior spiracles, pattern of arrangement of their lobes, and distribution and shape of spines/warts on the inter-band area of segments. Two character states-long window in the dorsal cornu of cephaloskeleton and deep spiracular cavity on anal division-are not found in the Miltogramminae and therefore cannot be considered as family-specific for the entire Sarcophagidae. As a comprehensive result of our studies, an identification key is presented for the third instar larvae of European flesh flies of forensic importance. The key is user-friendly and requires no dissections of larvae, as soaking the material in methyl salicylate will allow observation of all diagnostic details of the cephaloskeleton. A simple stereomicroscope (magnification about ×50) is sufficient for the observation of all characters presented in the key. This key may be

  4. A larval Devonian lungfish.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Keith S; Sutton, Mark; Thomas, Bethia

    2003-12-18

    Perhaps the most enduring of puzzles in palaeontology has been the identity of Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, a tiny (5-60-mm) vertebrate fossil from the Middle Devonian period (approximately 385 Myr ago) of Scotland, first discovered in 1890 (refs 1-3). It is known principally from a single site (Achanarras Quarry, Caithness) where, paradoxically, it is extremely abundant, preserved in varved lacustrine deposits along with 13 other genera of fishes. Here we show that Palaeospondylus is the larval stage of a lungfish, most probably Dipterus valenciennesi Sedgwick and Murchison 1828 (ref. 5), and that development of the adult form requires a distinct metamorphosis. Palaeospondylus is the oldest known true larva of a vertebrate.

  5. Cytoskeletal F-actin patterns in whole-mounted larval and adult salivary glands of the fleshfly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, W; De Loof, A

    1991-01-01

    The patterns of filamentous actin were analysed in different larval, pupal and adult stages in the salivary glands of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata. Using the rhodamine labelled phalloidin staining method in combination with detergent extraction specific actin filament distribution was detected. The salivary glands which are histolysed during the process of metamorphosis show distinct cellular morphology and actin filament patterns in larvae and adults. The large third instar larval salivary gland cells contain a well developed apicolateral microvillar zone. In third instar larvae this microvillar zone invaginates and expands in the basal part of the lateral membranes. Larval salivary gland cells also contain numerous parallel basal actin bundles. The larval glands are histolysed during metamorphosis and adult glands are formed out of the imaginal cell group. At the onset of metamorphosis these basal actin bundles form a network of crossing bundles. The filamentous actin patterns of the proximal part of adult gland cells is confined to the apicolateral microvillar membranes. The cells in the distal, tubular part of the adult salivary glands show intense staining of their folded lateral membranes.

  6. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Vargas, Hector A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  7. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  8. Morphological description of the fourth instar larva: Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Slama, Darine; Khedher, Asma; Bdira, Sassi; Khayech, Fethi; Delecolle, Jean-claude; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Emna, Chaker

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out of the region of Monastir in Central Tunisia, between July and August 2010. Larvae were collected using a floatation technique with magnesium sulfate in mud samples. The fourth instar larva of Culicoides cataneii Clastrier, 1957 and Culicoides sahariensis Callot, Kremer, Bailly-Choumara, 1970 are described, illustrated and drawn. Measurements of instars IV are also presented. This is the first record of Culicoides cataneii and Culicoides sahariensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Tunisia.

  9. Organizational Support for the 3rd Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, July 30 – August 8, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-07-01

    This grant provided partial funds for American graduate students to attend the 3rd Graduate Summer Institute on Complex Plasmas, which was held from July 30 to August 8, 2012 at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. The Graduate Summer Institute is a topical series of instructional workshops held bi-annually on the emerging field of complex plasmas that is jointly organized through a collaboration between American and German-European Union plasmas researchers. This specialized program brings together many of the world's leading researchers in the specialized area of complex plasmas, who freely provide instructional lectures and tutorials on the most recent research and discoveries done in this branch of plasma science. The partial funds provided by this grant helped support the travel and accommodation expenses of the participating American students and tutorial instructors. Partial funds further supported the travel and accommodation of three renown American plasma researchers that provided educational tutorials to the thirty-eight participating students from the United States, Europe, and Asia. The organized program afforded a unique opportunity for the participating American graduate students to learn about and engage more deeply in an area of plasma science that is not studied in any of the graduate educational curriculums provided by universities in the United States of America. The educational experience offered by this program provided the necessary knowledge needed by future American plasma researchers to keep the national plasma research effort on the cutting-edge and keep the national plasma community as a global leader.

  10. Development of Partially-Coherent Wavefront Propagation Simulation Methods for 3rd and 4th Generation Synchrotron Radiation Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar O.; Berman, L; Chu, Y.S.; Fluerasu, A.; Hulbert, S.; Idir, M.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Shapiro, D.; Baltser, J.

    2012-04-04

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using 'Synchrotron Radiation Workshop' (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  11. The 3rd Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus: Expanding care in the interferon-free era

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A; Bilodeau, Marc; Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Sagan, Selena M; Choucha, Norma; Balfour, Louise; Bialystok, Frank; Krajden, Mel; Raven, Jennifer; Roberts, Eve; Russell, Rodney; Houghton, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Feld, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately 250,000 individuals in Canada and causes more years of life lost than any other infectious disease in the country. In August 2011, new therapies were approved by Health Canada that have achieved higher response rates among those treated, but are poorly tolerated. By 2014/2015, short-course, well-tolerated treatments with cure rates >95% will be available. However, treatment uptake is poor due to structural, financial, geographical, cultural and social barriers. As such, ‘Barriers to access to HCV care in Canada’ is a crucial topic that must be addressed to decrease HCV disease burden and potentially eliminate HCV in Canada. Understanding how to better care for HCV-infected individuals requires integration across multiple disciplines including researchers, clinical services and policy makers to address the major populations affected by HCV including people who inject drugs, baby boomers, immigrants and Aboriginal and/or First Nations people. In 2012, the National CIHR Research Training Program in Hepatitis C organized the 1st Canadian Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus (CSHCV) in Montreal, Quebec. The 2nd CSHCV was held in 2013 in Victoria, British Columbia. Both symposia were highly successful, attracting leading international faculty with excellent attendance leading to dialogue and knowledge translation among attendees of diverse backgrounds. The current article summarizes the 3rd CSHCV, held February 2014, in Toronto, Ontario. PMID:25314353

  12. 3rd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-09-20

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the 3rd quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  13. Evaluation of a model of dissertation supervision for 3rd year B.Sc. undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Donna; Cox, Georgina

    2016-03-01

    All English universities now offer an all degree undergraduate nursing programme. Many currently use an individual supervision model to support final year dissertation students, but with increased numbers and limited resources new models of supervision are needed. This study evaluated a mixed (group and individual) model of dissertation supervision to determine its effectiveness for a large group of undergraduate nursing students. A sample of 3rd year students and their supervisors were selected from one large university. An evaluation survey was conducted using anonymous internet-based questionnaires and focus groups. The data was analysed using Survey Monkey, SPSS and thematic analysis. A 51% (n = 56/110) response rate (students) and 65% (n = 24/37) for supervisors was obtained. The majority of students and supervisors were satisfied with the new model. There was a mixed response to the group workshops and supervision groups. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: engaging with the process, motivation to supervise and valuing the process. The supervision process is a struggle but both parties gained considerably from going through the process. In conclusion, a mixed model of supervision together with a range of other learning resources can be an effective approach in supporting students through the dissertation process. PMID:26700648

  14. Evaluation of a model of dissertation supervision for 3rd year B.Sc. undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Donna; Cox, Georgina

    2016-03-01

    All English universities now offer an all degree undergraduate nursing programme. Many currently use an individual supervision model to support final year dissertation students, but with increased numbers and limited resources new models of supervision are needed. This study evaluated a mixed (group and individual) model of dissertation supervision to determine its effectiveness for a large group of undergraduate nursing students. A sample of 3rd year students and their supervisors were selected from one large university. An evaluation survey was conducted using anonymous internet-based questionnaires and focus groups. The data was analysed using Survey Monkey, SPSS and thematic analysis. A 51% (n = 56/110) response rate (students) and 65% (n = 24/37) for supervisors was obtained. The majority of students and supervisors were satisfied with the new model. There was a mixed response to the group workshops and supervision groups. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: engaging with the process, motivation to supervise and valuing the process. The supervision process is a struggle but both parties gained considerably from going through the process. In conclusion, a mixed model of supervision together with a range of other learning resources can be an effective approach in supporting students through the dissertation process.

  15. To keep the catch – that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12–15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  16. Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Huei; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Hsin-I; Lin, Chao-Chen; Liao, Miin-Jiun; Chen, Heng-Shuen

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of applying relaxation breathing training (RBT) as a means to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in young, talented musicians. A group of 59 young musicians from 3rd to 6th grade participated in this study, and all of them started RBT twice a week for 2 months prior to the examination. Four tests--2 mos, 1 mos, half an hour and 5 min before the examination--were conducted to examine the level of MPA after the application of RBT. Results show that the degree of MPA 5 min before the trial was lower than the degree of performance anxiety half an hour before the jury (t = -3.683, p < 0.01), which indicated that the RBT was associated with a decrease in MPA. Although a series of RBT exercises was applied, results indicated that when approaching the date of examination, the degree of performance anxiety still increased and reached its maximum half an hour before the jury. The recommendation for future studies is to combine the application of RBT with other methods to expand its effect in reducing MPA.

  17. Changing motor patterns of the 3rd axillary muscle activities associated with longitudinal control in freely flying hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Ando, Noriyasu; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2004-02-01

    The 3rd axillary muscles (3AXMs) in the mesothorax in hawkmoths are direct flight muscles and pull forewings back along to the body axis. The 3AXMs are regarded as steering muscles because of their changeable activities during turning flight under tethered conditions. We investigated activities of the upper unit of the 3AXMs during free flight with a micro-telemetry device and captured body and wing movements by high-speed cameras. The 3AXM was activated with 1 to 3 spikes per each wingbeat cycle but sometimes ceased to fire. The phase of the onset of the activities was, even though it was variable, close to the phase of the elevator muscle activities. Therefore the upper unit of the 3AXM activities would affect upstroke properties phasically including wing retractions. We focused on longitudinal flight control and identified a correlation between the phase of the 3AXM and body pitch angle, which is important kinematical parameter for longitudinal control in insect flight. The phasic changes of the 3AXM activities would support quick changes in longitudinal control. PMID:14993822

  18. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  19. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  20. The structure and morphogenic changes of antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) in different instars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Yingping; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the functioning and morphogenic changes of the antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in different instars, the antennae are examined using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of M. matsumurae display three different styles in morphology and sensillar distribution in different instars. The antennae of first instar nymphs are relatively simple, including one campaniform sensillum (Ca), four smooth aporous trichoid sensilla (SAt), two intersegmental sensilla (Ins), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), three multiporous pegs (Mp) and four uniporous pegs (Up). The antennae of adult females and third instar male nymphs both possess similar antennae, and exhibit seven types of sensilla. Adult female antennae have in total 82-108 sensilla, including 9-16 Böhm's bristle (Bb), 3-7 Ca, 50-75 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 3-10 Co, 8 Mp and 5 Up, whereas third instar male nymph antennae possess approximately 62-79 sensilla. Adult male antennae are the most developed, possessing 259-312 sensilla, including 7-15 Bb, 2-5 Ca, 7-11 grooved aporous trichoid sensilla, 4-9 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 2-7 Co, 23-29 knobbed seta sensilla, 179-230 multiporous trichoid sensilla and 8 Mp. Based on these results, the main functions and morphogenic changes of antennae M. matsumurae in different instars are discussed.

  1. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  2. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  3. "Elderly Deafblindness." Proceedings of the European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network (3rd, Marcelli di Numana, Italy, October 2-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deafblind International, London (England).

    This text includes all of the plenary presentations from the 3rd European Conference of Deafblind International's Acquired Deafblindness Network. This international conference was the first to focus specifically on older people with dual sensory impairment. Presentations addressed the awareness of the needs of older people with deafblind or dual…

  4. Implications of Technology for Teaching and Learning. Annual Professional Education Seminar of Central States Colleges and Universities (3rd, November, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Asahel; Froyen, Len

    This report of the proceedings of the 3rd Annual Professional Education Seminar of the Central States Colleges and Universities centers upon the implications of technology for teaching and learning and contains addresses delivered, including "Some Concerns Related to Technology in Education," by Len Froyen; and "Implications of Technology for…

  5. Midwest Child-Parent Center (CPC) PreK-3rd Grade School Reform Model: Impacts on Child and Family Outcomes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylor, Erika; Spiker, Donna; Wei, Xin; Lease, Erin; Reynolds, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This presentation reports on the goals and preliminary outcomes of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) Expansion Project, which is a PreK to 3rd grade school reform model aimed at improving the short- and long-term outcomes of participating children and families. The model provides continuous education and family support services to schools serving a…

  6. Larval morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpodidae) and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Yue, Chao; Hua, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval characters play a significant role in evolutionary and systematic studies of holometabolous insects. However, Panorpodidae, a derived family of Mecoptera, are largely unknown in their immature stages to date. Here, the first instar larva of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong, Zhang & Hua, 2011 is described and illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva of Panorpodes is remarkable for the absence of compound eyes on the head and the presence of seven small unpaired proleg-like processes along the midventral line on abdominal segments II–VIII. The homology of these unpaired appendage-like processes, their ecological adaptation, and the evolutionary implications of some larval characters of Panorpodidae are discussed. PMID:24715802

  7. Major digestive carbohydrase during larval development of meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: pyralidae).

    PubMed

    de Sales, M P; Alcazar, Alonso; Lima, L M; Amorim, Ticiana M L; Pitanga, J C M; Pereira, R A; Macedo, L L P; Macedo, F P; Oliveira, A S; Uchôa, Adriana F

    2008-01-01

    The digestive system of P. interpunctella was characterized during its larval development to determination of carbohydrases using disaccharides (sucrose and maltose) and polysaccharides (starch and inulin) as substrate. At 6(th) instar larval, Invertase>alpha-amylase> maltase activities peaks were observed. Invertase was fractionated with acetone and isolated. The Invertase was 485.5 fold purified by Sephacryl S-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Its kinetic parameters were K(m) of 6.6 mM, V(max) of 0.48, pH optimum of 5.5 and temperature optimum of 30 degrees C. This enzyme was activated by CaCl(2) and inhibited by EDTA. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE it showed one band of M(r) 34 kDa. The understanding of the digestive system of P. interpunctella could be a key step in the design of bioinsecticides.

  8. Instar growth and molt increments in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) chalimus larvae.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Hamre, Lars Are; Nilsen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasitic copepod causing severe problems to the fish farming industry and to wild salmonids. Morphologically, all stages in the life cycle of L. salmonis have been described in detail based on successive samples from host populations. However, the rate of development differs between males and females as well as between individuals. It has therefore been difficult to observe development within stages, and this has led to a longstanding misinterpretation of the number of chalimus stages. Here samples of chalimi obtained for 12 consecutive days were observed daily in incubators. Chalimus 1 was able to molt in incubators only when fully grown and close to molting, whereas chalimus 2 was able to molt at about 60% of total instar growth. Total length instar growth was about 35% in both chalimus 1 and chalimus 2 and about equal among males and females; the cephalothorax increased by about 12% and the posterior body by about 80%. Instar growth was probably the main factor that led to the former belief that L. salmonis had four chalimus stages. Relative total length increase at molting was at the same order of magnitude as instar growth, but total length of females increased significantly more than that of males at molting. Consequently, a sexual size dimorphism was established upon molting to chalimus 2 and males were about 10% smaller than females. While growth by molting was mainly caused by cephalothorax increase, instar growth was mainly due to increase of the posterior body. The cephalothorax/total length ratio decreased from beginning to end of the instar phase suggesting that it may be used as an instar age marker. Male and female chalimus 2 can almost uniquely be identified by cephalothorax length. Chalimus 1 lasted between 5 and 6 days for males and between 6 and 7 days for females at 10°C. Chalimus 2 males lasted between 6 and 7 days and females between 7 and 8 days. PMID:25451218

  9. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  10. Classification of biliary tract cancers established by the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery: 3(rd) English edition.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Nagino, Masato; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sano, Keiji; Endo, Itaru; Unno, Michiaki; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Oka, Masaaki; Kubota, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Masanori; Uemoto, Shinji; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Inui, Kazuo; Tazuma, Susumu; Furuse, Junji; Yanagisawa, Akio; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kijima, Hiroshi; Takada, Tadahiro

    2015-03-01

    The 3(rd) English edition of the Japanese classification of biliary tract cancers was released approximately 10 years after the 5(th) Japanese edition and the 2(nd) English edition. Since the first Japanese edition was published in 1981, the Japanese classification has been in extensive use, particularly among Japanese surgeons and pathologists, because the cancer status and clinical outcomes in surgically resected cases have been the main objects of interest. However, recent advances in the diagnosis, management and research of the disease prompted the revision of the classification that can be used by not only surgeons and pathologists but also by all clinicians and researchers, for the evaluation of current disease status, the determination of current appropriate treatment, and the future development of medical practice for biliary tract cancers. Furthermore, during the past 10 years, globalization has advanced rapidly, and therefore, internationalization of the classification was an important issue to revise the Japanese original staging system, which would facilitate to compare the disease information among institutions worldwide. In order to achieve these objectives, the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers principally adopted the 7(th) edition of staging system developed by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, because there are some points pending in these systems, several distinctive points were also included for the purpose of collection of information for the future optimization of the staging system. Free mobile application of the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers is available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/classification/cbt15.html. PMID:25691463

  11. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking. PMID:22233305

  12. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  13. Classification of biliary tract cancers established by the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery: 3(rd) English edition.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Nagino, Masato; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sano, Keiji; Endo, Itaru; Unno, Michiaki; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Oka, Masaaki; Kubota, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Masanori; Uemoto, Shinji; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Inui, Kazuo; Tazuma, Susumu; Furuse, Junji; Yanagisawa, Akio; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Kijima, Hiroshi; Takada, Tadahiro

    2015-03-01

    The 3(rd) English edition of the Japanese classification of biliary tract cancers was released approximately 10 years after the 5(th) Japanese edition and the 2(nd) English edition. Since the first Japanese edition was published in 1981, the Japanese classification has been in extensive use, particularly among Japanese surgeons and pathologists, because the cancer status and clinical outcomes in surgically resected cases have been the main objects of interest. However, recent advances in the diagnosis, management and research of the disease prompted the revision of the classification that can be used by not only surgeons and pathologists but also by all clinicians and researchers, for the evaluation of current disease status, the determination of current appropriate treatment, and the future development of medical practice for biliary tract cancers. Furthermore, during the past 10 years, globalization has advanced rapidly, and therefore, internationalization of the classification was an important issue to revise the Japanese original staging system, which would facilitate to compare the disease information among institutions worldwide. In order to achieve these objectives, the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers principally adopted the 7(th) edition of staging system developed by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, because there are some points pending in these systems, several distinctive points were also included for the purpose of collection of information for the future optimization of the staging system. Free mobile application of the new Japanese classification of the biliary tract cancers is available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/classification/cbt15.html.

  14. The effect of silencing arginine kinase by RNAi on the larval development of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Qi, X-L; Su, X-F; Lu, G-Q; Liu, C-X; Liang, G-M; Cheng, H-M

    2015-10-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is an important regulation factor of energy metabolism in invertebrate. An arginine kinase gene, named HaAK, was identified to be differentially expressed between Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) and Cry1Ac-resistant (Bt-R) Helicoverpa armigera larvae using cDNA-amplification fragment length polymorphism analysis. The full-length open reading frame sequence of HaAK gene with 1068 bp was isolated from H. armigera. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that HaAK gene is specifically expressed in multiple tissues and at larval developmental stages. The peak expression level of HaAK was detected in the midgut of the fifth-instar larvae. Moreover, the expression of HaAK was obviously down-regulated in Bt-R larvae. We further constructed a dsRNA vector directly targeting HaAK and employed RNAi technology to control the larvae. The feeding bioassays showed that minute quantities of dsRNA could greatly increase the larval mortality and delay the larval pupation. Silencing of HaAK significantly retarded the larval development, indicating that HaAK is a potential target for RNA interference-based pest management. PMID:26138927

  15. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy.

  16. Influence of starvation on the larval development of Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1981-09-01

    The influence of starvation on larval development of the spider crab Hyas araneus (L.) was studied in laboratory experiments. No larval stage suffering from continual lack of food had sufficient energy reserves to reach the next instar. Maximal survival times were observed at four different constant temperatures (2°, 6°, 12° and 18 °C). In general, starvation resistance decreased as temperatures increased: from 72 to 12days in the zoea-1, from 48 to 18 days in the zoea-2, and from 48 to 15 days in the megalopa stage. The length of maximal survival is of the same order of magnitude as the duration of each instar at a given temperature. “Sublethal limits” of early starvation periods were investigated at 12 °C: Zoea larvae must feed right from the beginning of their stage (at high food concentration) and for more than one fifth, approximately, of that stage to have at least some chance of surviving to the next instar, independent of further prey availability. The minimum time in which enough reserves are accumulated for successfully completing the instar without food is called “point-of-reserve-saturation” (PRS). If only this minimum period of essential initial feeding precedes starvation, development in both zoeal stages is delayed and mortality is greater, when compared to the fed control. Starvation periods beginning right after hatching of the first zoea cause a prolongation of this instar and, surprisingly, a slight shortening of the second stage. The delay in the zoea-1 increases proportionally to the length of the initial fasting period. If more than approximately 70 % of the maximum possible survival time has elapsed without food supply, the larvae become unable to recover and to moult to the second stage even when re-fed (“point-of-no-return”, PNR). The conclusion, based on own observations and on literature data, is that initial feeding is of paramount importance in the early development of planktotrophic decapod larvae. Taking into account

  17. Larval ethanol exposure alters adult circadian free-running locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Seggio, Joseph A; Possidente, Bernard; Ahmad, S Tariq

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption causes disruptions in a variety of daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle. Few studies have explored the effect of alcohol exposure only during developmental stages preceding maturation of the adult circadian clock, and none have examined the effects of alcohol on clock function in Drosophila. This study investigates developmental and behavioral correlates between larval ethanol exposure and the adult circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster, a well-established model for studying circadian rhythms and effects of ethanol exposure. We reared Drosophila larvae on 0%, 10%, or 20% ethanol-supplemented food and assessed effects upon eclosion and the free-running period of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity. We observed a dose-dependent effect of ethanol on period, with higher doses resulting in shorter periods. We also identified the third larval instar stage as a critical time for the developmental effects of 10% ethanol on circadian period. These results demonstrate that developmental ethanol exposure causes sustainable shortening of the adult free-running period in Drosophila melanogaster, even after adult exposure to ethanol is terminated, and suggests that the third instar is a sensitive time for this effect. PMID:22217104

  18. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  19. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  20. Complete tribal sampling reveals basal split in Muscidae (Diptera), confirms saprophagy as ancestral feeding mode, and reveals an evolutionary correlation between instar numbers and carnivory.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Sujatha Narayanan; Pont, Adrian C; Meier, Rudolf; Pape, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    With about 5000 species in ca. 180 genera, the Muscidae is the most species-rich family in the muscoid grade of Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha), the others being the Fanniidae, Scathophagidae and Anthomyiidae. Muscidae is remarkable for its young age, high species diversity in all biogeographic regions, and an unusually diverse range of feeding habits at the larval stage (e.g., saprophagy, phytophagy, carnivory, endoparasitism, haematophagy). We here review muscid classification and biology and present a molecular phylogeny based on four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI, CYTB) and three nuclear genes (28S, Ef1a, and CAD) for 84 species from 40 genera. Our analysis is the first to include species from all biogeographic regions and all currently recognised muscid subfamilies and tribes. We provide strong support for the monophyly of the Muscidae, and for the first time also for the first split within this family. The ancestral larval feeding habit is reconstructed to be saprophagy with more specialised coprophagous saprophagy, phytophagy, and carnivory evolving multiple times from saprophagous ancestors. The origins of carnivory in larvae are significantly correlated with a reduction of the number of larval instars from three (ancestral) to two and one. The genus Achanthiptera which was previously in its own subfamily is shown to be closely related to Azeliini. However, it appears that Azeliinae is paraphyletic because Muscinae is sister-group to the Azeliini while the azeliine Reinwardtiini are polyphyletic. Coenosiinae and Muscinae are monophyletic, but Muscini is paraphyletic with regard to Stomoxyini. Because many subfamilies are apparently para- or even polyphyletic, we review the history of muscid classification in order to reveal how the currently used classification originated.

  1. MicroRNA-dependent roles of Drosha and Pasha in the Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiming; Li, Mengjie; Hu, Xiaolong; Xin, Tianchi; Zhang, Shu; Zhao, Gengchun; Xuan, Tao; Li, Mingfa

    2016-08-15

    The Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis mainly involves coordinated development of somatic and germ cell lineages that is essential for forming a correct number of niche-germline stem cell (GSC) units (ovarioles) in the adult ovary. Ecdysone, Insulin, Activin, Dpp and EGFR signaling pathways form a regulatory network that orchestrates ovarian soma and germ line throughout larval development. Identification and characterization of additional genes or machineries involved in this process will provide more insights into the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that the core microRNA (miRNA) pathway components Drosha and Pasha are required for coordinated development of somatic and germ cell precursors in the larval ovary. Drosha or pasha mutants display defective proliferation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of GSCs prior to late third larval instar (LL3) and promoted PGC differentiation at LL3. In the mean time, loss of Drosha or Pasha function perturbs somatic precursor development, causing defects in formation of terminal filaments (TFs), a major composition of the GSC niche at LL3, as well as in TF precursor accumulation at early larval stages. Comparative analysis of the mutant phenotypes reveals that three other key miRNA pathway components, Dicer-1 (Dcr-1), Loquacious (Loqs) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) have similar effects as Drosha and Pasha indicated above, suggesting a role of the canonical miRNA pathway in the ovary development. Furthermore, genome-wide screening and genetic studies identify a set of Drosha-controlled miRNAs including miR-8, miR-14, miR-33, miR-184, miR-317 and let-7-C that function in this gonadogenesis. Taken together, this study provides the first ever demonstration that miRNA-mediated regulation is involved in the Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis. PMID:27339292

  2. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4-5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd-3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence was

  3. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  4. Instar development of the douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, R.C.; Grimble, D.G.; Weatherby, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all practical purposes, areas can be released for spraying when third instars are initially found.

  5. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  6. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  8. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn.

  9. Larval structure of Passalus gravelyi and sexual dimorphism in Passalid larvae.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Ingrid; Mermudes, José Ricardo Miras; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    The adults and larvae of Passalidae are subsocial insects commonly found in tropical forests, living in decaying wood gallery systems constructed by adults. Currently, few repots on the larvae of Neotropical Passalidae have been published and information is scarce. In this study, the Passalus (Pertinax) gravelyi Moreira, 1922 larvae is described for the first time, based on ten larval specimens 1 (1° instar), 4 (2° instar), and 5 (3° instar) associated with three adults collected from a single colony at the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The description was carried out based on electronic and digital photographs of diagnostic structures, with some details on the systematic of the species. The larvae of Passalus gravelyi has the general setal 'Pertinax' pattern and differed from others by 16 to 18 setae on the anal ring, the other larvae data from Brazilian species show the anal ring with 10 to 12 setae. A discussion on the presence of sexual dimorphism in 62 species of two and three instars of Passalidae larvae is provided for the first time. Besides, a description of the terminal ampulla present as a cuticular structure found in the medial-ventral area of the 9th abdominal sternite in males is also given. The terminal ampulla was only observed in the Passalidae male larvae and was not visible in female larvae. The terminal ampulla are acknowledged now in males of 64 passalid species, that are taxonomically distributed in world tropical forests, at the Oriental and Australian subfamily Aulacocyclinae (Aulacocyclini & Ceracupini) and the cosmotropical subfamily Passalinae (Solenocyclini, Macrolinini, Passalini, & Proculini). PMID:26666126

  10. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest.

  11. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest. PMID:26834144

  12. Comparative study on oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella on Bt and non-Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Shera, P S; Arora, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fabricius) was assessed on four transgenic Bt cotton hybrids, viz. MRC 6304 Bt (cry1Ac gene), JKCH 1947 Bt (modified cry1Ac gene), NCEH 6R Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac fused gene) and MRC 7017 BG II (cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes) in comparison to the respective isogenic cotton. The results showed that Bt toxin did not deter oviposition preference of E. vittella moths as there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid on squares/bolls of Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids, across different crop growth stages. There was also no behavioral change in larval preference with respect to selecting non-Bt cotton in comparison to Bt cotton. Floral bodies from Bt and the respective isogenic cotton genotypes were equally preferred by both first and third instar larvae after 24 hrs indicating that initial selection was independent of susceptibility to Bt toxin. However, E. vittella larvae showed significant difference in preference for different cotton genotypes. Studies on the relative preference indicated that third instar larvae had greater preference for bolls (7.29-7.50%) than for the squares (5.0-5.21%) and reverse was true for the first instar larvae which showed greater preference for squares (7.08-7.29%) than for the bolls (5.21-5.42%), in a multiple-choice test. It may be concluded that oviposition and larval preference of E. vittella did not differ significantly between Bt and isogenic non-Bt cotton genotypes.

  13. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-01-01

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines. PMID:24870650

  14. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality.

  15. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  16. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  17. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  18. Acquisition of high-quality digital video of Drosophila larval and adult behaviors from a lateral perspective.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Beatrix; Wetzel, Sabine; Duncan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming. PMID:25350294

  19. Acquisition of High-Quality Digital Video of Drosophila Larval and Adult Behaviors from a Lateral Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zenger, Beatrix; Wetzel, Sabine; Duncan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming. PMID:25350294

  20. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species.

  1. Elevated major ion concentrations inhibit larval mayfly growth and development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brent R; Weaver, Paul C; Nietch, Christopher T; Lazorchak, James M; Struewing, Katherine A; Funk, David H

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from developing energy resources, can alter stream chemistry significantly by elevating total dissolved solids. Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high total dissolved solids. In the present study, the authors measured 20-d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer exposed to a gradient of brine salt (mixed NaCl and CaCl2 ) concentrations. Daily growth rates were reduced significantly in all salt concentrations above the control (363 µS cm(-1) ) and larvae in treatments with specific conductance >812 µS cm(-1) were in comparatively earlier developmental stages (instars) at the end of the experiment. Survivorship declined significantly when specific conductance was >1513 µS cm(-1) and the calculated 20-d 50% lethal concentration was 2866 µS cm(-1) . The present study's results provide strong experimental evidence that elevated ion concentrations similar to those observed in developing energy resources, such as oil and gas drilling or coal mining, can adversely affect sensitive aquatic insect species. PMID:25307284

  2. [Use of imaging methods in the current screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer - Professional guidelines. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Gábor; Ambrózay, Éva; Bidlek, Mária; Borbély, Katalin; Kovács, Eszter; Lengyel, Zsolt; Ormándi, Katalin; Péntek, Zoltán; Riedl, Erika; Sebõ, Éva; Szabó, Éva

    2016-09-01

    Breast radiologists and nuclear medical specialists have refreshed their previous statement text during the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting. They suggest taking into consideration this actual protocol for the screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast tumors, from now on. This recommendation includes the description of the newest technologies, the recent results of scientific research, as well as the role of imaging methods in the therapeutic processes and the follow-up. Suggestions for improvement of the Hungarian current practice and other related issues as forensic medicine, media connections, regulations, and reimbursement are also detailed. The statement text has been cross-checked with the related medical disciplines. PMID:27579719

  3. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  4. Biochemical and histological effects of gibberellic acid on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Khemais; Ben Halima-Kamel, Monia; Acheuk, Fatma; Soltani, Noureddine; Aribi, Nadia; Hamouda, Mohamed HabibBen

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae. Newly emerged larvae were exposed to various concentrations of GA3 administered by topical application or by forced ingestion. Results showed that treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. GA3 toxicity was also demonstrated by perturbation of the moult processes. In fact, we noted that treated insects present exuviations difficulties due to the impossibility to reject the old integuments causing mortality in the 5th instar larvae. Histological study of proventriculus revealed alterations in the epithelial cells and absence of apolysis phenomenon. Data also showed that GA3 induced significant quantitative variation of haemolymph metabolites. These changes result in a significant decrease in the total concentration of proteins and carbohydrates and an increase in the total concentration of haemolymph lipids. PMID:25149232

  5. Effect of non-erupted 3rd molars on distal roots and supporting structures of approximal teeth. A radiographic survey of 202 cases.

    PubMed

    Nemcovsky, C E; Libfeld, H; Zubery, Y

    1996-09-01

    Root resorption of 2nd molars in proximity to non-erupted 3rd molars has been widely reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of root resorption in second molars adjacent to non-erupted third molars. Its association to age and gender of the patient, location and inclination of the non-erupted third molar and to distal bone support of the 2nd molars was analyzed. A radiographic survey of 202 periapical radiographs taken in patients with clinically missing third molars was conducted. 3 examiners independently evaluated the radiographs and only those cases where at least 2 observers agreed were included in this report. Statistical analysis was performed on 186 radiographs. Associations were analyzed with the Pearson chi 2 test. Radiographic evidence of root resorption was found in 45 2nd molars (24.2%) of which 12 (6.5%) showed moderate to complete root resorption. Non-erupted tooth apical position and mesio-inclination of 60 degrees or more relative to the distal root of the second molar were significantly associated with root resorption (p = 0.01368 and p = 0.0194, respectively). Resorption was positively associated with age of patient (p = 0.00606). These results may support early extraction of impacted 3rd molars especially in cases with a mesio-angulation of 60 degrees or more and an apical location in proximity to the distal root of the 2nd molar. PMID:8891930

  6. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Wang, S; Tang, J

    2003-04-01

    Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to chemical fumigants for control of postharvest insects in dried fruits and nuts. Conventional forced hot air treatments heat product too slowly to be practical, but radio frequency treatments are capable of more rapid product heating. While developing radio frequency heat treatments for dried fruits and nuts, the heat tolerance of nondiapausing and diapausing fifth-instar larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was determined using a heating block system developed by Washington State University. Both a 0.5th order kinetic model and a classical empirical model were used to estimate lethal exposure times for temperatures of 44-52 degrees C for nondiapausing fifth-instar larvae. We obtained 95% mortality at exposures suitable for practical radio frequency treatments (< or = 5 min) with temperatures of 50 and 52 degrees C. Diapausing larvae were significantly more tolerant than nondiapausing larvae at the lowest treatment temperature and shortest exposure, but differences were not significant at more extreme temperature-time combinations. Previous studies showed that fifth-instar larvae of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were more heat tolerant than either diapausing or nondiapausing Indianmeal moth larvae. Consequently, efficacious treatments for navel orangeworm would also control Indianmeal moth.

  7. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  8. Measuring thigmotaxis in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schnörr, S J; Steenbergen, P J; Richardson, M K; Champagne, D L

    2012-03-17

    One of the most commonly used behavioral endpoints measured in preclinical studies using rodent models is thigmotaxis (or "wall-hugging"). Thigmotaxis is a well-validated index of anxiety in animals and humans. While assays measuring thigmotaxis in adult zebrafish have been developed, a thigmotaxis assay has not yet been validated in larval zebrafish. Here we present a novel assay for measurement of thigmotaxis in zebrafish larvae that is triggered by a sudden change in illumination (i.e. sudden light-to-darkness transition) and performed in a standard 24-well plate. We show that zebrafish larvae as young as 5 days post fertilization respond to this challenge by engaging in thigmotaxis. Thigmotaxis was significantly attenuated by anxiolytic (diazepam) and significantly enhanced by anxiogenic (caffeine) drugs, thus representing the first validated thigmotaxis assay for larval zebrafish. We also show that exposure to sudden darkness per se may represent an anxiogenic situation for larval zebrafish since less contrasting light-to-darkness transitions (achieved by lowering darkness degrees) significantly decreased thigmotaxis levels in a manner similar to what was achieved with diazepam. These findings suggest that stimuli such as exposure to sudden darkness could be used proficiently to trigger the expression of anxiety-like behaviors in laboratory settings. In sum, this is a versatile protocol allowing testing of both anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs in a cost-effective manner (only 10 min). This assay is also amenable to medium to high-throughput capacity while constituting a valuable tool for stress and central nervous system research as well as for preclinical drug screening and discovery. PMID:22197677

  9. Larval morphology and identification of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879 (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    WARINGER, JOHANN; VITECEK, SIMON; GRAF, WOLFRAM

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Rhyacophila meyeri McLachlan 1879. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of R. meyeri keys together with R. stigmatica (Kolenati 1859). The species pair can be separated by differences in the setation pattern at the anterior pronotal border and maximum head width. With respect to zoogeography, Rhyacophila meyeri is reported from Switzerland and northern Italy whereas R. stigmatica is restricted to the Austrian, German and Swiss Alps and northern Slovenia (Cianficconi 2002; Graf et al. 2008; Lubini-Ferlin & Vicentini 2005; Malicky 2009; Robert 2004). PMID:27073321

  10. Partial characterization of a lipase from gypsy moth (lymantria dispar L.) larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Lipase activity of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was studied by the spectrophotometric method using crude homogenate of fifth-instar larval midgut tissues as the enzyme source and p-nitrophenyl caprylate (pNPC) as substrate. A Km value of 0.310 mM and a Vmax value of 1.479 U/mg prot. were obtained for this substrate. Among various p-nitrophenyl esters tested, maximum activity was obtained for p-nitrophenyl caprylate and p-nitrophenyl caprate. The enzyme was most active at alkaline pH, with maximum at pH 8.2. Decreased activity was detected after preincubation in buffers of pH below 7.0 and above 8.2. The enzyme was unstable at room temperature. The enzyme was Ca2+ independent. Its activity was inhibited by PMSF, Fe2+, Ag+ and Pb2+, while Fe3+ inhibited enzyme activity by about 40%.

  11. Programmed cell death in the larval salivary glands of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Zacarin, E C M; Tomaino, G A; Brocheto-Braga, M R; Taboga, S R; De Moraes, R L M Silva

    2007-03-01

    The morphological and histochemical features of degeneration in honeybee (Apis mellifera) salivary glands were investigated in 5th instar larvae and in the pre-pupal period. The distribution and activity patterns of acid phosphatase enzyme were also analysed. As a routine,the larval salivary glands were fixed and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Tissue sections were subsequently stained with haematoxylin -eosin,bromophenol blue,silver,or a variant of the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) method.Ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate.Glands were processed for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of acid phosphatase,as well as biochemical assay to detect its activity pattern. Acid phosphatase activity was histochemically detected in all the salivary glands analysed.The cytochemical results showed acid phosphatase in vesicles, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes during the secretory phase and,additionally, in autophagic structures and luminal secretion during the degenerative phase. These findings were in agreement with the biochemical assay. At the end of the 5th instar, the glandular cells had a vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei, and epithelial cells were shed into the glandular lumen.The transition phase from the 5th instar to the pre-pupal period was characterized by intense vacuolation of the basal cytoplasm and release of parts of the cytoplasm into the lumen by apical blebbing; these blebs contained cytoplasmic RNA, rough endoplasmic reticule and, occasionally, nuclear material. In the pre-pupal phase, the glandular epithelium showed progressive degeneration so that at the end of this phase only nuclei and remnants of the cytoplasm were observed.The nuclei were pyknotic,with peripheral chromatin and blebs. The gland remained in the haemolymph and was recycled during metamorphosis. The programmed cell death in this gland represented a morphological form intermediate between

  12. Trypsin-like serine peptidase profiles in the egg, larval, and pupal stages of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus, a ubiquitous mosquito, is one of the main vectors of dengue and yellow fever, representing an important threat to public health worldwide. Peptidases play key roles in processes such as digestion, oogenesis, and metamorphosis of insects. However, most of the information on the proteolytic enzymes of mosquitoes is derived from insects in the adult stages and is often directed towards the understanding of blood digestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of active peptidases from the preimaginal stages of Ae. albopictus. Methods Ae. albopictus eggs, larvae, and pupae were analyzed using zymography with susbtrate-SDS-PAGE. The pH, temperature and peptidase inhibitor sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, the proteolytic activities of larval instars were assayed using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Results The proteolytic profile of the larval stage was composed of 8 bands ranging from 17 to 130 kDa. These enzymes displayed activity in a broad range of pH values, from 5.5 to 10.0. The enzymatic profile of the eggs was similar to that of the larvae, although the proteolytic bands of the eggs showed lower intensities. The pupal stage showed a complex proteolytic pattern, with at least 6 bands with apparent molecular masses ranging from 30 to 150 kDa and optimal activity at pH 7.5. Peptidases from larval instars were active from 10°C to 60°C, with optimal activity at temperatures between 37°C and 50°C. The proteolytic profile of both the larval and pupal stages was inhibited by phenyl-methyl sulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF) and Nα-Tosyl L-lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride (TLCK), indicating that the main peptidases expressed during these developmental stages are trypsin-like serine peptidases. Conclusion The preimaginal stages of Ae. albopictus exhibited a complex profile of trypsin-like serine peptidase activities. A comparative analysis of the active peptidase profiles revealed differential expression

  13. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region. PMID:27394221

  14. [Pathological diagnosis, work-up and reporting of breast cancer. Recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Kulka, Janina; Francz, Monika; Járay, Balázs; Kálmán, Endre; Kovács, Ilona; Krenács, Tibor; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Vass, László

    2016-09-01

    There have been relevant changes in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to implement the updating of the 2010 recommendations made during the 2nd national consensus conference on the disease. Following a wide interdisciplinary consultation, the present recommendations have been finalized after their public discussion at the 3rd Hungarian Consensus Conference on Breast Cancer. The recommendations cover non-operative and intraoperative diagnostics, the work-up of operative specimens, the determination of prognostic and predictive markers and the content of the cytology and histology reports. Furthermore, it touches some special issues such as the current status of multigene molecular markers, the role of pathologists in clinical trials and prerequisites for their involvement, some relevant points about the future. PMID:27579721

  15. From challenges to solutions. European Bioanalysis Forum 3rd Annual Open Symposium, Hesperia Towers, Barcelona, Spain, 1-3 December 2010.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard W; Gordon, Ben; van Amsterdam, Peter; Lausecker, Berthold; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Smeraglia, John; Romero, Fernando; Globig, Susanne; Golob, Michaela; Knutsson, Magnus; Herling, Christian; Vieser, Eva; Timmerman, Philip

    2011-04-01

    The European Bioanalysis Forum is a bioanalytical nonprofit organization comprised of European pharmaceutical companies (27 members to date) and currently expanding to include CROs as well. The European Bioanalysis Forum provides a broad European bioanalytical network for the discussion of scientific, technological and regulatory topics of bioanalytical interest. The 3rd Annual Open Symposium was again much anticipated after the two previous successful meetings. The symposium included sessions on thinking outside the 'commodity' box, bioanalytical challenges with blood, global harmonization, assay platforms, dried blood spots, immunogenicity, matrix effects, anomalous results, biomarkers and two plenary technology sessions hosted by the Platinum sponsors. Experts and key opinion leaders were invited as guest speakers. A total of 424 delegates registered from 113 companies representing a large percentage of the European bioanalytical community. In addition to 48 oral presentations, 88 posters were presented and there was a vendor exposition of 40 companies.

  16. Reflections: Surgical Education-the Times they are a-Changin': Lessons Learned from the 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Radoslaw; Vetto, John T

    2015-09-01

    Technical skills are not sufficient for successful surgical care. Non-technical skills such as team work, decision-making in cancer treatment, communication with the patient, ethical challenges, situation awareness, and communication in the operating room are mandatory for favorable outcomes. Although formally taught in other high-demand disciplines, such skills were traditionally rarely discussed in surgical oncology. The 3rd MAYMET-ESO Joint Meeting "Professionalism for Breast Surgeons" held in Istanbul, Turkey, 5 October 2013 was dedicated to the development of non-technical skills in the everyday activity of breast surgeons. We briefly discuss information from this very interesting and inspiring educational event and how it relates to more recent changes in surgical oncology education. PMID:25903052

  17. Deuterium beam acceleration with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating in Joint European Torus: Sawtooth stabilization and Alfvén eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, T.; Schoepf, K.; Sharapov, S. E.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Hellesen, C.; Eriksson, J.; JET-EFDA contributors

    2012-03-01

    Experiments on accelerating NBI-produced deuterium (D) beam ions from their injection energy of ˜110 keV up to the MeV energy range with 3rd harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating were performed on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. A renewed set of nuclear diagnostics was used for analysing fast D ions during sawtooth stabilization, monster sawtooth crashes, and during excitation of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) residing inside the q = 1 radius. The measurements and modeling of the fast ions with the nonlinear HAGIS code [S. D. Pinches et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 111, 133 (1998)] show that monster sawtooth crashes are strongly facilitated by the AE-induced re-distribution of the fast D ions from inside the q = 1 radius to the plasma edge.

  18. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  19. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  20. Functions of nuclear receptor HR3 during larval-pupal molting in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) revealed by in vivo RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Chao; Liu, Xin-Ping; Fu, Kai-Yun; Shi, Ji-Feng; Lü, Feng-Gong; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-08-01

    Our previous results revealed that RNA interference-aided knockdown of Leptinotarsa decemlineata FTZ-F1 (LdFTZ-F1) reduced 20E titer, and impaired pupation. In this study, we characterized a putative LdHR3 gene, an early-late 20E-response gene upstream of LdFTZ-F1. Within the first, second and third larval instars, three expression peaks of LdHR3 occurred just before the molt. In the fourth (final) larval instar 80 h after ecdysis and prepupal stage 3 days after burying into soil, two LdHR3 peaks occurred. The LdHR3 expression peaks coincide with the peaks of circulating 20E level. In vitro midgut culture and in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide (Hal) enhanced LdHR3 expression in the final larval instars. Conversely, a decrease in 20E by feeding a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an ecdysteroidogenesis gene Ldshd repressed the expression. Moreover, Hal rescued the transcript levels in the Ldshd-silenced larvae. Thus, 20E peaks activate the expression of LdHR3. Furthermore, ingesting dsRNA against LdHR3 successfully knocked down the target gene, and impaired pupation. Finally, knockdown of LdHR3 upregulated the transcription of three ecdysteroidogenesis genes (Ldphm, Lddib and Ldshd), increased 20E titer, and activated the expression of two 20E-response genes (LdEcR and LdFTZ-F1). Thus, LdHR3 functions in regulation of pupation in the Colorado potato beetle. PMID:26005119

  1. Susceptibility of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Schreiber, E T; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1993-03-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. The concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (LC50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. Naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with Tx. splendens. The latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-derived dose-response curves and maximum concentrations reached in standing water calculated using standard application rates. PMID:8096872

  2. Catalogue and historical overview of juvenile instars of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Norton, Roy A; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2014-07-08

    Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) comprise a taxonomically and morphologically diverse suborder of about 10,000 described species, not including the hyporder Astigmata, with collectively a global distribution. They are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Though all five active instars are important for reasons that relate to both ecology and systematics, most species are known only as adults. Our purpose was to gather the existing world literature on the active juvenile instars (i.e., excluding prelarva) of oribatid mites, to put classifications and nomenclature in a current context, and to identify the nature of the information in each paper. A selected historical overview identifies the contributions of 19th century authors C.L. Koch, H. Nicolet and A.D. Michael, and summarizes errors that resulted in various oribatid mite juveniles being classified in genera, families and even suborders that were different from those of their adult instars. The catalogue includes all species known to us for which juveniles have been described: 805 species in 310 genera, representing only about 8% of the known oribatid mite species and 30% of genera. These represent 118 families, about 70% of those known. At the superfamily level, representation is weakest among the diverse Oppioidea and Oribatuloidea, and those superfamilies with juveniles that are endophagous in organic substrates, such as Phthiracaroidea, Euphthiracaroidea and Carabodoidea. Representation is strongest in the middle-derivative hyporder Nothrina, in which adults and juveniles are more easily associated, and in brachypyline superfamilies that are mostly affiliated with aquatic, semiaquatic or intertidal environments, such as Limnozetoidea and Ameronothroidea. Juvenile instars remain unknown for 45 families of Brachypylina. Four new nomenclatural actions were proposed: Ojaithrus nymphoides Habeeb, 1982 is a junior synonym of

  3. Hiding in plain sight: cuticular compound profile matching conceals a larval tortoise beetle in its host chemical cloud.

    PubMed

    Massuda, Kamila Ferreira; Trigo, José Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Larvae of tortoise beetles are postulated to have fecal shields as the main defensive strategy against predators. Such a device protects beetles both physically and chemically. In order to examine how larvae Chelymorpha reimoseri are protected against predatory ants, which frequently visit extrafloral nectaries in their host plant, the morning glory Ipomoea carnea, we conducted anti-predation bioassays with live 5th instars. In the field, larvae in contact with ants had survival between 40 and 73 %, independently of shield presence. In the laboratory, when exposed to Camponotus crassus, larvae with shields had significantly higher survival (85 %) than those without shields (64 %). In both scenarios, larval survival was significantly higher when compared with palatable Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as the latter were all consumed. We also observed that when C. reimoseri larvae showed no movement, the ants walked on them without attacking. We hypothesized that if the larval integument has a pattern of cuticular compounds (CCs) similar to that of its host plant, larvae would be rendered chemically camouflaged. In the field and laboratory, the freeze-dried palatable larvae of S. frugiperda treated with CCs of 5th instar C. reimoseri and left on I. carnea leaves were significantly less removed by ants than controls without these compounds. We also found a similarity of approximately 50 % between the CCs in C. reimoseri larvae and I. carnea host leaves. Both findings provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that chemical camouflage plays an important role in larval defense, which is reported for the first time in an ectophagous leaf beetle larva.

  4. Description of larval instars of Dryinus tarraconensis Marshall, 1868 and
    Gonatopus baeticus (Ceballos, 1927) (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea: Dryinidae), parasitoids of the genus Dictyophara Germar (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Dictyopharidae).

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Parise, Gianluca; Bückle, Christoph

    2015-10-14

    The last immature stage and the mature larva of Dryinus tarraconensis Marshall, 1868 and Gonatopus baeticus (Ceballos, 1927) are described for the first time. Features of immature and mature larvae of both species are discussed in the context of their implications for characterizing the subfamilies Dryininae and Gonatopodinae.

  5. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L., worldwide. While exploring conventional approaches to management and more recently bioengineering, extended research has been conducted on ways to manage its root-feeding larvae. The nee...

  6. Effects of aposymbiotic and symbiotic aphids on parasitoid progeny development and adult oviposition behavior within aphid instars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui-Xia; Meng, Ling; Li, Bao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This study aims at exploring the potential relationship between aphidiine parasitoid development and the primary endosymbiont in aphids by focusing on specific aphid instars and the relative effects on parasitoid oviposition behavior and progeny development. Lysiphlebus ambiguus (Aphidiidae, Hymenoptera) is a solitary parasitoid of several species of aphids, including Aphis fabae. In this study, A. fabae was treated with antibiotic rifampicin to obtain aposymbiotic hosts and exposed to parasitism. L. ambiguus launched significantly more attacks on symbiotic L(2) (the second instar), aposymbiotic L(3) (the third instar) and L(4) (the forth instar) hosts than on the corresponding hosts at the same age. L. ambiguus also parasitized more L(1) aphids compared with adults irrespective of whether the aphid was asymbiotic or not. Pupa mortality rate of parasitoid progeny was significantly lower from aposymbiotic hosts than from the corresponding symbiotics at all stages. Female-biased parasitoid progeny was produced from aposymbiotic aphids without respect to host ages, but female progeny increased linearly with host ages at parasitism from symbiotic aphids. Body size of parasitoid progeny increased linearly with host instars at parasitism in symbiotic aphids but did not significantly change across host instars in aposymbiotic aphids. The offspring parasitoids turned out to be generally large in body size from attacking aposymbiotic aphids compared with the symbiotics. Development time of egg-to-adult of parasitoid progeny decreased with host instars in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids but was generally much longer in aposymbiotic aphids than in symbiotic aphids. Our study suggests that age or body size of host aphids may not be the only cue exercised by L. ambiguus to evaluate host quality and that offspring parasitoids may be able to compensate for the nutrition stress associated with disruption of primary endosymbiotc bacteria in aposymbiotic aphids.

  7. The terminology of larval cestodes or metacestodes.

    PubMed

    2002-05-01

    The terminology associated with the nomenclature of larval or metacestodes is reviewed as well as the various morphological and developmental characters used to define different types of larval cestodes. Based on a review of the literature, the key characters differentiating the types of larval cestodes are the presence of a primary lacuna and the invagination/retraction of the scolex. The presence of a cercomer and of a bladder-like enlargement of the larval cestode were considered to be useful secondary characteristics. Using these characters, six basic types of larval cestodes were identified: the procercoid, an alacunate form which cannot develop further until ingested by a second intermediate host; the plerocercus, an alacunate form with a retracted scolex; the plerocercoid, an alacunate form with an everted scolex; the merocercoid, an alacunate form with an invaginated scolex; the cysticercoid, a lacunate form with a retracted scolex; and the cysticercus, a lacunate form with an invaginated scolex. The diversity of larval types within the broad classifications of cysticercoid and cysticercus can be differentiated by the use of appropriate prefixes. Deficiencies in knowledge of specific types of larval cestodes are identified and further avenues of research are indicated.

  8. Cold tolerance of first-instar nymphs of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera.

    PubMed

    Woodman, James D

    2010-04-01

    The cold tolerance of first-instar nymphs of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, was examined using measures of total body water content, supercooling point and mortality for a range of sub-zero temperature exposure regimes. The supercooling points for starved and fed nymphs were -13.1+/-0.9 and -12.6+/-1.6 degrees C, and freezing caused complete mortality. Above these temperatures, nymphs were cold tolerant to different degrees based on whether they were starved or given access to food and water for 24h prior to exposure. The rate of cooling also had a significant effect on mortality. Very rapid cooling to -7 degrees C caused 84 and 87% mortality for starved and fed nymphs respectively, but this significantly decreased for starved nymphs if temperature declined by more ecologically realistic rates of 0.5 and 0.1 degrees C min(-1). These results are indicative of a rapid cold hardening response and are discussed in terms of the likely effects of cold nights and frost on first-instar nymphal survival in the field.

  9. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  10. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (<13%) and larval development time was approximately twice that of larvae fed TetraMin® fish food flakes, the standard laboratory diet. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing prokaryotes (bacteria [Bacillus cereus] and cyanobacteria [Oscillatoria prolifera]) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) failed to survive beyond the 1(st) and 2(nd) instar, respectively. Larvae fed only chlorophytes, single-celled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and filamentous Spirogyra communis, failed to complete larval development, regardless of the concentration tested. Cohorts fed a combination of food types (mixed diets) usually developed better than cohorts fed monotypic diets. Food types that failed to support complete development when fed alone often facilitated development to adulthood when fed in combination with food types containing >1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets.

  11. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (<13%) and larval development time was approximately twice that of larvae fed TetraMin® fish food flakes, the standard laboratory diet. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing prokaryotes (bacteria [Bacillus cereus] and cyanobacteria [Oscillatoria prolifera]) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) failed to survive beyond the 1(st) and 2(nd) instar, respectively. Larvae fed only chlorophytes, single-celled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and filamentous Spirogyra communis, failed to complete larval development, regardless of the concentration tested. Cohorts fed a combination of food types (mixed diets) usually developed better than cohorts fed monotypic diets. Food types that failed to support complete development when fed alone often facilitated development to adulthood when fed in combination with food types containing >1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets. PMID:27232128

  12. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  13. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  14. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract. PMID:26012222

  15. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites.

  16. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees. PMID:27030776

  17. Larval starvation improves metabolic response to adult starvation in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Campbell, Jacob B; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-04-01

    Environmental changes during development have long-term effects on adult phenotypes in diverse organisms. Some of the effects play important roles in helping organisms adapt to different environments, such as insect polymorphism. Others, especially those resulting from an adverse developmental environment, have a negative effect on adult health and fitness. However, recent studies have shown that those phenotypes influenced by early environmental adversity have adaptive value under certain (anticipatory) conditions that are similar to the developmental environment, though evidence is mostly from morphological and behavioral observations and it is still rare at physiological and molecular levels. In the companion study, we applied a short-term starvation treatment to fifth instar honey bee larvae and measured changes in adult morphology, starvation resistance, hormonal and metabolic physiology and gene expression. Our results suggest that honey bees can adaptively respond to the predicted nutritional stress. In the present study, we further hypothesized that developmental starvation specifically improves the metabolic response of adult bees to starvation instead of globally affecting metabolism under well-fed conditions. Here, we produced adult honey bees that had experienced a short-term larval starvation, then we starved them for 12 h and monitored metabolic rate, blood sugar concentrations and metabolic reserves. We found that the bees that experienced larval starvation were able to shift to other fuels faster and better maintain stable blood sugar levels during starvation. However, developmental nutritional stress did not change metabolic rates or blood sugar levels in adult bees under normal conditions. Overall, our study provides further evidence that early larval starvation specifically improves the metabolic responses to adult starvation in honey bees.

  18. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  19. Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Fei, Minghui; Lammers, Mark; Kos, Martine; Zhu, Feng; Heinen, Robin; Poelman, Erik H; Gols, Rieta

    2016-07-01

    Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their

  20. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  1. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented.

  2. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Larval nervous systems: true larval and precocious adult.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-02-15

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords and a small perianal loop. The anterior loop becomes part of the brain. This has been well documented through cell-lineage studies in a number of spiralians, and homologies with similar structures in the ecdysozoans are strongly indicated. The deuterostomes are generally difficult to interpret, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence of 'deuterostomian' blastopore fates both in an annelid and in a mollusk, which are both placed in families with the 'normal' spiralian gastrulation type, and in the chaetognaths demonstrates that the chordate type of gastrulation could easily have evolved from the spiralian type. This indicates that the latest common ancestor of the deuterostomes was very similar to the latest common pelago-benthic ancestor of the protostomes as described by the trochaea theory, and that the neural tube of the chordates is morphologically ventral.

  4. Detecting larval export from marine reserves

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, R. A.; Warner, R. R.; Gaines, S. D.; Paris, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves. PMID:20181570

  5. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  6. Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

  7. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  8. Oxidation of methanol on 2nd and 3rd row group VIII transition metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kua, J.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1999-12-01

    Using first principles quantum mechanics [nonlocal density functional theory (B3LYP)], the authors calculated the 13 most likely intermediate species for methanol oxidation on clusters of all 2nd and 3rd row Group VIII transition metals for all three likely binding sites (top, bridge, and cap). This comprehensive set of binding energies and structures allows a detailed analysis of possible reaction mechanisms and how they change for different metals. This illustrates the role in which modern quantum chemical methods can be used to provide data for combinatorial strategies for discovering and designing new catalysts. Methanol dehydrogenation is most facile on Pt, with the hydrogens preferentially stripped off the carbon end. However, water dehydrogenation is most facile on Ru. These results support the bifunctional mechanism for methanol oxidation on Pt-Ru alloys in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Pure Os is capable of performing both functionalities without cocatalyst. It is suggested that pure Os be examined as a potential catalyst for low overpotential, highly dispersed catalyst DMFCs. Pathways to form the second C-O bond differ between the pure metals (Pt and Os) in which (CO){sub ads} is probably activated by (OH){sub ads} and the Pt-Ru binary system in which (COH){sub ads} is probably activated by O{sub ads}. For all cases formation of (COOH){sub ads} is an important precursor to the final dehydrogenation to desorb CO{sub 2} from the surface.

  9. Effects of buprofezin on the ultrastructure of the third instar cuticle of the insect Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    De Cock, A; Degheele, D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with buprofezin at the beginning of the third instar of Trialeurodes vaporariorum results in death of the larvae at the time of moulting. Electron microscopic observations, after treatment of the larvae with 20 mg a.i./l buprofezin, does not reveal any difference in the ultrastructural profile before apolysis, however formation of a normal lamellate procuticle is disturbed. The pharate procuticle is amorphous, varying in thickness and the mean thickness is greatly reduced. The subcuticle is interrupted several times at locations corresponding with the thinnest places of the pharate cuticle. Epidermal cells contain unusual structures such as myelin figures and hypertrophied mitochondria indicating that buprofezin may have an additional toxic effect on epidermal cells.

  10. Description of the final instar larva of Rhionaeschna vigintipunctata (Ris, 1918) (Odonata: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José Sebastián; Molineri, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The final instar larva of Rhionaeschna vigintipunctata (Ris) (Odonata, Aeshnidae) is described for the first time. The description is based on a series of mature female larvae collected in Tucumán (NW Argentina) and reared to imago. It shares the U-shaped distal excision of epiproct with other larvae of the Marmaraeschna group (only R. pallipes and R. brevicercia known from this stage); but the minute tubercle at each side of the cleft of ligula is absent. Other characters unique to R. vigintipunctata include: open ligula (vs. closed in other "Marmaraeschna"), and mandibular formula. A table to distinguish the larvae of the three species of "Marmaraeschna" and biological and distributional data of R. vigintipunctata are included. PMID:25543784

  11. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  12. Evaluation of the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-05-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic potential of cefotaxime in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at final concentration of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml was mixed in the diet and the larvae were exposed to the selected doses for 6, 12, 24, 48 h. The hsp70 expression, trypan blue exclusion test, in situ histochemical β-galactosidase activity, lipid peroxidation, total protein content, glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, protein carbonyl content, caspase 3 and 9 activity, apoptotic index and comet assay were taken as parameters for the study. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml for 12, 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent significant increase in the activity of β-galactosidase and lipid peroxidation but decrease in the total GSH content as compared to unexposed larvae. The decrease in protein content was observed in the larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h. The larvae exposed to 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of cefotaxime for 24 and 48 h showed a dose and duration dependent increase in the tissue damage, GST, caspase 3 and 9 activity, PC content, apoptosis and the DNA tail length (comet assay). The result suggests that the cefotaxime is toxic at 40, 60 and 80 μg/ml of doses for the third instar larvae of transgenic D. melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). Cefotaxime at 10 and 20 μg/ml was not toxic for any duration of exposure.

  13. Metacommunity patterns in larval odonates.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Shannon J; Davis, Christopher J; Relyea, Rick A; Yurewicz, Kerry L; Skelly, David K; Werner, Earl E

    2008-11-01

    The growth of metacommunity ecology as a subdiscipline has increased interest in how processes at different spatial scales structure communities. However, there is still a significant knowledge gap with respect to relating the action of niche- and dispersal-assembly mechanisms to observed species distributions across gradients. Surveys of the larval dragonfly community (Odonata: Anisoptera) in 57 lakes and ponds in southeast Michigan were used to evaluate hypotheses about the processes regulating community structure in this system. We considered the roles of both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes in determining patterns of species richness and composition across a habitat gradient involving changes in the extent of habitat permanence, canopy cover, area, and top predator type. We compared observed richness patterns and species distributions in this system to patterns predicted by four general community models: species sorting related to adaptive trade-offs, a developmental constraints hypothesis, dispersal assembly, and a neutral community assemblage. Our results supported neither the developmental constraints nor the neutral-assemblage models. Observed patterns of richness and species distributions were consistent with patterns expected when adaptive tradeoffs and dispersal-assembly mechanisms affect community structure. Adaptive trade-offs appeared to be important in limiting the distributions of species which segregate across the habitat gradient. However, dispersal was important in shaping the distributions of species that utilize habitats with a broad range of hydroperiods and alternative top predator types. Our results also suggest that the relative importance of these mechanisms may change across this habitat gradient and that a metacommunity perspective which incorporates both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes is necessary to understand how communities are organized. PMID:18781330

  14. Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Richard, Nadège; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Mira, Sara; Dias, Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several novel methodologies have contributed to significant progress in fish larval nutrition. Others are emerging and are likely to bring further insight into larval nutritional physiology and requirements. This paper reviews a range of new tools and some examples of their present use, as well as potential future applications in the study of fish larvae nutrition. Tube-feeding and incorporation into Artemia of (14)C-amino acids and lipids allowed studying Artemia intake, digestion and absorption and utilisation of these nutrients. Diet selection by fish larvae has been studied with diets containing different natural stable isotope signatures or diets where different rare metal oxides were added. Mechanistic modelling has been used as a tool to integrate existing knowledge and reveal gaps, and also to better understand results obtained in tracer studies. Population genomics may assist in assessing genotype effects on nutritional requirements, by using progeny testing in fish reared in the same tanks, and also in identifying QTLs for larval stages. Functional genomics and proteomics enable the study of gene and protein expression under various dietary conditions, and thereby identify the metabolic pathways which are affected by a given nutrient. Promising results were obtained using the metabolic programming concept in early life to facilitate utilisation of certain nutrients at later stages. All together, these methodologies have made decisive contributions, and are expected to do even more in the near future, to build a knowledge basis for development of optimised diets and feeding regimes for

  15. Response of Last Instar Helicoverpa armígera Larvae to Bt Toxin Ingestion: Changes in the Development and in the CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Moralejo, Marian; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Bt crops are able to produce Cry proteins, which were originally present in Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria. Although Bt maize is very efficient against corn borers, Spanish crops are also attacked by the earworm H. armigera, which is less susceptible to Bt maize. Many mechanisms could be involved in this low susceptibility to the toxin, including the insect's metabolic resistance to toxins due to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. This paper examines the response of last instar H. armigera larvae to feeding on a diet with Bt and non-Bt maize leaves in larval development and in the gene expression of three P450 cytochromes: CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12. Larvae fed on sublethal amounts of the Bt toxin showed reduced food ingestion and reduced growth and weight, preventing most of them from achieving the critical weight and pupating; additionally, after feeding for one day on the Bt diet the larvae showed a slight increase in juvenile hormone II in the hemolymp. Larvae fed on the non-Bt diet showed the highest CYP6AE14, CYP6B2 and CYP9A12 expression one day after feeding on the non-Bt diet, and just two days later the expression decreased abruptly, a finding probably related to the developmental programme of the last instar. Moreover, although the response of P450 genes to plant allelochemicals and xenobiotics has been related in general to overexpression in the resistant insect, or induction of the genes when feeding takes place, the expression of the three genes studied was suppressed in the larvae feeding on the Bt toxin. The unexpected inhibitory effect of the Cry1Ab toxin in the P450 genes of H. armigera larvae should be thoroughly studied to determine whether this response is somehow related to the low susceptibility of the species to the Bt toxin. PMID:24910993

  16. The dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca, with description of twelve new species of Neotropical Trogolaphysa (Hexapoda: Collembola: Paronellidae).

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-01-01

    Adult members of tribe Paronellini are characterized by a substantially reduced idiochaetotaxy and as a result chaeta homology determination is often ambiguous. To evaluate previous hypotheses of chaetae homology in adult Trogolaphysa, a complete description of the dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca (Wray, 1953b), supplemented with observations on first instar Trogolaphysa paracarpenteri sp. nov., is presented. It is showed that first instar Trogolaphysa carries an almost complete set of dorsal chaetae and that the reduction in adult idiochaetotaxy is secondary. In addition, the organization of primary chaetae in T. jataca points to a closer relationship with genera in subfamily Entomobryinae than to Orchesellinae. Based on chaetae correspondence between first instar and adult T. jataca it is established that the inner median chaetae on adult head corresponds to M1 instead of S1, the mesothorax p3 complex includes chaetae p1-p4, and on the fourth abdominal segment, anterior macrochaeta on column A corresponds to A3, and the secondary bothriotrix corresponds to D3p. In addition, T. relicta (Palacios-Vargas, Ojeda & Christiansen, 1985) is re-described based on a paratype, and 12 new species are described: from Mexico, T. stannardi sp. nov., T. dimorphica sp. nov., T. laterolineata sp. nov., T. marieloiseae sp. nov., T. clarencei sp. nov., T. ocellata sp. nov., T. paracarpenteri sp. nov., T. palaciosi sp. nov., T. octosetosa sp. nov., and T. trioculata sp. nov.; from Jamaica, T. balteata sp. nov.; and from Argentina, T. entreriosensis sp. nov. PMID:26624337

  17. Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Gee, C.L.; Sherertz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    Although studies on the aflatoxins have involved test systems ranging from cell cultures to laboratory animals, there appears to be a general lack of information on the ecological and economic effects of aflatoxins on insects. However, this situation is gradually changing. These studies involved the toxic responses of fifth instar milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) to AFB/sub 1/. Milkweed bugs pass through five distinct nymphal instars. In the fifth instar stage, the insect is marked with lateral spots on all of the abdominal pleurites and median spots on the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth dorsal abdominal tergites. The apex of the ventral abdominal surface is black and the remainder of the body is reddish-orange. Also, the adult is elongate to oval, and it is black and red in color. Because of this insect's ability to live and reproduce normally when provided dried sunflower seeds and water, it is a very desirable model to study through out the year. It is thought that juvenile insect stages are more sensitive to AFT than are adults, thus the instar and its developmental and sexual responses to aflatoxins are of interest.

  18. Description of the final instar larva of Limnetron antarcticum Förster and notes on its female (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, Alejandro; Muzón, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The final instar larva of Limnetron antarcticum Förster is described and illustrated for the first time based on one specimen collected in Misiones Province, Argentina. It is compared with L. debile (Karsch). Color pattern and ovipositor morphology of the female imago are described. PMID:25543769

  19. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples.

  20. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization and remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulsung; Hsu, Dennis J.; Le, Michael H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image the remineralization of early artificial caries lesion on smooth enamel surfaces of human and bovine teeth. However, most new dental decay is found in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surfaces of posterior dentition and it is in these high risk areas where the performance of new caries imaging devices need to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PS-OCT can be used to measure the subsequent remineralization of artificial lesions produced in the pits and fissures of extracted 3rd molars. A PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of occlusal surfaces exposed to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5 followed by a fluoride containing remineralizing solution at pH-7.0 containing 2-ppm fluoride. The integrated reflectivity was calculated to a depth of 200-µm in the entire lesion area using an automated image processing algorithm. Although a well-defined surface zone was clearly resolved in only a few of the samples that underwent remineralization, the PS-OCT measurements indicated a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the integrated reflectivity between the severity of the lesions that were exposed to the remineralization solution and those that were not. The lesion depth and mineral loss were also measured with polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography after sectioning the teeth. These results show that PS-OCT can be used to non-destructively monitor the remineralization potential of anti-caries agents in the important pits and fissures of the occlusal surface.

  1. Medical school curriculum characteristics associated with intentions and frequency of tobacco dependence treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Rashelle B.; Geller, Alan C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Jolicoeur, Denise; Churchill, Linda C.; Okuyemi, Kola; David, Sean P.; Adams, Michael; Waugh, Jonathan; Allen, Sharon S.; Leone, Frank T.; Fauver, Randy; Leung, Katherine; Liu, Qin; Ockene, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students. Methods Third year medical students (N=1065, 49.3% male) from 10 U.S. medical schools completed a survey in 2009-2010 assessing student characteristics, including demographics, tobacco treatment knowledge, and self-efficacy. Tobacco curricula characteristics assessed included amount and type of classroom instruction, frequency of tobacco treatment observation, instruction, and perception of preceptors as role models. Results Greater tobacco treatment knowledge, self-efficacy, and curriculum-specific variables were associated with 5A intentions, while younger age, tobacco treatment self-efficacy, intentions, and each curriculum-specific variable was associated with greater 5A behaviors. When controlling for important student variables, greater frequency of receiving 5A instruction (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.12) and perception of preceptors as excellent role models in tobacco treatment (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.04-1.75) were significant curriculum predictors of 5A intentions. Greater 5A instruction (B = .06 (.03); p< .05) and observation of tobacco treatment (B= .35 (.02); p< .001) were significant curriculum predictors of greater 5A behaviors. Conclusions Greater exposure to tobacco treatment teaching during medical school is associated with both greater intentions to use and practice tobacco 5As. Clerkship preceptors, or those physicians who provide training to medical students, may be particularly influential when they personally model and instruct students in tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:25572623

  2. A psychometric study of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition for term and preterm Taiwanese infants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chen, Li-Chiou; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Wu, Ying-Chin; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) was updated to enhance its usefulness for contemporary child developmental assessment. However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Forty-seven term infants and 167 preterm infants were prospectively examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd Edition (BSID-II) and the Bayley-III at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. The correlations between the BSID-II and Bayley-III raw scores were good to excellent for the cognitive and motor items and low to excellent for the language items. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales (p<0.05). However, their rates of developmental delay were lower than the previously established prevalence estimates. The Bayley-III cut-off composite score was adjusted 10-20, 1-13, and 12-24 points higher than 70 for optimal prediction of cognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score<70. The Bayley-III is a reliable instrument that extends its previous edition, especially in early language assessment. However, the upward adjustment of its cut-off score is recommended for the accurate identification of developmental delay in term and preterm Taiwanese infants. PMID:24029804

  3. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  4. Orthodenticle is necessary for survival of a cluster of clonally related dopaminergic neurons in the Drosophila larval and adult brain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dopaminergic (DA) neurons present in the central brain of the Drosophila larva are spatially arranged in stereotyped groups that define clusters of bilaterally symmetrical neurons. These clusters have been classified according to anatomical criteria (position of the cell bodies within the cortex and/or projection pattern of the axonal tracts). However, information pertaining to the developmental biology, such as lineage relationship of clustered DA neurons and differential cell subtype-specific molecular markers and mechanisms of differentiation and/or survival, is currently not available. Results Using MARCM and twin-spot MARCM techniques together with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, we have analyzed the larval central brain DA neurons from a developmental point of view and determined their time of birth, their maturation into a DA neurotransmitter phenotype as well as their lineage relationships. In addition, we have found that the homeodomain containing transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd) is present in a cluster of clonally related DA neurons in both the larval and adult brain. Taking advantage of the otd hypomorphic mutation ocelliless (oc) and the oc2-Gal4 reporter line, we have studied the involvement of orthodenticle (otd) in the survival and/or cell fate specification of these post-mitotic neurons. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence of the presence of seven neuroblast lineages responsible for the generation of the larval central brain DA neurons during embryogenesis. otd is expressed in a defined group of clonally related DA neurons from first instar larvae to adulthood, making it possible to establish an identity relationship between the larval DL2a and the adult PPL2 DA clusters. This poses otd as a lineage-specific and differential marker of a subset of clonally related DA neurons. Finally, we show that otd is required in those DA neurons for their survival. PMID:21999236

  5. Anopheline Larval Habitats Seasonality and Species Distribution: A Prerequisite for Effective Targeted Larval Habitats Control Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Atieli, Harrysone E.; Nyindo, Mramba; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-01-01

    Background Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya. Methods and Findings A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60%) and An.arabiensis (18.34%), the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024) and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002) larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001), grass cover (P≤0.001), while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001). The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001) when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002). When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines. Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control

  6. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture.

  7. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features.

  8. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  9. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  10. Technique for surveying larval populations of Coquillettidia perturbans.

    PubMed

    Batzer, D P

    1993-09-01

    A dipper with a 1-mm mesh screen bottom was used to sample larval populations of Coquillettidia perturbans from plant roots in Minnesota wetlands. This sampling technique was especially useful for large-scale larval surveys because the sampler was portable, individual sample collection and processing could be completed in < 10 min and data collected were appropriate for statistical analyses. Sampling indicated that larval populations were clumped, with a negative binomial model closely describing larval distributions.

  11. Image Quality of 3rd Generation Spiral Cranial Dual-Source CT in Combination with an Advanced Model Iterative Reconstruction Technique: A Prospective Intra-Individual Comparison Study to Standard Sequential Cranial CT Using Identical Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Máté E.; Meyer, Mathias; Förster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Flohr, Thomas; Leidecker, Christianne; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively intra-individually compare image quality of a 3rd generation Dual-Source-CT (DSCT) spiral cranial CT (cCT) to a sequential 4-slice Multi-Slice-CT (MSCT) while maintaining identical intra-individual radiation dose levels. Methods 35 patients, who had a non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT examination on a 4-slice MDCT within the past 12 months, underwent a spiral cCT scan on a 3rd generation DSCT. CTDIvol identical to initial 4-slice MDCT was applied. Data was reconstructed using filtered backward projection (FBP) and 3rd-generation iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm at 5 different IR strength levels. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated subjective image quality using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was assessed in white matter and nucleus caudatus with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) being subsequently calculated. Results Subjective image quality of all spiral cCT datasets was rated significantly higher compared to the 4-slice MDCT sequential acquisitions (p<0.05). Mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral compared to sequential cCT datasets with mean SNR improvement of 61.65% (p*Bonferroni0.05<0.0024). Subjective image quality improved with increasing IR levels. Conclusion Combination of 3rd-generation DSCT spiral cCT with an advanced model IR technique significantly improves subjective and objective image quality compared to a standard sequential cCT acquisition acquired at identical dose levels. PMID:26288186

  12. Nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 is required for larval-pupal metamorphosis in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Guo, W-C; Liu, X-P; Fu, K-Y; Shi, J-F; Lü, F-G; Li, G-Q

    2016-02-01

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development. In this study, three Leptinotarsa decemlineata Ecdysone-induced protein 75 (LdE75) cDNAs (LdE75A, B and C) were cloned from L. decemlineata. The three LdE75 isoforms were highly expressed just before or right after each moult. Within the fourth larval instar, they showed a small rise and a big peak 40 and 80 h after ecdysis. The expression peaks of the three LdE75s coincided with the peaks of circulating 20E levels. In vitro midgut culture and in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide (Hal) enhanced LdE75 expression in the day 1 final larval instars. Conversely, a decrease in 20E by feeding a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an ecdysteroidogenesis gene, Shade (LdSHD), repressed the expression of LdE75. Moreover, Hal upregulated the expression of the three LdE75s in LdSHD-silenced larvae. Thus, 20E pulses activate the transcription of LdE75s. Furthermore, ingesting dsE75-1 and dsE75-2 from a common fragment of the three isoforms successfully knocked down these LdE75s, and caused developmental arrest. Finally, knocking down LdE75s significantly repressed the transcription of three ecdysteroidogenesis genes, lowered the 20E titre and affected the expression of two 20E-response genes. Silencing LdE75s also induced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, increased JH titre and activated the transcription of a JH early-inducible gene. Thus, Ld E75s are required for larval-pupal metamorphosis and act mainly by modulating 20E and JH titres and mediating their signalling pathways. PMID:26542892

  13. Nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 is required for larval-pupal metamorphosis in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Guo, W-C; Liu, X-P; Fu, K-Y; Shi, J-F; Lü, F-G; Li, G-Q

    2016-02-01

    20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development. In this study, three Leptinotarsa decemlineata Ecdysone-induced protein 75 (LdE75) cDNAs (LdE75A, B and C) were cloned from L. decemlineata. The three LdE75 isoforms were highly expressed just before or right after each moult. Within the fourth larval instar, they showed a small rise and a big peak 40 and 80 h after ecdysis. The expression peaks of the three LdE75s coincided with the peaks of circulating 20E levels. In vitro midgut culture and in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide (Hal) enhanced LdE75 expression in the day 1 final larval instars. Conversely, a decrease in 20E by feeding a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an ecdysteroidogenesis gene, Shade (LdSHD), repressed the expression of LdE75. Moreover, Hal upregulated the expression of the three LdE75s in LdSHD-silenced larvae. Thus, 20E pulses activate the transcription of LdE75s. Furthermore, ingesting dsE75-1 and dsE75-2 from a common fragment of the three isoforms successfully knocked down these LdE75s, and caused developmental arrest. Finally, knocking down LdE75s significantly repressed the transcription of three ecdysteroidogenesis genes, lowered the 20E titre and affected the expression of two 20E-response genes. Silencing LdE75s also induced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, increased JH titre and activated the transcription of a JH early-inducible gene. Thus, Ld E75s are required for larval-pupal metamorphosis and act mainly by modulating 20E and JH titres and mediating their signalling pathways.

  14. Behavorial assessments of larval zebrafish neurotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes have long been a popular organism in ecotoxicology research, and are increasingly used in human health research as an alternative animal model for chemical screening. Our laboratory incorporates a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larval assay to screen chemicals for developm...

  15. Si-CSP9 regulates the integument and moulting process of larvae in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Liang, Guangwen; He, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been predicted to be involved in development; however, direct evidence for their involvement is lacking, and genetic basis is largely unknown. To determine the function of the chemosensory protein 9 (Si-CSP9) gene in Solenopsis invicta, we used RNA interference to silence Si-CSP9 in 3rd-instar larvae. The 3rd-instar larvae failed to shed their cuticle after being fed Si-CSP9-directed siRNA, and expression profiling of RNAi-treated and untreated control larvae showed that 375 genes were differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched. Blast analysis revealed that one fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene was up-regulated and 4 fatty acid synthase (FAT) genes and one protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) were down-regulated in the enriched pathways. Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4. Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing. These results suggest that Si-CSP9 and PKA may be involved in the network that contributes to development of 3rd-instar larvae. PMID:25784646

  16. Using Drosophila Larval Imaginal Discs to Study Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shian-Jang; Li, Willis X.

    2012-01-01

    Under genotoxic stress, activation of cell cycle checkpoint responses leads to cell cycle arrest, which allows cells to repair DNA damage before continuing to cycle. Drosophila larval epithelial sacs, called imaginal discs, are an excellent in vivo model system for studying radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Larval imaginal discs go into cell cycle arrest after being subjected to low-dose irradiation, are subject to easy genetic manipulation, are not crucial for survival of the organism, and can be dissected easily for further molecular or cellular analysis. In this chapter, we describe methods for assessing low-dose irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest. Mitotic cells are identified by immunofluorescence staining for the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 (phospho-histone H3 or pH3). When wandering third-instar control larvae, without transgene expression, are exposed to 500 rads of X-ray or γ-ray irradiation, the number of pH3-positive cells in wing imaginal discs is reduced from hundreds before irradiation to approximately 30 after irradiation, with an equal distribution between the anterior and posterior compartments (Yan et al., 2011, FASEB J). Using the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi, cDNA, or microRNA sponge transgenes can be expressed in the posterior compartment of the wing disc using drivers such as engrailed (en)-Gal4, while the anterior compartment serves as an internal control. This approach makes it possible to do genome-wide genetic screening for molecules involved in radiation-induced cell cycle arrest. PMID:21870287

  17. Are queen Bombus terrestris giant workers or are workers dwarf queens? Solving the 'chicken and egg' problem in a bumblebee species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cnaani, Jonathan; Hefetz, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    In the social bee, Bombus terrestris, the two castes differ in size and physiology, but not in any other morphological and anatomical aspects. The size differences between the castes are the result of longer instar duration in prospective queen larvae. It appears that queen larvae are programmed to have a higher molting weight at the end of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars. Calculation of the growth ratio, the ratio between the logarithm of molting weight at two successive instars, revealed that queen larvae have a linear growth ratio over the entire larval development as predicted by Dyar's rule. In the worker larvae, in contrast, linearity of the growth ratio breaks after the second instar, resulting in larval molting at lower weights than expected by Dyar's rule. We therefore suggest that workers' development is abnormally shortened, either by parental manipulation or by adopting a different growth plan in response to the queen's signal.

  18. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been

  19. Effect of chromium on larval chironomidae as determined by the optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Batac-Catalan, Z.; White, D.S.

    1981-10-01

    An optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system for examining the activity of aquatic invertebrates has been developed to test potential toxicity of chromium and other compounds on tubicolous larval Diptera (Chironomidae). Chromium has been identified as a heavy metal of environmental concern, but little is known of its effect on aquatic biota at chronic or sublethal levels. When movement patterns of midge larvae, Chironomus tentans, are monitored by the system, three distinct phases are revealed: respiratory undulations, crawling-type movements, and rest or immobility. It has been shown in other studies that the rates and duration of movements are controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature. Chromium alters the duration but not the rates of the three movement phases. At 0.01 ppm chromium, larval movement patterns were not altered. At 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, the duration of the respiratory phase was suppressed. Levels from 10.0 to 1000.0 ppm progressively increased the duration of this phase. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ for fourth instar larvae was calculated to be 61.0 ppm chromium, which shows that the change in respiratory movements does indicate potential lethality of the solutions. Thus, the biomonitoring system's sensitivity is apparent in detecting low-level effects of a heavy metal on this aquatic invertebrate.

  20. Exposure to 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A--effects on larval moulting and mouthpart structure of Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew M; Pascoe, David; Carroll, Kathleen

    2003-02-01

    The effects of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) and bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of the aquatic life-cycle stages (eggs to pupa) of Chironomus riparius were investigated. The test species was exposed to sublethal concentrations of EE and BPA (10 ng/L-1mg/L) and effects on larval weight and moulting success were recorded. In addition, three mouthpart structures (mentum, mandibles, and pecten epipharyngis) present on the head capsules of fourth-instar larvae were examined for structural deformities. Moulting was delayed and larval wet weight significantly reduced (P<0.05) at the highest treatment concentration (1mg/L) of both chemicals. No significant effect on either of these parameters was noted in the remaining treatments. However, deformities in the mouthparts of C. riparius were observed at very low exposure concentrations (10 ng/L), although the incidence of deformities was greater in the chironomids exposed to EE than BPA. Effects were mainly associated with the mentum, with statistically significant differences in median deformity score (Kruskal-Wallis P<0.001) recorded for both chemicals. At similar effect concentrations, an increased percentage of exposed animals had deformities of the pecten epipharyngis; however, little evidence of deformity was noted for the mandibles. At high concentrations, where moulting and wet weight were affected, no incidence of mouthpart deformity was noted. The relevance of these results in relation to the identification of an "endocrine-sensitive" endpoint for invertebrates is discussed. PMID:12550099

  1. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. PMID:26123620

  2. Planar cell polarity: the Dachsous/Fat system contributes differently to the embryonic and larval stages of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Pedro; Brittle, Amy; Palacios, Isabel M.; Strutt, David; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epidermal patterns of all three larval instars (L1–L3) of Drosophila are made by one unchanging set of cells. The seven rows of cuticular denticles of all larval stages are consistently planar polarised, some pointing forwards, others backwards. In L1 all the predenticles originate at the back of the cells but, in L2 and L3, they form at the front or the back of the cell depending on the polarity of the forthcoming denticles. We find that, to polarise all rows, the Dachsous/Fat system is differentially utilised; in L1 it is active in the placement of the actin-based predenticles but is not crucial for the final orientation of the cuticular denticles, in L2 and L3 it is needed for placement and polarity. We find Four-jointed to be strongly expressed in the tendon cells and show how this might explain the orientation of all seven rows. Unexpectedly, we find that L3 that lack Dachsous differ from larvae lacking Fat and we present evidence that this is due to differently mislocalised Dachs. We make some progress in understanding how Dachs contributes to phenotypes of wildtype and mutant larvae and adults. PMID:26935392

  3. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect.

  4. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found.

  5. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found. PMID:19874911

  6. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  7. Stages of Geoinformation Evolution Related to the Territories Described in the Bible - from the 3Rd Millennium B.C. to Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsenbarth, Adam

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents consecutive stages of the evolution of geoinformation related to the territories of the events described in the Bible. Two geoinformation sources are presented: the Bible and non-Bible sources. In the Bible there is much, often some highly detailed information regarding terrain topography. The oldest non-Bible sources are incorporated in the ancient documents, which were discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Some of them are related to the 3rd millen- nium B.C. The further stages are related to the onomasticons and itineraries written by travellers and pilgrims to the Holy Land. The most famous onomasticons include: onomasticons prepared by bishop Eusebius from Caesarea and those pre- pared by St. Jerome. One of the oldest maps of Palestine's territory is the so-called mosaic map of Madaba dated to 565. In the 15th century several Bible maps were edited. The most rapid evolution occurred in the 16th and 17* centuries, when the world famous cartographers such as Mercator and Ortelius edited several maps of Palestine's territory. Cartographers from several European countries edited more than 6,000 maps presenting the Biblical territories and Biblical events. Modem maps, based on detailed topographical surveys, were edited m the second half of the 19* and 20th centuries. W artykule przedstawiono kolejne etapy rozwoju geoinformacji dotyczącej terenówr biblijnych. Omówiono dwa źródła informacji, a mianowicie geoinformacje biblijne i pozabiblijne. W tekstach biblijnych można znaleźć wiele, często bardzo detalicznych informacji topograficznych. Najstarsze źródła pozabiblijne, to starożytne dokumenty odnalezione na terenach Egiptu i Mezopotamii. Niektóre z nich pochodzą z trzeciego milenium przed Chr. Kolejnym etapem geoinformacji były onomastikony oraz dzienniki podróży pisane przez podróżników i pielgrzymów do Ziemi Świętej. Do najbardziej znanych należy onomastikon sporządzony przez biskupa Euzebiusza z Cezarei oraz

  8. [Cold agglutinin disease -  no response to glucocorticoids and rituximab, what treatment is best for the 3rd line of therapy? Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Pejchalová, A; Chlupová, G; Ríhová, L; Pour, L; Krejčí, M; Cervinek, L; Král, Z; Mayer, J

    2013-09-01

    in about one  half of treated patients and the remission duration median after rituximab administration is 11 months. A combination of rituximab with fludarabin was more effective, though more toxic; this combination, in a clinical study, led to 75% of patients responding to treatment, including 20% experiencing complete remission. The treatment response median reached over 66 months. In a small study (10 patients) an increase in the amount of rituximab administrations from 4 to 8 led to a treatment response in 6 patients in whom administration of 4 doses of rituximab had no response. When treating Waldenström macroglobulinemia, effectiveness of the following drugs and their combinations was proven: rituximab, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, fludarabin, bortezomib, lenalidomid, bendamustin and alemtuzumab. The same drugs and treatment procedures are used for the treatment of the cold agglutinin disease as for Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Successful treatment with vortezomibem, combinations of rituximab + bendamustin, rituximab + cyclophosphamide or rituximab + fludarabin + cyclophosphamide, were recorded in the form of a description as regards the cold agglutinin disease treatment. An important benefit is also shown through treatment with the monoclonal antibody antiC5, eculizumab, which is otherwise used for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Eculizumab blocks the C5 element of the component and thus stops haemolysis in a patient with cold agglutinin disease. As cold agglutinin disease is very rare, there are only a few clinical studies and when treating this rare disease we have no other option than to take into account the information contained in the descriptions of the particular cases of cold agglutinin disease and the experience of Waldenström macroglobulinemia disease treatment. The discussion seeks to solve the issue regarding what 3rd line treatment option to use in the described patient. PMID:24073955

  9. Diversity and abundance of mosquito species in relation to their larval habitats in Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Vanlalruia, Khawling; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2014-09-01

    The abundance, richness and diversity of anopheline and culicid mosquitoes associated with their habitats, season, and physico-chemical quality of water were surveyed along six districts of Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region. The productivity of permanent and temporary habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of three years. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), Evenness index (Heve), similarity measures cluster analysis and MANOVA. In total, 5 genera and 20 species of mosquitoes were identified: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles vagus were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 39.71%, 29.39% and 14.52% of total mosquito individuals sampled, respectively. Anopheles sp. diversity was lowest in Lunglei district (H'=0.48) and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.03), whereas Culex sp. diversity was lowest in Lawngtlai (H'=0.38), and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.99) and Kolasib (H'=2.13). This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes of Mizoram. Mosquito larvae were present in both temporary and permanent habitats suitable for breeding with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity, temperature, humidity and location. Early instars were more abundant significantly (P<0.0001) than late instars among the habitat types in all study sites. The productivity of mosquito larvae was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in ponds especially in permanent than semi-permanent and temporary. Weekly rainfall intensity led to an increase or decrease in anopheline and culicid larval abundance depending on the location. Mosquito diversity was highest in monsoon season (July-September) and lowest in January-March. A. barbirostris, A. vagus and C. quinquefasciatus appear the most likely habitat generalist as it demonstrates both widespread distribution. Abundance and diversity of culicine and anopheline larvae

  10. Disruption of Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene A with RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Tian, H; Zou, L; Tang, B; Hu, J; Zhang, W

    2008-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for rapidly analyzing gene functions. However, little is known about the possible use of dsRNA/siRNA as a pest control method. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA/siRNA can induce the silence of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA), which is an important gene for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Based on the in vitro RNAi experiments in an insect cell line (Trichoplusia ni High 5), in vivo RNAi was performed by injecting synthesized dsRNA/siRNA into the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua. Significantly lower levels of CHSA transcripts were detected. In addition, the cuticle of these insects was disordered and the epithelial walls of larval trachea did not expand uniformly in injected individuals. Moreover, Injections significantly increased abnormalities relative to control larvae. These results highlighted the possibility of dsRNA/siRNA for gene function studies in lepidopteran insects and future pest control. PMID:18662430

  11. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species. PMID:25354095

  12. Inducers of settlement and moulting in post-larval spiny lobster.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Hesse, Jan; Hinojosa, Iván A; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2015-07-01

    The rapid and often remote location of suitable habitats used by migrating organisms is often critical to their subsequent recruitment, fitness and survival, and this includes in the marine environment. However, for the non-feeding post-larval stage of spiny lobsters, effective settlement cues for habitat selection are critical to their success but are poorly described. Therefore, the current study examined whether acoustic and substrate cues have the potential to shorten the time to moulting and affect their subsequent nutritional condition in the pueruli of the southern spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Individuals moulted to first instar juveniles up to 38% faster when exposed to the underwater sound from two types of typical settlement habitat (coastal kelp- and urchin-dominated reefs) compared to those with no underwater sound. The settlement delay in the post-larvae without underwater sound also resulted in juveniles in poorer survival and nutritional condition as measured by their protein and lipid contents. In a separate experiment, post-larvae presented with seaweed and rock substrates were found to complete settlement and moult to juvenile by as much as 20% faster compared to those on the sand and control treatments. Overall, the results are the first to demonstrate that the pueruli of J. edwardsii have the ability to detect and respond to underwater sound, as well as determining that both acoustic and substrate cues play a role in modulating physiological development during settlement.

  13. Drosophila Immunity: Analysis of Larval Hemocytes by P-Element-Mediated Enhancer Trap

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A.; Lemaitre, B.; Lanot, R.; Zachary, D.; Meister, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to identify new genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms of Drosophila, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes that are linked to blood cell disregulation. We have screened 1341 enhancer detector fly lines for expression of the lacZ reporter gene in larval hemocytes at the end of the third instar. We have selected 21 lines in which we observed a reproducible lacZ expression in blood cells. These lines were classified according to the subsets of hemocytes in which lacZ was expressed, and we identified five lines that can be used as lamellocyte markers. Three lines were selected for further analysis. The first exhibited strong lacZ expression in all lamellocytes. The second expressed lacZ in plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and exhibited a melanotic tumor phenotype in larvae homozygous for the insertion. A third line showed a striking insertion-linked phenotype of melanized lymph glands (the hematopoietic organ), which resulted in the total absence of circulating hemocytes in the mutant larvae. We anticipate that this mutation, which we named domino, will prove a useful tool in the analysis of the role of hemocytes during the various aspects of immune response and melanotic tumor formation. PMID:9335599

  14. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.

  15. Inducers of settlement and moulting in post-larval spiny lobster.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Hesse, Jan; Hinojosa, Iván A; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2015-07-01

    The rapid and often remote location of suitable habitats used by migrating organisms is often critical to their subsequent recruitment, fitness and survival, and this includes in the marine environment. However, for the non-feeding post-larval stage of spiny lobsters, effective settlement cues for habitat selection are critical to their success but are poorly described. Therefore, the current study examined whether acoustic and substrate cues have the potential to shorten the time to moulting and affect their subsequent nutritional condition in the pueruli of the southern spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Individuals moulted to first instar juveniles up to 38% faster when exposed to the underwater sound from two types of typical settlement habitat (coastal kelp- and urchin-dominated reefs) compared to those with no underwater sound. The settlement delay in the post-larvae without underwater sound also resulted in juveniles in poorer survival and nutritional condition as measured by their protein and lipid contents. In a separate experiment, post-larvae presented with seaweed and rock substrates were found to complete settlement and moult to juvenile by as much as 20% faster compared to those on the sand and control treatments. Overall, the results are the first to demonstrate that the pueruli of J. edwardsii have the ability to detect and respond to underwater sound, as well as determining that both acoustic and substrate cues play a role in modulating physiological development during settlement. PMID:25682060

  16. A multiple stressor approach to study the toxicity and sub-lethal effects of pharmaceutical compounds on the larval development of a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, E; Blasco, J; Le Vay, L; Giménez, L

    2013-12-15

    We studied the effects of three common pharmaceutical compounds on growth, development and body mass of larval stages of the marine shrimp Palaemon serratus at different temperatures and salinities. The pharmaceuticals compounds tested were the anti-inflammatory and analgesic diclofenac sodium, the lipid regulator clofibric acid and the fungicide clotrimazole. Neither diclofenac nor clofibric acid had any effect on growth, development or survival, although the maximum concentrations tested were 40 times higher than those observed in European coastal waters. Clotrimazole had significant effects at the higher concentration (2.78 μg L(-1)) when larvae were reared in full salinity sea water (32 PSU) and at the lower concentration (0.14 μg L(-1)) when larvae were reared at 20PSU. Changes in body mass at larval stage resulted from effects of these compounds on growth and developmental rates, specifically the changes in intermoult duration and in the number of larval instars required to reach the juvenile stage. The results demonstrate that the effects of emergent compounds on growth and development may be stronger when organisms are under some additional stress.

  17. Effects of osmotic stress on crustacean larval growth and protein and lipid levels are related to life-histories: the genus Armases as a model.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gabriela; Giménez, Luis; Anger, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    In the larval stages of three euryhaline species of the genus Armases, we tested if changes in biomass (dry mass, W; protein; lipid) under hyposmotic stress were related to their salinity tolerance, capabilities of osmoregulation, and migration patterns. As model species, we compared Armases miersii, which breeds in supratidal rock pools, the riverine crab Armases roberti (showing a larval export strategy), and Armases ricordi, whose larvae probably develop in coastal marine waters. At each stage, larvae were exposed to different salinities (selected according to previous information on larval survival; range: 5 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. miersii, 10 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. roberti, and 15 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. ricordi). Biomass was measured in early postmoult and intermoult. The larvae of the strongly osmoregulating species A. miersii, which develop in habitats with highly variable salinity conditions, showed the smallest variations in biomass. The effect on A. roberti varied during its ontogeny: the Zoea I and the Megalopa, which carry out downstream and upstream migrations, respectively, showed lower biomass variations than the intermediate zoeal instars, which develop in coastal waters. The larvae of A. ricordi showed generally the highest variations in biomass, reflecting poor adaptation to salinity variations. In addition, a common pattern was found for these estuarine species: the maximum of biomass shifted during ontogeny from 32 per thousand to 25 per thousand, reflecting changes of the iso-osmotic point. The ontogeny of osmoregulation reflected ontogenetic migration patterns, which allow for avoiding detrimental effects of salinity variations.

  18. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework.

  19. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  20. Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azari-Hamidian, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran. Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid), vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant), habitat type (natural or artificial), and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologically identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. superpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6°C (n=14) (16–25°C), 22.6°C (n=53) (12–33°C), 23.8°C (n=52) (10–33°C), 11.5°C (n=12) (9–21°C), and 20.4°C (n=7) (12–26°C), respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5°C) of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000). Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9%) such as river bed pools (46.4%) and rain pools (33.1%) with transient (98.3%), stagnant (99.5%) and clear (95.3%) water, with vegetation (69.9%), mud (42.0%) or gravel (39.7%) substrate in full sunlight (69.6%) or shaded (22.7%) area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided. Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and

  1. Egg and fourth instar larvae gut of Aedes aegypti as a source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mario, Lara C; Borghesi, Jéssica; Crivellari-Damasceno, Wilson T; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Will, Sonia E A L; Maria, Durvanei A; Miglino, Maria A

    2016-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 2015 registered more than 1.206.172 cases of Dengue in the Americas. Recently, the Aedes aegypti has been not only related to Dengue, but also with cases of Zika virus and Chikungunya. Due to its epidemiological importance, this study characterized the morphology of the embryonated eggs of A. aegypti and provided a protocol to culture stem cells from eggs and digestive tract of fourth instar larvae in order to examine cell biology and expression of markers in these vectors. Cells were isolated and cultured in DMEM-High at 28°C, and their morphology, cell cycle and immunophenotyping were examined. Morphologically, embryos were at the end of the embryonic period and showed: head, thorax, and abdomen with eight abdominal segments. The embryonic tissues expressed markers related to cell proliferation (PCNA), pluripotency (Sox2 and OCT3/4), neural cells (Nestin), mesenchymal cells (Vimentin and Stro-1), and endosomal cells (GM130 and RAB5). In culture, cells from both tissues (eggs and larvae gut) were composed by a heterogeneous population. The cells had a globoid shape and small size. Cell cycle analysis on passage 1 (P1) showed 27.5%±2.0% of cell debris, 68% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 30.2% on S phase, 1.9%±0.5% on G2-M phase. In addition, cells on passage 2 showed: 10% of cell debris, 92.4% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 6.8% on S phase, 0.6% on G2-M phase. Embryonated eggs expressed markers involved with pluripotency (Sox2 and Oct 3/4), mesenchymal cells (vimentin and Stro-1), neural cells (Nestin), and cellular death by apoptosis (Caspase 3). Specific endosomal markers for insect cells (GM130 and RAB5) were also highly expressed. In cell culture of A. aegypti larvae gut the same labeling pattern was observed, with a small decrease in the expression of mesenchymal (vimentin and Stro-1) and neural (Nestin) markers. In summary, we were able to establish a protocol to culture embryonated eggs and larvae gut of A. aegypti

  2. Egg and fourth instar larvae gut of Aedes aegypti as a source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mario, Lara C; Borghesi, Jéssica; Crivellari-Damasceno, Wilson T; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Will, Sonia E A L; Maria, Durvanei A; Miglino, Maria A

    2016-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 2015 registered more than 1.206.172 cases of Dengue in the Americas. Recently, the Aedes aegypti has been not only related to Dengue, but also with cases of Zika virus and Chikungunya. Due to its epidemiological importance, this study characterized the morphology of the embryonated eggs of A. aegypti and provided a protocol to culture stem cells from eggs and digestive tract of fourth instar larvae in order to examine cell biology and expression of markers in these vectors. Cells were isolated and cultured in DMEM-High at 28°C, and their morphology, cell cycle and immunophenotyping were examined. Morphologically, embryos were at the end of the embryonic period and showed: head, thorax, and abdomen with eight abdominal segments. The embryonic tissues expressed markers related to cell proliferation (PCNA), pluripotency (Sox2 and OCT3/4), neural cells (Nestin), mesenchymal cells (Vimentin and Stro-1), and endosomal cells (GM130 and RAB5). In culture, cells from both tissues (eggs and larvae gut) were composed by a heterogeneous population. The cells had a globoid shape and small size. Cell cycle analysis on passage 1 (P1) showed 27.5%±2.0% of cell debris, 68% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 30.2% on S phase, 1.9%±0.5% on G2-M phase. In addition, cells on passage 2 showed: 10% of cell debris, 92.4% of cells on G0-G1 phase, 6.8% on S phase, 0.6% on G2-M phase. Embryonated eggs expressed markers involved with pluripotency (Sox2 and Oct 3/4), mesenchymal cells (vimentin and Stro-1), neural cells (Nestin), and cellular death by apoptosis (Caspase 3). Specific endosomal markers for insect cells (GM130 and RAB5) were also highly expressed. In cell culture of A. aegypti larvae gut the same labeling pattern was observed, with a small decrease in the expression of mesenchymal (vimentin and Stro-1) and neural (Nestin) markers. In summary, we were able to establish a protocol to culture embryonated eggs and larvae gut of A. aegypti

  3. Eco-mechanics of lamellar autotomy in larval damselflies.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jennifer E; Fudge, Douglas S; Robinson, Beren W

    2014-01-15

    In larval damselflies, the self-amputation (autotomy) of the caudal lamellae permits escape from predatory larval dragonflies. Lamellar joint size declines among populations with increasing risk of dragonfly predation, but the breaking force required for autotomy and the biomechanical factors that influence breaking force are unknown. If autotomy enhances survival in larval damselflies, then predation by larval dragonflies should select for joints that require less force to break. We test this adaptive hypothesis by evaluating whether breaking force is negatively related to local predation risk from larval dragonflies. We also test a cuticle structure hypothesis, which predicts that breaking force is positively related to joint size and to joint cuticle thickness because of a structural support relationship between joint and lamella. The peak force necessary for lamellar autotomy was assessed on individual larval Enallagma damselflies collected from populations that varied in risk of predation. Easier lamellar autotomy occurred in larvae from sites with higher predation risk because damselflies from fishless ponds (where predatory larval dragonflies are likely more abundant) had lower breaking forces than those from ponds with fish (where larval dragonfly predation is likely reduced). Furthermore, breaking force was a positive function of joint size and also of total cuticle cross-sectional area after controlling for joint size. This suggests that autotomy may evolve in larval damselflies under selection from small grasping predators such as larval dragonflies by favouring smaller joint size or reduced cuticle area of lamellar joints.

  4. Eco-mechanics of lamellar autotomy in larval damselflies.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jennifer E; Fudge, Douglas S; Robinson, Beren W

    2014-01-15

    In larval damselflies, the self-amputation (autotomy) of the caudal lamellae permits escape from predatory larval dragonflies. Lamellar joint size declines among populations with increasing risk of dragonfly predation, but the breaking force required for autotomy and the biomechanical factors that influence breaking force are unknown. If autotomy enhances survival in larval damselflies, then predation by larval dragonflies should select for joints that require less force to break. We test this adaptive hypothesis by evaluating whether breaking force is negatively related to local predation risk from larval dragonflies. We also test a cuticle structure hypothesis, which predicts that breaking force is positively related to joint size and to joint cuticle thickness because of a structural support relationship between joint and lamella. The peak force necessary for lamellar autotomy was assessed on individual larval Enallagma damselflies collected from populations that varied in risk of predation. Easier lamellar autotomy occurred in larvae from sites with higher predation risk because damselflies from fishless ponds (where predatory larval dragonflies are likely more abundant) had lower breaking forces than those from ponds with fish (where larval dragonfly predation is likely reduced). Furthermore, breaking force was a positive function of joint size and also of total cuticle cross-sectional area after controlling for joint size. This suggests that autotomy may evolve in larval damselflies under selection from small grasping predators such as larval dragonflies by favouring smaller joint size or reduced cuticle area of lamellar joints. PMID:24431142

  5. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Nagarajan, Archana; Dey, Snigdhadip; Bose, Joy; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster in the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies.We recently showed that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster and was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates of greater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term laboratory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  6. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster without increased larval feeding rate.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Nagarajan, Archana; Dey, Snigdhadip; Bose, Joy; Joshi, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    Multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster in the 1980s and 1990s indicated that enhanced competitive ability evolved primarily through increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes and increased larval feeding and foraging rate, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass, and this became the widely accepted view of how adaptation to larval crowding evolves in fruitflies.We recently showed that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolved greater competitive ability without evolving higher feeding rates, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass, increased pupation height and, perhaps, greater urea/ammonia tolerance. This was a very different suite of traits than that seen to evolve under similar selection in D. melanogaster and was closer to the expectations from the theory of K-selection. At that time, we suggested two possible reasons for the differences in the phenotypic correlates of greater competitive ability seen in the studies with D. melanogaster and the other two species. First, that D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta had a very different genetic architecture of traits affecting competitive ability compared to the long-term laboratory populations of D. melanogaster used in the earlier studies, either because the populations of the former two species were relatively recently wild-caught, or by virtue of being different species. Second, that the different evolutionary trajectories in D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta versus D. melanogaster were a reflection of differences in the manner in which larval crowding was imposed in the two sets of selection experiments. The D. melanogaster studies used a higher absolute density of eggs per unit volume of food, and a substantially larger total volume of food, than the studies on D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta. Here, we

  7. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  8. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  9. Larval Connectivity and the International Management of Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Kough, Andrew S.; Paris, Claire B.; Butler, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries. PMID:23762273

  10. Larval connectivity and the international management of fisheries.

    PubMed

    Kough, Andrew S; Paris, Claire B; Butler, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the oceanic dispersal of planktonic larvae that connect scattered marine animal populations is difficult, yet crucial for management of species whose movements transcend international boundaries. Using multi-scale biophysical modeling techniques coupled with empirical estimates of larval behavior and gamete production, we predict and empirically verify spatio-temporal patterns of larval supply and describe the Caribbean-wide pattern of larval connectivity for the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an iconic coral reef species whose commercial value approaches $1 billion USD annually. Our results provide long sought information needed for international cooperation in the management of marine resources by identifying lobster larval connectivity and dispersal pathways throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, we outline how large-scale fishery management could explicitly recognize metapopulation structure by considering larval transport dynamics and pelagic larval sanctuaries.

  11. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae.

  12. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  13. Burrowing activities of the larval lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, Philip J.

    1959-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1950 of Applegate's work on the sea lamprey in Michigan (U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rept.; Fish, No. 55) and the subsequent development of means to control lampreys in the Great Lakes, biologists have accumulated much additional information on adult lampreys. Larval lampreys, however, are difficult animals to observe in the field, and many facets of their behavior are still unknown. While working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, I kept ammocetes in captivity, and was able to observe their burrowing activities.

  14. Maternal diet and larval diet influence survival skills of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Perez, K O; Fuiman, L A

    2015-04-01

    Larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus survival, turning rate, routine swimming speed, escape response latency and escape response distance were significantly correlated with essential fatty-acid (EFA) concentrations in eggs. Of the five traits that varied with egg EFA content, two (escape response latency and routine swimming speed) were significantly different when larvae were fed enriched diets compared with the low fatty-acid diet, indicating that the larval diet can compensate for some imbalances in egg composition. Turning rate during routine swimming and escape response distance, however, did not change when larvae predicted to have low performance (based on egg composition) were fed an enriched diet, indicating that these effects of egg composition may be irreversible. Escape response distances and survival rates of larvae predicted to perform well (based on egg composition) and fed highly enriched diets were lower than expected, suggesting that high levels of EFA intake can be detrimental. Altogether, these results suggest that both maternal diet, which is responsible for egg EFA composition, and larval diet may play a role in larval survivorship and recruitment. PMID:25740661

  15. Serotonin receptors expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies differentially modulate larval locomotion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bryon; Goles, Nicolás I; Varas, Rodrigo; Campusano, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used as a simple model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying behaviors, including the generation of motor programs. Thus, it has been shown that, as in vertebrates, CNS biogenic amines (BA) including serotonin (5HT) participate in motor control in Drosophila. Several evidence show that BA systems innervate an important association area in the insect brain previously associated to the planning and/or execution of motor programs, the Mushroom Bodies (MB). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of 5HT and its receptors expressed in MB to motor behavior in fly larva. Locomotion was evaluated using an automated tracking system, in Drosophila larvae (3(rd)-instar) exposed to drugs that affect the serotonergic neuronal transmission: alpha-methyl-L-dopa, MDMA and fluoxetine. In addition, animals expressing mutations in the 5HT biosynthetic enzymes or in any of the previously identified receptors for this amine (5HT1AR, 5HT1BR, 5HT2R and 5HT7R) were evaluated in their locomotion. Finally, RNAi directed to the Drosophila 5HT receptor transcripts were expressed in MB and the effect of this manipulation on motor behavior was assessed. Data obtained in the mutants and in animals exposed to the serotonergic drugs, suggest that 5HT systems are important regulators of motor programs in fly larvae. Studies carried out in animals pan-neuronally expressing the RNAi for each of the serotonergic receptors, support this idea and further suggest that CNS 5HT pathways play a role in motor control. Moreover, animals expressing an RNAi for 5HT1BR, 5HT2R and 5HT7R in MB show increased motor behavior, while no effect is observed when the RNAi for 5HT1AR is expressed in this region. Thus, our data suggest that CNS 5HT systems are involved in motor control, and that 5HT receptors expressed in MB differentially modulate motor programs in fly larvae.

  16. Serotonin Receptors Expressed in Drosophila Mushroom Bodies Differentially Modulate Larval Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bryon; Goles, Nicolás I.; Varas, Rodrigo; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used as a simple model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying behaviors, including the generation of motor programs. Thus, it has been shown that, as in vertebrates, CNS biogenic amines (BA) including serotonin (5HT) participate in motor control in Drosophila. Several evidence show that BA systems innervate an important association area in the insect brain previously associated to the planning and/or execution of motor programs, the Mushroom Bodies (MB). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the contribution of 5HT and its receptors expressed in MB to motor behavior in fly larva. Locomotion was evaluated using an automated tracking system, in Drosophila larvae (3rd-instar) exposed to drugs that affect the serotonergic neuronal transmission: alpha-methyl-L-dopa, MDMA and fluoxetine. In addition, animals expressing mutations in the 5HT biosynthetic enzymes or in any of the previously identified receptors for this amine (5HT1AR, 5HT1BR, 5HT2R and 5HT7R) were evaluated in their locomotion. Finally, RNAi directed to the Drosophila 5HT receptor transcripts were expressed in MB and the effect of this manipulation on motor behavior was assessed. Data obtained in the mutants and in animals exposed to the serotonergic drugs, suggest that 5HT systems are important regulators of motor programs in fly larvae. Studies carried out in animals pan-neuronally expressing the RNAi for each of the serotonergic receptors, support this idea and further suggest that CNS 5HT pathways play a role in motor control. Moreover, animals expressing an RNAi for 5HT1BR, 5HT2R and 5HT7R in MB show increased motor behavior, while no effect is observed when the RNAi for 5HT1AR is expressed in this region. Thus, our data suggest that CNS 5HT systems are involved in motor control, and that 5HT receptors expressed in MB differentially modulate motor programs in fly larvae. PMID:24586928

  17. De novo characterization of transcriptome and gene expression dynamics in epidermis during the larval-pupal metamorphosis of common cutworm.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Huang, Li-Xia; Gong, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Si-Chun; Liu, Lin; Huang, Li-Hua; Feng, Qi-Li

    2013-09-01

    Larval cuticle is degraded and replaced by the pupal counterpart during larval-pupal metamorphosis in the holometabolous insects. In addition to the extrinsic transformation, the epidermis goes through significant changes at molecular levels. To elucidate the intrinsic mechanism of epidermal metamorphosis, the dynamics of chitin content in the cuticle was examined in an important agricultural lepidopteran, the common cutworm, and the transcriptome was analyzed using Illumina sequencing technology. Gene expression profiles during the metamorphosis were further studied by both the digital gene expression (DGE) system and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the chitin content decreased in prepupae and then increased in pupae. A total of 58 million sequencing reads were obtained and assembled into 70,346 unigenes. Over 9000 unigenes were identified to express differentially during the transformation process. As compared with the 6th instar feeding larvae, the most significant changes took place in the proteasome and metabolic pathways in prepupae and pupae, respectively. The cytochrome P450s, VHDLs, chitinase, serine protease and genes involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis changed their mRNA levels remarkably. Three chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and chitin deacetylase) showed distinct mRNA expression patterns, the former two enzymes revealed the highest expression in prepupae, however the latter one showed its climax mRNA level in pupae. The gene expression patterns suggest that chitinase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase may be responsible for the degradation of larval cuticles, whereas chitin deacetylase may help to degrade the pupal counterparts. Gene expression dynamics also implied that the chitin of pupal cuticle might be formed by recycling of the degraded chitin of larval cuticle rather than through de novo synthesis. The 20E-induced nuclear receptors seem to be important factors regulating chitin metabolic enzymes

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Bombyx mori Larval Midgut during Persistent and Pathogenic Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kolliopoulou, Anna; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J.; Deforce, Dieter; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Many insects can be persistently infected with viruses but do not show any obvious adverse effects with respect to physiology, development or reproduction. Here, Bombyx mori strain Daizo, persistently infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), was used to study the host’s transcriptional response after pathogenic infection with the same virus in midgut tissue of larvae persistently and pathogenically infected as 2nd and 4th instars. Next generation sequencing revealed that from 13,769 expressed genes, 167 were upregulated and 141 downregulated in both larval instars following pathogenic infection. Several genes that could possibly be involved in B. mori immune response against BmCPV or that may be induced by the virus in order to increase infectivity were identified, whereas classification of differentially expressed transcripts (confirmed by qRT-PCR) resulted in gene categories related to physical barriers, immune responses, proteolytic / metabolic enzymes, heat-shock proteins, hormonal signaling and uncharacterized proteins. Comparison of our data with the available literature (pathogenic infection of persistently vs. non-persistently infected larvae) unveiled various similarities of response in both cases, which suggests that pre-existing persistent infection does not affect in a major way the transcriptome response against pathogenic infection. To investigate the possible host’s RNAi response against BmCPV challenge, the differential expression of RNAi-related genes and the accumulation of viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) were studied. During pathogenic infection, siRNA-like traces like the 2-fold up-regulation of the core RNAi genes Ago-2 and Dcr-2 as well as a peak of 20 nt small RNAs were observed. Interestingly, vsRNAs of the same size were detected at lower rates in persistently infected larvae. Collectively, our data provide an initial assessment of the relative significance of persistent infection of silkworm larvae on the host response following

  19. The value of external morphology in the identification of larval anisakid nematodes: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Weerasooriya, M V; Fujino, T; Ishii, Y; Kagei, N

    1986-01-01

    We studied larval nematodes of four genera of the Anisakidae using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anterior and posterior extremities and cuticular structures of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Anisakis type I, Pseudoterranova decipiens, Contracaecum type B and Hysterothylacium were examined. The 4th-stage larvae (L4) of Anisakis type I, P. decipiens, recovered after infection into laboratory rats, and the L3 and L4 of Anisakis type I larvae from human were also examined in the same way. There were generic differences in the shape and size of the lip bulges, external papillary structures, the appearance of the boring tooth, the width and depth of the grooves and ridges of the cuticle and the caudal structures of the L3. In Anisakis type I and P. decipiens L3, changes were seen in the anterior extremity, cuticle and posterior extremity after molting to the L4. Similar changes can be expected in larvae infecting man. The L4 of Anisakis type I from rat and man were similar, while the L4 of Anisakis type I and P. decipiens showed differences. These ultrastructural differences might be of value in the identification of fragments recovered during endoscopy in man. PMID:3799008

  20. Accelerated and Synchronized Oviposition Induced by Flight of Young Females May Intensify Larval Outbreaks of the Rice Leaf Roller

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Pan; Sappington, Thomas W.; Lu, Weixiang; Luo, Lizhi; Jiang, Xingfu

    2015-01-01

    Physiological management of migration-reproduction trade-offs in energy allocation often includes a package of adaptions referred to as the oogenesis-flight syndrome. In some species, this trade-off may be overestimated, because factors like flight behavior and environmental conditions may mitigate it. In this study, we examined the reproductive consequences induced by different flight scenarios in an economically-important Asian migrant insect, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. We found that the influences of flight on reproduction are not absolutely positive or negative, but instead depend on the age at which the moth begins flight, flight duration, and how many consecutive nights they are flown. Adult flight on the 1st or 2nd night after emergence, flight for 6 h or 12 h nightly, and flight on the first two consecutive nights after emergence significantly accelerated onset of oviposition or enhanced synchrony of egg-laying. The latter can contribute to subsequent larval outbreaks. However, flight after the 3rd night, flight for 18 h at any age, or flight on more than 3 consecutive nights after adult emergence did not promote reproductive development, and in some scenarios even constrained adult reproduction. These results indicate that there is a migration/reproduction trade-off in C.medinalis, but that it is mitigated or eliminated by flight under appropriate conditions. The strategy of advanced and synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight of young females may be common in other migratory insect pests. PMID:25815767

  1. Accelerated and synchronized oviposition induced by flight of young females may intensify larval outbreaks of the rice leaf roller.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Pan; Sappington, Thomas W; Lu, Weixiang; Luo, Lizhi; Jiang, Xingfu

    2015-01-01

    Physiological management of migration-reproduction trade-offs in energy allocation often includes a package of adaptions referred to as the oogenesis-flight syndrome. In some species, this trade-off may be overestimated, because factors like flight behavior and environmental conditions may mitigate it. In this study, we examined the reproductive consequences induced by different flight scenarios in an economically-important Asian migrant insect, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. We found that the influences of flight on reproduction are not absolutely positive or negative, but instead depend on the age at which the moth begins flight, flight duration, and how many consecutive nights they are flown. Adult flight on the 1st or 2nd night after emergence, flight for 6 h or 12 h nightly, and flight on the first two consecutive nights after emergence significantly accelerated onset of oviposition or enhanced synchrony of egg-laying. The latter can contribute to subsequent larval outbreaks. However, flight after the 3rd night, flight for 18 h at any age, or flight on more than 3 consecutive nights after adult emergence did not promote reproductive development, and in some scenarios even constrained adult reproduction. These results indicate that there is a migration/reproduction trade-off in C.medinalis, but that it is mitigated or eliminated by flight under appropriate conditions. The strategy of advanced and synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight of young females may be common in other migratory insect pests.

  2. Upregulation of the immune protein gene hemolin in the epidermis during the wandering larval stage of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Aye, Tin Tin; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Rhee, In-Koo; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2008-08-01

    Expression of hemolin, which generates an immune protein, was up-regulated in wandering fifth instar larval stage of Plodia interpunctella. The mRNA level peaked in the middle of the wandering stage. Major expression was in the epidermis, rather than in the fat body or gut. To test a possible ecdysteroid effect on hemolin induction we treated with RH-5992, an ecdysteroid agonist, and KK-42, which inhibits ecdysteroid biosynthesis in both feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae. When feeding larvae were treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was increased. When wandering larvae were treated with KK-42 its level was reduced. In addition, when KK-42-treated larvae were subsequently treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was recovered. These results strongly suggest that ecdysteroid up-regulates the expression of hemolin mRNA. Hormonal and bacterial effects on hemolin induction were further analyzed at the tissue level. Major induction of hemolin mRNA was detected following both RH-5992 treatment and bacterial injection in the epidermis of both feeding and wandering larvae. Minor induction of hemolin was detected in the fat body following a bacterial injection, but not RH-5992 treatment. We infer that in P. interpunctella larvae, the epidermis is the major tissue for hemolin induction in naïve insects and in insects manipulated with bacterial and hormonal treatments.

  3. RNA interference of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene reveals its roles during larval-pupal metamorphosis in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ke-Cai; Wang, Jia; Li, Jia-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qing; Pu, Po; Fan, Huan; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects, which plays a crucial role as an instant source of energy and the starting substrate for chitin biosynthesis. In insects, trehalose is synthesized by catalysis of an important enzyme, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS). In the present study, a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene from Bactrocera minax (BmTPS) was cloned and characterized. BmTPS contained an open reading frame of 2445 nucleotides encoding a protein of 814 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 92.05kDa. BmTPS was detectable in all developmental stages of Bactrocera minax and expressed higher in the final- (third-) instar larvae. Tissue-specific expression patterns of BmTPS showed that it was mainly expressed in the fat body. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BmTPS and three genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, injection of double-stranded RNA into third-instar larvae successfully silenced the transcription of BmTPS in B. minax, and thereby decreased the activity of TPS and trehalose content. Additionally, silencing of BmTPS inhibited the expression of three key genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway and exhibited 52% death and abnormal phenotypes. The findings demonstrate that BmTPS is indispensable for larval-pupal metamorphosis. Besides, the establishment of RNAi experimental system in B. minax would lay a solid foundation for further investigation of molecular biology and physiology of this pest. PMID:27405007

  4. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  5. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  6. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  7. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Canal, Nelson A; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex.

  8. Developmental changes in the presence of ecdysteroid receptors in the central nervous system of third instar larvae of Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    Bidmon, H J

    1991-11-19

    Radiolabeled ponasterone A, a high affinity ligand for ecdysteroid receptors which agonises the effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was used in combination with thaw-mount autoradiography to study the stage-specific presence of ecdysteroid receptors in the central nervous system of Sarcophaga bullata. In third instar larvae, nuclear high affinity binding of tritiated or iodinated ponasterone A occurs in the same target cells and both radioligands were displaced by an 100-fold excess of unlabeled ponasterone A or an 500-fold excess of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Target neurons for ponasterone A appear first in the third instar larvae on day 4.0 (early wandering stage) where many cells of the perineurium, ring gland, lateral neurosecretory cells in the brain and certain neurons in abdominal ganglia exhibit nuclear high-affinity binding for ponasterone A. At day 5.5 after larviposition, less binding is present in the perineurium but many neurons, including certain neurosecretory cells in the pars intercerebralis, pars lateralis, tritocerebrum, and neurosecretory cell groups 7, 8, 9, and 10 of the dipteran suboesophageal and abdominal ganglia show increased nuclear ecdysteroid binding. At this stage nuclear binding also occurs in the ring gland except in the central corpus allatum and for the first time in the neurons of the inner optic lobes. The results show that ecdysteroid receptors are present in distinct cerebral neurons and that their expression or ecdysteroid-binding capability is under developmental control.

  9. Influence of gamma irradiation on productivity indices of the edible Emperor moth caterpillar, Cirina forda (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, M O; Fasoranti, J O; Ande, A T; Olayemi, I K

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed at generating baseline information for sustainable genetic improvement of Cirana forda larvae for entomophagy, through the use of gamma irradiation. Eggs of C. forda were irradiated with increasing doses of gamma rays from 0 to 200 Gy and raised through larval instal stages under laboratory conditions. The Body Weight (BW) and Head Capsule Width (HCW) of the larval instar stages were monitored as indices of productivity. Successful larval emergence was recorded for all irradiation doses tested and BW of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between the control and treated groups (range = 0.021 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the 200 Gy treatment to 0.028 +/- 0.003 g/larva in the control group and 0.105 +/- 0.003 g/larva in 20 Gy treatment to 0.172 +/- 0.009 g/larva in the control group, respectively). On the other hand, BW during the 3rd and 4th larval instars were significantly (p < 0.05) lower among the irradiated treatments than control. Pattern of distribution of HCW was different from that of BW; as HCW increased with irradiation dose from 10-50 Gy during the 3rd and 4th larval instars. Also, HCW during the 5th instar larvae among the irradiated treatments (range = 5.256 +/- 0.012 to 5.662 +/- 0.026 mm) were not higher than that of the 6th instar in the control group (6.065 +/- 0.010 mm). These results suggest promising potentials of the use of gamma irradiation in sustainably improving the productivity of C. forda larvae for entomophagy.

  10. Characteristics of Anopheles arabiensis larval habitats in Tubu village, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Chirebvu, Elijah; Chimbari, Moses J

    2015-06-01

    Documented information on the ecology of larval habitats in Botswana is lacking but is critical for larval control programs. Therefore, this study determined the characteristics of these habitats and the influences of biotic and abiotic factors in Tubu village, Botswana. Eight water bodies were sampled between January and December, 2013. The aquatic vegetation and invertebrate species present were characterized. Water parameters measured were turbidity (NTU), conductivity (μS/cm), oxygen (mg/l), and pH. Larval densities of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes and their correlation with abiotic factors were determined. Larval breeding was associated with 'short' aquatic vegetation, a variety of habitats fed by both rainfall and flood waters and sites with predators and competitors. The monthly mean (± SE(mean)) larval density was 8.16±1.33. The monthly mean (±SE(mean)) pH, conductivity, oxygen, and turbidity were 7.65±0.13, 1152.834±69.171, 5.59±1.33, and 323.421±33.801, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between larval density and conductivity (r = -0.839; p < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation occurred between turbidity and larval density (r = 0.685; p < 0.05). Oxygen (r = 0.140; p > 0.05) and pH (r = 0.252; p > 0.05) were not correlated with larval density. Floods and diversified breeding sites contributed to prolonged and prolific larval breeding. 'Short' aquatic vegetation and predator-infested waters offered suitable environments for larval breeding. Turbidity and conductivity were good indicators for potential breeding places and can be used as early warning indices for predicting larval production levels.

  11. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  12. Dietary antioxidants enhance immunocompetence in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Szuroczki, Dorina; Koprivnikar, Janet; Baker, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants have been shown to confer a variety of benefits through their ability to counter oxidative stress, including increased immunocompetence and reduced susceptibility to both infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, little is known about the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune function in larval amphibians, a group experiencing worldwide declines driven by factors that likely involve altered immunocompetence. We investigated the effects of dietary antioxidants (quercetin, vitamin E, and β-carotene) on two components of the immune system, as well as development and growth. Lithobates pipiens tadpoles fed diets with supplemental β-carotene or vitamin E exhibited an enhanced swelling response as measured with a phytohemagglutinin assay (PHA), but there was no induced antibody response. Effects were often dose-dependent, with higher antioxidant levels generally conferring stronger swelling that possibly corresponds to the innate immune response. Our results indicate that the antioxidant content of the larval amphibian diets not only had a detectable effect on their immune response capability, but also promoted tadpole growth (mass gain), although developmental stage was not affected. Given that many environmental perturbations may cause oxidative stress or reduce immunocompetence, it is critical to understand how nutrition may counter these effects. PMID:27475300

  13. Larval fish distribution in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine what study design, environmental, and habitat variables contribute to the distribution and abundance of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary. Larval fish habitat associations are poorly understood in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, yet critical ...

  14. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture. PMID

  15. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture. PMID

  16. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  17. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%–5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%–37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%–77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%–42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%–0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem

  18. Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas and Anteros formosus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), with a summary of known host plants for the tribe Helicopini.

    PubMed

    Mota, Luísa L; Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L

    2014-07-21

    Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) are described for the first time and compared with those of Anteros formosus, which are also described in detail. Last instars of both species present body covered with long white plumose setae, a row of orange balloon setae on the prothoracic shield, and clusters of perforated cupola organs (PCOs) near the spiracles; differences are the black cephalic capsule, the placement and format of balloon setae cluster, and the presence of enlarged black tips on some plumose setae. Pupae of O. archytas resemble that of Anteros, covered with the last instar setae and with no balloon setae. Characteristics of the immature stages of these two genera could be useful to establish the still unresolved relationship between them. A summary of the host plants of Helicopini is presented, showing a polyphagous pattern for Anteros, recorded in 21 host plant families, which contrasts with the specialized diet observed in Helicopis and Sarota. 

  19. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  20. Exploration of the "larval pool": development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Wren, Johanna L K; Kobayashi, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai'i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai'i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai'i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.

  1. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  2. Modelling larval movement data from individual bioassays.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Chris R; Worton, Bruce J; Deasy, William; Birch, A Nicholas E

    2015-05-01

    We consider modelling the movements of larvae using individual bioassays in which data are collected at a high-frequency rate of five observations per second. The aim is to characterize the behaviour of the larvae when exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. Mixtures of diffusion processes, as well as Hidden Markov models, are proposed as models of larval movement. These models account for directed and localized movements, and successfully distinguish between the behaviour of larvae exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. A simulation study illustrates the advantage of using a Hidden Markov model rather than a simpler mixture model. Practical aspects of model estimation and inference are considered on extensive data collected in a study of novel approaches for the management of cabbage root fly. PMID:25764283

  3. Neuroendocrine Control of Drosophila Larval Light Preference

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Romero, Nuria M.; Martin, Francisco A.; Rewitz, Kim F.; Sun, Mu; O’Connor, Michael B.; Léopold, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Animal development is coupled with innate behaviors that maximize chances of survival. Here we show that the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a neuropeptide that controls the developmental transition from juvenile stage to sexual maturation, also regulates light avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. PTTH, through its receptor Torso, acts on two light sensors, the Bolwig’s organ and the peripheral class IV dendritic arborization neurons, to regulate light avoidance. We find that PTTH concomitantly promotes steroidogenesis and light avoidance at the end of larval stage, thereby driving animals towards a darker environment to initiate the immobile maturation phase. Thus, PTTH controls the decisions of when and where animals undergo metamorphosis, optimizing conditions for adult development. PMID:24009394

  4. Spontaneous larval Gnathostoma nipponicum infection in frogs.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, T; Hirata, T; Hara, M; Kudo, M; Oyamada, T; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Suzuki, N

    1998-09-01

    From June 1993 to September 1997, a survey was carried out for the prevalence of larval Gnathostoma nipponicum infection in several kinds of frogs, toads, and their tadpoles collected from an endemic area of this nematode in Aomori Prefecture. Two frog species, one of 436 (0.2%) Rana nigromaculata and 51 of 147 (34.7%) R. catesbeiana were infected, and a total of 446 advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) of G. nipponicum were recovered. These results confirmed that two frog species which can serve as the second intermediate and/or paratenic hosts in the life cycle of G. nipponicum exist in nature. This report is the first record of spontaneous infection of frogs with AdL3 of G. nipponicum.

  5. Modelling larval movement data from individual bioassays.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Chris R; Worton, Bruce J; Deasy, William; Birch, A Nicholas E

    2015-05-01

    We consider modelling the movements of larvae using individual bioassays in which data are collected at a high-frequency rate of five observations per second. The aim is to characterize the behaviour of the larvae when exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. Mixtures of diffusion processes, as well as Hidden Markov models, are proposed as models of larval movement. These models account for directed and localized movements, and successfully distinguish between the behaviour of larvae exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. A simulation study illustrates the advantage of using a Hidden Markov model rather than a simpler mixture model. Practical aspects of model estimation and inference are considered on extensive data collected in a study of novel approaches for the management of cabbage root fly.

  6. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  7. Metabolomic differentiation of Brassica rapa following herbivory by different insect instars using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Widarto, Heru Tri; Van Der Meijden, Ed; Lefeber, Alfons W M; Erkelens, Cornelis; Kim, Hye Kyong; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The metabolic alterations of Brassica rapa (L.) leaves attacked by larvae of the specialist Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and the generalist Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by a multivariate data analysis. The principal component analysis (PCA) of (1)H NMR spectra showed that metabolic changes in B. rapa leaves induced by the 2nd and the 4th instars were different from each other. However, the congestion of the one-dimensional (1)H NMR spectrum made it difficult to identify discriminating metabolites. To overcome the spectral complexity, several two-dimensional NMR techniques were applied. Of those evaluated, J-resolved spectroscopy, which affords an additional coupling constant, provided a wide range of structure information on differentiating the metabolites. Based on the J-resolved spectra combined with PCA, the major signals contributing to the discrimination were alanine, threonine, glucose, sucrose, feruloyl malate, sinapoyl malate, and gluconapin.

  8. Comprehensive risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation: emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options—a report from the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Bax, Jeroen; Hylek, Elaine; Kaab, Stefan; Schotten, Ulrich; Wegscheider, Karl; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Ezekowitz, Michael; Diener, Hans; Haegeli, Laurent; Heidbuchel, Hein; Lane, Deirdre; Mont, Luis; Willems, Stephan; Dorian, Paul; Aunes-Jansson, Maria; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Borentain, Maria; Breitenstein, Stefanie; Brueckmann, Martina; Cater, Nilo; Clemens, Andreas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Dubner, Sergio; Edvardsson, Nils G.; Friberg, Leif; Goette, Andreas; Gulizia, Michele; Hatala, Robert; Horwood, Jenny; Szumowski, Lukas; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Josef; Leute, Angelika; Lobban, Trudie; Meyer, Ralf; Millerhagen, Jay; Morgan, John; Muenzel, Felix; Nabauer, Michael; Baertels, Christoph; Oeff, Michael; Paar, Dieter; Polifka, Juergen; Ravens, Ursula; Rosin, Ludger; Stegink, W.; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Vincent, Alphons; Walter, Maureen; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A. John

    2012-01-01

    While management of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is improved by guideline-conform application of anticoagulant therapy, rate control, rhythm control, and therapy of accompanying heart disease, the morbidity and mortality associated with AF remain unacceptably high. This paper describes the proceedings of the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET)/European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus conference that convened over 60 scientists and representatives from industry to jointly discuss emerging therapeutic and diagnostic improvements to achieve better management of AF patients. The paper covers four chapters: (i) risk factors and risk markers for AF; (ii) pathophysiological classification of AF; (iii) relevance of monitored AF duration for AF-related outcomes; and (iv) perspectives and needs for implementing better antithrombotic therapy. Relevant published literature for each section is covered, and suggestions for the improvement of management in each area are put forward. Combined, the propositions formulate a perspective to implement comprehensive management in AF. PMID:21791573

  9. Comprehensive risk reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation: emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options--a report from the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Y H; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Bax, Jeroen; Hylek, Elaine; Kaab, Stefan; Schotten, Ulrich; Wegscheider, Karl; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Ezekowitz, Michael; Diener, Hans; Haegeli, Laurent; Heidbuchel, Hein; Lane, Deirdre; Mont, Luis; Willems, Stephan; Dorian, Paul; Aunes-Jansson, Maria; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Borentain, Maria; Breitenstein, Stefanie; Brueckmann, Martina; Cater, Nilo; Clemens, Andreas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Dubner, Sergio; Edvardsson, Nils G; Friberg, Leif; Goette, Andreas; Gulizia, Michele; Hatala, Robert; Horwood, Jenny; Szumowski, Lukas; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Josef; Leute, Angelika; Lobban, Trudie; Meyer, Ralf; Millerhagen, Jay; Morgan, John; Muenzel, Felix; Nabauer, Michael; Baertels, Christoph; Oeff, Michael; Paar, Dieter; Polifka, Juergen; Ravens, Ursula; Rosin, Ludger; Stegink, W; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Vincent, Alphons; Walter, Maureen; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A John

    2012-01-01

    While management of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients is improved by guideline-conform application of anticoagulant therapy, rate control, rhythm control, and therapy of accompanying heart disease, the morbidity and mortality associated with AF remain unacceptably high. This paper describes the proceedings of the 3rd Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET)/European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus conference that convened over 60 scientists and representatives from industry to jointly discuss emerging therapeutic and diagnostic improvements to achieve better management of AF patients. The paper covers four chapters: (i) risk factors and risk markers for AF; (ii) pathophysiological classification of AF; (iii) relevance of monitored AF duration for AF-related outcomes; and (iv) perspectives and needs for implementing better antithrombotic therapy. Relevant published literature for each section is covered, and suggestions for the improvement of management in each area are put forward. Combined, the propositions formulate a perspective to implement comprehensive management in AF. PMID:21791573

  10. Effects of larval habitat substrate on pyriproxyfen efficacy against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Dong, Limin; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-11-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog insect growth regulator (IGR), is a recommended insecticide for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes. The effects of eight container substrates (three plastics, wood, tire rubber, clay pot, concrete, and glass) were studied on reduction of bio-efficacy of pyriproxyfen for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the laboratory. Insect growth regulator-bioassay of third instars showed significant increase of LC50 with some substrates compared with control probably because of pyriproxyfen adsorption to the substrate. The LC50 for the control substrate (glass mug) was 0.029 microg/liter. In comparison to the control, LC50 increased 150.1 times with tire rubber (4.354 microg/liter) and 8-10 times with wood and high-density polyethylene plastic containers. Slight increases of LC50 were detected for clay pots, polypropylene, and polystyrene plastics (1.9-2.7 times). Pyriproxyfen efficacy with concrete substrate was higher than with glass containers, which might be caused by high pH. The pH of water with wood (5.6) and concrete (9.8) substrates differed from the other substrates tested (6.3-7.1). There was no pupal mortality at pH 5-11 without pyriproxyfen; however, interaction of pH (5-11) with pyriproxyfen (0.05 microg/liter) showed additive effects at both low and high pH values. Different substrates have variable impacts on pyriproxyfen efficacy, which might be associated with the failure of larval control strategies for the container mosquitoes under certain field conditions.

  11. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p < 0.05) and were on average more confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p < 0.05). Correlation of these parameters was stronger for 5th-year students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  12. Real-World Use of 3rd Line Therapy for Multiple Myeloma in Austria: An Austrian Myeloma Registry (AMR) Analysis of the Therapeutic Landscape and Clinical Outcomes prior to the Use of Next Generation Myeloma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Willenbacher, Ella; Weger, Roman; Rochau, Ursula; Siebert, Uwe; Willenbacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical trials demonstrate improving survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after treatment. However, it is unclear whether increased survival translates to a similar benefit in a real world setting. Methods We analyzed the overall survival of 347 multiple myeloma patients in Austria by means of a national registry (AMR), focused on results from 3rd and later lines of therapy. This benchmark was chosen to define a baseline prior to the broad application of upcoming 2nd generation drugs (carfilzomib, pomalidomide). Results Projected 10 years survival for patients with MM in Austria is estimated to be 56% in patients diagnosed in between the years 2011–2014, 21% in patients with a diagnosis made between 2000–2005, and 39% in those with a diagnosis made between 2006–2010). For the same intervals a significant increase in the use of both bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide—so called IMiDs (from 2005 onwards) and their simultaneous use in combination therapies (from 2010 onwards) could be shown. The use of autologous transplantation (ASCT) remained more or less constant at ~ 35% of patients in the 1st line setting over the whole period, comparing well to international practice patterns, while the use of 2nd line ASCT increased from 5.5% to 18.7% of patients. Patients in 3rd or later line treatment (n = 105), showed that even in relapsed and refractory disease median survival was 27 months with a considerable proportion of long-term survivors (~20%). Conclusion & Perspective With the expected emergence of additional active anti-myeloma compounds, we aim to assess survival in patients with relapsed and refractory MM. PMID:26937956

  13. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  14. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater.

  15. Fitness consequences of larval traits persist across the metamorphic boundary.

    PubMed

    Crean, Angela J; Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J

    2011-11-01

    Metamorphosis is thought to provide an adaptive decoupling between traits specialized for each life-history stage in species with complex life cycles. However, an increasing number of studies are finding that larval traits can carry-over to influence postmetamorphic performance, suggesting that these life-history stages may not be free to evolve independently of each other. We used a phenotypic selection framework to compare the relative and interactive effects of larval size, time to hatching, and time to settlement on postmetamorphic survival and growth in a marine invertebrate, Styela plicata. Time to hatching was the only larval trait found to be under directional selection, individuals that took more time to hatch into larvae survived better after metamorphosis but grew more slowly. Nonlinear selection was found to act on multivariate trait combinations, once again acting in opposite directions for selection acting via survival and growth. Individuals with above average values of larval traits were most likely to survive, but surviving individuals with intermediate larval traits grew to the largest size. These results demonstrate that larval traits can have multiple, complex fitness consequences that persist across the metamorphic boundary; and thus postmetamorphic selection pressures may constrain the evolution of larval traits.

  16. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater. PMID:26470357

  17. Does fish larval dispersal differ between high and low latitudes?

    PubMed

    Leis, Jeffrey M; Caselle, Jennifer E; Bradbury, Ian R; Kristiansen, Trond; Llopiz, Joel K; Miller, Michael J; O'Connor, Mary I; Paris, Claire B; Shanks, Alan L; Sogard, Susan M; Swearer, Stephen E; Treml, Eric A; Vetter, Russell D; Warner, Robert R

    2013-05-22

    Several factors lead to expectations that the scale of larval dispersal and population connectivity of marine animals differs with latitude. We examine this expectation for demersal shorefishes, including relevant mechanisms, assumptions and evidence. We explore latitudinal differences in (i) biological (e.g. species composition, spawning mode, pelagic larval duration, PLD), (ii) physical (e.g. water movement, habitat fragmentation), and (iii) biophysical factors (primarily temperature, which could strongly affect development, swimming ability or feeding). Latitudinal differences exist in taxonomic composition, habitat fragmentation, temperature and larval swimming, and each difference could influence larval dispersal. Nevertheless, clear evidence for latitudinal differences in larval dispersal at the level of broad faunas is lacking. For example, PLD is strongly influenced by taxon, habitat and geographical region, but no independent latitudinal trend is present in published PLD values. Any trends in larval dispersal may be obscured by a lack of appropriate information, or use of 'off the shelf' information that is biased with regard to the species assemblages in areas of concern. Biases may also be introduced from latitudinal differences in taxa or spawning modes as well as limited latitudinal sampling. We suggest research to make progress on the question of latitudinal trends in larval dispersal.

  18. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) Increases Survival of Larval Sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan S F; Poretsky, Rachel S; Cook, Matthew A; Reyes-Tomassini, Jose J; Berejikian, Barry A; Goetz, Frederick W

    2016-06-01

    High concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a chemical compound released by lysed phytoplankton, may indicate high rates of grazing by zooplankton and may thus be a foraging cue for planktivorous fishes. Previous studies have shown that some planktivorous fishes and birds aggregate or alter locomotory behavior in response to this chemical cue, which is likely adaptive because it helps them locate prey. These behavioral responses have been demonstrated in juveniles and adults, but no studies have tested for effects on larval fish. Larvae suffer from high mortality rates and are vulnerable to starvation. While larvae are generally thought to be visual predators, they actually have poor vision and cryptic prey. Thus, larval fish should benefit from a chemical cue that provides information on prey abundance. We reared larval sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, for one week and supplemented feedings with varying concentrations of DMSP to test the hypothesis that DMSP affects larval survival. Ecologically relevant DMSP concentrations increased larval survival by up to 70 %, which has implications for production in aquaculture and recruitment in nature. These results provide a new tool for increasing larval production in aquaculture and also suggest that larvae may use DMSP as an olfactory cue. The release of DMSP may be a previously unappreciated mechanism through which phytoplankton affect larval survival and recruitment. PMID:27306913

  19. Investigation into the Effect of Altitude on the Differential Hemocyte Count of Circulating Plasmatocytes and Granulocytes of Larval Stage of Antheraea assama (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Baishya, Bhavna Prishnee; Bardoloi, Sunayan; Bharali, Rupjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Differential hemocyte count of circulating plasmatocytes (PL) and granulocytes (GR) of fifth-instar larvae of Muga Silkworm Antheraea assama Westwood (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) reared at four different sericulture farms situated at different altitudes, viz, Khanapara State Sericulture Farm, Assam, altitude 55.5 m above sea level (ASL); Nongpoh (Central Silk Board farm), Meghalaya, altitude 464 m ASL; Tura (Central Silk Board farm), West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, 657 m ASL; and Kalimpong (Central Silk Board farm), West Bengal, altitude 1,247 m ASL, were calculated and compared to investigate the effect of altitude on the number of PL and GR per mm(3) of larval hemolymph. The investigation showed that the mean circulating PL and GR were highest at Khanapara (55.5 m ASL) located at the lowest altitude, whereas their numbers gradually decreased with increase in altitude at Nongpoh (464 m ASL), Tura (657 m ASL), and Kalimpong (1,247 m ASL). This may be attributed to the average environmental temperatures observed at different altitudes, which may affect the overall hemocyte load of larval stages reared at those altitudes.

  20. The black-pearl gene of Drosophila defines a novel conserved protein family and is required for larval growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Gehrsitz, A; Bork, P; Buchner, S; Buchner, E

    2001-01-10

    Using a transposon insertion line of the Drosophila Genome Project we have cloned the black-pearl gene (blp), analyzed cDNA clones, generated various mutants, and characterized their phenotypes. The blp gene codes for a protein of 15.7 kDa calculated molecular weight that has been conserved from yeast to plants and mammals with high homology. A domain of these new proteins shows distant similarity to DnaJ domains indicating a functionally relevant interaction with other proteins. The P element insertion in line P1539 lies within the 5' untranslated leader of the black-pearl gene. Flies homozygous for this insertion are semi-lethal, escapers produce very few offspring and show melanotic inclusions in the hemocoel ('black pearls') similar to various melanotic 'tumor' mutants. Two small deletions confined to the blp gene and two EMS-induced mutations are homozygous lethal. These null mutants appear normal up to a prolonged first instar larval stage but fail to grow and die. Thus in Drosophila the blp gene is specifically required for larval growth. The evolutionary conservation in both unicellular and multicellular organisms suggests for the new protein family described here a fundamental role in cell growth.

  1. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  2. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. PMID:27030775

  3. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress.

  4. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  5. Silencing the HaAK gene by transgenic plant-mediated RNAi impairs larval growth of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Li, Yan-Jun; Liu, Yong-Chang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have caused noticeable economic losses in agriculture, and the heavy use of insecticide to control pests not only brings the threats of insecticide resistance but also causes the great pollution to foods and the environment. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been is currently developed for protection against insect pests. In this study, we used this technology to silence the arginine kinase (AK) gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaAK), encoding a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrate. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants producing HaAK dsRNA were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The maximal mortality rate of 55% was reached when H. armigera first-instar larvae were fed with transgenic plant leaves for 3 days, which was dramatically higher than the 18% mortality recorded in the control group. Moreover, the ingestion of transgenic plants significantly retarded larval growth, and the transcript levels of HaAK were also knocked down by up to 52%. The feeding bioassays further indicated that the inhibition efficiency was correlated with the integrity and concentration of the produced HaAK dsRNA in transgenic plants. These results strongly show that the resistance to H. armigera was improved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the RNAi targeting of AK has the potential for the control of insect pests. PMID:25552931

  6. Identification of the silkworm quail gene reveals a crucial role of a receptor guanylyl cyclase in larval pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Masashi; Kiuchi, Takashi; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Diverse color patterns on the integument of lepidopteran larvae play important roles in their survival through camouflage, mimicry, sexual signaling, and aposematism. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, many color pattern variations have been preserved in inbred strains making them a good model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie color pattern formation. In this study, we focused on the silkworm quail (q) mutant, which exhibits abnormalities in multiple pigment biosynthesis pathways. Positional cloning of the q gene revealed that disruption of a guanylyl cyclase gene, BmGC-I, is responsible for its abnormal pigmentation. In q mutants, we identified a 16-bp deletion in the BmGC-I transcript, resulting in the production of a premature stop codon. Knockout of the BmGC-I gene resulted in the q-like abnormal pigmentation, thereby demonstrating that the BmGC-I gene is involved in the pigment biosynthesis pathway in the integument. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that BmGC-I was strongly expressed in the fourth instar on day 2. Our results suggest that BmGC-I deficiency affects the pigment biosynthesis pathway, which supports the involvement of guanylyl cyclase in larval coloration.

  7. Efficacy of an Esfenvalerate plus Methoprene Aerosol for the Control of Eggs and Fifth Instars of the Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides may provide an alternative to fumigants for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), a major insect pest of stored processed food. In this study, eggs and larvae (5th instars) of P. interpunctella were exposed to aerosol applications of the pyrethroid esf...

  8. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-07-11

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina. PMID:27411066

  9. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-07-11

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  10. Corrected misidentification of first instars of the bot flies Cephenemyia apicata and C. jellisoni, with a review of the biology and life history of both species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2012-06-01

    First instars obtained from the uteri of host-seeking females, and compared with previously published descriptions of larvae collected from Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), revealed that larvae described as Cephenemyia apicata Bennett & Sabrosky (Diptera: Oestridae) actually are C. jellisoni Townsend. Several new characters are added to supplement the original descriptions of the first instars of these species. Collections of all larvae from deer autopsied during different months established that the first instars of C. apicata undergo a long obligate period of development and growth in the bronchi before molting and migrating to the retropharyngeal pouches of deer. This is the first study to document an obligatory lung phase in the life history of a species of Cephenemyia. The lung phase of C. apicata is compared with that described for Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen) (Diptera: Oestridae) in European red deer. A literature review found that for all Cephenemyia species studied, as well as for P. picta, a 6-8 month period of development as first instars during the fall/winter months ensures that pupal development and eclosion of adults will occur during periods of favourable external environmental conditions.

  11. Ultrastructure and development of the new stylets inside pre-molting first instar nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure and development of new stylets was studied in pre-molting first instar nymph of Diaphorina citri. Two oval-shaped masses of cuboidal hypodermal cells, located in the cephalic region, had long extensions that ended with developing pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets, apparent...

  12. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  13. Maximising the secondary beneficial effects of larval debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Nigam, Y

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory-based clinical investigations have shown that maggots and their secretions promote, among other activities, fibroblast motogenesis and angiogenesis. These events would contribute to re-granulation if translated to the wound environment. Maggot secretions also have ascribed antibacterial actions and may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many of these biological events would be lost in the presence of necrotic tissue, making debridement a prerequisite for the release of larval-secreted secondary beneficial effects on the wound. We argue that Larval Debridement Therapy (LDT) should be considered as a primary and secondary treatment in wound management, with the primary application designed to debride the wound, and with subsequent applications to the debrided wound targeted to cellular events that promote healing. This review lends support to a re-evaluation of larval application protocols, in order to optimally harness the potential secondary beneficial clinical effects of larval therapy.

  14. Effects of osmotic stress on crustacean larval growth and protein and lipid levels are related to life-histories: the genus Armases as a model.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gabriela; Giménez, Luis; Anger, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    In the larval stages of three euryhaline species of the genus Armases, we tested if changes in biomass (dry mass, W; protein; lipid) under hyposmotic stress were related to their salinity tolerance, capabilities of osmoregulation, and migration patterns. As model species, we compared Armases miersii, which breeds in supratidal rock pools, the riverine crab Armases roberti (showing a larval export strategy), and Armases ricordi, whose larvae probably develop in coastal marine waters. At each stage, larvae were exposed to different salinities (selected according to previous information on larval survival; range: 5 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. miersii, 10 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. roberti, and 15 per thousand-32 per thousand for A. ricordi). Biomass was measured in early postmoult and intermoult. The larvae of the strongly osmoregulating species A. miersii, which develop in habitats with highly variable salinity conditions, showed the smallest variations in biomass. The effect on A. roberti varied during its ontogeny: the Zoea I and the Megalopa, which carry out downstream and upstream migrations, respectively, showed lower biomass variations than the intermediate zoeal instars, which develop in coastal waters. The larvae of A. ricordi showed generally the highest variations in biomass, reflecting poor adaptation to salinity variations. In addition, a common pattern was found for these estuarine species: the maximum of biomass shifted during ontogeny from 32 per thousand to 25 per thousand, reflecting changes of the iso-osmotic point. The ontogeny of osmoregulation reflected ontogenetic migration patterns, which allow for avoiding detrimental effects of salinity variations. PMID:17611134

  15. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  16. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pulver, Stefan R; Bayley, Timothy G; Taylor, Adam L; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-11-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators. The Ca(2+) signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca(2+) signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca(2+) signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca(2+) waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  17. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  18. Immunoregulation in larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Gottstein, B

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a clinically very severe zoonotic helminthic disease, characterized by a chronic progressive hepatic damage caused by the continuous proliferation of the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus multilocularis. The proliferative potential of the parasite metacestode tissue is dependent on the nature/function of the periparasitic immune-mediated processes of the host. Immune tolerance and/or down-regulation of immunity are a marked characteristic increasingly observed when disease develops towards its chronic (late) stage of infection. In this context, explorative studies have clearly shown that T regulatory (Treg) cells play an important role in modulating and orchestrating inflammatory/immune reactions in AE, yielding a largely Th2-biased response, and finally allowing thus long-term parasite survival, proliferation and maturation. AE is fatal if not treated appropriately, but the current benzimidazole chemotherapy is far from optimal, and novel options for control are needed. Future research should focus on the elucidation of the crucial immunological events that lead to anergy in AE, and focus on providing a scientific basis for the development of novel and more effective immunotherapeutical options to support cure AE by abrogating anergy, anticipating also that a combination of immuno- and chemotherapy could provide a synergistic therapeutical effect. PMID:26536823

  19. The development of adultoid reproductives and brachypterous neotenic reproductives from the last instar nymphs in Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao Hong; Xue, Wei; Liu, He; Chen, Jiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Jing; Xing, Lian Xi; Liu, Ming Hua

    2015-01-01

    Secondary reproductives develop primarily from nymphs. However, they have been rarely studied; in particular, the development of adultoid reproductives (AR) with floppy wings is still unclear. In this study, the change in juvenile hormone (JH) levels, vitellogenin gene expression, and oogenesis during the development of AR and brachypterous neotenic reproductives (BN) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis are investigated and compared. The results showed that the AR derived from the last instar nymphs by molting, and they were more similar to neotenic reproductives in morphology. In addition, the paired AR were not able to survive in the absence of workers. In R. labralis, the process of the last instar nymphs developing into AR and BN took an increase in JH level as a starting point. The JH level of the last instar nymphs molting into BN was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of the AR. Additionally, The JHIII level of BN peaked on day 5, and that of AR peaked on day 10, which induced the onset of vitellogenesis in BN and AR, respectively. After molting, the vitellogenin gene expression levels of both BN and AR initially increased and then declined, and the expression levels in the BN were significantly higher than those in the AR. In addition, the oocytes of BN matured earlier than those of the AR, and the number of eggs laid by the BN was higher than the number laid by the AR. Our results demonstrate that, in R. labralis, the last instar nymphs can develop into AR, which are significantly different from BN in their development.

  20. A simple approximation for larval retention around reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Connolly, Sean R.

    2011-09-01

    Estimating larval retention at individual reefs by local scale three-dimensional flows is a significant problem for understanding, and predicting, larval dispersal. Determining larval dispersal commonly involves the use of computationally demanding and expensively calibrated/validated hydrodynamic models that resolve reef wake eddies. This study models variation in larval retention times for a range of reef shapes and circulation regimes, using a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. It also explores how well larval retention time can be estimated based on the "Island Wake Parameter", a measure of the degree of flow turbulence in the wake of reefs that is a simple function of flow speed, reef dimension, and vertical diffusion. The mean residence times found in the present study (0.48-5.64 days) indicate substantial potential for self-recruitment of species whose larvae are passive, or weak swimmers, for the first several days after release. Results also reveal strong and significant relationships between the Island Wake Parameter and mean residence time, explaining 81-92% of the variability in retention among reefs across a range of unidirectional flow speeds and tidal regimes. These findings suggest that good estimates of larval retention may be obtained from relatively coarse-scale characteristics of the flow, and basic features of reef geomorphology. Such approximations may be a valuable tool for modeling connectivity and meta-population dynamics over large spatial scales, where explicitly characterizing fine-scale flows around reef requires a prohibitive amount of computation and extensive model calibration.

  1. Can Georges Bank larval cod survive on a calanoid diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Daniel R.; Lewis, Craig V. W.; Werner, Francisco E.

    A simple conceptual model is developed for larval fish feeding on stage-structured prey populations, in an Eulerian framework. The model combines simplified contemporary models of larval fish trophodynamics, zooplankton population dynamics, and hydrodynamic turbulence. The Eulerian view allows instructive maps of larval feeding and growth rates for individual prey species, alone or in combination. Decadally averaged MARMAP surveys of Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. are analyzed for the March-April period. Quasi-static population dynamics are used to infer the abundance of the smallest stages from adult female abundance. Computed growth rates show that Calanus alone is insufficient to support the smallest cod larvae (4 and 6 mm), but provides good growth (⩾10%/day) for large larvae (10, 12 mm). Pseudocalanus alone provides generally good growth for all larvae but is mismatched spatially with observed cod spawning and subsequent larval advection. Both species together provide good growth, matched spatially with larval cod, for 6 mm and larger larvae. A dietary supplement beyond these two species is needed for the smallest larvae. The procedure provides a general method for mapping observations of zooplankton abundance, distribution and reproductive status, and their relevance to larval fish survival, when the smallest stages are not observable.

  2. Life-table analysis of Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya highlands: effects of land covers on larval and adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Goufa; Lawson, Bernard W; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2007-10-01

    In high-elevation areas in western Kenya, the abundance of Anopheles arabiensis is either very low or absent. The western Kenya highlands (an area with an elevation > 1,500m above sea level) have also been experiencing extensive deforestation, and deforestation has been suggested as one of the important factors that facilitate malaria transmission in the highlands. This study investigated whether climate conditions in the western Kenya highlands (Kakamega, elevation 1,500 m above sea level) were permissive to the development and survival of An. arabiensis and whether deforestation promoted An. arabiensis survivorship of immature and adult stages, using life-table analysis. We found that in larval habitats located in forested areas, only 4-9% of first-instar larvae developed into adults and the development length exceeded 20 days. Mean water temperature of aquatic habitats in the deforested area was 4.8-6.1 degrees C higher than that in the forested area, larval-to-adult survivorship was increased to 65-82%, and larval-to-adult development time was shortened by 8-9 days. The average indoor temperature in houses in the deforested area was 1.7-1.8 degrees C higher than in the forested area, and the relative humidity was 22-25% lower. The median survival time of adult mosquitoes in the deforested area was 49-55% higher than those in the forested area. The net reproductive rate of female mosquitoes in the deforested area was 1.7- to 2.6-fold higher than that in the forested area. Compared with previously published data on An. gambiae, the net reproductive rate of An. arabiensis was only 0.8-1.3% of Anopheles gambiae in the forested area and 2.3-2.6% in the deforested area. Therefore, the current ambient climate condition is less permissive to An. arabiensis than to An. gambiae in western Kenya highlands. However, environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming may facilitate the establishment of An. arabiensis populations in the highlands.

  3. Critical feeding periods for last instar nymphal and pharate adults of the whiteflies, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2007-01-01

    A critical feeding period is the time after which 50% of a given species of insect can be removed from its food source and complete development by undergoing adult eclosion. The critical feeding period was determined for the greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B) (Homptera/Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Fourth (last) instar and pharate adult whiteflies were removed from green bean leaves, staged, placed on filter paper in small Petri dishes containing drops of water, and observed daily for eclosion. For T. vaporariorum reared at 25 degrees C and L:D 16:8, 55 and 80% adult eclosion were observed when whiteflies were removed at stages 4 (0.23-0.26 mm in body depth) and 5 (> or = 0.27 mm in body depth), respectively, so that at least 50% eclosion was only achieved in this species of whitefly when adult eye development had already been initiated (in Stage 4), and 80% eclosion when adult wing development had been initiated (Stage 5). In contrast, 63% of B. tabaci emerged as adults if removed from the leaf at Stage 3 (0.18-0.22 mm in body depth), and 80% emerged if removed at Stage 4/5, stages in which adult formation had not yet been initiated. The mean number of eggs laid by experimental (those removed at Stages 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9) and control (those that remained on the leaf prior to eclosion) whiteflies, and the mean percent hatch of these eggs were not significantly different in experimental and control groups. Stages 7, 8 and 9 are characterized by a light red adult eye, medium red bipartite adult eye and dark red or red-black bipartite adult eye, respectively. Mean adult longevity also was not significantly different between experimental and control groups. However, for all groups of T. vaporariorum, adult female longevity was significantly (at least 2 times) greater than male longevity. Our results identify the critical feeding periods for last instar/pharate adults of two important pest species of

  4. Modeling larval connectivity of the Atlantic surfclams within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Model development, larval dispersal and metapopulation connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Haidvogel, Dale; Munroe, Daphne; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John; Mann, Roger; Castruccio, Frederic S.

    2015-02-01

    To study the primary larval transport pathways and inter-population connectivity patterns of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, a coupled modeling system combining a physical circulation model of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), Georges Bank (GBK) and the Gulf of Maine (GoM), and an individual-based surfclam larval model was implemented, validated and applied. Model validation shows that the model can reproduce the observed physical circulation patterns and surface and bottom water temperature, and recreates the observed distributions of surfclam larvae during upwelling and downwelling events. The model results show a typical along-shore connectivity pattern from the northeast to the southwest among the surfclam populations distributed from Georges Bank west and south along the MAB shelf. Continuous surfclam larval input into regions off Delmarva (DMV) and New Jersey (NJ) suggests that insufficient larval supply is unlikely to be the factor causing the failure of the population to recover after the observed decline of the surfclam populations in DMV and NJ from 1997 to 2005. The GBK surfclam population is relatively more isolated than populations to the west and south in the MAB; model results suggest substantial inter-population connectivity from southern New England to the Delmarva region. Simulated surfclam larvae generally drift for over one hundred kilometers along the shelf, but the distance traveled is highly variable in space and over time. Surfclam larval growth and transport are strongly impacted by the physical environment. This suggests the need to further examine how the interaction between environment, behavior, and physiology affects inter-population connectivity. Larval vertical swimming and sinking behaviors have a significant net effect of increasing larval drifting distances when compared with a purely passive model, confirming the need to include larval behavior.

  5. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  6. Comparative Proteomics and Expression Analysis of Five Genes in Epicauta chinensis Larvae from the First to Fifth Instar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins’ function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins’ expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels. PMID:24586908

  7. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  8. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  9. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  10. Larval morphology of the antlion Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), with notes on larval biology.

    PubMed

    Devetak, Dušan; Klokočovnik, Vesna; Lipovšek, Saška; Bock, Elisabeth; Leitinger, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Morphology and behaviour of third instar larvae of the Holomediterranean antlion species Myrmecaelurus trigranunus (Pallas) are described. Larvae are facultative pit-builders, they either ambush their prey at the surface, or dig pitfall traps that prey fall in to. Dark brown spots on dorsal and ventral sides of the head and on dorsal side of the thorax are characteristic of the larvae. Eye tubercles are not prominent. Jaws are equipped with long bristles, campaniform sensilla, sensilla coeloconica, and digitiform sensilla. A unique feature is the shape of the tips of all three teeth that is screw-like with a polyhedral surface. The body surface is covered with longitudinally grooved bristles and plumose hairs. On the tip of the antennae and on terminal and subterminal parts of labial palps sensilla basiconica occur. On the 9th abdominal segment there are two bulges, each of them bearing four digging bristles. Non-prominent eye tubercles and numerous mandibular bristles are morphological traits of pit-builders. Most of the behavioural traits are related to pit builders, whereas forward movement, waiting for prey without a pit and frequent changing of ambush location are traits of non-pit builders.

  11. Radiation Therapy Physics, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendee, William R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, Eric G.

    2004-08-01

    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an updated and expanded section on computer applications in radiation therapy and electron beam therapy, and features enhanced user-friendliness and visual appeal with a new, easy-to-follow format, including sidebars and a larger trim size. With its user-friendly presentation and broad, comprehensive coverage of radiotherapy physics, this Third Edition doubles as a medical text and handy professional reference.

  12. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  13. Cerebral computed tomography, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, L.; Nice, C.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the utilization of computed tomography in evaluating patients with intracranial and orbital disorders. It features clinical correlations and provides an overview of general principles, performance, and normal anatomy of CT. It covers evaluation of specific neurologic signs and symptoms, including stroke, metastatic disease, increased intracranial pressure, head injury, pediatric conditions, and more.

  14. Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought into a new sequence. 5. The umbrella function of WRB aims to allow the allocation of soil classes existing in a national classification system within the WRB. Characteristics that in a national system are regarded to be important must be considered in WRB - not necessarily at the highest level, but at least somewhere. The third edition of WRB allows a better accommodation of soil types, e.g., of the Australian and the Brazilian system. 6. Some environments or even ecoregions had not been well represented in WRB. The third edition allows a better accommodation of soils of ultra-continental permafrost regions, acid-sulphate soils and Technosols. 7. How to explain complicated sets of characteristics? For the third edition, efforts were made to give better structured definitions that can be more easily grasped. The editors of the third edition are convinced that the new WRB allows a more precise classification of soils including both, a better naming of pedons and a better elaboration of soil map legends.

  15. Peace Corps. 3rd Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the third year of the Peace Corps. An introduction comments on returning volunteers and presents regional maps with tables for Latin America, Africa, Near East and South Asia, and Far East. Section 1 contains letters and reports from volunteers in Peru, Ivory Coast,…

  16. Teaching Visually Impaired Children. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.

    2004-01-01

    In this exceptional new third edition, the author has retained much of the practical "how to" approach of the previous editions, but adds depth in two dimensions: learning theory and the educational process. This book is "so comprehensive in scope and complete in detail that it would be the most likely recommended" (from the foreword by Dr.…

  17. Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, G.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This book is a standard text/reference of nuclear pharmacy. New sections in the Third Edition include: instruments used for radiation detection and measurement; disposal of radioactive materials; clinical uses of all new and existing radiopharmaceuticals; 99m Tc and 123I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, as well as radiolabeled leukocytes, platelets, and antibodies; and up-to-date descriptions of the latest FDA regulations.

  18. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  19. The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, David

    At one time or another, who among us has not marveled at the beauty of the snow and ice-covered Alps, or admired the tenacity of polar explorers and the adventurous spirits of climbers on the glacier-clad summits of the high Himalaya? The fascination of distant ice covered expanses has enlisted more than a few recruits into the ranks of glaciologists, but many, if not most, of today's students of glaciology are a slightly less romantic and more mathematical lot, attracted by the quantitative world of physics and the applied sciences of polar climatology, ice mechanics, and snow hydrology.Once a relatively quiet branch of geophysics filled with venturesome climbers capable of reaching the objects of their study, glaciology is now a field that is fueled by a rapid influx of talent, technology, and new ideas due to the increasingly acknowledged relationships between global climate, sea level, and ice sheets. While the understanding of glacier processes has seen significant progress, as a result there is also a sense of being overwhelmed by the voluminous and sometimes speculative theories and field observations associated with an expanding discipline.

  20. A Beginning. Revised 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Mary K.; Root, Phyllis

    This document contains a selection of materials focusing on man acting to know, preserve, and improve his environment. The booklet is divided into three parts. Part one presents a listing of objectives. They reflect a need for all to become aware of the problems that plague our environment. Furthermore, they indicate that the ecological…

  1. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  2. Elementary Science Guide -- 3rd Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 3. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  3. Remote sensing investigation into the correlation between landslides caused by the 2002 November 3rd, 7.9M Denali Fault earthquake and a surge of the SE fork of McGinnis Peak Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benowitz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The 2002 November 3rd, 7.9 M Denali Fault caused a large landslide that deposited 11.4 x 106m3 feet of rock and ice onto the SE fork of McGinnis Peak Glacier. The landslide left a large mass on the upper ice reservoir of the glacier and blocked the terminus outlet of the glacier with debris. Satellite images and historic photos were used to examine the terminus history of the glacier. Further landslides/mass wasting events during the spring of 2003, documented via Land Sat 7 images, covered the same upper ice reservoir as the 2002 landslides. Between 2004 and 2006 the SE fork Glacier of McGinnis Peak experienced a dramatic surge. There is no known history of such dramatic surge occurrences on the glacier of interest. Though causation is difficult to prove preliminary evidence points towards the implication that the landslides generated by the 2002 earthquake most likely either caused or contributed to the documented glacial surge. Examination of more satellite images is planned to further examine McGinnis Peak's glacier history and to refine the timing of the possible correlation between the earthquake generated landslides and the dramatic surge of the SE glacial fork of McGinnis Peak

  4. Costs, affordability, and feasibility of an essential package of cancer control interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Gelband, Hellen; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Horton, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin O; Bray, Freddie; Cleary, James; Dare, Anna J; Denny, Lynette; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C; Jaffray, David A; Knaul, Felicia; Levin, Carol; Rabeneck, Linda; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sullivan, Terrence; Trimble, Edward L; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-05-21

    Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades.

  5. New approaches, new activities and new outcomes in international conferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa--report of the 3rd African Conference on the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Dakar, 10-14 October 2005.

    PubMed

    Niang, C I; Shisana, O; Andrews, G; Kaseje, D; Simbayi, L; Peltzer, K; Toefy, Y

    2006-08-01

    Africa's HIV/AIDS situation remains cause for concern. The impact of HIV is considerable and threatens the survival and development of African societies. Although much has been attempted, the results still leave much to be desired. AIDS is an epidemic that needs to be addressed with much creativity and spirit of initiative. It is against this background that the 3rd African conference on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS brought innovations in the way international conferences are designed, activities implemented and results obtained. The innovations concerned the approach to international conferences and take into account reconceptualising HIV/AIDS so as to encourage holistic approaches and better visibility of vulnerable groups. The activities of the conference were organised in such a way as to get people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), grassroots communities and marginalised groups to play a focal role. The conference offered an opportunity for developing cultural activities that would translate the African cultural concepts that had been identified as important in the HIV situation and response analysis. Interaction at the conference created an opportunity to analyse the various dimensions of the political, cultural and economic determinants. The conference offered food for thought around response construction while singling out the themes of urgency and acceleration of response, synergy construction, and coordination and conception of political responses.

  6. Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects for young colleagues in the fields of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. As kick-off to the scientific sessions, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Head of the Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology in Munich, gave an illustrious overview on the many fascinations of neuroimmunologic research. A particular highlight on the second day of the meeting was the award of the 1'st NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young academics in the field of experimental neurology. This award is posted for young colleagues under the age of 35 with a significant achievement in the field of neurovascular research, neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration and comprises an amount of 20.000 Euro, founded by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt. Germany. The first prize was awarded to Ivana Nikic from Martin Kerschensteiner's group in Munich for her brilliant work on a reversible form of axon damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis, published in Nature Medicine in 2011. This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012. PMID:22360825

  7. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3rd African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities. PMID:26523191

  8. Costs, affordability, and feasibility of an essential package of cancer control interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    PubMed

    Gelband, Hellen; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Horton, Susan; Anderson, Benjamin O; Bray, Freddie; Cleary, James; Dare, Anna J; Denny, Lynette; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C; Jaffray, David A; Knaul, Felicia; Levin, Carol; Rabeneck, Linda; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sullivan, Terrence; Trimble, Edward L; Jha, Prabhat

    2016-05-21

    Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades. PMID:26578033

  9. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  10. Conserved MIP receptor–ligand pair regulates Platynereis larval settlement

    PubMed Central

    Conzelmann, Markus; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Tunaru, Sorin; Randel, Nadine; Shahidi, Réza; Asadulina, Albina; Berger, Jürgen; Offermanns, Stefan; Jékely, Gáspár

    2013-01-01

    Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key life cycle transition. Settlement is regulated by a specialized sensory–neurosecretory system, the larval apical organ. The neuroendocrine mechanisms through which the apical organ transduces environmental cues into behavioral responses during settlement are not yet understood. Here we show that myoinhibitory peptide (MIP)/allatostatin-B, a pleiotropic neuropeptide widespread among protostomes, regulates larval settlement in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. MIP is expressed in chemosensory–neurosecretory cells in the annelid larval apical organ and signals to its receptor, an orthologue of the Drosophila sex peptide receptor, expressed in neighboring apical organ cells. We demonstrate by morpholino-mediated knockdown that MIP signals via this receptor to trigger settlement. These results reveal a role for a conserved MIP receptor–ligand pair in regulating marine annelid settlement. PMID:23569279

  11. Morphology of adult and juvenile instars of Galumna obvia (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae), with discussion of its taxonomic status

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Weigmann, Gerd; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The adult instar of the oribatid mite, Galumna obvia (Berlese, 1914), is redescribed in detail, on the basis of specimens from Finland. The morphology of juvenile instars of G. obvia is described and illustrated for the first time, and compared to that of other species of the family Galumnidae. The position of the insertion of the lamellar seta in adults proved variable in studied European populations, being either on or medial to the lamellar line. Since the genera Galumna and Pergalumna are currently distinguished only by the relative positions of the seta and line, specimens of G. obvia in some populations show an intermediate situation between other studied Galumna species – with lamellar seta on or lateral of lamellar line – and Pergalumna with lamellar seta at a distinct distance medially of lamellar line. A detailed reevaluation of the two genera is needed. PMID:24363576

  12. Lice and ticks of the eastern rufous mouse lemur, Microcebus rufus, with descriptions of the male and third instar nymph of Lemurpediculus verruculosus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

    PubMed

    Durden, Lance A; Zohdy, Sarah; Laakkonen, Juha

    2010-10-01

    Sucking lice and ticks were collected from live-trapped eastern rufous mouse lemurs, Microcebus rufus Geoffroy, in and around the periphery of Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar, from 2007 to 2009. Samples of 53 sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) and 28 hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from 36 lemur captures representing 26 different host individuals. All of the lice were Lemurpediculus verruculosus (Ward) (6 males, 46 females, 1 third instar nymph). Only the holotype female was known previously for this louse and the host was stated to be a "mouse lemur." Therefore, we describe the male and third instar nymph of L. verruculosus and confirm M. rufus as a host (possibly the only host) of this louse. All of the ticks were nymphs and consisted of 16 Haemaphysalis lemuris Hoogstraal, 11 Haemaphysalis sp., and 1 Ixodes sp. The last 2 ticks listed did not morphologically match any of the Madagascar Haemaphysalis or Ixodes ticks for which nymphal stages have been described.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of chitinase genes and their varied functions in larval moult, pupation and eclosion in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Tu, G; Huang, S; Yang, Q; Shahzad, M F; Li, F

    2016-08-01

    Some insect chitinases are required to degrade chitin and ensure successful metamorphosis. Although chitinase genes have been well characterized in several model insects, no reports exist for the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, a highly destructive pest that causes huge yield losses in rice production. Here, we conducted a genome-level analysis of chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. After amplification of full-length transcripts with rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we identified 12 chitinase genes in C. suppressalis. All these genes had the conserved domains and motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 18 and grouped phylogenetically into five subgroups. C. suppressalis chitinase 1 (CsCht1) was highly expressed in late pupae, whereas CsCht3 was abundant in early pupae. Both CsCht2 and CsCht4 were highly expressed in larvae. CsCht2 was abundant specifically in the third-instar larvae and CsCht4 showed periodic high expression in 2- to 5-day-old larvae in each instar. Tissue specific expression analysis indicated that CsCht1 and CsCht3 were highly expressed in epidermis whereas CsCht2 and CsCht4 were specifically abundant in the midgut. Knockdown of CsCht1 resulted in adults with curled wings, indicating that CsCht1 might have an important role in wing expansion. Silencing of CsCht2 or CsCht4 arrested moulting, suggesting essential roles in larval development. When the expression of CsCht3 was interfered, defects in pupation occurred. Overall, we provide here the first catalogue of chitinase genes in the rice striped stem borer and have elucidated the functions of four chitinases in metamorphosis. PMID:27080989

  14. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.

  15. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  16. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    PubMed

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  17. Effects of coastal transport on larval patches: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Houser, Letise T.; Steppe, Cecily N.; Garvine, Richard W.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2006-03-01

    We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the evolution and transport of patches of blue crab larvae in the mouth of Delaware Bay. The observations consisted of larval collections and surface salinity measurements taken along a moving spatial grid whose origin was determined by a satellite-tracked drifter. Examination of field observations revealed a slender larval patch that was aligned with salinity contours. Measurement of the salting rate of the larval patch indicated that the patch moved through the offshore edge of a buoyant plume due to wind-driven upwelling circulation. A numerical model that provided realistic simulations of the flow field at the mouth of Delaware Bay and the adjoining coastal ocean was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the movement and evolution of the patch. We conducted a series of simulations in which we separately examined the effects of tides, buoyancy-driven flow, and wind-driven transport. Results showed that both tides and buoyancy-driven flow tend to elongate an initially square fluid element. Although winds alone have little effect on the shape of a patch, wind-driven flow can effectively move a patch through a complex flow field in which the deformation by tides and buoyancy-driven circulation can have significant effects. This study represents the first observation and analysis of a larval patch that remains intact while moving through the edge of a buoyant plume. It provides new insight into the shape of larval patches in Delaware Bay and any region with strong buoyancy- and tidally-driven flow, suggesting that typical larval patches may not be characterized by equal across- and alongshelf dimensions but instead tend to be slender shapes that are aligned with the flow field.

  18. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  19. A merganser die-off associated with larval eustrongylides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Kerwin, J.A.

    1964-01-01

    A die-off of red-breasted mergansers on Lake Holly, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was found to be due to a larval Eustrongylides. Massive tissue destruction and hemorrhage was produced by the migration of the larval Eustrongylides. Earlier stages of the same Eustrongylides were found in eastern mosquitofish and silversides upon which the mergansers had been feeding. In addition, residues of DDT were found in mosquitofish, gizzard shad, and five mergansers collected from Lake Holly, and in the tissues of two mergansers from Back Bay, Virginia. However, the information available was insufficient to establish the significance of these residue levels.

  20. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs.

  1. Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pine, Matthew K; Jeffs, Andrew G; Radford, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The development of marine tidal turbines has advanced at a rapid rate over the last decade but with little detailed understanding of the potential noise impacts on invertebrates. Previous research has shown that underwater reef noise plays an important role in mediating metamorphosis in many larval crabs and fishes. New research suggests that underwater estuarine noise may also mediate metamorphosis in estuarine crab larvae and that the noise emitted from underwater tidal and sea-based wind turbines may significantly influence larval metamorphosis in estuarine crabs. PMID:26611041

  2. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10–100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  3. Larval myogenesis in Echinodermata: conserved features and morphological diversity between class-specific larval forms of Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea.

    PubMed

    Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Odintsova, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The myogenesis of class-specific larval forms of three classes belonging to the phylum Echinodermata (Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea) was investigated via gross-anatomy and comparative morphology of larval muscles. Using staining with phalloidin and antibodies against the muscle proteins, with subsequent CLSM and 3D imaging, we have examined myogenesis in the larvae from the gastrula stage to pre-metamorphosis larval stages. We have shown that temporal and spatial expression of muscle proteins is similar in echinoidea and asteroidea larvae but differs in holothuroidea larvae at early developmental stages. New insights regarding the protein composition of maturing muscular fibrils during development in echinoderm larvae were detected. The first differentiating muscle structures in all tested classes have been found to be circular esophageal muscles that are associated with larval feeding. During early differentiation of echinoderm larval muscle cells, we observed that the expression patterns of the muscle proteins were not uniform but with a characteristic diffuse distribution, which is typical for smooth muscle. An unusual pattern of expression of the muscle proteins was detected in larval sphincters: the thick muscle proteins were first expressed during the early developmental stages, whereas F-actin appeared at later stages. In addition, paired star-shaped muscles were revealed in the mature Echinoidae plutei, but were absent in the Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea larvae. All tested species of Echinodermata exhibited both conserved features of muscle morphology during development indicating a common life history strategy and a planktonic habitat, and also an extensive morphological diversity representing specific anatomical adaptations during development.

  4. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Elimam, Abdalla M; Elmalik, Khitma H; Ali, Faysal S

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50-LC90 values calculated were 273.53-783.43, 366.44-1018.59 and 454.99-1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93-433.51, 218.27-538.27 and 264.85-769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides for mosquito

  5. [Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Molina Arias, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet.

  6. Swimming behavior of larval Medaka fish under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Fish exhibit looping and rolling behaviors when subjected to short periods of microgravity during parabolic flight. Strain-differences in the behavioral response of adult Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes) were reported previously, however, there have been few studies of larval fish behavior under microgravity. In the present study, we investigated whether microgravity affects the swimming behavior of larvae at various ages (0 to 20 days after hatching), using different strains: HNI-II, HO5, ha strain, and variety of different strains (variety). The preliminary experiments were done in the ground laboratory: the development of eyesight was examined using optokinetic response for the different strains. The visual acuity of larvae improved drastically during 20 days after hatching. Strain differences of response were noted for the development of their visual acuity. In microgravity, the results were significantly different from those of adult Medaka. The larval fish appeared to maintain their orientation, except that a few of them exhibited looping and rolling behavior. Further, most larvae swam normally with their backs turning toward the light source (dorsal light response, DLR), and the rest of them stayed with their abdomen touching the surface of the container (ventral substrate response, VSR). For larval stages, strain-differences and age-differences in behavior were observed, but less pronounced than with adult fish under microgravity. Our observations suggest that adaptability of larval fish to the gravitational change and the mechanism of their postural control in microgravity are more variable than in adult fish.

  7. Larval fish dynamics in spring pools in middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Goldsworthy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We used lighted larval traps to assess reproduction by fishes inhabiting nine spring pools in the Barrens Plateau region of middle Tennessee between May and September 2004. The traps (n = 162 deployments) captured the larval or juvenile forms of Etheostoma crossopterum (Fringed Darter) (n = 188), Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) (n = 139), Hemitremia flammea (Flame Chub) (n = 55), the imperiled Fundulus julisia (Barrens Topminnow) (n = 10), and Forbesichthys agassizii (Spring Cavefish) (n = 1). The larval forms of four other species (Families Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae) were not collected, despite the presence of adults. Larval Barrens Topminnow hatched over a protracted period (early June through late September); in contrast, hatching intervals were much shorter for Fringed Darter (mid-May through early June). Flame Chub hatching began before our first samples in early May and concluded by late-May. Juvenile Western Mosquitofish were collected between early June and late August. Our sampling revealed that at least two species (Flame Chub and Fringed Darter) were able to reproduce and recruit in habitats harboring the invasive Western Mosquitofish, while Barrens Topminnow could not.

  8. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity.

  9. A sampler for capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.D.; Hedrick, L.R.; Margraf, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in capturing larval and juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus for use in laboratory studies required the design and construction of a sampling device that would allow us to make collections of live fish from open-water areas. Our device for capturing 1-2.5-in larval-juvenile fish was constructed of a stainless steel frame that supported a 9.84-ft-long (3-m-long)5 cone plankton net with a 3.28-ft-diameter (1-m-diameter) opening and a 0.04-in (1-mm) mesh size. Although the plankton net was similar to that used during typical larval fish collections, the cod end was constructed of Plexiglas and was nearly watertight; this prevented impingement and injury to larval fish and provided a calm-water environment. The cod end was designed for quick release from the plankton net, and the entire cod end could be submerged into a 75-gal onboard holding tank. This design and technique obviated the netting or emerging of fish from the water until they were returned to the laboratory. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  10. Maternal effects and larval survival of marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashitani, Tomomi; Takatsu, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Mitsuhiro; Joh, Mikimasa; Takahashi, Toyomi

    2007-07-01

    Maternal effects of animals are the phenotypic influences of age, size, and condition of spawners on the survival and phenotypic traits of offspring. To clarify the maternal effects for marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, we investigated the effects of body size, nutrient condition, and growth history of adult females on egg size, larval size, and starvation tolerance, growth, and feeding ability of offspring. The fecundity of adult females was strongly dependent on body size. Path analysis revealed that the mother's total length positively affected mean egg diameter, meaning that large females spawned large eggs. In contrast, the relative growth rate of adult females negatively affected egg diameter. Egg diameters positively affected both notochord length and yolk sac volume of the larvae at hatching. Under starvation conditions, notochord length at hatching strongly and positively affected days of survival at 14 °C but not at 9 °C. Under adequate food conditions (1000 rotifers L - 1 ), the notochord length of larvae 5 days after hatching positively affected feeding rate, implying that large larvae have high feeding ability. In addition, the mean growth rate of larvae between 0 and 15 days increased with increasing egg diameter under homogenous food conditions, suggesting that larvae hatched from large eggs might have a growth advantage for at least to 15 days after hatching. In marbled sole, these relationships (i.e., mother's body size-egg size-larval size-larval resistance to starvation-larval feeding ability) may help explain recruitment variability.

  11. New larval trematodes in Biomphalaria species (Planorbidae) from Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2016-09-01

    Larval trematodes infecting Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis were surveyed in a suburban and semipermanent pond of Corrientes province, Northeastern Argentina. A total of 1,409 snails were examined between spring 2011 to winter 2013, and 8 different larval trematodes were studied morphologically. Three of these species-Echinocercaria sp. IV, Ribeiroia sp. and Echinocercaria sp. XIV-have been previously found in Corrientes province. Six other trematodes belonging to Strigeidae (Furcocercaria sp. III), Clinostomidae (Cercaria Clinostomidae sp.), Spirorchiidae (Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp.) and Echinostomatidae (Echinocercaria sp. 1, Echinocercaria sp. 2, Echinocercaria sp. 3) are new species parasitizing Biomphalaria snails. Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp. is the third larval trematode related to Spirorchiidae recorded in South America and the first one for Argentina. Cercaria Clinostomidae sp. is the first one related to Clinostomidae in northeastern Argentina. The prevalence of larval trematodes infecting B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in the environment studied was low (<5%) with the echinostome group better represented in terms of prevalence and species richness. Drought periods could affect the dynamics of parasitic transmission due to the absence of trematodes in the autumn and winter of the first seasonal cycle. However, in humid periods parasite transmission can occur throughout the year due to the presence of larvae in all seasons of the second seasonal cycle, although the less-warm seasons showed higher prevalence than the summer period probably related to the subtropical climate of Corrientes province. PMID:27447210

  12. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  13. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  14. LARVAL FISH HABITAT QUALITY : THE EFFECTS OF FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled larval fish in Suisun Marsh, in the San Francisco Bay estuary from February to June 1994-1999. We used principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on 13 taxonomic groups making up 99.7% of the catch and several environmental variable...

  15. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  16. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  17. [Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Molina Arias, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet. PMID:22208084

  18. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  19. Rainbow smelt - larval lake herring interactions: competitors or casual acquaintances?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that competition for food between rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) was a cause for the declines of lake herring stocks in Lake Superior. We studied the diet of larval lake herring and of larval, juvenile, and adult rainbow smelt during 1974 in Black Bay, Ontario, where both species were abundant, and in the Apostle Islands Region, Wisconsin, where rainbow smelt was abundant but lake herring was scarce. No evidence of competition for food was found between larval lake herring and rainbow smelt. Spawning and hatching times of the two species were separate enough that most larvae of the two species did not occupy the study areas simultaneously. Juvenile and adult rainbow smelt were found with lake herring larvae, but their diets differed. Therefore, we concluded that rainbow smelt did not compete with lake herring larvae for food and that competition for food between rainbow smelt and lake herring larvae was not the factor that caused lake herring population declines in Lake Superior.

  20. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  1. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  2. Vibrio anguillarum and larval mortality in a California coastal shellfish hatchery.

    PubMed

    DiSalvo, L H; Blecka, J; Zebal, R

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated as a pathogen in the commercial culture of oyster spat at Pigeon Point, Calif. A water-soluble, heat-stable exotoxin extracted from cultures of the vibrio inhibited larval swimming and contributed to larval mortality. Although the vibrio was insensitive to penicillin in standard plate testing, this antibiotic proved useful in preventing mass larval mortalities in the hatchery.

  3. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding, development, and survival to adulthood after continuous exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis-treated potato foliage from the field.

    PubMed

    Nault, B A; Costa, S D; Kennedy, G G

    2000-02-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), feeding, development, and survival to adulthood were examined after continuously exposing large larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis-treated potato foliage from the field. In laboratory assays, the overall consumption and the length of period to become prepupae were determined for larvae, which began as 3rd and 4th instars, that were offered potato leaf disks with naturally declining levels of B. thuringiensis residue. In small-cage field experiments, survival to adulthood and the period to adult emergence for beetles confined to potato plants treated with B. thuringiensis beginning as 3rd and 4th instars also were examined. Third instars remaining on plants after a B. thuringiensis application were unlikely to feed and 4th instars consumed only approximately 50% as much foliage as those fed untreated foliage. Many late instars subjected to B. thuringiensis-treated foliage failed to survive to adulthood; 58-83% of these beetles died during the larval stage. Reduced feeding and poor survival of late instars suggest that counts of large larvae after application do not provide a complete picture of the efficacy of the B. thuringiensis treatment. Late instar Colorado potato beetles that were exposed continually to naturally declining levels of B. thuringiensis-treated potato foliage took an average of 1.8-4.5 d longer to become prepupae and 4-8 d longer to emerge as adults compared with those provided with untreated foliage. Delayed emergence of adults that fed on B. thuringiensis-treated potatoes as late instars indicated that development was prolonged in these insects because of ingestion of a sublethal dose of B. thuringiensis.

  4. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  5. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  6. Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the γ-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the α-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

  7. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

    PubMed

    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality. PMID:27145587

  8. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

    PubMed

    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality.

  9. New archaeomagnetic data recovered from the study of celtiberic remains from central Spain (Numantia and Ciadueña, 3rd-1st centuries BC). Implications on the fidelity of the Iberian paleointensity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Catanzariti, G.; Jimeno, A.; Campuzano, S. A.; Benito-Batanero, J. P.; Tabernero-Galán, C.; Roperch, P.

    2016-11-01

    Variations of geomagnetic field in the Iberian Peninsula prior to roman times are poorly constrained. Here we report new archaeomagnetic results from four ceramic collections and two combustion structures recovered in two pre-roman (celtiberic) archaeological sites in central Spain. The studied materials have been dated by archaeological evidences and supported by five radiocarbon dates. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the characteristic remanent manetization (ChRM) is carried by a low coercivity magnetic phase with Curie temperatures of 530-575 °C, most likely Ti-poor titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite. Archaeointensity determinations were carried out by using the classical Thellier-Thellier protocol including tests and corrections for magnetic anisotropy and cooling rate dependency. Two magnetic behaviours were depicted during the laboratory treatment. Black potsherds and poor heated samples from the kilns, presented two magnetization components, alterations or curved Arai plots and were therefore rejected. In contrast, well heated specimens (red ceramic fragments and well heated samples from the kilns) show one single well defined component of magnetization going through the origin and linear Arai plots providing successful archaeointensity determinations. The effect of anisotropy of the thermoremanent magnetization (ATRM) on paleointensity analysis was systematically investigated obtaining very high ATRM corrections on fine pottery specimens. In some cases, differences between the uncorrected and ATRM corrected paleointensity values reached up to 86 %. The mean intensity values obtained from three selected set of samples were 64.3 ± 5.8 μT; 56.8 ± 3.8 and 56.7 ± 4.6 μT (NUS2, CI2 and CIA, respectively), which contribute to better understand the evolution of the palaeofield intensity in central Iberia during the 3rd-1st centuries BC. The direction of the field at first century BC has also been determined from oriented samples from CIA kilns (D = 357

  10. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Khan, Wasi; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Rahul; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for i