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Sample records for 3rs replacement reduction

  1. Pioneering Better Science through the 3Rs: An Introduction to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  2. Pioneering better science through the 3Rs: an introduction to the national centre for the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animals in research (NC3Rs).

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-03-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  3. Replacement, reduction and refinement.

    PubMed

    Flecknell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique". They proposed that if animals were to be used in experiments, every effort should be made to Replace them with non-sentient alternatives, to Reduce to a minimum the number of animals used, and to Refine experiments which used animals so that they caused the minimum pain and distress. These guiding principles, the "3 Rs" of animal research, were initially given little attention. Gradually, however, they have become established as essential considerations when animals are used in research. They have influenced new legislation aimed at controlling the use of experimental animals, and in the United Kingdom they have become formally incorporated into the Animal (Scientific) Procedures Act. The three principles, of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, have also proven to be an area of common ground for research workers who use animals, and those who oppose their use. Scientists, who accept the need to use animals in some experiments, would also agree that it would be preferable not to use animals. If animals were to be used, as few as possible should be used and they should experience a minimum of pain or distress. Many of those who oppose animal experimentation, would also agree that until animal experimentation is stopped, Russell and Burch's 3Rs provide a means to improve animal welfare. It has also been recognised that adoption of the 3Rs can improve the quality of science. Appropriately designed experiments that minimise variation, provide standardised optimum conditions of animals care and minimise unnecessary stress or pain, often yield better more reliable data. Despite the progress made as a result of attention to these principles, several major problems have been identified. When replacing animals with alternative methods, it has often proven difficult to formally validate the alternative. This has proven a particular problem in regulatory toxicology

  4. The 3Rs and cement kiln dust: Opportunities for reduction, reuse and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a by-product of the cement manufacturing process. This material which is captured in cement kiln dust control equipment consists primarily of raw and partly calcined kiln feed. Factors which contribute to the generation of CKD are described. Cases of successful reduction of CKD generation are presented. Technologies for treating CKD so that it can be reused as a raw material for cement production are discussed. Applications where CKD can be used alone or with other by-products are also presented. Opportunities for developing new uses for CKD are identified and discussed in terms of the drivers behind such applications as well as the economic, technical and regulatory barriers to their development.

  5. The role of organizational culture in compliance with the principles of the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Aurora; Berg, Anne-Grethe Trønsdal

    2011-01-01

    In order for their research to be legitimate, scientists carrying out research using animals must comply with rules and regulations. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) are one set of guidelines that help to promote the ethical use of animals for research. An important question is whether implementing the principles of the 3Rs in legal regulations, such as a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, will increase compliance with the principles of the 3Rs in research organizations. Previous work suggests that organizational culture is just as important for directing behavior as are formalized rules and regulations. This article introduces the concepts of compliance and organizational culture and discusses their consequences on the implementation of the principles of the 3Rs. PMID:21173772

  6. Consideration and Checkboxes: Incorporating Ethics and Science into the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Margaret S; Shriver, Adam J; Mueller, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the research community aim to both produce high-quality research and ensure that harm is minimized in animals. The primary means of ensuring these goals are both met is the 3Rs framework of replacement, reduction, and refinement. However, some approaches to the 3Rs may result in a ‘check box mentality’ in which IACUC members, researchers, administrators, and caretakers check off a list of tasks to evaluate a protocol. We provide reasons for thinking that the 3Rs approach could be enhanced with more explicit discussion of the ethical assumptions used to arrive at an approved research protocol during IACUC review. Here we suggest that the notion of moral considerability, and all of the related issues it gives rise to, should be incorporated into IACUC discussions of 3Rs deliberations during protocol review to ensure that animal wellbeing is enhanced within the constraints of scientific investigation. PMID:25836970

  7. Consideration and checkboxes: incorporating ethics and science into the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Landi, Margaret S; Shriver, Adam J; Mueller, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Members of the research community aim to both produce high-quality research and ensure that harm is minimized in animals. The primary means of ensuring these goals are both met is the 3Rs framework of replacement, reduction, and refinement. However, some approaches to the 3Rs may result in a 'check box mentality' in which IACUC members, researchers, administrators, and caretakers check off a list of tasks to evaluate a protocol. We provide reasons for thinking that the 3Rs approach could be enhanced with more explicit discussion of the ethical assumptions used to arrive at an approved research protocol during IACUC review. Here we suggest that the notion of moral considerability, and all of the related issues it gives rise to, should be incorporated into IACUC discussions of 3Rs deliberations during protocol review to ensure that animal wellbeing is enhanced within the constraints of scientific investigation. PMID:25836970

  8. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Reporting Guidelines to Advance the Implementation of the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge—the need for ‘research on research’—and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  9. The use of systematic reviews and reporting guidelines to advance the implementation of the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-03-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge-the need for 'research on research'-and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  10. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  11. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    PubMed

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  12. Russell and Burch's 3Rs Then and Now: The Need for Clarity in Definition and Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Jerrold; Bennett, B Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Russell and Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique was first published in 1959. A Special Edition containing the original text was reissued in 1992, after its ideas had gained widespread interest in the scientific community. In the Principles, Russell and Burch proposed a new applied science that would improve the treatment of laboratory animals while advancing the quality of science in studies that use animals. They introduced and defined the terms replacement, reduction, and refinement, which subsequently have become known as ‘alternatives’ or ‘alternative methods’ for minimizing the potential for animal pain and distress in biomedical research. Here we describe and explain the original definitions of the 3Rs in the Principles, examine how current definitions differ among themselves and from Russell and Burch's definitions, and suggest relevant considerations for evaluating all definitions of the 3Rs. PMID:25836957

  13. TAPS Atigun 3Rs project

    SciTech Connect

    Starratt, P.F. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. is managing a comprehensive corrosion monitoring and repair program for the Trans Alaska Pipeline System as it has since pipeline operations began in 1977. The company has recently initiated the largest corrosion project to date, the Atigun Floodplain Pipe Replacement Project. Three major goals of the pipe replacement project are to: Complete the work with the least environmental impact. Incorporate changes in design and procedures to reduce future corrosion and Accomplish the repair with minimum impact on pipeline throughput. The project team consulted with environmental agencies at the outset to ensure compliance with all requisite regulation, and obtained 35 permits. Environmental protection will continue as a major goal throughout the duration of the project.

  14. Advancing the 3Rs in regulatory toxicology - Carcinogenicity testing: Scope for harmonisation and advancing the 3Rs in regulated sectors of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Annys, Erwin; Billington, Richard; Clayton, Rick; Bremm, Klaus-Dieter; Graziano, Michael; McKelvie, Jo; Ragan, Ian; Schwarz, Michael; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Wood, Charles; Öberg, Mattias; Wester, Piet; Woodward, Kevin N

    2014-07-01

    Different government agencies operating in the European Union regulate different types of chemical products but all require testing for carcinogenicity to support applications for product marketing and commercialisation. A conference was held in Brussels in 2013 where representatives of the pharmaceutical, animal health, chemical and plant protection industries, together with representatives of regulatory agencies, universities and other stakeholders, met under the auspices of The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) to discuss the varying requirements for carcinogenicity testing, and how these studies might be refined to improve hazard evaluation and risk assessment while implementing principles of the 3Rs (replacement, refinement and reduction in animal studies). While there are some similarities, the regulatory approaches in pharmaceutical, animal health, chemical and plant protection sectors have varying degrees of flexibility in requirements for carcinogenicity testing, to an extent reflecting concerns over the magnitude and duration of human exposure, either directly as in therapeutic exposure to pharmaceuticals, or indirectly through the ingestion of residues of veterinary drugs or plant protection chemicals. The article discusses these differences and other considerations for modified carcinogenicity testing paradigms on the basis of scientific and 3Rs approaches. PMID:24768934

  15. Advancing the 3Rs in regulatory ecotoxicology: A pragmatic cross-sector approach.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Benstead, Rachel; Clook, Mark; Doyle, Ian; Edwards, Peter; Maynard, Samuel K; Ryder, Kathryn; Sheahan, Dave; Whale, Graham; van Egmond, Roger; Wheeler, James R; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-07-01

    The ecotoxicity testing of chemicals for prospective environmental safety assessment is an area in which a high number of vertebrates are used across a variety of industry sectors. Refining, reducing, and replacing the use of animals such as fish, birds, and amphibians for this purpose addresses the ethical concerns and the increasing legislative requirements to consider alternative test methods. Members of the UK-based National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) Ecotoxicology Working Group, consisting of representatives from academia, government organizations, and industry, have worked together over the past 6 y to provide evidence bases to support and advance the application of the 3Rs in regulatory ecotoxicity testing. The group recently held a workshop to identify the areas of testing, demands, and drivers that will have an impact on the future of animal use in regulatory ecotoxicology. As a result of these discussions, we have developed a pragmatic approach to prioritize and realistically address key opportunity areas, to enable progress toward the vision of a reduced reliance on the use of animals in this area of testing. This paper summarizes the findings of this exercise and proposes a pragmatic strategy toward our key long-term goals-the incorporation of reliable alternatives to whole-organism testing into regulations and guidance, and a culture shift toward reduced reliance on vertebrate toxicity testing in routine environmental safety assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:417-421. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26440537

  16. The 3Rs program: the Colorado experience.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Richert E; Eichler, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    COPIC Insurance Company is a Colorado-based medical liability carrier. From October of 2000 to the present, it has employed an early intervention program called the 3Rs program standing for recognize, respond, and resolve. The program emphasizes disclosure, transparency, apology, and patient benefits. The origins of the program, its operational aspects, and results of implementation are discussed. PMID:18981795

  17. Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Graziano; Affuso, Andrea; Anderson, David B; Basil, Jennifer; Bonnaud, Laure; Botta, Giovanni; Cole, Alison; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickel, Ludovic; Di Cosmo, Anna; Di Cristo, Carlo; Gestal, Camino; Fonseca, Rute; Grasso, Frank; Kristiansen, Tore; Kuba, Michael; Maffucci, Fulvio; Manciocco, Arianna; Mark, Felix Christopher; Melillo, Daniela; Osorio, Daniel; Palumbo, Anna; Perkins, Kerry; Ponte, Giovanna; Raspa, Marcello; Shashar, Nadav; Smith, Jane; Smith, David; Sykes, António; Villanueva, Roger; Tublitz, Nathan; Zullo, Letizia; Andrews, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Cephalopods have been utilised in neuroscience research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentiation) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and synapse). On 1 January 2013, research using any of the about 700 extant species of "live cephalopods" became regulated within the European Union by Directive 2010/63/EU on the "Protection of Animals used for Scientific Purposes", giving cephalopods the same EU legal protection as previously afforded only to vertebrates. The Directive has a number of implications, particularly for neuroscience research. These include: (1) projects will need justification, authorisation from local competent authorities, and be subject to review including a harm-benefit assessment and adherence to the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction). (2) To support project evaluation and compliance with the new EU law, guidelines specific to cephalopods will need to be developed, covering capture, transport, handling, housing, care, maintenance, health monitoring, humane anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia. (3) Objective criteria need to be developed to identify signs of pain, suffering, distress and lasting harm particularly in the context of their induction by an experimental procedure. Despite diversity of views existing on some of these topics, this paper reviews the above topics and describes the approaches being taken by the cephalopod research community (represented by the authorship) to produce "guidelines" and the potential contribution of neuroscience research to cephalopod welfare. PMID:24385049

  18. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF REPLACEMENT REDUCTION GEAR FOR TRASHRAKE HOIST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF REPLACEMENT REDUCTION GEAR FOR TRASH-RAKE HOIST, ORIGINAL CONTROLLERS, LOOKING WEST - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  19. Employing Dictyostelium as an Advantageous 3Rs Model for Pharmacogenetic Research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Grant P; Cocorocchio, Marco; Munoz, Laura; Tyson, Richard A; Bretschneider, Till; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Increasing concern regarding the use of animals in research has triggered a growing need for non-animal research models in a range of fields. The development of 3Rs (replacement, refinement, and reduction) approaches in research, to reduce the reliance on the use of animal tissue and whole-animal experiments, has recently included the use of Dictyostelium. In addition to not feeling pain and thus being relatively free of ethical constraints, Dictyostelium provides a range of distinct methodological advantages for researchers that has led to a number of breakthroughs. These methodologies include using cell behavior (cell movement and shape) as a rapid indicator of sensitivity to poorly characterized medicines, natural products, and other chemicals to help understand the molecular mechanism of action of compounds. Here, we outline a general approach to employing Dictyostelium as a 3Rs research model, using cell behavior as a readout to better understand how compounds, such as the active ingredient in chilli peppers, capsaicin, function at a cellular level. This chapter helps scientists unfamiliar with Dictyostelium to rapidly employ it as an advantageous model system for research, to reduce the use of animals in research, and to make paradigm shift advances in our understanding of biological chemistry. PMID:27271898

  20. Strategies for the optimisation of in vivo experiments in accordance with the 3Rs philosophy.

    PubMed

    Madden, Judith C; Hewitt, Mark; Przybylak, Katarzyna; Vandebriel, Rob J; Piersma, Aldert H; Cronin, Mark T D

    2012-06-01

    There are a large number of chemicals in current use for which adequate toxicity data are not available. Whilst there are clear ethical and legal obligations to obtain data from sources other than in vivo experiments wherever possible, in certain cases in vivo assays may be deemed necessary. In such circumstances, it is essential to ensure that the maximum amount of high quality data is obtained from the minimum number of animals, using the most humane procedures, in accordance with the philosophy of reduction, refinement and replacement (3Rs). The aim of this report is to provide a strategy for anyone involved in animal experimentation, for either toxicological or pharmacological purposes, as to how in vivo experiments may be optimised. The impact of generic and endpoint specific sources of variability has been highlighted in a proof-of-principle analysis considering the variation in protocols for assays for four human health endpoints (skin sensitisation, reproductive/developmental toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity). Other factors such as operator training, experimental/statistical design, use of lower species and use of combined assays are also discussed. Recommendations for optimisation of in vivo assays, in terms of the 3Rs philosophy, applied to performing tests, harvesting data and appropriate reporting are summarised as a checklist of issues to be addressed prior to undertaking such assays. PMID:22446816

  1. Scientists and the 3Rs: attitudes to animal use in biomedical research and the effect of mandatory training in laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Franco, N H; Olsson, I A S

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction, and refinement has increasingly been endorsed by legislators and regulatory bodies as the best approach to tackle the ethical dilemma presented by animal experimentation in which the potential benefits for humans stand against the costs borne by the animals. Even when animal use is tightly regulated and supervised, the individual researcher's responsibility is still decisive in the implementation of the 3Rs. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) aims to raise researchers' awareness and increase their knowledge, but its effect on scientists' attitudes and practice has not so far been systematically assessed. Participants (n = 206) in eight LAS courses (following the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations category C recommendations) in Portugal were surveyed in a self-administered questionnaire during the course. Questions were related mainly to the 3Rs and their application, attitudes to animal use and the ethical review of animal experiments. One year later, all the respondents were asked to answer a similar questionnaire (57% response rate) with added self-evaluation questions on the impact of training. Our results suggest that the course is effective in promoting awareness and increasing knowledge of the 3Rs, particularly with regard to refinement. However, participation in the course did not change perceptions on the current and future needs for animal use in research. PMID:23940123

  2. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Melanie L.; Prescott, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. PMID:25823812

  3. The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Melanie L; Prescott, Mark J

    2015-07-15

    Ethics on animal use in science in Western society is based on utilitarianism, weighing the harms and benefits to the animals involved against those of the intended human beneficiaries. The 3Rs concept (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) is both a robust framework for minimizing animal use and suffering (addressing the harms to animals) and a means of supporting high quality science and translation (addressing the benefits). The ambiguity of basic research performed early in the research continuum can sometimes make harm-benefit analysis more difficult since anticipated benefit is often an incremental contribution to a field of knowledge. On the other hand, benefit is much more evident in translational research aimed at developing treatments for direct application in humans or animals suffering from disease. Though benefit may be easier to define, it should certainly not be considered automatic. Issues related to model validity seriously compromise experiments and have been implicated as a major impediment in translation, especially in complex disease models where harms to animals can be intensified. Increased investment and activity in the 3Rs is delivering new research models, tools and approaches with reduced reliance on animal use, improved animal welfare, and improved scientific and predictive value. PMID:25823812

  4. Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD fish toxicity testing framework.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Wheeler, James R; Gourmelon, Anne; Burden, Natalie

    2016-04-01

    Fish toxicity testing has been conducted since the 1860's in order to help define safe levels of chemical contaminants in lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The historical emphasis on acute lethality testing of chemicals has more recently focussed on long term sublethal effects of chemicals on fish and their prey species. Fish toxicity testing is now embedded in much environment legislation on chemical safety while it is recognized that animal use should be Replaced, Reduced and Refined (the 3Rs) where possible. The OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework provides a useful structure with which to address the needs of environmental safety assessment whilst implementing the 3Rs. This commentary aims to promote the implementation of the recommendations of the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. PMID:26873775

  5. Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smode, Alfred F.

    A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…

  6. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  7. Guidance on the severity classification of scientific procedures involving fish: report of a Working Group appointed by the Norwegian Consensus-Platform for the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal experiments (Norecopa)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, P; Dennison, N; Goodman, G; Hetherington, S; Llywelyn-Jones, S; Ryder, K; Smith, A J

    2011-01-01

    The severity classification of procedures using animals is an important tool to help focus the implementation of refinement and to assist in reporting the application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). The recently revised Directive that regulates animal research and testing within the European Union requires Member States to ensure that all procedures are classified as ‘non-recovery’, ‘mild’, ‘moderate’ or ‘severe’, using assignment criteria set out by the European Commission (EC). However, these are focused upon terrestrial species, so are of limited relevance to fish users. A Working Group set up by the Norwegian Consensus-Platform for the 3Rs (Norecopa) has produced guidance on the classification of severity in scientific procedures involving fish, including examples of ‘subthreshold’, ‘mild’, ‘moderate’, ‘severe’ and ‘upper threshold’ procedures. The aims are to complement the EC guidelines and help to ensure that suffering in fish is effectively predicted and minimized. Norecopa has established a website (www.norecopa.no/categories) where more information on severity classification for procedures using fish, including field research, will be made available. PMID:21558168

  8. Guidance on the severity classification of scientific procedures involving fish: report of a Working Group appointed by the Norwegian Consensus-Platform for the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal experiments (Norecopa).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, P; Dennison, N; Goodman, G; Hetherington, S; Llywelyn-Jones, S; Ryder, K; Smith, A J

    2011-10-01

    The severity classification of procedures using animals is an important tool to help focus the implementation of refinement and to assist in reporting the application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). The recently revised Directive that regulates animal research and testing within the European Union requires Member States to ensure that all procedures are classified as 'non-recovery', 'mild', 'moderate' or 'severe', using assignment criteria set out by the European Commission (EC). However, these are focused upon terrestrial species, so are of limited relevance to fish users. A Working Group set up by the Norwegian Consensus-Platform for the 3Rs (Norecopa) has produced guidance on the classification of severity in scientific procedures involving fish, including examples of 'subthreshold', 'mild', 'moderate', 'severe' and 'upper threshold' procedures. The aims are to complement the EC guidelines and help to ensure that suffering in fish is effectively predicted and minimized. Norecopa has established a website (www.norecopa.no/categories) where more information on severity classification for procedures using fish, including field research, will be made available. PMID:21558168

  9. Assigned versus Perceived Placebo Effects in Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Smoking Reduction in Swiss Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Reuven; Stronguin, Florencia; Etter, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    In this report, the authors explore the relationships of perceived treatment to outcome in a large, placebo-controlled trial of nicotine replacement treatment for smoking reduction. In the original study (J. F. Etter, E. Laszlo, J. P. Zellweger, C. Perrot, & T. V. Perneger, 2002), which was conducted in French-speaking Switzerland, smokers were…

  10. Creative Implementation of 3Rs Principles within Industry Programs: Beyond Regulations and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  11. Creative implementation of 3Rs principles within industry programs: beyond regulations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-03-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  12. Principles and guidelines for the development of a science-based decision making process facilitating the implementation of the 3Rs by governmental regulators.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Clément

    2002-01-01

    National government establishments, including regulatory agencies, are part of national science systems, which are a subset of larger national innovation systems. The forces that have influenced the basic roles of national government establishments in five countries over the past 10 yr are reviewed on the basis of a study commissioned by Industry Canada in 1999 for the Council of Science and Technology Advisors to the Canadian government. The most significant response among countries has been found to be the financial and managerial restructuring of government science and technology establishments driven by the push toward self-financing. Trends in the roles of government science and technology in six areas are also ranked, with increasing the health and safety of the nation, providing support to industry and participating in international cooperation occupying the first three positions. Potential ramifications of these trends on the implementation of the concept of replacement, reduction, and refinement (the 3Rs) in ensuring the ethical use of animals in regulatory testing are discussed. Science advice and its role in governmental decision making is reviewed on the basis of the 1999 Report of the Council of Science and Technology Advisors, Science Advice for Government Effectiveness. Six principles developed for the effective use of science advice in making regulatory decision have been adapted and are proposed with accompanying guidelines as a framework for the development of a science-based decision making process to facilitate the implementation of the 3Rs by governmental regulators. The proposed series of principles and guidelines are designed to reflect the rapidly evolving and complex context for government decision making, and to remain consistent across government departments and across nations. PMID:12388860

  13. The 3 Rs of Stroke Biology: Radial, Relayed, and Regenerative.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, S Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Stroke not only causes initial cell death, but also a limited process of repair and recovery. As an overall biological process, stroke has been most often considered from the perspective of early phases of ischemia, how these inter-relate and lead to expansion of the infarct. However, just as the biology of later stages of stroke becomes better understood, the clinical realities of stroke indicate that it is now more a chronic disease than an acute killer. As an overall biological process, it is now more important to understand how early cell death leads to the later, limited recovery so as develop an integrative view of acute to chronic stroke. This progression from death to repair involves sequential stages of primary cell death, secondary injury events, reactive tissue progenitor responses, and formation of new neuronal circuits. This progression is radial: from the tissue that suffers the infarct secondary injury signals, including free radicals and inflammatory cytokines, radiate out from the stroke core to trigger later regenerative events. Injury and repair processes occur not just in the local stroke site, but are also triggered in the connected networks of neurons that had existed in the stroke center: damage signals are relayed throughout a brain network. From these relayed, distributed damage signals, reactive astrocytosis, inflammatory processes, and the formation of new connections occur in distant brain areas. In short, emerging data in stroke cell death studies and the development of the field of stroke neural repair now indicate a continuum in time and in space of progressive events that can be considered as the 3 Rs of stroke biology: radial, relayed, and regenerative. PMID:26602550

  14. No evidence that GATA3 rs570613 SNP modifies breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Couch, Fergus J.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Singer, Christian F.; Fuerhauser, Christine; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Caligo, Maria A.; Hopper, John; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Pichert, Gabriella; Eccles, Diana; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Hodgson, Shirley; Paterson, Joan; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Luijt, Rob B. van der; van Os, Theo A.M.; Gille, Hans J.P.; Blok, Marinus J.; Issacs, Claudine; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (Ptrend =0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [1]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (ORper-allele = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94 − 1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (ORper-allele = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91−1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RRper-allele = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90−1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RRper-allele = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80−1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women. PMID:19082709

  15. Making progress and gaining momentum in global 3Rs efforts: how the European pharmaceutical industry is contributing.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-03-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally-beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  16. Making Progress and Gaining Momentum in Global 3Rs Efforts: How the European Pharmaceutical Industry Is Contributing

    PubMed Central

    Fleetwood, Gill; Chlebus, Magda; Coenen, Joachim; Dudoignon, Nicolas; Lecerf, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Catherine; Robinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Animal research together with other investigational methods (computer modeling, in vitro tests, etc) remains an indispensable part of the pharmaceutical research and development process. The European pharmaceutical industry recognizes the responsibilities inherent in animal research and is committed to applying and enhancing 3Rs principles. New nonsentient, ex vivo, and in vitro methods are developed every day and contribute to reducing and, in some instances, replacing in vivo studies. Their utility is however limited by the extent of our current knowledge and understanding of complex biological systems. Until validated alternative ways to model these complex interactions become available, animals remain indispensable in research and safety testing. In the interim, scientists continue to look for ways to reduce the number of animals needed to obtain valid results, refine experimental techniques to enhance animal welfare, and replace animals with other research methods whenever feasible. As research goals foster increasing cross-sector and international collaboration, momentum is growing to enhance and coordinate scientific innovation globally—beyond a single company, stakeholder group, sector, region, or country. The implementation of 3Rs strategies can be viewed as an integral part of this continuously evolving science, demonstrating the link between science and welfare, benefiting both the development of new medicines and animal welfare. This goal is one of the key objectives of the Research and Animal Welfare working group of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations. PMID:25836966

  17. 42 CFR 416.179 - Payment and coinsurance reduction for devices replaced without cost or when full or partial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... portion of the payment is attributable to the cost of an implanted device not on pass-through status under... replacement device being implanted. (b) Amount of reduction to the ASC payment for the covered...

  18. 42 CFR 416.179 - Payment and coinsurance reduction for devices replaced without cost or when full or partial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... portion of the payment is attributable to the cost of an implanted device not on pass-through status under... replacement device being implanted. (b) Amount of reduction to the ASC payment for the covered...

  19. Survey of Canadian Animal-Based Researchers' Views on the Three Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Nicole; Danielson, Peter; Griffin, Gilly

    2011-01-01

    The ‘Three Rs’ tenet (replacement, reduction, refinement) is a widely accepted cornerstone of Canadian and international policies on animal-based science. The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) initiated this web-based survey to obtain greater understanding of ‘principal investigators’ and ‘other researchers’ (i.e. graduate students, post-doctoral researchers etc.) views on the Three Rs, and to identify obstacles and opportunities for continued implementation of the Three Rs in Canada. Responses from 414 participants indicate that researchers currently do not view the goal of replacement as achievable. Researchers prefer to use enough animals to ensure quality data is obtained rather than using the minimum and potentially waste those animals if a problem occurs during the study. Many feel that they already reduce animal numbers as much as possible and have concerns that further reduction may compromise research. Most participants were ambivalent about re-use, but expressed concern that the practice could compromise experimental outcomes. In considering refinement, many researchers feel there are situations where animals should not receive pain relieving drugs because it may compromise scientific outcomes, although there was strong support for the Three Rs strategy of conducting animal welfare-related pilot studies, which were viewed as useful for both animal welfare and experimental design. Participants were not opposed to being offered “assistance” to implement the Three Rs, so long as the input is provided in a collegial manner, and from individuals who are perceived as experts. It may be useful for animal use policymakers to consider what steps are needed to make replacement a more feasible goal. In addition, initiatives that offer researchers greater practical and logistical support with Three Rs implementation may be useful. Encouragement and financial support for Three Rs initiatives may result in valuable contributions to Three Rs

  20. Dislodgement of a cemented exeter femoral stem during closed manipulative reduction of a dislocated total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Aysha; Mohamed, Abdalla; Shaikh, Mazharuddin; Banaszkiewicz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cemented femoral stem migration and dislodgement even though has been described is extremely unusual. There is a high chance of polished femoral stem displacement happening while trying to reduce a dislocated total hip replacement by closed measures. Presentation of the case A 73 year old lady who had an Exeter cemented total hip replacement about two weeks back was admitted from Accident and Emergency with a dislocation. During the closed manipulative reduction under general anaesthesia it was noted that the femoral stem has dislodged from the canal. She underwent revision of the total hip replacement with good outcome. Discussion Femoral stem dislodgement occurs in total hip replacement if polished stem or inadequate cementing of the collar is carried out. Conclusion Gentle manipulative reduction under general anaesthesia of dislocated total hip replacement should be carried out if the polished femoral stem is used. PMID:27060643

  1. Reductions in Red Blood Cell 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Concentration during Continuous Renal Replacment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin’s (Hgb’s) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Results Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (P<0.001). Mean hemoglobin saturation P50 levels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (P<0.001). No significant change was seen in the reference group. 2,3-DPG levels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). Conclusions CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2

  2. Early 3 Rs: How To Lead Beginners into Reading, Writing, and Arithme-TALK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain, Lee

    Directed to teachers, paraprofessionals, parents, and others interested in giving a young child an early start on the 3 Rs, this book provides easy-to-follow instructions for promoting emergent literacy and for teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic from preschool into the primary grades. The progression of content extends from early…

  3. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals. PMID:25932488

  4. A Manual for the 3 Rs: Reading, Reflecting and Reacting. Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martuza, Victor R.; Johns, David M.

    In response to the negative learning environment found in most public schools today, a pedagogical method known as "The 3 Rs" (Reading, Reflecting, and Reacting) was developed to help schools produce active participants in a democratic and pluralistic society. Inspired by the literacy work of Paulo Freire, the method makes extensive use of small…

  5. The CHRNA3 rs578776 Variant is Associated with an Intrinsic Reward Sensitivity Deficit in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Cui, Yong; Karam-Hage, Maher; Shete, Sanjay S.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Chen, Tina T.-L.; Wetter, David W.; Green, Charles E.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    A compromised brain reward system has been postulated as a key feature of drug dependence. We examined whether several polymorphisms of genes found to regulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and dopamine expression were related to an intrinsic reward sensitivity (IRS) deficit we previously identified among a subgroup of smokers using event-related potentials (ERPs). We examined genetic polymorphisms within the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster (CHRNA3 rs578776, CHRNA5 rs16969968, LOC123688 rs8034191, and CHRNA3 rs1051730), the ANKK1 gene (rs1800497), and the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 rs1079597, DRD2 rs1799732) from 104 smokers of European ancestry in a smoking cessation trial. Prior to treatment, we recorded ERPs evoked by emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Smokers were assigned to two groups (IRS+/IRS−) based on the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) component to the pictures, a neural marker of motivational salience. Smokers (n = 42) with blunted brain responses to intrinsically rewarding (pleasant) pictures and enhanced responses to cigarette pictures were assigned to the IRS− group, while smokers (n = 62) with the opposite pattern of LPP responding were assigned to the IRS+ group. Carriers of the protective minor T allele (T/T, C/T) of the CHRNA3 rs578776 were less likely to be members of the IRS− group than those homozygous for the at-risk C allele (C/C). The CHRNA3 rs578776 polymorphism did not differ on questionnaires of nicotine dependence, depressed mood, or trait affective disposition and did not predict abstinence at 6 months after the quit date. These results suggest that polymorphisms of genes influencing nAChR expression are related to an endophenotype of reward sensitivity in smokers. PMID:24065931

  6. Genetically modified laboratory animals in the name of the 3Rs?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Arianna

    2006-01-01

    Although the introduction of GM animal models at first was viewed as a potent way to enhance experimental biology in the name of the 3Rs by its proponents, over the years, the number of animals used has greatly increased and concerns about the suffering of these animals have emerged in the debate. The purpose of this contribution is to show the need and the urgency for a systematic evaluation of genetically modified laboratory animals (GM animals) according to the 3Rs principle. This evaluation presents various difficulties due to the special features of the genetic modifications of animals, the variety of scientific purposes connected with the use of these animals, the lack of coherent statistical data about this use and the difficulties related to the welfare assessment of these animals. In this article I discuss the significance of the procedures involving GM animals for each of the 3R principles. On this basis, I offer an answer to the question of whether these procedures are compatible with the spirit of the 3Rs. PMID:17186113

  7. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries–Brazil, China and India–with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25836965

  8. The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries-Brazil, China and India-with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25836965

  9. Compatibility of the totally replaced hip. Reduction of wear by amorphous diamond coating.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Seppo

    2003-12-01

    Particulate wear debris in totally replaced hips causes adverse local host reactions. The extreme form of such a reaction, aggressive granulomatosis, was found to be a distinct condition and different from simple aseptic loosening. Reactive and adaptive tissues around the totally replaced hip were made of proliferation of local fibroblast like cells and activated macrophages. Methylmethacrylate and high-molecular-weight polyethylene were shown to be essentially immunologically inert implant materials, but in small particulate form functioned as cellular irritants initiating local biological reactions leading to loosening of the implants. Chromium-cobalt-molybdenum is the most popular metallic implant material; it is hard and tough, and the bearings of this metal are partially self-polishing. In total hip implants, prerequisites for longevity of the replaced hip are good biocompatibility of the materials and sufficient tribological properties of the bearings. The third key issue is that the bearing must minimize frictional shear at the prosthetic bone-implant interface to be compatible with long-term survival. Some of the approaches to meet these demands are alumina-on-alumina and metal-on-metal designs, as well as the use of highly crosslinked polyethylene for the acetabular component. In order to avoid the wear-based deleterious properties of the conventional total hip prosthesis materials or coatings, the present work included biological and tribological testing of amorphous diamond. Previous experiments had demonstrated that a high adhesion of tetrahedral amorphous carbon coatings to a substrate can be achieved by using mixing layers or interlayers. Amorphous diamond was found to be biologically inert, and simulator testing indicated excellent wear properties for conventional total hip prostheses, in which either the ball or both bearing surfaces were coated with hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous diamond films. Simulator testing with such total hip prostheses

  10. Reduction in circulating level of HMGB-1 following continuous renal replacement therapy in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takuya; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Takayoshi; Kihara, Yu; Konno, Osamu; Nakamura, Yuki; Iwamoto, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; McGrath, Martina M; Chandraker, Anil

    2016-07-01

    Early recovery from shock improves prognosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. During this period, cytokine imbalances mediate the development of organ damage and mortality. In Japan, we have access to hemoperfusion using an immobilized polymyxin B fiber column for endotoxin removal (PMX-DHP) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) as artificial support for patients with septic shock, with the aim of improving hemodynamics and organ dysfunction caused by elevated inflammatory cytokines and mediators. In this Short communication, we discuss recent findings showing anti-inflammatory treatment following these continuous renal replacement therapies in sepsis. PMID:27155819

  11. NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to multiple diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Fan, H W; Zhang, J Z; Wang, Y M; Xing, H J

    2015-01-01

    Using a meta-analysis framework, we investigated the association between the NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases in humans. Relevant published studies were identified through a comprehensive and systematic electronic search, using the following scientific literature databases: Science Citation Index, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Current Contents Index, Chinese Biomedical, the Chinese Journal Full-Text, and the Weipu Journal. Statistical analysis of data extracted from the selected high quality studies was performed using the Version 12.0 STATA software. A total of 13 case-control studies met our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria for the present meta-analysis. These 13 high quality studies contained relevant information on 7719 patients with various diseases and 7094 healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results showed that the NLRP3 gene rs35829419 C>A polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing multiple diseases in humans under 5 genetic models (all P < 0.05). Data stratification and subgroup analysis based on the disease type revealed that rs35829419 C>A carriers displayed a markedly increase susceptibility to leprosy, colorectal cancer, HIV-1 infection, rheumatoid arthritis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, and atopic dermatitis. In summary, our meta-analysis results revealed the first identified strong correlation between the NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism and increased susceptibility to various diseases in humans. PMID:26535712

  12. Patients with Fabry Disease after Enzyme Replacement Therapy Dose Reduction Versus Treatment Switch

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Johannes; Duning, Thomas; Lenders, Malte; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Krebs, Alice; González, Hans Guerrero; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Niemann, Markus; Störk, Stefan; Schelleckes, Michael; Reiermann, Stefanie; Stypmann, Jörg; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wanner, Christoph; Brand, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Because of the shortage of agalsidase-beta in 2009, many patients with Fabry disease were treated with lower doses or were switched to agalsidase-alfa. This observational study assessed end-organ damage and clinical symptoms during dose reduction or switch to agalsidase-alfa. A total of 105 adult patients with Fabry disease who had received agalsidase-beta (1.0 mg/kg body weight) for ≥1 year were nonrandomly assigned to continue this treatment regimen (regular-dose group, n=38), receive a reduced dose of 0.3–0.5 mg/kg (dose-reduction group, n=29), or switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-alfa (switch group) and were followed prospectively for 1 year. We assessed clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, severe arrhythmia, stroke, progression to ESRD); changes in cardiac, renal, and neurologic function; and Fabry-related symptoms (neuropathic pain, hypohidrosis, diarrhea, and disease severity scores). Organ function and Fabry-related symptoms remained stable in the regular-dose group. In contrast, estimated GFR decreased by about 3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (P=0.01) in the dose-reduction group, and the median albumin-to-creatinine ratio increased from 114 (0–606) mg/g to 216 (0–2062) mg/g (P=0.03) in the switch group. Furthermore, mean Mainz Severity Score Index scores and frequencies of pain attacks, chronic pain, gastrointestinal pain, and diarrhea increased significantly in the dose-reduction and switch groups. In conclusion, patients receiving regular agalsidase-beta dose had a stable disease course, but dose reduction led to worsening of renal function and symptoms. Switching to agalsidase-alfa is safe, but microalbuminuria may progress and Fabry-related symptoms may deteriorate. PMID:24556354

  13. Practical recommendations for patient blood management and the reduction of perioperative transfusion in joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Warwick; Campbell, David; Daly, David; Isbister, James

    2013-04-01

    Data from the Australian Better Safer Transfusion programme show that about one-third of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty receive perioperative blood transfusions, placing them at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes. Other concerns associated with allogeneic blood transfusion include the quality of stored red cell concentrates, the cost of provision of blood and the predicted local demographics, which mean that fewer donors will need to support a greater number of recipients. In view of the multiple challenges associated with allogeneic blood transfusion and its provision, we developed practical management recommendations for perioperative bleeding in joint replacement surgery, based on available evidence and expert consensus opinion, that aim to promote a new, responsible approach to transfusion management. Key recommendations are as follows. Patients' medical health, including haemoglobin and iron levels, needs to be evaluated and optimized preoperatively. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy should be stopped if possible, unless indicated for secondary cardiovascular prevention or coronary stent patency, in which case careful consideration is required. If substantial blood loss is anticipated, intraoperative management with antifibrinolytic agents is recommended for bleeding prophylaxis. Normothermia should be maintained. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures are recommended for post-operative thromboprophylaxis. A blood management programme should be instituted for haemodynamically stable patients. PMID:23116065

  14. The 3Rs and animal welfare - conflict or the way forward?

    PubMed

    Rusche, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    of choice, the "gold standard". The official German statistics on animal experiments in 2001 (Governmental animal protection report, 2002) counts a total of 2.13 mill. experimental animals, with a tendency towards a further increase. The increase is ascribed to animal experiments especially in basic research, counting 926,294 animals. The other more than a million animals were used for research and development of products and equipment for human, dental or veterinary medicine (509,101), the production or quality control of products or equipment for human, dental or veterinary medicine (289,273), toxicological investigations or other safety tests (189,996), the diagnosis of diseases (26,508), education and training (39,625) and other purposes (145,764). Before this background, all activities which lead away from animal experiments or reduce the suffering caused in the remaining experimental animals must be judged as positive developments. 3R research leads to a reduction of animal experiments and animal suffering. At the same time, the earnest consideration of the 3Rs also leads to a critical and specific discussion of the animal experiment in question. PMID:14671703

  15. Non-inhibitory antibodies impede lysosomal storage reduction during enzyme replacement therapy of a lysosomal storage disease.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Ulrich; Matthes, Frank; Weigelt, Cecilia; Andersson, Claes; Eistrup, Carl; Fogh, Jens; Gieselmann, Volkmar

    2008-04-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is a treatment option for several lysosomal storage disorders. We reported previously that treatment of a knockout mouse model of the sphingolipid storage disease metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) by intravenous injection of recombinant human arylsulfatase A (rhASA) reduces sulfatide storage and improves nervous system pathology and function. Here, we show that treated mice can develop anti-rhASA antibodies, which impede sulfatide clearance without inhibiting enzyme activity. The neutralizing effect of antibodies was reproduced in cell culture models of MLD by demonstrating that mouse immune serum reduces the ability of rhASA to clear sulfatide from cultured ASA-deficient Schwann and kidney cells. We show that reduced clearance is due to an antibody-mediated blockade of mannose 6-phosphate receptor-dependent enzyme uptake, retargeting of rhASA from sulfatide-storing cells to macrophages, intracellular misrouting of rhASA, and reduction of enzyme stability. Induction of immunotolerance to rhASA by transgenic expression of an active site mutant of human ASA restores sulfatide clearance in mice. The data indicate that the influence of non-inhibitory antibodies must be more intensively considered in evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of enzyme replacement in lysosomal storage disorders in general and in patients without cross-reacting material specifically. PMID:18360747

  16. Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

    PubMed Central

    Shinkins, Bethany; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Previous studies have reported that people who use a smoking cessation medication while smoking and reduce cigarette consumption spontaneously are three times more likely to stop smoking after a quit date. The aim was to replicate this and assess whether it arises because of willed effortful reduction rather than unwilled reduced drive to smoke caused by medication. Design Secondary analysis of a trial where participants were randomised to smoke as normal or reduce by 75% over 2 weeks prior to quit date, using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both arms. Setting Thirty‐one UK primary care practices. Participants A total of 517 adult smokers seeking quitting support in the carbon monoxide (CO) analyses and 421 in the cigarettes/day analyses. Measurements Russell Standard abstinence was recorded 4 weeks after quit date. The randomized groups were combined and the association between reduction and abstinence examined. The second analysis assessed whether this association differed by whether smokers were, or were not, instructed to reduce. Findings In all participants, there was no evidence that reducing cigarettes/day or CO by at least half compared with not reducing predicted abstinence at 4 weeks [risk ratio (RR) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–1.14 and RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.00–1.44, respectively]. However, in smokers instructed to reduce, CO reduction was associated with 4‐week abstinence (RR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.16–2.00), but not among people advised not to reduce (RR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.67–1.24). Conclusions Smoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce. PMID:26990374

  17. Workshop overview: scientific and regulatory challenges for the reduction, refinement, and replacement of animals in toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Purchase, I F; Botham, P A; Bruner, L H; Flint, O P; Frazier, J M; Stokes, W S

    1998-06-01

    Public concern for animal welfare has been expressed through legislative control of animal use for experimental purposes since the first legislation was introduced in 1876 in the United Kingdom. Legislative control of animal use has been introduced in virtually every developed country, with major initiatives in Europe (1986) and the United States (1966 and 1985). Advances in scientific thinking resulted in the development of the concept of the three Rs--refinement, reduction, and replacement--by Russell and Burch in 1959. The field has expanded substantially since, with specialist scientific journals dedicated to alternatives, World Congresses organized to discuss the scientific and philosophical issues, and European and U.S. validation organizations being launched. Current scientific attention is focused on validation of alternative methods. The underlying scientific principles of chemical toxicity are complicated and insufficiently understood for alternative methods for all toxicity endpoints of importance in protecting human health to be available. Important lessons have been learned about how to validate methods, including the need to have prediction models available before the validation is undertaken, the need to understand the variability of the animal-based data which is to be used as the validation standard, and the need to have well-managed validation programs. Future progress will depend on the development of novel methods, which can now be validated through international collaborative efforts. PMID:9710950

  18. Potential efficacy of enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy in three siblings with Gaucher disease type III.

    PubMed

    Cox-Brinkman, J; van Breemen, M J; van Maldegem, B T; Bour, L; Donker, W E; Hollak, C E M; Wijburg, F A; Aerts, J M F G

    2008-12-01

    We report three siblings with Gaucher disease type III, born between 1992 and 2004. During this period, new developments resulted in different potential therapies, changing clinical practice. The two eldest siblings received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) from the age of 24 and 5 months respectively, later followed by an increase in dosage. ERT was combined with substrate reduction therapy (SRT) from the ages of 12 and 8 years, respectively. In the youngest sibling the combination of high-dose ERT and SRT was given from the age of 5 months. The two eldest siblings showed significant neurological impairment from the age of 1.5 years, starting with a convergent strabismus and partial oculomotor apraxia, followed by cognitive decline and an abnormal EEG and BAER. In contrast, the neurological development in the youngest sibling is almost completely normal. At the age of 3 years, cognitive development, EEG and BAER are all normal. Disturbed saccadic eye movements, which were already present at the start of therapy, remained stable. In addition to the clinical efficacy, we report on the biochemical response to therapy. Based on our results, the combination of high-dose ERT and SRT should be considered as a possible therapeutic approach for GD III, especially if started at a young age. Further follow-up studies are necessary to explore the long-term therapeutic effects. PMID:18850301

  19. The selective BH4-domain biology of Bcl-2-family members: IP3Rs and beyond.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Vervliet, Tim; Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-04-01

    Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members not only neutralize pro-apoptotic proteins but also directly regulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), critically controlling cellular health, survival, and death initiation. Furthermore, distinct Bcl-2-family members may selectively regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R): Bcl-2 likely acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the IP3R, preventing pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) transients, while Bcl-XL likely acts as an endogenous IP3R-sensitizing protein promoting pro-survival Ca(2+) oscillations. Furthermore, distinct functional domains in Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL may underlie the divergence in IP3R regulation. The Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, which targets the central modulatory domain of the IP3R, is likely to be Bcl-2's determining factor. In contrast, the hydrophobic cleft targets the C-terminal Ca(2+)-channel tail and might be more crucial for Bcl-XL's function. Furthermore, one amino acid critically different in the sequence of Bcl-2's and Bcl-XL's BH4 domains underpins their selective effect on Ca(2+) signaling and distinct biological properties of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-XL. This difference is evolutionary conserved across five classes of vertebrates and may represent a fundamental divergence in their biological function. Moreover, these insights open novel avenues to selectively suppress malignant Bcl-2 function in cancer cells by targeting its BH4 domain, while maintaining essential Bcl-XL functions in normal cells. Thus, IP3R-derived molecules that mimic the BH4 domain's binding site on the IP3R may function synergistically with BH3-mimetic molecules selectivity suppressing Bcl-2's proto-oncogenic activity. Finally, a more general role for the BH4 domain on IP3Rs, rather than solely anti-apoptotic, may not be excluded as part of a complex network of molecular interactions. PMID:22955373

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION INCENTIVES TO THE STATES GRANT: PUERTO RICO SOURCE REDUCTION AND REPLACEMENT OF HAZARDOUS SOLVENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE WORKSHOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity includes visiting 600 workshops affiliated with the Automotive Mechanics and Technicians Associations of Puerto Rico (AMTAPR) to demonstrate cost-effective strategies for reducing pollution and replacing solvents. Six hundred P2 assessments of automotive repair fa...

  1. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    PubMed

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use. PMID:26614819

  2. 42 CFR 419.45 - Payment and copayment reduction for devices replaced without cost or when full or partial credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is received. (a) General rule. CMS reduces the amount of payment for an implanted device made under... determines that a significant portion of the payment is attributable to the cost of an implanted device, when... greater than or equal to 50 percent of the cost of the new replacement device being implanted. (b)...

  3. 42 CFR 419.45 - Payment and copayment reduction for devices replaced without cost or when full or partial credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... credit is received. (a) General rule. CMS reduces the amount of payment for an implanted device made... determines that a significant portion of the payment is attributable to the cost of an implanted device, when... greater than or equal to 50 percent of the cost of the new replacement device being implanted. (b)...

  4. 42 CFR 419.45 - Payment and copayment reduction for devices replaced without cost or when full or partial credit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... credit is received. (a) General rule. CMS reduces the amount of payment for an implanted device made... determines that a significant portion of the payment is attributable to the cost of an implanted device, when... greater than or equal to 50 percent of the cost of the new replacement device being implanted. (b)...

  5. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  6. CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype as an effect modifier of the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension in Chinese male smokers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shan-Yu; Niu, Zhong-Zheng; Liu, Tao; Xie, Chuan-Bo; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for hypertension. However, the effects on hypertension of the interaction between smoking and the genotype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene are unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype affects the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension. We recruited 947 male smokers in southern China and used a questionnaire administered in face to face interviews to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behavior. Blood samples were collected to test for CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype variations. Three blood-pressure measurements were taken for each participant, and the average values recorded. We found that, compared with light smoking (<15 cigarettes per day), heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes per day) yielded a greater risk of hypertension. We also observed that the interaction between daily cigarette consumption and the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype may affect hypertension. Heavy smokers with the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype exhibited a significantly greater risk of hypertension than light smokers with wild-type CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotypes. The positive interaction between heavy smoking and the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype was found to affect the likelihood of hypertension in Chinese male smokers. PMID:25874685

  7. A study on sensory properties of sodium reduction and replacement in Asian food using difference-from - control test.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jasmine; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu; Ong, Evelyn; Hoi, Jia Tse; Loong, Mann Na

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effects of sodium reduction and flavor enhancers on the sensory profile of two types of hawker foods commonly consumed in Singapore, namely chicken rice and mee soto broth. The 'difference-from-control' test was the method adopted in this study involving 24-29 trained panelists. Combinations included blind control, two levels of sodium reduction, and two levels of flavor enhancers in sodium-reduced recipes. In the sodium-reduced recipes, two levels of NaCl, 0.48% and 0.55%, for chicken rice, and 0.76% and 0.86% for mee soto (equivalent to 31% and 22% reduction in NaCl), were used. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) or Ajiplus (®) (a blend of MSG and nucleotides) at 0.20% and 0.40% were added to the recipes comprising a reduction of 40% in NaCl (equivalent to 31% and 22% reduction in sodium, respectively) compared with the control. It was found that the inclusion of MSG or Ajiplus (®) in 40% NaCl-reduced recipe resulted in a significant increase in perception of umami taste (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. By adding flavor enhancers into the 40%-reduced salt chicken rice recipes, the perception of saltiness was significantly increased when compared to 22% and 31% sodium reduced recipes. Similarly for mee soto broth, there was a significant increase in perception of chicken flavor, umami taste, mouthfeel sensation, and sweet taste (P < 0.05) with a decrease in the perception of sour and bitter taste when compared to control. By adding 0.40% MSG into the 40%-reduced salt recipes, the perception of saltiness was maintained when compared with control. PMID:27247776

  8. Controlling Cyanobacterial Blooms in Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China: Will Nitrogen Reductions Cause Replacement of Non-N2 Fixing by N2 Fixing Taxa?

    PubMed Central

    Paerl, Hans W.; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S.; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L.; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J.; Joyner, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China’s third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

  9. Patients with Fabry Disease after Enzyme Replacement Therapy Dose Reduction and Switch-2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Malte; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Krämer, Johannes; Duning, Thomas; Reiermann, Stefanie; Sommer, Claudia; Stypmann, Jörg; Blaschke, Daniela; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Hense, Hans-Werner; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Brand, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Because of the shortage of agalsidase-β supply between 2009 and 2012, patients with Fabry disease either were treated with reduced doses or were switched to agalsidase-α. In this observational study, we assessed end organ damage and clinical symptoms with special focus on renal outcome after 2 years of dose-reduction and/or switch to agalsidase-α. A total of 89 adult patients with Fabry disease who had received agalsidase-β (1.0 mg/kg body wt) for >1 year were nonrandomly assigned to continue this treatment regimen (regular-dose group, n=24), to receive a reduced dose of 0.3-0.5 mg/kg and a subsequent switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-α (dose-reduction-switch group, n=28), or to directly switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-α (switch group, n=37) and were followed-up for 2 years. We assessed clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, severe arrhythmia, stroke, progression to ESRD), changes in cardiac and renal function, Fabry-related symptoms (pain, hypohidrosis, diarrhea), and disease severity scores. Determination of renal function by creatinine and cystatin C-based eGFR revealed decreasing eGFRs in the dose-reduction-switch group and the switch group. The Mainz Severity Score Index increased significantly in these two groups (P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively), and higher frequencies of gastrointestinal pain occurred during follow-up. In conclusion, after 2 years of observation, all groups showed a stable clinical disease course with respect to serious clinical events. However, patients under agalsidase-β dose-reduction and switch or a direct switch to agalsidase-α showed a decline of renal function independent of the eGFR formula used. PMID:26185201

  10. IFITM3 rs12252 T>C polymorphism is associated with the risk of severe influenza: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Y; Wang, L N; Li, W; Zi, H R; Guo, Y; Yan, W J; Chen, X B; Wei, P M

    2015-10-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), as one of the key genes involved in the interferon pathway, is critical for defending the host against influenza virus, and the rs12252 T>C variant in IFITM3 might be associated with susceptibility to severe influenza. Owing to contradictory and inconclusive results, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between rs12252 T>C polymorphism and severe influenza risk. A comprehensive literature search up to 1 August 2014 was conducted in EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, VIP, Wanfang and CNKI databases. Four eligible studies with a total of 445 influenza patients and 3396 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, our results demonstrated a significant association between the IFITM3 rs12252 T>C polymorphism and influenza risk [C vs. T: odds ratio (OR) 1·68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32-2·13; CC vs. CT+TT: OR 2·38, 95% CI 1·52-3·73; CC+CT vs. TT: OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·18-2·22]. Stratification by ethnicity indicated that the variant C allele was associated with an 88% increased risk of influenza in Asians (C vs. T: OR 1·88, 95% CI 1·34-2·62). Moreover, subjects carrying the variant C allele had an increased risk of developing severe illness upon influenza infection (C vs. T: OR 2·70, 95% CI 1·86-3·94). However, no significant association was observed in patients with mild infection (C vs. T: OR 1·26, 95% CI 0·93-1·71). Our meta-analysis suggests that IFITM3 rs12252 T>C polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of severe influenza but not with the chance of initial virus infection. PMID:25778715

  11. A molecular diagnostic tool to replace larval culture in conventional faecal egg count reduction testing in sheep.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Florian; Larsen, John W A; Anderson, Norman; Campbell, Angus J D; Anderson, Garry A; Gasser, Robin B; Jex, Aaron R

    2012-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of parasitic nematode infections in livestock (including sheep and goats) is central to their effective control and the detection of the anthelmintic resistance. Traditionally, the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), combined with the technique of larval culture (LC), has been used widely to assess drug-susceptibility/resistance in strongylid nematodes. However, this approach suffers from a lack of specificity, sensitivity and reliability, and is time-consuming and costly to conduct. Here, we critically assessed a specific PCR assay to support FECRT, in a well-controlled experiment on sheep with naturally acquired strongylid infections known to be resistant to benzimidazoles. We showed that the PCR results were in close agreement with those of total worm count (TWC), but not of LC. Importantly, albendazole resistance detected by PCR-coupled FECRT was unequivocally linked to Teladorsagia circumcincta and, to lesser extent, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, a result that was not achievable by LC. The key findings from this study demonstrate that our PCR-coupled FECRT approach has major merit for supporting anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations. The findings also show clearly that our PCR assay can be used as an alternative to LC, and is more time-efficient and less laborious, which has important practical implications for the effective management and control strongylid nematodes of sheep. PMID:22629381

  12. A putative gene sbe3-rs for resistant starch mutated from SBE3 for starch branching enzyme in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Sun, Chunlong; Bai, Jianjiang; Luo, Zhixiang; Shi, Biao; Zhang, Jianming; Yan, Wengui; Piao, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world population. A japonica mutant 'Jiangtangdao 1' (RS = 11.67%) was crossed with an indica cultivar 'Miyang 23' (RS = 0.41%). The mutant sbe3-rs that explained 60.4% of RS variation was mapped between RM6611 and RM13366 on chromosome 2 (LOD = 36) using 178 F(2) plants genotyped with 106 genome-wide polymorphic SSR markers. Using 656 plants from four F(3:4) families, sbe3-rs was fine mapped to a 573.3 Kb region between InDel 2 and InDel 6 using one STS, five SSRs and seven InDel markers. SBE3 which codes for starch branching enzyme was identified as a candidate gene within the putative region. Nine pairs of primers covering 22 exons were designed to sequence genomic DNA of the wild type for SBE3 and the mutant for sbe3-rs comparatively. Sequence analysis identified a missense mutation site where Leu-599 of the wild was changed to Pro-599 of the mutant in the SBE3 coding region. Because the point mutation resulted in the loss of a restriction enzyme site, sbe3-rs was not digested by a CAPS marker for SpeI site while SBE3 was. Co-segregation of the digestion pattern with RS content among 178 F(2) plants further supported sbe3-rs responsible for RS in rice. As a result, the CAPS marker could be used in marker-assisted breeding to develop rice cultivars with elevated RS which is otherwise difficult to accurately assess in crops. Transgenic technology should be employed for a definitive conclusion of the sbe3-rs. PMID:22937009

  13. The Alternative 3Rs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Learning in Later Life, a program for older adults, focuses on research into learner needs and interests, responsiveness to research findings, and relationships with other organizations. Such noncredit programs can bring together organizations concerned with the needs of older adults. (SK)

  14. Novel delivery systems for nicotine replacement therapy as an aid to smoking cessation and for harm reduction: rationale, and evidence for advantages over existing systems.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Lion; Brose, Leonie S; West, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been used in the treatment of tobacco dependence for over three decades. Whilst the choice of NRT was limited early on, in the last ten years there has been substantial increase in the number of nicotine delivery devices that have become available. This article briefly summarises existing forms of NRT, evidence of their efficacy and use, and reviews the rationale for the development of novel products delivering nicotine via buccal, transdermal or pulmonary routes (including nicotine mouth spray, nicotine films, advanced nicotine inhalers and electronic cigarettes). It presents available evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and abuse potential of these products, with a focus on their advantages as well as disadvantages compared with established forms of NRT for use as an aid to both smoking cessation as well as harm reduction. PMID:24114587

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement induces an in vivo reduction of inflammatory monocytes and retains the monocyte ability to respond to bacterial stimulation in patients with common variable immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Filomena Monica; Prezzo, Alessandro; Conti, Valentina; Bilotta, Caterina; Pulvirenti, Federica; Iacobini, Metello; Quinti, Isabella

    2015-09-01

    Intravenous IgG administration induces significant modifications in the innate and adaptive compartment of the immune system including the monocyte/macrophage system. We analyzed the in vivo effect of IgG administered at replacement dosages on the frequency of monocytes subsets, on the modulation of CD11b and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptor (Siglec 9) expression and on monocytes production of reactive oxygen species. We showed that patients with Common Variable Immune Deficiency have an increased frequency pro-inflammatory intermediate CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes and an increased expression of CD11b and Siglec 9 on monocytes. IgG administered at replacement dosages exerted an in vivo anti-inflammatory effect as shown by a reduction of circulating monocytes, of intermediate pro-inflammatory monocytes, of CD11b and Siglec 9 expression and of ex vivo monocytes oxidative burst. Nevertheless, intravenous IgG administration did not affect the monocyte functional ability to respond to a bacterial stimulation in terms of CD11b and Siglec 9 expression and reactive oxygen species production. PMID:26232049

  16. Engineering the substrate specificity of Escherichia coli asparaginase. II. Selective reduction of glutaminase activity by amino acid replacements at position 248.

    PubMed Central

    Derst, C.; Henseling, J.; Röhm, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Escherichia coli asparaginase II as a drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is complicated by the significant glutaminase side activity of the enzyme. To develop enzyme forms with reduced glutaminase activity, a number of variants with amino acid replacements in the vicinity of the substrate binding site were constructed and assayed for their kinetic and stability properties. We found that replacements of Asp248 affected glutamine turnover much more strongly than asparagine hydrolysis. In the wild-type enzyme, N248 modulates substrate binding to a neighboring subunit by hydrogen bonding to side chains that directly interact with the substrate. In variant N248A, the loss of transition state stabilization caused by the mutation was 15 kJ mol(-1) for L-glutamine compared to 4 kJ mol(-1) for L-aspartic beta-hydroxamate and 7 kJ mol(-1) for L-asparagine. Smaller differences were seen with other N248 variants. Modeling studies suggested that the selective reduction of glutaminase activity is the result of small conformational changes that affect active-site residues and catalytically relevant water molecules. PMID:11106175

  17. Where does medical education stand in nurturing the 3Rs in medical students: responsibility, resilience and resolve?

    PubMed

    Eley, Diann S; Stallman, Helen

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decade, the medical education literature has recognized the need to develop a culture that nurtures wellbeing and resilience in students. However, the introduction of or increase in student fees precipitated a shift in higher education policies toward a consumer model of education. Importantly, it has altered the expectations of students and promoted a sense of "entitlement", rather than "striving" for something where success is not guaranteed. This model is consistent with materialism and status, and removed from intrinsic goals that are associated with mental and physical wellbeing. This article challenges medical educators to reconsider the current context of student learning and realign it with the graduate attributes needed to be a competent and responsible medical practitioner by enabling students to develop the 3Rs of resilience, responsibility and resolve. We propose that brave decisions and actions must be made by medical educators to provide students with opportunities to learn independence, self-management, and self-regulation and guarantee their role in helping medical students become resilient and responsible doctors of tomorrow. PMID:25072531

  18. Physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of RS3/RS4 from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Jan, Amreen; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Rehana; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Starch isolated from four kidney bean cultivars (Yellow bean, Red bean, Black bean and White bean) were physically and chemically modified in order to prepare resistant starch (RS3/RS4). Following the Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and Citric acid modification (CT) of the native starch, the amylose content got decreased whereas bulk and tapped density (g/ml) increased. Both HMT and CT reduced the swelling power and the solubility of native starch. Pasting temperature increased and peak, breakdown, final, and set-back viscosity decreased after both the modifications. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed peaks at 1020cm(-1) in HMT and 1724cm(-1) in CT starches. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that samples were more stable after modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed reordering of chain segments to more crystalline structure. These results suggested modifications resulted in starch with improved properties and could be a possible method for the RS preparation with better thermal stability. PMID:26976068

  19. Ankle replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  20. Replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine affects the normal proton transfer pathways for the reduction of P680+ in oxygen-evolving photosystem II particles from Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Jeans, C; Schilstra, M J; Ray, N; Husain, S; Minagawa, J; Nugent, J H A; Klug, D R

    2002-12-31

    We have probed the electrostatics of P680(+) reduction in oxygenic photosynthesis using histidine-tagged and histidine-tagged Y(D)-less Photosystem II cores. We make two main observations: (i) that His-tagged Chlamydomonas cores show kinetics which are essentially identical to those of Photosystem II enriched thylakoid membranes from spinach; (ii) that the microsecond kinetics, previously shown to be proton/hydrogen transfer limited [Schilstra et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3974-3981], are significantly different in Y(D)-less Chlamydomonas particles when compared with both the His-tagged Chlamydomonas particles and the spinach membranes. The oscillatory nature of the kinetics in both Chlamydomonas samples is normal, indicating that S-state cycling is unaffected by either the histidine-tagging or the replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine. We propose that the effects on the proton-coupled electron transfers of P680(+) reduction in the absence of Y(D) are likely to be due to pK shifts of residues in a hydrogen-bonded network of amino acids in the vicinity of Y(Z). Tyrosine D is 35 A from Y(Z) and yet has a significant influence on proton-coupled electron transfer events in the vicinity of Y(Z). This finding emphasizes the delicacy of the proton balance that Photosystem II has to achieve during the water splitting process. PMID:12501204

  1. The NLRP3 rs10754558 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Occurrence and Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dong; Wang, Xinhong; Chen, Tao; Wen, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yue; Yuan, Zuyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential association of the NLRP3 rs10754558 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms with the occurrence and prognosis of CAD. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed using the ABI PRISM-Snapshot multiplex method in 515 CAD patients and 401 control subjects. The serum level of IL-1β was investigated by ELISA assays. The clinical endpoints were evaluated during a median follow-up period of 32 months. The NLRP3 rs10754558 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with the occurrence of CAD, while the CARD8 rs2043211 gene polymorphism was not involved. Patients carrying G allele of NLRP3 rs10754558 had more severe coronary artery stenosis. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association of the G allele with major adverse cardiac event. The serum IL-1β concentrations in patients with GG genotype were significantly increased compared with those in the patients with CC genotype. Our findings for the first time show that the NLRP3 rs10754558 polymorphism is involved in the occurrence of CAD in the Chinese Han population; and G allele can effectively predict clinical outcome of CAD. The G allele susceptibility to CAD is maybe associated with the increased level of serum IL-1β. PMID:27110561

  2. ERBB3-rs2292239 as primary type 1 diabetes association locus among non-HLA genes in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengjun; Wei, Haiyan; Chen, Xiuli; Zhao, Zhuhui; Du, Hongwei; Song, Wenhui; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Miaoying; Lu, Wei; Pei, Zhou; Xi, Li; Yan, Jian; Zhi, Dijing; Cheng, Ruoqian; Luo, Feihong

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that has strong contribution of genetic factors to its etiology. We aimed to assess the genetic association between non-HLA genes and T1D in a Chinese case-control cohort recruited from multiple centers consisting of 364 patients with T1D and 719 unrelated healthy children. We genotyped 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers located in 16 non-HLA genes (VTCN1, PTPN22, CTLA4, SUMO4, CD274, IL2RA, INS, DHCR7, ERBB3, VDR, CYP27B1, CD69, CD276, PTPN2, UBASH3A, and IL2RB) using SNaPshot multiple single-base extension methods. After multivariate analysis and correction for multiple comparisons, we identified the SNP rs2292239 in ERBB3 gene were significantly associated with T1D. The frequency of the major G allele was significantly decreased in patients with T1D (68.8% in T1D vs 77.3% in controls, OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.79, P = 0.02), and the minor allele T was associated with an increased risk of T1D (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.90, P = 0.02). Our haplotype analysis confirmed that rs2292239 was the primary T1D association locus in our current investigation. These results indicated that the ERBB3-rs2292239 was the primary T1D association locus among the investigated 55 SNPs in 16 non-HLA genes in Chinese Han population. PMID:27331016

  3. Combining 3D human in vitro methods for a 3Rs evaluation of novel titanium surfaces in orthopaedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, G.; Rehman, S.; Draper, E.; Hernández‐Nava, E.; Hunt, J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we report on a group of complementary human osteoblast in vitro test methods for the preclinical evaluation of 3D porous titanium surfaces. The surfaces were prepared by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting [EBM]) and plasma spraying, allowing the creation of complex lattice surface geometries. Physical properties of the surfaces were characterized by SEM and profilometry and 3D in vitro cell culture using human osteoblasts. Primary human osteoblast cells were found to elicit greater differences between titanium sample surfaces than an MG63 osteoblast‐like cell line, particularly in terms of cell survival. Surface morphology was associated with higher osteoblast metabolic activity and mineralization on rougher titanium plasma spray coated surfaces than smoother surfaces. Differences in osteoblast survival and metabolic activity on titanium lattice structures were also found, despite analogous surface morphology at the cellular level. 3D confocal microscopy identified osteoblast organization within complex titanium surface geometries, adhesion, spreading, and alignment to the biomaterial strut geometries. Mineralized nodule formation throughout the lattice structures was also observed, and indicative of early markers of bone in‐growth on such materials. Testing methods such as those presented are not traditionally considered by medical device manufacturers, but we suggest have value as an increasingly vital tool in efficiently translating pre‐clinical studies, especially in balance with current regulatory practice, commercial demands, the 3Rs, and the relative merits of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1586–1599. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26702609

  4. Combining 3D human in vitro methods for a 3Rs evaluation of novel titanium surfaces in orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, G; Rehman, S; Draper, E; Hernández-Nava, E; Hunt, J; Haycock, J W

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report on a group of complementary human osteoblast in vitro test methods for the preclinical evaluation of 3D porous titanium surfaces. The surfaces were prepared by additive manufacturing (electron beam melting [EBM]) and plasma spraying, allowing the creation of complex lattice surface geometries. Physical properties of the surfaces were characterized by SEM and profilometry and 3D in vitro cell culture using human osteoblasts. Primary human osteoblast cells were found to elicit greater differences between titanium sample surfaces than an MG63 osteoblast-like cell line, particularly in terms of cell survival. Surface morphology was associated with higher osteoblast metabolic activity and mineralization on rougher titanium plasma spray coated surfaces than smoother surfaces. Differences in osteoblast survival and metabolic activity on titanium lattice structures were also found, despite analogous surface morphology at the cellular level. 3D confocal microscopy identified osteoblast organization within complex titanium surface geometries, adhesion, spreading, and alignment to the biomaterial strut geometries. Mineralized nodule formation throughout the lattice structures was also observed, and indicative of early markers of bone in-growth on such materials. Testing methods such as those presented are not traditionally considered by medical device manufacturers, but we suggest have value as an increasingly vital tool in efficiently translating pre-clinical studies, especially in balance with current regulatory practice, commercial demands, the 3Rs, and the relative merits of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1586-1599. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26702609

  5. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... replacement is an operation in which a damaged hip joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint. ... are many medical conditions that can damage the hip joint. (Watch the video to learn about what goes ...

  6. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. A hip replacement can Relieve pain Help your hip joint work better Improve walking and other movements The ...

  7. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 rs12252-C is associated with rapid progression of acute HIV-1 infection in Chinese MSM cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Lili; Repapi, Emmanouela; Taylor, Stephen; McMichael, Andrew; Li, Ning; Dong, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) is a protein that restricts multiple pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12252-C, which is rare in Caucasian populations, but much more common in the Han Chinese population, has been found in much higher homozygous frequency in patients with severe acute influenza. Until now, there has been no study on the effect of this genetic variant on the clinical control of other viral infections. Objectives: To investigate the impact of IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes on primary HIV-1 infection progression in an acute HIV-1-infected cohort in Beijing (PRIMO), China. Design and methods: We identified IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes of 178 acute HIV-1-infected patients and 196 HIV-negative candidates from the PRIMO cohort. HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts were monitored at multiple time points during the first year of infection, and the association between IFITM3-rs12252 genotype and disease progression was evaluated. Results: The current study shows that the IFITM3-rs12252 genetic variant affects the progression of HIV-1 infection, but not the acquisition. A significantly higher frequency of the CC/CT genotypes was found in rapid progressors compared to nonprogressors. Patients with CC/CT genotypes showed an elevated peak viremia level and significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count at multiple time points during the first year of primary infection, and a significantly higher risk of rapid decline of the CD4+ T-cell count to below 350 cells/μl. Conclusion: A novel association between IFITM3 gene polymorphism and rapid disease progression is reported in an acute HIV-1-infected MSM cohort in China. PMID:25784441

  8. Shoulder replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows ... head. The socket part (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell ( ...

  9. Knee Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not helping you anymore. When you have a total knee replacement, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone ...

  10. THE NONLINEAR RESPONSE OF NITRATE REPLACEMENT THAT MITIGATES SULFATE REDUCTIONS: THE GAS RATIO AS AN INDICATOR AND SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents an assessment, using the CMAQ air quality model, showing the inorganic gas ratio (the ratio of free ammonia to total nitrate) can function as a screening indicator of the winter replacement of sulfate by nitrate when sulfate is reduced. It also presents an as...

  11. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; ...

  12. Association between 17q25.3-rs6465657 polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on 19 studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Mei; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Li, Shujing; Wu, Huijian

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified rs6465657 polymorphism at chromosome 17q25.3 as a new prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility locus in people of European descent. However, subsequent replication studies have yielded inconsistent results among different ethnicities. In this study, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the relationship between rs6465657 polymorphism and PCa risk. Methods All the articles involved were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO databases, and Google Scholar before December 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence internals (95% CIs) were pooled under the allele model. Fourteen eligible articles with 19 studies were finally included. Results In the overall population, the 17q25.3-rs6465657C allele was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of PCa compared to the T allele (OR =1.097; 95% CI: 1.061–1.134; P<0.001). In the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was found in the Caucasian population (OR =1.120; 95% CI: 1.078–1.162; P<0.001), while the difference of OR did not reach the statistical significance in the Asian or African-American population. The analyses of sensitivity indicated the robust stability of the results, and the Begg’s and Egger’s test indicated that no publication bias existed. Conclusion The current meta-analysis suggested that the 17q25.3-rs6465657 polymorphism could be associated with PCa susceptibility, especially in the Caucasians, while this association might be different in other ethnicities. PMID:27524905

  13. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  14. Intracameral phenylephrine and ketorolac injection (OMS302) for maintenance of intraoperative pupil diameter and reduction of postoperative pain in intraocular lens replacement with phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Richard L; Loden, James C; Walters, Thomas R; Dunn, Steven H; Whitaker, J Steven; Kim, Terry; Demopulos, Gregory A; Tjia, Khiun

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of OMS302 on intraoperative pupil diameter and early postoperative ocular pain when administered during intraocular lens replacement surgery. Methods Four hundred and six patients (406 study eyes; 202 in the OMS302 group and 204 in the placebo group) were entered into this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III study, which was conducted at 15 centers in the USA and the Netherlands. The patients received OMS302 (60.75 mM phenylephrine HCl and 11.25 mM ketorolac tromethamine) or placebo in irrigation solution during intraocular lens replacement. No other changes in procedure were required. Coprimary endpoints were change in pupil diameter over time from surgical baseline to end of procedure and patient-reported ocular pain during the first 12 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints included additional measures of pupil diameter and postoperative pain. Results OMS302 was superior to placebo in maintaining intraoperative mydriasis, preventing miosis, and reducing postoperative pain. The weighted mean (standard error) difference (OMS302 – placebo) in change in the area under the curve from baseline for pupil diameter was 0.590 ([0.049]; 95% confidence interval 0.494 to 0.686; P<0.0001). For ocular pain scores, the weighted mean (standard error) difference was −4.580 ([1.192]; 95% confidence interval −6.917 to 2.244; P=0.0002). All secondary efficacy results favored OMS302. Specifically, analyses supporting prevention of miosis (patients with ≥6 mm pupil diameter at completion of cortical clean-up and those with <6 mm diameter at any time during surgery) were significant for OMS302 (95.9% versus 77.0% and 9.2% versus 38.0%, respectively; P<0.0001 for each endpoint). OMS302 was well tolerated and not associated with any unexpected adverse events. Conclusion OMS302 maintained mydriasis, prevented miosis, and reduced early postoperative pain when administered in

  15. A structural study of (1RS,2SR,3RS,4SR,5RS)-2,4-dibenzoyl-1,3,5-triphenylcyclohexan-1-ol chloroform hemisolvate and (1RS,2SR,3RS,4SR,5RS)-2,4-dibenzoyl-1-phenyl-3,5-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexan-1-ol.

    PubMed

    Minyaev, Mikhail E; Roitershtein, Dmitrii M; Nifant'ev, Ilya E; Ananyev, Ivan V; Minyaeva, Tatyana V; Mikhaylyev, Timofey A

    2015-06-01

    (1RS,2SR,3RS,4SR,5RS)-2,4-Dibenzoyl-1,3,5-triphenylcyclohexan-1-ol or (4-hydroxy-2,4,6-triphenylcyclohexane-1,3-diyl)bis(phenylmethanone), C38H32O3, (1), is formed as a by-product in the NaOH-catalyzed synthesis of 1,3,5-triphenylpentane-1,5-dione from acetophenone and benzaldehyde. Single crystals of the chloroform hemisolvate, C38H32O3·0.5CHCl3, were grown from chloroform. The structure has triclinic (P1) symmetry. One diastereomer [as a pair of (1RS,2SR,3RS,4SR,5RS)-enantiomers] of (1) has been found in the crystal structure and confirmed by NMR studies. The dichoromethane hemisolvate has been reported previously [Zhang et al. (2007). Acta Cryst. E63, o4652]. (1RS,2SR,3RS,4SR,5RS)-2,4-Dibenzoyl-3,5-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylcyclohexan-1-ol or [4-hydroxy-2,6-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-phenylcyclohexane-1,3-diyl]bis(phenylmethanone), C40H36O5, (2), is also formed as a by-product, under the same conditions, from acetophenone and 2-methoxybenzaldehyde. Crystals of (2) have been grown from chloroform. The structure has orthorhombic (Pca2₁) symmetry. A diastereomer of (2) possesses the same configuration as (1). In both structures, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation with all bulky groups (benzoyl, phenyl and 2-methoxyphenyl) in equatorial positions. The molecules of (1) and (2) both display one intramolecular O-H···O hydrogen bond. PMID:26044332

  16. Molecular replacement.

    PubMed

    Toth, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    As more protein structures are solved, the likelihood that current structural investigations will involve proteins for which there exists no homologous structure continually decreases. The extraction of phase information from diffraction experiments is one of several great barriers that crystallographers must overcome on the path to structure solution. One means to overcome this obstacle, the technique of molecular replacement, uses the structural similarity between proteins with similar sequences to give a good first estimate of the phases for the diffraction data of the protein of interest. The programs that execute this technique currently come in many flavors, from traditional Patterson-based methods, to stochastic searches in greater than three dimensions, to maximum likelihood-enhanced molecular replacement, each possessing unique advantages that can shake loose a recalcitrant solution. As crystallographers aim to solve larger macromolecular complexes that more faithfully depict the actors in cellular events, having existing phase information for parts of those biological machines will reinforce the technological advancements in data collection and structure solution that have already produced mammoth structures like the ribosome, yielding an ever-clearer picture of the inner workings of biology. PMID:17172763

  17. Tandem laser ablation synthesis in solution-galvanic replacement reaction (LASiS-GRR) for the production of PtCo nanoalloys as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sheng; Tian, Mengkun; Ribeiro, Erick L.; Duscher, Gerd; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2016-02-01

    We have developed tandem laser ablation synthesis in solution-galvanic replacement reaction (LASiS-GRR) technique as a facile, green yet, efficient route to synthesize spherical PtCo NAs with varied sizes, compositions and degrees of alloying. The transformative concept here is the ability to design these nanostructured alloys by tuning the high-energy physico-chemical conditions emerging from liquid-confined, laser-induced plasma, and the solution-phase reaction pathways dictated by pH conditions and precursor salt concentrations. The resultant NAs exhibit uniformly alloyed cores with a Pt-rich shell of a few nanometers, as demonstrated by the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping. Such core-shell structure along with high degrees of alloying in these PtCo NAs promote their outstanding electrocatalytic ORR activities in acid electrolytes. Specifically, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts, the PtCo NAs with Co molar ratio of 22.1% indicate a c.a. 3 and 6-fold increase in mass and specific activities respectively. Such enhanced ORR activities are attributed to the efficacy of tandem LASiS-GRR route to rationally tune size distributions/compositional ratios and alloying degrees of the NAs without the use of any surfactants or reducing agents that are otherwise indispensable in chemical synthesis methods, but harmful for catalytic performances.

  18. The Impact of PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP on Liver Fibrosis Progression, Portal Hypertension and Hepatic Steatosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, Bernhard; Mandorfer, Mattias; Schwabl, Philipp; Payer, Berit Anna; Bucsics, Theresa; Bota, Simona; Aichelburg, Maximilian C.; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Stättermayer, Albert; Ferenci, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Reiberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Faster fibrosis progression and hepatic steatosis are hallmarks of HIV/HCV coinfection. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PNPLA3-gene is associated with development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and a worse outcome in alcoholic liver disease. However, the role of PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP on liver fibrosis and steatosis, portal hypertension, and virological response in HIV/HCV coinfection remains unclear. Methods In this cross-sectional study PNPLA3 (rs738409) and IL28B (rs12979860) SNPs were determined in 177 HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Liver fibrosis and steatosis—staged by liver biopsy and transient elastography using the Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP)–and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient, HVPG) were compared across PNPLA3 genotypes. Results 75 (42.4%) patients tested positive for a PNPLA3 minor/major risk allele (G/C:66; G/G:9) showed comparable fibrosis stages (median F2 vs. F2; p = 0.292) and similar amounts of hepatic steatosis (CAP: 203.5±41.9 vs. 215.5±59.7dB/m; p = 0.563) as compared to patients without a PNPLA3 risk allele. Advanced liver fibrosis was neither associated with PNPLA3 (p = 0.253) nor IL28B-genotype (p = 0.628), but with HCV-GT3 (p = 0.003), higher BMI (p = 0.008) and higher age (p = 0.007). Fibrosis progression rate (0.27±0.41 vs. 0.20±0.26 units/year; p = 0.984) and HVPG (3.9±2.6 vs. 4.4±3.0 mmHg; p = 0.472) were similar in patients with and without PNPLA3 risk alleles. SVR rates to PEGIFN/RBV therapy were similar across PNPLA3 genotypes. Conclusions The presence of a PNPLA3 risk allele had no independent impact on liver disease or virological response rates to PEGIFN/RBV therapy in our cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. PMID:26599080

  19. Can conditioned reinforcers and Variable-Ratio Schedules make food- and fluid control redundant? A comment on the NC3Rs Working Group's report.

    PubMed

    Westlund, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    This commentary challenges the conclusions of the NC3Rs Working Group's recent special report that food- or fluid control is sometimes necessary to conduct modern neuroscientific investigations in macaque monkeys (Prescott et al., 2010). Given the potential suffering of animals subjected to food- or fluid control, the decision to subject an animal to such practices should be taken hesitantly. That decision hinges on to which extent the animal is willing to be involved in the task. The authors have done a scientific literature search and express expert opinion, but fail to mention two techniques that may greatly influence the animals' motivation to participate in the task and thus reduce the need for food- or fluid control, namely (1) the use of conditioned reinforcers in addition to primary reinforcers; and (2) the use of Variable-Ratio Schedules rather than continuous reinforcement. An ethical and humane approach to animal experimentation suggests that all options should be explored and thoroughly investigated before resorting to methods potentially challenging the animals' welfare. PMID:21459109

  20. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  1. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  2. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  3. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  4. Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  5. Elbow replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... You had surgery to replace your elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the back of your upper or lower arm and ...

  6. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  7. Nicotine replacement therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... If wearing the patch at night causes odd dreams, try sleeping without the patch. People who smoke ... cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy References American Cancer Society. Guide to quitting smoking. Last revised ...

  8. Partial knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Most people recover quickly and have much less pain than they did before surgery. People who have a partial knee replacement recover faster than those who have a total knee replacement. Many people are able to walk ...

  9. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org. PMID:27083180

  10. Ion replacement electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Willit, J.L.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    We are developing a two-step electrochemical process for purifying and separating metals called ion replacement electrorefining. In each step, metal cations formed by oxidation at an electrode replace other metal cations that are reduced at another elecmae. Using this approach, we have separated or purified uranium, dysprosium, and lanthanum on a laboratory scale. This paper explains the ion replacement concept and presents results of these demonstration experiments.

  11. (PRESENTED AT CMAS) THE NONLINEAR RESPONSE OF NITRATE REPLACEMENT THAT MITIGATES SULFATE REDUCTION: THE GAS RATION AS AN INDICTOR AND SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents an assessment, using the CMAQ air quality model, showing the inorganic gas ratio (the ratio of free ammonia to total nitrate) can function as a screening indicator of the winter replacement of sulfate by nitrate when sulfate is reduced. It also presents an as...

  12. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  13. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  14. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  15. Association of the polymorphisms of TRAF1 (rs10818488) and TNFAIP3 (rs2230926) with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and their relationship to disease activity among Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohannad, Nevine

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Recent studies demonstrated the association of tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) (rs2230926) and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 1 (TRAF1) (rs10818488) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in different populations. We aimed at determining whether they confer susceptibility to SLE and RA in Egyptian population and if there is any relation to disease activity and auto-antibodies profile. Material and methods A case-control study involving 105 individuals with RA, 90 with SLE and 75 healthy controls was performed using TaqMan genotyping assay for two SNPs that showed the best evidence of association in the previous Caucasian studies. Results We detected significant differences in G allele frequency of TNFAIP3 (rs2230926) with SLE (p = 0.017*) and RA (OR = 2.333; 95% CI: 1.103-4.935, p = 0.023*) and association with RA disease activity (< 0.001). The A allele of TRAF1 was significantly increased in RA compared to controls(p = 0.049) and with RA activity (p = 0.001), while TRAF1 polymorphism did not exhibit any significant difference in the frequencies of genotypes or alleles in SLE and control (p = 0.280). Conclusions TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE and RA in the Egyptian population and is correlated to disease activity and the presence of autoantibodies while TRAF1 polymorphisms increase the risk of RA but not to SLE in Egyptian populations. PMID:27536202

  16. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  17. Hip replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... a hip replacement and need antibiotics before any dental work. When to Call Your Doctor Call your health care provider if you have: A sudden increase in pain Chest pain or shortness of breath Frequent urination ...

  18. Replacing Arizona's Roofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Arizona statewide mandate to spend $500 million to repair or replace roofs in its public school system. Data from the state's evaluation process are provided, including how the state will fund the project. (GR)

  19. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    The results of a total knee replacement are often excellent. The operation relieves pain for most people. Most people do not need help walking after they fully recover. Most artificial knee joints last 10 ...

  20. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: the ...

  1. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... majority of patients with clefts will require full orthodontic treatment, especially if the cleft has passed through ... later replacement of the missing lateral incisor. During orthodontic treatment, an artificial tooth may be attached to ...

  2. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur ( ...

  3. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... their function with either dialysis or a transplant. Dialysis Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement ... the result of diabetes, not of hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis Another form of dialysis is called peritoneal dialysis. ...

  4. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat this condition, alternatives to disc replacement include fusion, nonoperative care or no treatment. Typically, surgery is ... operative treatment for disc pain has been spinal fusion. This is a surgical procedure in which disc ...

  5. The New 3 Rs: Relationship, Relationship, Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamperes, Bill

    2006-01-01

    TOP High School (Transitional Option in Peoria) has just completed its first year of operation. The vision of TOP is to become one of the best schools of hope and opportunity in the nation. The staff recognizes there is no such designation, so the vision statement is designed to capture the imagination and attention of students, parents,…

  6. The 3Rs of Consumer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Bess

    1978-01-01

    The noted consumer advocate states that teachers and parents must lead in the fight to defeat complacency in the public's attitudes toward education. Consumer advocacy has a place in the classroom and on the agendas of parent-teacher meetings. (Editor/RK)

  7. Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Dekant, W

    1996-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

  8. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  9. Implementation and enforcement of the 3Rs principle in the field of transgenic animals used for scientific purposes. Report and recommendations of the BfR expert workshop, May 18-20, 2009, Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kretlow, Ariane; Butzke, Daniel; Goetz, Mario E; Grune, Barbara; Halder, Marlies; Henkler, Frank; Liebsch, Manfred; Nobiling, Rainer; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Reifenberg, Kurt; Schaefer, Bernd; Seiler, Andrea; Luch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    experiments. This, in turn, can lead to a reduction in the numbers of animals needed for each experiment. The experts also came to the conclusion that the numbers of laboratory animals can be reduced by open access to a central database that provides detailed documentation of completed experiments involving transgenic animals. This documentation should not be restricted to experiments with substantial scientific results that warrant publication, but should also include those with "negative" outcome, which are usually not published. Capturing all kinds of results within such a database provides added value to the respective scientists and the scientific community as a whole; it could also help to stimulate collaborations and to ensure funding for future research. An important aspect to be considered in the generation of this kind of database is the quality and standardisation of the information provided on existing in vitro models and the respective opportunities for their use. The experts felt that the greatest potential for reducing the numbers of laboratory animals in the near future realistically might not be offered by the complete replacement of transgenic animal models but by opportunities to examine specific questions to a greater degree using in vitro models, such as cell and tissue cultures including organotypic models. The use of these models would considerably reduce the number of in vivo experiments using transgenic animals. However, the overall number of experimental animals may still be increasing or remain unaffected, e.g. when transgenic animals continue to serve as the source of primary cells and organs/tissues for in vitro experiments. PMID:21445538

  10. Python import replacement

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  11. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  12. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  13. Celotex (Registered) Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S; Hafner, R

    2002-10-01

    The AL-R8 is the pit storage container in most widespread use at Pantex. The AL-R8 container family consists of standard 20-in.-diameter steel drums, 30 to 60 in. in height, with insulation inserts made of Celotex{reg_sign}--a fiberboard product made from processed sugar cane. Celotex is an acceptable material for inserts in many radioactive material shipping and storage containers. It is a good shock mitigator/insulator, does a fair job in fire protection (when oxygen is excluded), shielding, and criticality, and is inexpensive and easily available. However, the fiberboard absorbs water in humid environments which, when combined with chemical residues in the fiberboard, forms corrosive compounds that can shorten the life of the container and affect container contents. To protect the contents from this potentially damaging environment, the AL-R8 SI was developed to isolate the contents within a sealed stainless steel vessel inside the AL-R8. Although the SI protected the contents, corrosion studies indicated the SI lid bolts might corrode over time and surveillance showed that areas of the outer drum were still subject to corrosion. To address this potential problem, DOE/Albuquerque sponsored bolt and Celotex replacement studies. The bolt replacement study was assigned to Mason and Hanger's Pantex Facility and this Celotex Replacement Study to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Celotex Replacement Study evaluated options for replacing Celotex with a material that is chemically compatible with the AL-R8 SI container. The evaluation was limited to materials either used previously in nuclear materials shipping and storage containers or materials with known properties in a low-radiation environment. This limitation was set to ensure that the long-term aging effect on the new material is known a priori. Initial material evaluations narrowed the material choices to foam and cork. Although cork performed better than foam in some tests, cork was considered a less

  14. NARC Rayon Replacement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Kenneth P.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the search for a replacement product for the aerospace grade rayon formerly used in the reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). The rayon used in RSRMs is no longer produced by the North American Rayon Corporation (NARC), though NASA has stockpiled rayon to be used until a suitable replacement is found to be used in the RSRM nozzle carbon cloth phenolic (CCP). The primary considerations are performance, process ability, variability, long term availability, and cost. The preference will be given to commercial off-the-shelf products as opposed to those which are custom made. The candidate materials have been tested in previous phases of this selection process, and Enka Textile Rayon has emerged as a possible fabric, though its availability is still in question.

  15. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A.; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  16. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Taylor, Pennie; Freyne, Jill; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old) were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001) and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001). Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (-0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant), triglycerides (-0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns) were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (-0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040) and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure -5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001) were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001). Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks. PMID:27153085

  17. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  18. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  19. Kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in replacement clutches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    Many life-history traits are expressed interactively in life, but to a varying extent on different occasions. Changes in trait expression can be accounted for by differences in the quality of the environment ('environmental constraint' hypothesis) or by strategic adjustments, if the relative contribution of the trait to fitness varies with time ('strategic allocation' hypothesis). In birds, egg production is lower in replacement clutches than in first clutches, but it is unknown whether this reduction results from an environmental constraint (e.g. food being less available at the time when the replacement clutch is produced) or from a strategic allocation of resources between the two breeding attempts. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we performed an experiment with black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Pairs were either food-supplemented or not before the first clutch was laid onwards and we induced them to produce a replacement clutch by removing eggs once when the first clutch was complete. As predicted by the 'strategic allocation' hypothesis, egg production of food-supplemented and non-food-supplemented birds decreased between first and replacement clutches. This suggests that kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in egg production for their replacement clutches compared to first clutches. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  20. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the

  1. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Villa, Gianluca; Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a cornerstone in the clinical management of patients with acute kidney injury. Results from different studies agree that early renal support therapy (aimed to support the residual kidney function during early phases of organ dysfunction) may reduce mortality with respect to late RRT (aimed to substitute the complete loss of function during the advanced kidney insufficiency). Although it seems plausible that a timely initiation of RRT may be associated with improved renal and nonrenal outcomes in these patients, there is scarce evidence in literature to exactly identify the most adequate onset timing for RRT. PMID:26410148

  2. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration. PMID:11913258

  3. Cadmium plating replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  4. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  5. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  6. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  7. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  8. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  9. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  10. Knee joint replacement prosthesis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body, or to make a part of the body work better. The metal prosthetic device in knee joint replacement surgery replaces cartilage and bone which is damaged from disease or aging.

  11. NRL attacks halon replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, D.

    1994-07-01

    In November 1992, as a result of the International Montreal Protocol Treaty and its addenda, it was announced that worldwide production of halons would halt by January 1994. Research has shown that halons, with the component bromine, would likely be more damaging to the ozone layer than chlorofluorocarbons. Today, while other researchers are looking at ways to limit the use of or to recycle halogenated fire suppressants, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is conducting active programs aimed at developing replacement agents. The program includes laboratory-scale screening of candidate agents, intermediate-scale chamber tests, and full-scale shipboard discharge fire tests. A substantial research effort is underway on the measurement of the effectiveness of alternate, nonhalogen-containing suppressants; the elucidation of the chemical and physical mechanisms by which they suppress fires; and the development of theory and models on the relationship of chemical structures to suppressive behavior.

  12. Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has used Aerocoat 7 (AR-7) to protect stainless-steel flex hoses at Launch Complex (LC-39) and hydraulic lines of the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) because it provides excellent corrosion protection in low-temperature applications. The Sovereign Company produced AR-7 exclusively for NASA but discontinued production because the coating released high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and had a significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate potential replacement coatings for AR-7 that would be more environmentally sound. The physical and mechanical properties of commercially available coatings were investigated through the Internet. The ideal coating would be fluid enough to penetrate the outer mesh of a stainless-steel flex hose and coat the inner hose, and flexible enough to withstand the movement of the hose, as well as the expansion and contraction of its metal caused by changes in temperature.

  13. Antenna grout replacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An epoxy grout suitable for use in mounting and positioning bearing runner plates used in hydrostatic bearing assemblies for rotatably mounting large radio telescope structures to stationary support pedestals is described. The epoxy grout may be used in original mountings or may be used as part of a replacement system for repairing cavities in existing grout resulting from grout deterioration. The epoxy grout has a relatively short work life and cure time even in the presence of hydraulic oil. The epoxy grout cures without shrinking or sagging to form a grout which is sufficiently strong and durable to provide a grout especially well suited for use under the high pressure loading and close tolerance requirements of large hydrostatic bearing assemblies.

  14. Short stem shoulder replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

  15. Recent Advances in Hydrocortisone Replacement Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallappa, Ashwini; Debono, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Since the first use of cortisone in patients around 65 years ago, the use of synthetic glucocorticoids has made a crucial impact on the treatment of several diseases in medicine. Although significant reductions in morbidity and mortality have occurred in patients suffering from cortisol deficiency, conventional hydrocortisone replacement treatment is still inadequate. A major limitation is that it fails to replace cortisol in a physiological manner. Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm and acts as a secondary messenger synchronizing the central to peripheral clocks, hence playing a key role in biological processes and the circadian timing system. Circadian misalignment has been associated with ill-health and so nonphysiological glucocorticoid treatment could explain the increased mortality rate, poor quality of life and metabolic complications in patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency. Attempts at replacing cortisol in a physiological manner have shown significant progress in the past decade with the development of modified-release formulations of hydrocortisone (Chronocort® and Plenadren®) and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusions. Initial studies investigating the use of these replacement regimens are promising, demonstrating both clinical and biochemical improvement. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this novel approach enhances long-term outcomes in both children and adults with cortisol deficiency. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26683495

  16. Reuse, replace, recycle

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Michael A.; Thorner, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Septins are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes, which assemble into filaments and higher-order structures at sites of cell division and morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Dynamic changes in the organization of septin-containing structures occur concomitantly with progression through the mitotic cell cycle and during cell differentiation. Septins also undergo stage-specific post-translational modifications, which have been implicated in regulating their dynamics, in some cases via purported effects on septin turnover. In our recent study, the fate of two of the five septins expressed in mitotic cells of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was tracked using two complementary fluorescence-based methods for pulse-chase analysis. During mitotic growth, previously-made molecules of both septins (Cdc10 and Cdc12) persisted through multiple successive divisions and were incorporated equivalently with newly synthesized molecules into hetero-oligomers and higher-order structures. Similarly, in cells undergoing meiosis and the developmental program of sporulation, pre-existing copies of Cdc10 were incorporated into new structures. In marked contrast, Cdc12 was irreversibly excluded from septin complexes and replaced by another septin, Spr3. Here, we discuss the broader implications of these results and related findings with regard to how septin dynamics is coordinated with the mitotic cell cycle and in the yeast life cycle, and how these observations may relate to control of the dynamics of other complex multi-subunit assemblies. PMID:19164941

  17. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; Wert, Michael; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  18. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made ...

  19. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  20. Biomaterials in total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Katti, Kalpana S

    2004-12-10

    The current state of materials systems used in total hip replacement is presented in this paper. An overview of the various material systems used in total hip replacement reported in literature is presented in this paper. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composites are used in the design of the different components of hip replacement implants. The merits and demerits of these material systems are evaluated in the context of mechanical properties most suitable for total joint replacement such as a hip implant. Current research on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites as novel materials systems for bone replacement is also discussed. This paper examines the current research in the materials science and the critical issues and challenges in these materials systems that require further research before application in biomedical industry. PMID:15556342

  1. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Goodnow, Warren H.; Payne, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB.sub.2, for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints.

  2. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  3. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  4. When to Replace a Prosthesis

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Fundraise Connect Contact Us Materiales en español Amputee Coalition Navigation HOME WHO WE ARE About Us ... Advisory Committee Connect With Us! STORE CALENDAR SEARCH Amputee Coalition > Limb Loss Resource Center > When to Replace ...

  5. Prioritization Methodology for Chemical Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, W.; Schutzenhofer, S.; Goldberg, B.; Everhart, K.

    1993-01-01

    This project serves to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weigh the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results are being implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  6. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  7. Chimney renovation versus chimney replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Porthouse, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Chimneys are an integral part of a fossil fueled generating station and perhaps one of the most commonly neglected and misunderstood structures at the plant. Structural damage caused by wind, earthquake, corrosive operating conditions, inadequate design, ever changing operating conditions, or years of neglect can render the structure unsafe and result in the need to perform major renovations or replace the entire chimney. The decision to renovate or replace an existing chimney is complex and should consider the following factors: (1) Age and condition of shell; (2) Type and condition of lining; (3) New operating conditions; (4) Cost of renovation vs replacement; (5) Unit outage time required; and (6) Cost for replacement power during outage. Information needed to make an informed decision regarding renovation or replacement, which most often involves several million dollars, can be best obtained from experienced chimney contractors and engineering specialists. This paper addresses four projects that utilized unique renovation techniques in lieu of partial or complete replacement of the structure.

  8. Early catastrophic acetabular failure in Furlong total hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Steven W.; Wardlaw, Douglas; Gibson, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of uncemented hip arthroplasty prostheses with ceramic articulations are popular, especially in the young, because of a perceived reduction in wear. We highlight a complication of ceramic on polyethylene articulating couples not previously described in the Furlong replacement. Despite widespread metalosis and particulate debris, osteolysis was not initially seen. The contamination compromised subsequent revision. PMID:19384635

  9. Early catastrophic acetabular failure in Furlong total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Knox, David; Hamilton, Steven W; Wardlaw, Douglas; Gibson, Peter H

    2009-03-01

    The use of uncemented hip arthroplasty prostheses with ceramic articulations are popular, especially in the young, because of a perceived reduction in wear. We highlight a complication of ceramic on polyethylene articulating couples not previously described in the Furlong replacement. Despite widespread metalosis and particulate debris, osteolysis was not initially seen. The contamination compromised subsequent revision. PMID:19384635

  10. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  11. 41 CFR 101-30.701-1 - Item reduction study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Item reduction study. 101....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-1 Item reduction study. Item reduction study means the study... so identified, a replacement item shall be proposed. The result of item reduction studies...

  12. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  13. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, T.G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  15. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  16. Requirements for successful total knee replacements. Design considerations.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S

    1989-01-01

    Historical review up to 1969 showed the emergence of conservative hemiarthroplasty resurfacings and rigid all-metal hinges. The first cemented metal-on-plastic design, introduced in 1969, began a decade in which a large number of different condylar designs were introduced. Variations of these condylar replacements in terms of femoral-tibial surface conformity, the fixation elements, and the provision for the patellofemoral joint produced wide variations of clinical results. In parallel with these condylar replacement designs, unicompartmental and both lax and fixed hinges were still used for particular indications. A review of all of the different design types showed that the most successful results were obtained with partially conforming condylar replacements with provision for the patellofemoral joint. Although cemented condylar replacement components composed the majority of the clinical reports, press-fit uncemented designs also had significant promise. The results of unicompartmental designs depended dramatically upon the indications. Present hinged replacements, whether lax or fixed-axis, produced problems that were sufficiently serious to restrict their use to cases in which condylar replacements were distinctly inadequate. Despite the success of condylar replacements at up to 10 years follow-up, a number of problems remain. These include optimizing the femoral-tibial geometry for maximum range of motion, minimum loosening, and minimum wear. Longer-term problems include improved design for long-term fixation and reduction of wear of polyethylene by optimum surface geometry, by better material quality control, or by improved materials. Whichever instrumentation system was used, surgical parameters such as component placement and sizing were shown to affect the potential range of motion. Considerations of design were given for revision cases in which condylar replacements were inadequate. Certain design suggestions were made for minimizing the serious problems

  17. Molecular replacement: tricks and treats

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Chantal

    2013-11-01

    To be successful, molecular replacement relies on the quality of the model and of the crystallographic data. Some tricks that could be applied to the models or to the crystal to increase the success rate of MR are discussed here. Molecular replacement is the method of choice for X-ray crystallographic structure determination provided that suitable structural homologues are available in the PDB. Presently, there are ∼80 000 structures in the PDB (8074 were deposited in the year 2012 alone), of which ∼70% have been solved by molecular replacement. For successful molecular replacement the model must cover at least 50% of the total structure and the C{sub α} r.m.s.d. between the core model and the structure to be solved must be less than 2 Å. Here, an approach originally implemented in the CaspR server (http://www.igs.cnrs-mrs.fr/Caspr2/index.cgi) based on homology modelling to search for a molecular-replacement solution is discussed. How the use of as much information as possible from different sources can improve the model(s) is briefly described. The combination of structural information with distantly related sequences is crucial to optimize the multiple alignment that will define the boundaries of the core domains. PDB clusters (sequences with ≥30% identical residues) can also provide information on the eventual changes in conformation and will help to explore the relative orientations assumed by protein subdomains. Normal-mode analysis can also help in generating series of conformational models in the search for a molecular-replacement solution. Of course, finding a correct solution is only the first step and the accuracy of the identified solution is as important as the data quality to proceed through refinement. Here, some possible reasons for failure are discussed and solutions are proposed using a set of successful examples.

  18. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  19. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  20. Uncoupling of bone turnover following hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Whitson, H; DeMarco, D; Reilly, D; Murphy, S; Yett, H S; Mattingly, D; Greenspan, S L

    2002-07-01

    Studies using total hip replacement surgery as a model for acute hip injury have shown that bone mineral density of the proximal femur decreases 6-18% in the 6 months following surgery. To examine the acute biochemical mechanism associated with bone loss, we measured two indicators of bone formation [serum osteocalcin (OC), serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)], as well as two markers for bone resorption [urine and serum N-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type 1 (NTx)], in 20 patients (10 men, 10 women, mean age 59.4 years) prior to hip replacement and 1-2 days postsurgery. The average OC value (ng/ml) decreased by 57.3% following surgery (7.5 +/- 4.3 to 3.2 +/- 1.1, P <0.001), and the average BSAP level (U/L) decreased by 27.6% (19.9 +/- 5.6 to 14.4 +/- 3.7, P <0.001). In contrast, levels of urine NTx (nmol BCE/mmol Cr) did not change significantly after the surgery (73.9 +/- 47.2 to 70.1 +/- 29.7). In addition, there was no change in serum NTx (nmol BCE) after surgery (11.8 +/- 2.3 to 11.8 +/- 3.0). Six months after surgery, bone mass had not changed significantly from baseline. These findings suggest that there is an uncoupling of bone turnover following hip replacement surgery which is characterized by significant reductions in bone formation without compensatory decreases in bone resorption, potentially leading to bone loss. Longer periods of follow-up are needed to assess long-term bone mass changes. PMID:12200656

  1. Replaceable Sleeve Protects Welder Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Simpson, C., E.

    1983-01-01

    New replaceable carbon insert for deflection coil in electron-beam welder promises to decrease maintenance costs. Inserts made from materials other than carbon (not yet tried) are less expensive, thus reducing costs even further. With carbon insert, deflection coils last longer and are easier to maintain.

  2. Developing High Quality Replacement Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target weight, and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. However, substantial changes in cattle genetics and...

  3. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Brody, K H

    2001-07-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder which can be life-threatening. It can also interfere with the normal development of adrenarche, resulting in the absence of pubic and axillary hair growth. We report a case of satisfactory restoration of adrenarche through DHEA administered in conjunction with the standard glucocortisone and fluorocortisone replacement. PMID:11435018

  5. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  6. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  7. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  8. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR. PMID:27295772

  9. Indications for ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Berger, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    Implanting an endoprosthesis is a clinically proven means of reestablishing mechanical contact between the distal radius and ulna, thus providing the foundation for stability of the entire forearm. The indications for, contraindications to, and outcomes of ulnar head replacement are discussed, together with the underlying mechanics, pathomechanics of ulnar head excision, the theoretical basis for implant arthroplasty, and the designs that have been employed. PMID:18836608

  10. Synthetic meniscus replacement: a review.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Anne Christiane Theodora; Buma, Pieter; van Tienen, Tony George

    2013-02-01

    The number of meniscus-related operations continues to rise due to the ageing and more active population. Irreparable meniscal lesions generally require (partial) meniscectomy. Although a majority of the patients benefit from pain relief and functional improvement post-meniscectomy, some remain symptomatic. As an alternative to a meniscal allograft, which is only indicated for the severely damaged meniscus, most patients can nowadays be treated by implantation of a synthetic meniscal substitute. Currently three of these implants, two partial and one total replacement, are clinically available and several others are in the stage of preclinical testing. Grossly, two types of meniscal substitutes can be distinguished: porous, resorbable implants that stimulate tissue regeneration and solid, non-resorbable implants that permanently replace the whole meniscus. Although the implantation of a porous meniscus replacement generally seems promising and improves clinical outcome measures to some degree, their superiority to partial meniscectomy still needs to be proven. The evaluation of new prostheses being developed requires a wider focus than has been adopted so far. Upon selection of the appropriate materials, preclinical evaluation of such implants should comprise a combination of (in vitro) biomechanical and (in vivo) biological tests, while up to now the focus has mainly been on biological aspects. Obviously, well-defined randomised controlled trials are necessary to support clinical performance of new implants. Since the use of a meniscus replacement requires an additional costly implant and surgery compared to meniscectomy only, the clinical outcome of new products should be proven to surpass the results of the conventional therapies available. PMID:23100123

  11. Mitral valve repair versus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Keshavamurthy, Suresh; Gillinov, A. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative, ischemic, rheumatic and infectious (endocarditis) processes are responsible for mitral valve disease in adults. Mitral valve repair has been widely regarded as the optimal surgical procedure to treat mitral valve dysfunction of all etiologies. The supporting evidence for repair over replacement is strongest in degenerative mitral regurgitation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the data in each category of mitral insufficiency and to provide recommendations based upon this data. PMID:26309824

  12. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-01-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder. PMID:27610066

  13. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-07-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder. PMID:27610066

  14. Agents for replacement of NAD+/NADH system in enzymatic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.; Kerr, John B.; Lo, Christine H.

    2004-04-06

    Novel agents acting as co-factors for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H co-enzyme systems in enzymatic oxido-reductive reactions. Agents mimicking the action of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system in enzymatic oxidation/reduction of substrates into reduced or oxidized products. A method for selection and preparation of the mimicking agents for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system and a device comprising co-factors for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system.

  15. Replacement of chemical rocket launchers by beamed energy propulsion.

    PubMed

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Arnault, Anthony; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-11-01

    Microwave Rocket is a beamed energy propulsion system that is expected to reach space at drastically lower cost. This cost reduction is estimated by replacing the first-stage engine and solid rocket boosters of the Japanese H-IIB rocket with Microwave Rocket, using a recently developed thrust model in which thrust is generated through repetitively pulsed microwave detonation with a reed-valve air-breathing system. Results show that Microwave Rocket trajectory, in terms of velocity versus altitude, can be designed similarly to the current H-IIB first stage trajectory. Moreover, the payload ratio can be increased by 450%, resulting in launch-cost reduction of 74%. PMID:25402933

  16. Closure in Knee Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Total Knee replacement (TKR) is one of the commonest arthroplasty surgeries performed. Various techniques of closures in TKR are described. This technical note describes an useful technique of achieving water tight closure in TKR. An optimal tension watertight closure also reduces the chances of dead space hematomas and infection. The author has described his technique where the soft tissues are never unduly compromised. In his experience the patient can be mobilized freely in bed and even allowed to sleep prone after first wound check.

  17. Senate committee recommends replacing FEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    Flaws in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were exposed after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast in August 2005 are too substantial to be fixed, and the agency should be replaced with a more capable structure, recommends a 27 April report released by the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs. ``FEMA is discredited, demoralized, and dysfunctional. It is beyond repair. Just tweaking the organizational chart will not solve the problem,'' said Committee Chair Sen. Susan Collins (R-Maine).

  18. [Hemophilia B replacement therapy drugs].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Zeng, Fanyi

    2016-02-01

    Hemophilia B is an X chromosome linked hereditary hemorrhagic disease, which is caused by the lose function mutation of factor IX (FIX), and significantly affects the patients' lifespan and life quality. The severity of hemophilia B depends on the FIX level in the plasma. By referring to the relevant literatures, we reviewed and summarized hemophilia B replacement therapies. Specifically, we focus on recombinant factor IX products on the market and those in the pipeline, especially on the long-acting factor IX drugs, to provide the basis for researches of new hemophilia B drugs. PMID:27382766

  19. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  20. Replacing London's cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. ); Mathews, P. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses the cast iron gas distribution systems that exist in many cities and contains considerable amounts of pipe that vary in age from 20 to 150 years. In many ways, cast iron is an excellent material. It is inherently corrosion resistant, easy to install and cheap. However, it is also brittle and smaller diameter cast iron pipe has a relatively low beam strength. This can lead, under some circumstances, to failure without external warning, with typically a full-circumferential failure. In congested areas this can lead to serious consequences. As a result, cast iron replacement programs are a common feature in such urban gas distribution systems.

  1. The future of nicotine replacement.

    PubMed

    Russell, M A

    1991-05-01

    Following in the wake of progress forged by nicotine chewing gum, a new generation of nicotine replacement products will soon be available as aids to giving up smoking. These range from nicotine skin patches, which take 6-8 hrs to give very flat steady-state peak blood levels, to nicotine vapour inhalers which mimic the transient high-nicotine boli that follow within a few seconds of each inhaled puff of cigarette smoke. Other products undergoing clinical trials include a nasal nicotine spray and nicotine lozenges. It is argued here that it is not so much the efficacy of new nicotine delivery systems as temporary aids to cessation, but their potential as long-term alternatives to tobacco that makes the virtual elimination of tobacco a realistic future target. Their relative safety compared with tobacco is discussed. A case is advanced for selected nicotine replacement products to be made as palatable and acceptable as possible and actively promoted on the open market to enable them to compete with tobacco products. They will also need health authority endorsement, tax advantages and support from the anti-smoking movement if tobacco use is to be gradually phased out altogether. PMID:1859935

  2. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    PubMed

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations. PMID:23588878

  3. Nagel on reduction.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts a critical reappraisal of Nagel's (1961, 1970) model of reduction taking into account both traditional criticisms and recent defenses. This model treats reduction as a type of explanation in which a reduced theory is explained by a reducing theory after their relevant representational items have been suitably connected. In accordance with the deductive-nomological model, the explanation is supposed to consist of a logical deduction. Nagel was a pluralist about both the logical form of the connections between the reduced and reducing theories (which could be conditionals or biconditionals) and their epistemological status (as analytic connections, conventions, or synthetic claims). This paper defends Nagel's pluralism on both counts and, in the process, argues that the multiple realizability objection to reductionism is misplaced. It also argues that the Nagel model correctly characterizes reduction as a type of explanation. However, it notes that logical deduction must be replaced by a broader class of inferential techniques that allow for different types of approximation. Whereas Nagel (1970), in contrast to his earlier position (1961), recognized the relevance of approximation, he did not realize its full import for the model. Throughout the paper two case studies are used to illustrate the arguments: the putative reduction of classical thermodynamics to the kinetic theory of matter and that of classical genetics to molecular biology. PMID:26386529

  4. Deciding to have knee or hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000368.htm Deciding to have knee or hip replacement To use the sharing features on this page, ... make a decision. Who Benefits From Knee or hip Replacement Surgery? The most common reason to have a ...

  5. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a blood transfusion during ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down for long periods ...

  6. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  7. Knee Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knee Replacement (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Total Knee Replacement Potpuna zamjena koljena - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Total Knee Replacement 全膝关节置换 - 简体中文 ( ...

  8. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.715 Replacement commodities. When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been previously acquired, and a qualified...

  9. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  10. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  11. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  12. The Attenborough total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Attenborough, C G

    1978-08-01

    The stabilised gliding knee prosthesis is a compromise between hinged joints and condylar prostheses. It is a two-piece implant designed to allow normal gliding movements of flexion and extension and which, stabilised by a connecting rod between the femoral and tibial components, allows a designed laxity of rotation and lateral movements. A modification of the original femoral component is described. Two hundred and forty-five knee replacement operations have been done between January 1973 and September 1977 and the results are reported. The results using this prosthesis are at least equal to those using hinged or condylar prostheses. So far there has been no case of spontaneous loosening of the components and the implant can be used in patients who, because of severe deformities and instability, are unsuitable for condylar prostheses. PMID:681407

  13. Replacement Sequence of Events Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

    2008-01-01

    The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

  14. High School Health and Physical Education: Reinforcing the 3Rs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the education process should be to improve instruction and increase student learning. To effectively accomplish this would truly result in education reform. Therefore, the first step in bringing about education reform is to provide academic rigor, vocational relevance and curricula relationships in programs that students see…

  15. The 3Rs of Productivity Improvement: Responsibility, Recognition, Reward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the American Production Center and a productivity improvement system in which people become part of the productivity solution when given responsibility, recognition, and reward for productivity improvement. (LRA)

  16. Respect, Responsibility, and Reciprocity: The 3 Rs of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasting, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Examines the ANCHOR (Addressing the Needs of Children through Observation and Response) parent involvement project developed at the University of British Columbia. The project centers around parent and educator observation and discussion of videotaped sequences of preschool children's activities and interactions. Parents and teachers act as…

  17. The Wider Goals of Education: Beyond the 3 Rs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, John

    1991-01-01

    Students' opportunity to develop high-level competencies depends on teachers' ability to manage independent, thoughtful people who make observations and take initiative. Barriers to competency-oriented education are the absence of summative assessment procedures, the value-laden nature of competencies, and the difficulties in managing…

  18. Moral Education through the 3 Rs: Rights, Respect, and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian

    2001-01-01

    Concludes that adolescents who were taught about their rights, as described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, showed higher self-esteem, higher levels of perceived peer and teacher support, and indicated more support for the rights of others than comparison students. (DAJ)

  19. Carbonate replacement of lacustrine gypsum deposits in two Neogene continental basins, eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anadón, P.; Rosell, L.; Talbot, M. R.

    1992-07-01

    Bedded nonmarine gypsum deposits in the Miocene Teruel and Cabriel basins, eastern Spain, are partly replaced by carbonate. The Libros gypsum (Teruel Graben) is associated with fossiliferous carbonate wackestones and finely laminated, organic matter-rich mudstones which accumulated under anoxic conditions in a meromictic, permanent lake. The gypsum is locally pseudomorphed by aragonite or, less commonly, replaced by calcite. Low δ 13C values indicate that sulphate replacement resulted from bacterial sulphate reduction processes that were favoured by anacrobic conditions and abundant labile organic matter in the sediments. Petrographic evidence and oxygen isotopic composition suggest that gypsum replacement by aragonite occurred soon after deposition. A subsequent return to oxidising conditions caused some aragonite to be replaced by diagenetic gypsum. Native sulphur is associated with some of these secondary gypsum occurrences. The Los Ruices sulphate deposits (Cabriel Basin) contain beds of clastic and selenitic gypsum which are associated with limestones and red beds indicating accumulation in a shallow lake. Calcite is the principal replacement mineral. Bacterial sulphate reduction was insignificant in this basin because of a scarcity of organic matter. Stable isotope composition of diagenetic carbonate indicates that gypsum replacement occurred at shallow burial depths due to contact with dilute groundwaters of meteoric origin. Depositional environment evidently has a major influence upon the diagenetic history of primary sulphate deposits. The quantity of preserved organic matter degradable by sulphate-reducing bacteria is of particular importance and, along with groundwater composition, is the main factor controlling the mechanism of gypsum replacement by carbonate.

  20. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae

    PubMed Central

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or ‘movement paths’, of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context. PMID:26715998

  1. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or 'movement paths', of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context. PMID:26715998

  2. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  3. Engineering Alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Sinno, Hani; Tahiri, Youssef; Gilardino, Mirko; Bobyn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are part of a heterogeneous group of pathologies that manifest with a constellation of signs and symptoms. They are the most frequent cause of chronic orofacial pain and are prevalent in 12% of the general population. Despite the debilitating nature of these disorders, there is no standardization for treatment of the diseased temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this review, we present an overview of the functional anatomy of the TMJ and the engineering concepts that must be understood to better understand the indications for surgical management, the types of available treatments and the requirements for reconstruction. A comparison is made of the clinical outcomes with autogenous versus alloplastic reconstruction, including a history of alloplastic materials and the design features of currently available implants. Emphasis is made on material selection, modulus, stiffness, notch sensitivity and modularity. For the treatment of TMD, engineered TMJ alloplastic replacements have had considerable promise with additional room for improvement using new materials and recent design concepts. PMID:22363183

  4. How to overcome difficulties with reserves replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Brashear, J.P.; Becker, A.B.; Godec, M.L.; Crawford, P.M.

    1997-03-10

    The first part of this article discussed the challenge of replacing reserves while maintaining high levels of profitability. An examination of the 82 largest US-based, publicly traded exploration and production (E and P) companies, grouped by size, suggested a potential conflict between reserves replacement and profitability--a ``devil`s dilemma`` between long term viability and financial performance. The 10 largest companies failed to replace their production in the US or worldwide (although they did in non-US operations). They were, however, the most profitable on a per-barrel-equivalent basis. In general, the smaller the company, the higher its reserves-replacement ratio, reflecting greater relative effort but lower unit profitability. This article examines the difficulties that companies face in reserves replacement planning, the accommodations they make to these difficulties, and the problems caused by these accommodations. It then suggests an analytical structure for reserves replacement planning that contributes to overcoming the difficulties.

  5. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A; Richman, Joy M

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development. PMID:23788284

  6. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  7. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  8. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-10-26

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits.

  9. Total quality management approach improves medication replacement.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L K

    1994-07-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is based on understanding customer needs, improving key processes that affect customer satisfaction, and creating cross-functional teams to resolve process problems. This article describes application of TQM principles and problem-solving processes to improve one OR's medication exchange system. The problem was excessive monthly pharmacy medication replacement costs. The goal was to reduce the monthly medication replacement costs by 50%. Within four months, monthly medication replacement charges decreased from $656 to $302, and by one year, monthly charges decreased to $160. The new process had fewer steps, fewer staff members involved, and fewer delays in medication replacement. PMID:8085806

  10. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  11. NORSOK standards -- Replacing company specifications in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, A.R.; Langeland, T.; Tangen, T.A.; Haugland, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rising cost of offshore development and reduction in oil prices required new initiatives for the business to survive. Therefore, the Norwegian oil industry has, as a part of the NORSOK initiative, developed a set of new industry standards to replace individual company specifications. The ultimate goal is to develop a set of international (ISO) standards for the industry. The main principles for the NORSOK standards were established as follows: define an acceptable level of safety; make extensive references to international standards; specify functional requirements where possible; include variation control to secure defined interfaces and exchangeability; describe good enough requirements; and be short.

  12. Radiological assessment of steam generator repair and replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, M.A.; Rathbun, L.A.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous analyses of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators have been updated based on experience at Surry Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4. The sleeving repairs of degraded tubes at San Onofre Unit 1, Point Beach Unit 2, and R.E. Ginna are also analyzed. Actual occupational doses incurred during application of the various technologies used in repairs have been included, along with radioactive waste quantities and constituents. Considerable progress has been made in improving radiation protection and reducing worker dose by the development of remotely controlled equipment and the implementation of dose reduction strategies that have been successful in previous repair operations.

  13. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  14. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  15. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  16. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  17. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  18. Mercury Thermometer Replacements in Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Barbara L.

    2005-01-01

    The consequences of broken mercury-in-glass thermometers in academic laboratories results in various health and environmental hazards, which needs to be replaced, by long-stem digital thermometers and non-mercury glass thermometers. The factors that should be considered during the mercury replacement process are types of applications in the…

  19. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement license. (a) Each licensee or permittee whose original document is lost, mutilated, or destroyed...

  20. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  1. Development of Ag dendrites-reduced graphene oxide composite catalysts via galvanic replacement reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Li; Sokiransky, Mika Matsunaka; Wang, James; Lai, Guosong; Yu, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    Silver dendrites/reduced graphene oxide (AgD/RGO) composites were synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method. The successful formation of Ag dendrites and the graphene oxide reduction were proved by a series of characterization techniques. The possible formation mechanism of Ag dendrites during the galvanic replacement reaction was discussed. The catalytic activity of the as-synthesized AgD/RGO composite was evaluated by its performance on the chemical reduction of an organic dye methylene blue. The AgD/RGO composite showed a much higher catalytic performance and stability than that of Ag dendrites.

  2. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  3. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  4. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  5. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  6. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  7. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences. PMID:24715561

  8. Radon reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials.

  9. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  10. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  11. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  12. Fluid shifts during thermal stress with and without fluid replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, L. G.; Robinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Six unacclimatized men rested for 4 hr in a hot, dry environment without fluid replacement (DH). Another group of six men were exposed to the same thermal stress, replacing evaporative fluid loss with warm 0.1% NaCl solution (FRP). Total grams of circulating hemoglobin, determined by CO immediately prior to and again during the last minutes of heat exposure, increased an insignificant 1.6 and 1.3% during DH and FRP, respectively. With DH, body weight loss of 2.6% was accompanied by a 7.8% reduction in calculated plasma volume (PV). Even when body weight was maintained (FRP), PV decreased 2.9% during the heat exposure. Total circulating serum protein did not change as a result of the heat stress with either DH or FRP. In a test-retest series of experiments on four men, DH was not detrimental to sweat rate. It is shown that hemodilution is not a general response to acute heat exposure. The disproportionately large reduction in PV during thermal dehydration is confirmed.

  13. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers. PMID:27442806

  14. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2016 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA replacement versus nuclear DNA persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serva, Maurizio

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we consider two populations whose generations are not overlapping and whose size is large. The number of males and females in both populations is constant. Any generation is replaced by a new one and any individual has two parents concerning nuclear DNA and a single one (the mother) concerning mtDNA. Moreover, at any generation some individuals migrate from the first population to the second. In a finite random time T, the mtDNA of the second population is completely replaced by the mtDNA of the first. In the same time, the nuclear DNA is not completely replaced and a fraction F of the ancient nuclear DNA persists. We compute both T and F. Since this study shows that complete replacement of mtDNA in a population is compatible with the persistence of a large fraction of nuclear DNA, it may have some relevance for the 'out of Africa'/multiregional debate in palaeoanthropology.

  16. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... he or she will refer you to an orthopedic surgeon who does hip and knee replacement surgery. ... The Arthritis Foundation Web The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons ' The American Association of Knee and Hip ...

  17. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-12-07

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, P&IDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System.

  18. [Graft Replacement for Adult Aortic Coarctation].

    PubMed

    Fuke, Megumi; Nishimura, Kazunori; Kehara, Hiromu; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Takano, Tamaki

    2015-07-01

    Case 1:a 47-year-old woman who complained of sweating, finger tremor, and chest pain was diagnosed with coarctation of the aorta and hyperthyroidism. She had been diagnosed with hypertension at 25 years of age but had not undergone further examination. Graft replacement was performed without cardiopulmonary or temporary bypass. Case 2:a 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with coarctation during infertility treatment. Although health screening had revealed hypertension 8 years previously, no further assessment took place. She underwent graft replacement with partial cardiopulmonary bypass. In both cases, we conducted a clamp test to decide whether cardiopulmonary or partial bypass was necessary for graft replacement. Blood pressure discrepancy between upper and lower extremities disappeared immediately after surgery, and no ischemic complications were observed. Hypertension in young adults should prompt further scrutiny for anatomical disorders such as coarctation. A clamp test is considered helpful regarding the surgical approach to graft replacement for coarctation. PMID:26197824

  19. Gyrator-type circuits replace ungrounded inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Gyrator circuits using only transistors, capacitors, and resistors which can replace both grounded and ungrounded inductors have been developed to permit complete microminiaturization of circuitry by integration of the components.

  20. Aortic valve replacement in rheumatoid aortic incompetence.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, A B; Goldstraw, P; Caves, P K

    1978-01-01

    Rheumatoid aortic valve disease is uncommon. and there are few reports of valve replacement in this condition. Aortic valve replacement and partial pericardiectomy was performed in a patient with acute rheumatoid aortitis and aortic incompetence. Previous reports suggest that any patient with rheumatoid arthritis who develops cardiac symptoms should be carefully assessed for surgically treatable involvement of the pericardium or heart valves. Images PMID:725829

  1. Activ C cervical disc replacement for myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, L.; Cadman, S.; Chitgopkar, S. D.; Canavan, L.; O’Malley, M.; Shackleford, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc replacement is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for cervical myelopathy. It retains motion at the affected segment, unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of a series of patients who underwent Activ C disc replacement for cervical myelopathy. Materials and Methods: A series of patients at the above Trust with clinical and radiological evidence of cervical myelopathy who were suitable for cervical disc replacement from 2007 to 2009 were included. Implants were inserted by one of two consultant surgeons {IMS, MO’M}. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at six, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively, with a visual analogue score (VAS) for neck and arm pain severity and frequency, the Neck Disability Index questionnaire (NDI) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). Results: Ten patients underwent surgery between May 2007 and July 2009, 6 women, and 4 men. Average age was 54 years (40-64). Disc levels replaced were: four at C4-5; eight at C5-6; seven at C6-7. Three patients had one disc replaced, five patients had two discs replaced, and two patients had three discs replaced. The VAS for neck pain improved from 5.9 pre-operatively to 1.4-24 months postoperatively and the VAS arm pain improved from 5.4 to 2.6. The NDI improved from 51% preoperatively to 26.8% at 24 months postoperatively. The CES-D showed a slight increase from 19.5 preoperatively to 21.7 at 24 months, postoperatively. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and disc replacement improves pain and function in patients with cervical myelopathy. This benefit is maintained at 24 months post op, with no cases requiring revision. PMID:23125494

  2. [Osteoporosis in men and androgen replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2003-11-01

    Androgen plays an important role in bone maturation and maintenance of bone mass. Androgen deficiency associated with aging causes osteoporosis for men. With respect to this disease, androgen replacement treatment has been performed for aging male. However, available preparations of androgen are limited in Japan and each of them has both merit and demerit. Establishment of guideline for androgen replacement treatment including criteria of serum testosterone concentration is the problem, which now confronts us. PMID:15775234

  3. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Deprivation and outcome of total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Murray, James R D; Birdsall, Paul D; Sher, J Lester; Deehan, David J

    2006-03-01

    Deprivation correlates with poor health and psychosocial variables can affect the symptoms of knee arthritis. Our aim was to determine the effect of deprivation on the level of knee function and health-related quality of life at the time of arthroplasty and 12 months after total knee replacement. From our database of over 2500 knee replacements, we analysed both clinical and quality of life outcome measures. We analysed the relationship between deprivation (by Townsend score), knee function (Knee Society Score) and health-related quality of life (Nottingham Health Profile) before total knee replacement (TKR) and at 12 months post-operation. There was no significant correlation between Townsend score, Knee Society Score and Nottingham Health Profile preoperatively or at 12 months after knee replacement, thus showing that there was no association between deprivation and the severity of knee arthritis at the time of joint replacement nor was there a relationship between deprivation and the short-term outcome from total knee replacement. PMID:16469499

  5. Annual report for Ion Replacement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczuk, Z.; Willit, J.L.; Fischer, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Ion replacement electrorefining is an innovative electrochemical approach to purifying and separating metals. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of conventional electrorefining and has the potential for processing a wider range of metals and metal halide salts. Salt waste is also minimized with this approach. The key element of ion replacement electrorefining is the ion replacement electrode. This electrode allows a decoupling of the electrotransport process into two separate steps, anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition. Three key accomplishments described in this report that demonstrate the feasibility of ion replacement electrorefining are: (1) we have identified a suitable sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina/molten salt electrolyte system that functions reproducibly at 723 K, (2) we have oxidized and deposited dysprosium, lanthanum, uranium, and titanium by using a sodium ion replacement electrode. In several experiments, an actual separation of dysprosium and lanthanum was observed, and (3) we have identified a metal alloy, Li{sub x}Sb, as an alternative ion replacement electrode. The next stage in the program is the design, construction, and testing of a laboratory-scale electrorefiner. Follow-on development with funding from industrial and federal sponsors is being pursued.

  6. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  7. Quality of ham pâté containing bovine globin and plasma as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Viana, F R; Silva, V D M; Delvivo, F M; Bizzotto, C S; Silvestre, M P C

    2005-05-01

    The effect of the incorporation of globin (10%), plasma (10%) and both combined (5% each) as fat replacers on the quality of ham paté was investigated. The chemical composition, the sensorial analysis (color, flavor and consistency) and the instrumental analysis of the texture (hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and tackiness) were evaluated. The results showed an increase of moisture and protein contents after the fat replacement, while the fat reduction of 25-35% led to the preparation of light products. No change was observed for the aroma, taste and the consistency of fat replacing products, but an intensification of the cohesivity and a reduction of color, hardness and tackiness were detected in some samples. PMID:22063291

  8. Managing the replacement cycle of laser inventory.

    PubMed

    Davis, C E

    1992-01-01

    Medical lasers are quickly moving into the replacement phase of technology management. Barnes Hospital (St. Louis, MO) is using its laser team to define a process of planned laser replacement using the experience gained from traditional medical equipment replacement cycles, quality improvement principles and tools, and other formalized interdisciplinary teams. The process described in this paper has six basic steps: (1) A decision is made to request a replacement laser. (2) An appropriation request form is completed and submitted with the clinical and/or technical justifications. (3) Those requests initiated outside of the Clinical Engineering Department are reviewed by the Clinical Engineer/Medical Laser Safety Officer (CE/MLSO). (4) The CE/MLSO presents the requests to the hospital Laser Committee, and (5) then to the Laser Users' Group. (6) Finally, an Expenditure Authorization Committee reviews all capital expense requests, including those for replacement lasers, and allocates funds for the next fiscal year. This paper illustrates and evaluates the process, using an example from the review process for 1993 equipment purchases at Barnes Hospital. PMID:10124683

  9. Effects of Running and Walking on Osteoarthritis and Hip Replacement Risk

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Running and other strenuous sports activities are purported to increase osteoarthritis (OA) risk, more so than walking and less-strenuous activities. Analyses were therefore performed to test whether running, walking, and other exercise affect OA and hip replacement risk, and to assess BMI’s role in mediating these relationships. Methods Proportional hazards analyses of patients’ report of having physician-diagnosed OA and hip replacement vs. exercise energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents, METs). Results 74,752 runners reported 2004 OA and 259 hip replacements during 7.1-year follow-up, while the 14,625 walkers reported 695 OA and 114 hip replacements over 5.7 years. Compared to running <1.8 METhr/d, the risks for OA and hip replacement decreased: 1) 18.1% (P=0.01) and 35.1% (P=0.03), respectively, for 1.8 to 3.6 METhr/d run; 2) 16.1% (P=0.03) and 50.4% (P=0.002), respectively, for 3.6 to 5.4 METhr/d run; and 3) 15.6% (P=0.02) and 38.5% (P=0.01), respectively, for ≥5.4 METhr/d run, suggesting that the risk reduction mostly occurred by 1.8 METhr/d. Baseline BMI was strongly associated with both OA (5.0% increase per kg/m2, P=2x10−8) and hip replacement risks (9.8% increase per kg/m2, P=4.8x10−5), and adjustment for BMI substantially diminished the risk reduction from running ≥1.8 METhr/d for OA (from 16.5%, P=0.01 to 8.6%, P=0.21) and hip replacement (from 40.4%, P=0.005 to 28.5%, P=0.07). The reductions in OA and hip replacement risk by exceeding 1.8 METhr/d did not differ significantly between runners and walkers. Other (non-running) exercise increased the risk of OA by 2.4% (P=0.009) and hip replacement by 5.0% per METhr/d (P=0.02), independent of BMI. Conclusions Whereas other exercise increased OA and hip replacement risk, running significantly reduced their risk due, in part, to running’s association with lower BMI. PMID:23377837

  10. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    MedlinePlus

    Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care ... occupational therapist will teach people who have had hip replacement how to safely perform daily activities . All of ...

  11. Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your health care provider to help you take ... What to ask your doctor after hip or knee replacement; Hip replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Knee replacement - after - ...

  12. Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 7. Read More Hip joint replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain ... joint replacement - discharge Taking care of your new hip joint Update Date 3/5/2015 Updated by: C. ...

  13. Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 7. Read More Hip joint replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain ... joint replacement - discharge Taking care of your new hip joint Update Date 3/5/2015 Updated by: C. ...

  14. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data. PMID:19547086

  15. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    PubMed

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided. PMID:23498371

  16. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Compagno, Nicolò; Malipiero, Giacomo; Cinetto, Francesco; Agostini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last two decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g., rituximab) and immune-suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, and mycophenolate mofetil) has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events. Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias. PMID:25538710

  17. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Tyo, J. Scott; Boger, James K.; Black, Wiley T.; Bowers, David L.; Fetrow, Matthew P.

    2007-06-01

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or “dead pixels.” These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  18. Nashville Gas treads carefully to replace pipe

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The private gas utility, Nashville Gas, was responsible for replacing damaged or inadequate 2- and 4-inch steel gas lines beneath Music City, USA. The line replacements required either size for size or upsizing. The first choice was directional drilling, which was quickly determined to be unpractical because of rocky soil conditions. The second option was open trenching. Undoubtedly, trenching would mean having to contend with angry residents and tourists, since gas lines ran beneath yards, mature trees, sidewalks, roadways, and railways. In addition to the negative social factors, trenching would require additional funds for substantial landscaping and pavement replacement. It at all possible, a no-dig alternative was desired. Nashville Gas found Grundomat piercing tools which create a bore, then pushes pipe back through it. These same tools can simultaneously pull in pipe. These tools were customized for the Nashville project.

  19. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  20. Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, B.; Adunka, O.; Pillsbury, H.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must demonstrate appropriate biological compatibility, acoustic transmission, stability, and stiffness properties. Prostheses prepared using Teflon ®, titanium, Ceravital and other conventional materials have demonstrated several problems, including migration, perforation of the tympanic membrane, difficulty in shaping the prostheses, and reactivity with the surrounding tissues. We have used two-photon polymerization for rapid prototyping of Ormocer ® middle-ear bone replacement prostheses. Ormocer ® surfaces fabricated using two-photon polymerization exhibited acceptable cell viability and cell growth profiles. The Ormocer ® prosthesis was able to be inserted and removed from the site of use in the frozen human head without fracture. Our results demonstrate that two-photon polymerization is able to create ossicular replacement prostheses and other medical devices with a larger range of sizes, shapes and materials than other microfabrication techniques.

  1. Nonoperative replacement of a jejunostomy feeding catheter.

    PubMed

    Stogdill, B J; Page, C P; Pestana, C

    1984-02-01

    Nonoperative replacement of lost or occluded jejunal feeding catheters proved successful in 8 of 11 patients. This technique is recommended as a nonoperative means of replacing a needle catheter jejunostomy when it is accidentally lost or becomes occluded. Adherence to sterile technique and gentle advancement of the guide wire to avoid injury to the bowel are important. Since the technique depends on an established tract between the skin and the bowel, catheter replacement should not be attempted when the feeding catheter is lost or becomes occluded in the immediate postoperative period. In addition, confirmation of catheter patency and intraluminal position with sterile water-soluble contrast medium is critical to the safe use of this technique. PMID:6421183

  2. Method and apparatus for replacing bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, L. E.; Grove, R. W.; Primus, W. F.

    1985-07-02

    A method and apparatus are provided for replacing the bearing between the sampson post and the walking beam of an oil well pump. The walking beam and the pitman arms are securely fastened together to prevent relative movement therebetween. The head portion is adjustably restrained against the force of the counter-weight. The walking beam is allowed to pivot on the connection between the walking beam and the pitman arms so that the walking beam moves away from the sampson post so that the bearing may be replaced.

  3. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Evan R.; Tanner, David E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings.

  4. The immunologic barriers to replacing damaged organs

    PubMed Central

    Cascalho, Marilia; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have brought breathtaking advances in the biomedical sciences and biomedical engineering. These advances offer the promise that diseases responsible for most disability and early death may soon be addressed by replacing damaged organs with bio-engineered substitutes. Application of these technologies, however, is impeded by the immune response directed against foreign cells and tissues. Here we consider the potentiality and the limitations of these new technologies and how the technologies might be combined to generate novel approaches to organ replacement that overcome immunological barriers to success. PMID:12934939

  5. WEIGHT LOSS WITH MEAL REPLACEMENT AND MEAL REPLACEMENT PLUS SNACKS: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate whether snacking would improve weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight individuals within the context of a structured meal replacement (MR) weight loss program. A prospective 24 week, 2 (snacking vs nonsnacking) x 2 (MR vs meal replacement augmented with snacks (MRPS)...

  6. Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Nura

    The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.

  7. Waste reduction and recycling initiatives in Japanese cities: lessons from Yokohama and Kamakura.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yasuhiko; Aoki-Suzuki, Chika

    2014-09-01

    Waste reduction and recycling at the city level will acquire greater significance in the near future due to rising global volumes of waste. This paper seeks to identify policy-relevant drivers for successful promotion of waste reduction and recycling. Factors influencing the success of waste reduction and recycling campaigns are identified. Two case study cities in Japan which depict the successful use of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) at the municipal level are presented. In these cases, the existence of incinerators, which are generally considered as disincentives for recycling, was not functioning as a disincentive but rather as an incentive for waste reduction. Owing to the high cost of incineration facilities, the movement to close incinerators has become a strong incentive for waste reduction and recycling in these two cities. The study suggests that careful consideration is necessary when making decisions concerning high-cost waste treatment facilities with high installation, maintenance and renewal outlays. In addition, intensive source separation and other municipal recycling initiatives have a high potential for producing positive results. PMID:25023986

  8. Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R.; Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C.

    1992-08-01

    This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

  9. Embolic Protection Devices in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Steinvil, Arie; Benson, Richard T; Waksman, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The initially reported periprocedural neurological events rates associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement raised concerns that ultimately led to the development and to the clinical research of novel embolic protection devices. Although the reduction of clinical stroke is a desired goal, the current research design of embolic protection devices focuses on surrogate markers of the clinical disease, primarily on silent central nervous system lesions observed in postprocedural diffuse-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive function testing. As the mere presence of particulate debris in brain matter may not correlate with the extent of brain injury, cognitive function, or quality of life, the clinical significance of embolic protection devices has yet to be determined, and interpretation of study results with regard to real-life clinical use should be viewed accordingly. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the updated ongoing clinical research on embolic protection devices and present its major caveats. PMID:26951618

  10. Snubber replacement with limit stops at Vandellos II

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Billington, A.

    1996-12-01

    The paper describes the particularities and reports the results of the single largest project with Limit Stops to date, i.e., a plant-wide snubber replacement at Vandellos II plant in Spain. This modern PWR plant had already undergone a snubber reduction program at the end of the construction stage, taking benefit from relaxation of dynamic loading criteria such as ASME Code Case N411 damping and Leak Before Break. The original analysis criteria were used, except for an innovative modal combination method named Generalized Algebraic Combination. A 100% elimination was achieved for the first package of 19 lines, i.e., removal of all 115 snubbers during the 1995 outage. The Limit Stop is a maintenance free piping support which provides and alternative to unreliable snubbers. It limits the dynamic response of the piping during an earthquake or other dynamic event like hydrodynamic transient, but allows for totally free thermal expansion.

  11. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745 Section 891.745 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8...

  12. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745 Section 891.745 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8...

  13. Hip Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Hip Replacement - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ...

  14. Fluid and electrolyte replacement in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T

    1998-10-01

    Soccer can be played under a wide range of environmental conditions. Traditionally, fluid replacement is limited during the game, but in reality, there are numerous opportunities for fluid ingestion during a match. Many of the recommendations on fluid replenishment have been directed at continuous exercise, and application of those suggestions can be applied to an intermittent sport like soccer. PMID:9922897

  15. Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.; And Others

    Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…

  16. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED)...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  1. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405 Section 891.405 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8...

  2. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... must comply with 24 CFR part 905, Public Housing Capital Fund Program, as well as 24 CFR part 941. ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement...

  3. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... must comply with 24 CFR part 905, Public Housing Capital Fund Program, as well as 24 CFR part 941. ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement...

  4. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... must comply with 24 CFR part 905, Public Housing Capital Fund Program, as well as 24 CFR part 941. ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement...

  5. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... must comply with 24 CFR part 905, Public Housing Capital Fund Program, as well as 24 CFR part 941. ...) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement...

  6. School-Based Aggression Replacement Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Becky Sue; Striepling-Goldstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a potent K-12 intervention that responds to many of the developmental and natural needs of aggressive and antisocial students. Woven into the curriculum preventatively or as a stand-alone course in response to an antisocial school climate, ART facilitates the learning necessary to reach and provide lasting…

  7. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  8. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. osch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so far...

  9. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina

    2010-10-11

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated {Delta}Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an {alpha}-helix (H1{prime}) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace {alpha}-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated {Delta}Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1{prime} {alpha}-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions.

  10. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General..., mutual self-help housing or other federally assisted housing programs. (c) Is in an area not subjected to... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance...

  11. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General..., mutual self-help housing or other federally assisted housing programs. (c) Is in an area not subjected to... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance...

  12. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General..., mutual self-help housing or other federally assisted housing programs. (c) Is in an area not subjected to... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance...

  13. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  14. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405 Section 891.405 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8...

  15. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  16. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Divergence in Global Policy.

    PubMed

    Schandera, Johanna; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country permitting the clinical application of mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT). Here, we explore how MRT have led to diverging international policy. In response, we recommend focused regulatory efforts coupled with United Nations (UN) leadership to build international consensus on the future of MRT. PMID:27206380

  17. Reaction induced fracturing during replacement processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtveit, Bjørn; Putnis, Christine V.; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Replacement processes are common transformation mechanisms in minerals and rocks at a variety of conditions and scales. The underlying mechanisms are, in general, poorly understood, but both mechanical and chemical processes are thought to be important. Replacement of leucite (KAlSi2O6) by analcime (NaAlSi2O6 .H2O) is common in silica-poor igneous rocks. A 10% increase in volume is associated with the replacement process, and this generates stresses that eventually cause fracturing of the reacting leucite. Experimentally reacted leucite samples display characteristic fracturing patterns that include both spalling of concentric ‘onion-skin’-like layers near the reacting interface and the formation of cross-cutting, often hierarchically arranged, sets of fractures that divide the remaining leucite into progressively smaller domains. These structures may explain the ‘patchy’ alteration patterns observed in natural leucite samples and similar, so-called, mesh-textures associated with the serpentinization of olivine grains during hydration of mafic or ultramafic rocks. They are also strikingly similar to larger scale patterns formed during spheroidal weathering processes. A simple discrete element model illustrates the mechanics that control the formation of such systems, and shows how these replacement processes may be accelerated due to the generation of new reactive surface area by hierarchical fracturing processes.

  18. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8.715 Section 8.715 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People...

  19. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  20. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  1. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  2. Mineral replacement front propagation in deformed rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Koehn, Daniel; Kelka, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid migrations are a major agent of contaminant transport leading to mineral replacement in rocks, impacting their properties as porosity, permeability, and rheology. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern mineralogical replacement during and after deformation is required to better understand complex interplays between fluid and rocks that are involved in faulting, seismic cycle, and resource distribution in the upper crust. Dolomitization process related to hydrothermal fluid flow is one of the most studied and debated replacement processes in earth sciences. Dolomitization of limestone is of economic importance as well, as it stands as unconventional oil reservoirs and is systematically observed in Mississippian-Valley Type ore deposit. Despite recent breakthrough about dolomitization processes at large-scale, the small-scale propagation of the reaction front remains unclear. It is poorly documented in the occurrence of stylolites and fractures in the medium while pressure-solution and fracture network development are the most efficient deformation accomodation mechanism in limestone from early compaction to layer-parallel shortening. Thus, the impact of such network on geometry of replaced bodies and on replacement front propagation deserves specific attention. This contribution illustrates the role of fracture and stylolites on the propagation of a reaction front. In a 2 dimensional numerical model we simulate the dolomitization front propagation in a heterogeneous porous medium. The propagation of the reaction front is governed by the competition between advection and diffusion processes, and takes into account reaction rates, disorder in the location of the potential replacement seeds, and permeability heterogeneities. We add stylolites and fractures that can act as barriers or drains to fluid flow according to their orientation and mineralogical content, which can or cannot react with the contaminant. The patterns produced from

  3. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  4. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  5. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    PubMed

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints. PMID:26231075

  6. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the replacement standards prescribed in FPMR 41 CFR 101-38.9 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.9. (b) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement of...

  7. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the replacement standards prescribed in 41 CFR 102-34.270 and 109-38.402. (b) The Heads of Contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement of...

  8. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the replacement standards prescribed in FPMR 41 CFR 101-38.9 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.9. (b) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement of...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the replacement standards prescribed in FPMR 41 CFR 101-38.9 and DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.9. (b) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement of...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7101-4 - Replacement of motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....7101-4 Replacement of motor vehicles. (a) The replacement of motor vehicles shall be in accordance with the replacement standards prescribed in 41 CFR 102-34.270 and 109-38.402. (b) The Heads of Contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement of...

  11. 25 CFR 700.187 - Utilization of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Utilization of replacement home benefits. 700.187 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.187 Utilization of replacement home benefits. The Commission... to the head of household as provided in these regulations for the acquisition of a replacement...

  12. 25 CFR 700.187 - Utilization of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utilization of replacement home benefits. 700.187 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.187 Utilization of replacement home benefits. The Commission... to the head of household as provided in these regulations for the acquisition of a replacement...

  13. 25 CFR 700.187 - Utilization of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Utilization of replacement home benefits. 700.187 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.187 Utilization of replacement home benefits. The Commission... to the head of household as provided in these regulations for the acquisition of a replacement...

  14. 25 CFR 700.187 - Utilization of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Utilization of replacement home benefits. 700.187 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.187 Utilization of replacement home benefits. The Commission... to the head of household as provided in these regulations for the acquisition of a replacement...

  15. 25 CFR 700.187 - Utilization of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Utilization of replacement home benefits. 700.187 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.187 Utilization of replacement home benefits. The Commission... to the head of household as provided in these regulations for the acquisition of a replacement...

  16. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient’s satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases

  17. Recursions of Symmetry Orbits and Reduction without Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykh, Andrei A.; Sheftel, Mikhail B.

    2011-04-01

    We consider a four-dimensional PDE possessing partner symmetries mainly on the example of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA). We use simultaneously two pairs of symmetries related by a recursion relation, which are mutually complex conjugate for CMA. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, we introduce explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. We study the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. We use point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence we end up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. We present algebraic and exponential examples of such solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kähler metrics with no Killing vectors. A similar procedure is briefly outlined for Husain equation.

  18. METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, W.H.; Crawford, J.W.C.

    1959-05-12

    An improved technique of preparing massive metallic uranium by the reaction at elevated temperature between an excess of alkali in alkaline earth metal and a uranium halide, such ss uranium tetrafluoride is presented. The improvement comprises employing a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or the like, such as coal gas, in the vessel during the reduction stage and then replacing the reducing atmosphere with argon gas prior to cooling to ambient temperature.

  19. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  20. Mitochondrial replacement therapy in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Don P; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes, such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST), or polar body (PBT) transfer, could prevent second-generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization. PMID:25573721

  1. Enzyme replacement in Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    von Specht, B U; Geiger, B; Arnon, R; Passwell, J; Keren, G; Goldman, B; Padeh, B

    1979-06-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy was attempted with two Tay-Sachs-diseased individuals--a 14-month-old child and a 7-week-old infant. Treatment consisted of repeated weekly intrathecal injections of pure hexosaminidase A. Injection of this enzyme resulted in almost complete disappearance of GM2 from the serum, but did not bring about dissolution of the GM2 membranous cytoplasmic bodies in the brain, as detected by electronmicroscopy. Both patients tolerated the treatment without apparent clinical complications, but no clear-cut improvement was noted as a result of prolonged injections of hexosaminidase A. Since this treatment was initiated in both an advanced stage and a very early stage of the disease, we conclude that enzyme replacement treatment by this route is not beneficial for patients with Tay-Sachs disease. PMID:572006

  2. Parameters for novel incus replacement prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kaftan, Holger; Böhme, Andrea; Martin, Heiner

    2016-09-01

    Prostheses replacing the incus in its normal position and equipped with two joints might transfer sound as effectively as the intact ossicular chain and allow adjustment to quasi-static pressure changes. A prerequisite for prostheses development is the access to dimensions and distances of the ossicular chain which are necessary to conceptualize shape and size. Fifteen cadaveric human temporal bone specimens were investigated by means of micro-CT followed by 3D analysis. Each specimen was scanned three times: after removal of incus, after additional removal of the malleus head, and after approaching the umbo to the promontory. Artificial umbo medialization as a surrogate for quasi-static pressure changes leads to relevant variations in the distance between the upper part of the malleus and the stapes. Prostheses replacing the incus in its normal position should be equipped with a sliding ball joint or similar construction to allow adjustment to quasi-static pressure changes. PMID:26538426

  3. Technical evaluation process for specifying replacement items

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, W.E. ); Mulford, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    As nuclear power plants continue in the transition to a strictly operating and maintenance mode, the engineering involvement required to specify and procure replacement parts and components continues to increase. The evaluation process for a replacement item has one simple goal: to specify an effective set of technical and quality requirements that will result in the procurement of an item meeting the plant design basis. The evaluation process is depicted in a simplified block diagram showing the elements of engineering evaluation from a functional perspective. These elements are the following: (1) need for a technical evaluation; (2) components and part classification; (3) failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA); (4) critical characteristics for design determination; (5) like-for-like or alternate item evaluation; and (6) technical and quality requirements determination.

  4. Hip replacement by a minimal anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard, P

    2007-08-01

    The mini-incision anterior approach in total hip replacement is not new, but uses a shorter incision than the traditional Hueter approach, typically only 6-8 cm in length. Despite its size, the single anterior incision allows good exposure. It is very atraumatic, preserves muscles and tendons, and allows the patient early mobilisation and fast postoperative recovery. Although, a special table (e.g., a Judet table) and specific tools (e.g., a curved reamer) are needed to perform hip replacement via the mini-anterior approach, any kind of hip prosthesis (cemented or uncemented) can be implanted. As there is a significant learning curve in mastering the mini-incision anterior approach, surgeons are advised to start with a longer incision and then to decrease its length with increasing experience. PMID:17657491

  5. Hormone replacement therapy for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    DiVasta, Amy D; Gordon, Catherine M

    2008-01-01

    Pubertal induction and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during adolescence are conducted with the aim of closely mirroring the pubertal changes that occur in children with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The challenge for the clinician is to determine the most appropriate form, dosing, and duration of replacement therapy to achieve that goal in an individual patient. While the optimal regimen remains unclear and data in adolescents are limited, this review presents the evidence available to clinicians as they care for adolescent girls and young women. Both the goals and phases of HRT are reviewed, and commonly used medication regimens are presented. Both the benefits and risks associated with various methods of HRT are also discussed, as are special issues of concern regarding adolescent HRT, including eating disorders and bone health. PMID:18574226

  6. Tissue engineering: an option for esophageal replacement?

    PubMed

    Zani, Augusto; Pierro, Agostino; Elvassore, Nicola; De Coppi, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Esophageal replacement is required in several pediatric surgical conditions, like long-gap esophageal atresia. Although several techniques have been described to bridge the gap, all of them could be followed by postoperative complications. Esophageal tissue engineering could represent a valid alternative thanks to the recent advances in biomaterial science and cellular biology. Numerous attempts to shape a new esophagus in vitro have been described in the last decade. Herein, we review the main studies on the experimental use of nonabsorbable and absorbable materials as well as the development of cellularized patches. Furthermore, we describe the future perspectives of esophageal tissue engineering characterized by the use of stem cells seeded on new biopolymers. This opens to the construction of a functional allograft that could allow an anatomical replacement that grows with the children and does not severely impair their anatomy. PMID:19103424

  7. The Anterior Approach for Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Hochfelder, Jason P; Davidovitch, Roy I

    2016-03-01

    The anterior approach for total hip replacements has recently gained popularity. Some authors report faster recoveries and decreased dislocation rated with no increased risk of complications. However others claim no difference in outcomes when compared to other approaches yet an increase in complication rates. This paper provides a brief history of the approach, discusses various indications and contraindications, preoperative considerations, surgical techniques, and postoperative protocols. PMID:26977549

  8. Biosurfactants: a sustainable replacement for chemical surfactants?

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-09-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants produced by bacteria and yeasts provide significant opportunities to replace chemical surfactants with sustainable biologically produced alternatives in bulk commercial products such as laundry detergents and surface cleaners. Sophorolipids are already available in sufficient yield to make their use feasible while rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids require further development. The ability to tailor the biosurfactant produced to the specific needs of the product formulation will be an important future step. PMID:22618240

  9. Hip Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Total Hip Replacement Substituição total de quadril - português ( ...

  10. Knee Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Total Knee Replacement Substituição total do joelho - português ( ...

  11. Total Hip Joint Replacement Biotelemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Luntz, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a biotelemetry system that is hermetically sealed within a total hip replacement implant is reported. The telemetry system transmits six channels of stress data to reconstruct the major forces acting on the neck of the prosthesis and uses an induction power coupling technique to eliminate the need for internal batteries. The activities associated with the telemetry microminiaturization, data recovery console, hardware fabrications, power induction systems, electrical and mechanical testing and hermetic sealing test results are discussed.

  12. Early results of the Acclaim elbow replacement.

    PubMed

    Bassi, R S; Simmons, D; Ali, F; Nuttall, D; Birch, A; Trail, I A; Stanley, J K

    2007-04-01

    The Acclaim total elbow replacement is a modular system which allows implantation in both unlinked and linked modes. The results of the use of this implant in primary total elbow replacement in 36 patients, operated on between July 2000 and August 2002, are presented at a mean follow-up of 36 months (24 to 49). Only one patient did not have good relief of pain, but all had improved movement and function. No implant showed clinical or radiological loosening, although one had a lucent area in three of seven humeral zones. The short-term results of the Acclaim total elbow replacement are encouraging. However, 11 patients (30.5%) suffered an intra-operative fracture of the humeral condyle. This did not affect the outcome, or the requirement for further surgery, except in one case where the fracture failed to unite. This problem has hopefully been addressed by redesigning the humeral resection guide. Other complications included three cases of ulnar neuropathy (8.3%) and one of deep infection (2.8%). PMID:17463117

  13. [Total temporomandibular joint replacement with alloplastic prosthesis].

    PubMed

    García-Huerta, Marco Antonio; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Mena-Gómez, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Three total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement surgeries were performed on two patients with TMJ ankylosis using W. Lorenz system. The first surgery was performed on a female patient with osseous ankylosis who had no mandibular movement since she was 18 months old. The second surgery was on a patient with fibrous ankylosis who had an interincisive opening distance of 12 mm. Her condition was the result of a three year old subcondylar fracture which didn't receive any treatment. The first patient had total replacement of both TMJs, while the other just one TMJ. The follow up until today has been of eight months with an interincisive opening of 29 mm in the first patient and 34 mm in the other. There has not been any mandibular deviation during opening, nor postoperative pain in both cases. Facial nerve affection was not permanent in both patients. For all of this, we can conclude that total TMJ replacement is an effective treatment with stable results in patients with TMJ ankylosis. PMID:23234748

  14. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  15. Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy A; Yun, Yueli

    2015-02-17

    Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary model for this kind of symbiosis is the association between the bacterium Buchnera and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A longstanding obstacle to efforts to illuminate genetic changes underlying obligate symbioses has been the inability to experimentally disrupt and reconstitute symbiont-host partnerships. Our experiments show that Buchnera can be experimentally transferred between aphid matrilines and, furthermore, that Buchnera replacement has a massive effect on host fitness. Using a recipient pea aphid matriline containing Buchnera that are heat sensitive because of an allele eliminating the heat shock response of a small chaperone, we reduced native Buchnera through heat exposure and introduced a genetically distinct Buchnera from another matriline, achieving complete replacement and stable inheritance. This transfer disrupted 100 million years (∼ 1 billion generations) of continuous maternal transmission of Buchnera in its host aphids. Furthermore, aphids with the Buchnera replacement enjoyed a dramatic increase in heat tolerance, directly demonstrating a strong effect of symbiont genotype on host ecology. PMID:25561531

  16. Mortality after total hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berstock, J. R.; Beswick, A. D.; Lenguerrand, E.; Whitehouse, M. R.; Blom, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Total hip replacement causes a short-term increase in the risk of mortality. It is important to quantify this and to identify modifiable risk factors so that the risk of post-operative mortality can be minimised. We performed a systematic review and critical evaluation of the current literature on the topic. We identified 32 studies published over the last 10 years which provide either 30-day or 90-day mortality data. We estimate the pooled incidence of mortality during the first 30 and 90 days following hip replacement to be 0.30% (95% CI 0.22 to 0.38) and 0.65% (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), respectively. We found strong evidence of a temporal trend towards reducing mortality rates despite increasingly co-morbid patients. The risk factors for early mortality most commonly identified are increasing age, male gender and co-morbid conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular complications appear to have overtaken fatal pulmonary emboli as the leading cause of death after hip replacement. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:175–82. PMID:24894596

  17. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  18. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Siringi, Gideon; Abolmaali, Ali; Aswath, Pranesh B

    2015-01-01

    Tire derived aggregate (TDA) has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA. PMID:26161440

  19. Self-supported Pt nanoclusters via galvanic replacement from Cu2O nanocubes as efficient electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Hongtao; Fu, Engang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2013-07-01

    A novel synthesis method for self-supported Pt nanoclusters (Pt NCs) comprised of interconnected 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles was developed by employing the galvanic replacement process between Cu2O nanocubes and PtCl42- ions. This discovered synthesis procedure eliminates the use of any polymer capping agents and enables a catalytically clean Pt surface. It is determined that the presence of H+ ions is crucial for initializing the galvanic replacement reaction. The electrocatalytic performances of the Pt NCs were tested for both oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions, which showed higher electrochemical activity and greater long-term durability as compared with commercial Pt materials.A novel synthesis method for self-supported Pt nanoclusters (Pt NCs) comprised of interconnected 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles was developed by employing the galvanic replacement process between Cu2O nanocubes and PtCl42- ions. This discovered synthesis procedure eliminates the use of any polymer capping agents and enables a catalytically clean Pt surface. It is determined that the presence of H+ ions is crucial for initializing the galvanic replacement reaction. The electrocatalytic performances of the Pt NCs were tested for both oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions, which showed higher electrochemical activity and greater long-term durability as compared with commercial Pt materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02243a

  20. Combined (mechanical and pharmacological) modalities for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, S K; Warwick, D; Nicolaides, A N; Stansby, G P; Tsolakis, I A

    2012-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of intermittent mechanical compression combined with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, against either mechanical compression or pharmacological prophylaxis in preventing deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. A total of six randomised controlled trials, evaluating a total of 1399 patients, were identified. In knee arthroplasty, the rate of DVT was reduced from 18.7% with anticoagulation alone to 3.7% with combined modalities (risk ratio (RR) 0.27, p = 0.03; number needed to treat: seven). There was moderate, albeit non-significant, heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%). In hip replacement, there was a non-significant reduction in DVT from 8.7% with mechanical compression alone to 7.2% with additional pharmacological prophylaxis (RR 0.84) and a significant reduction in DVT from 9.7% with anticoagulation alone to 0.9% with additional mechanical compression (RR 0.17, p < 0.001; number needed to treat: 12), with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). The included studies had insufficient power to demonstrate an effect on pulmonary embolism. We conclude that the addition of intermittent mechanical leg compression augments the efficacy of anticoagulation in preventing DVT in patients undergoing both knee and hip replacement. Further research on the role of combined modalities in thromboprophylaxis in joint replacement and in other high-risk situations, such as fracture of the hip, is warranted. PMID:22628585

  1. Metaphor Replaces Fact: Dissonance Reduction during the Gainesville Serial Slayings through Metaphorical Script Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehrle, Adrienne A.; Fadely, Dean

    In the fall of 1990, the community of Gainesville, Florida, needed information concerning the brutal murders of five local college students. These serial slayings disrupted numerous "scripts" of life in the typical college town and produced a blanket of uncertainty, fear, and hysteria which enveloped Gainesville. College towns are normally viewed…

  2. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  3. Piloerection induced by replacing fluvoxamine with milnacipran

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Satoko; Matsuo, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Akiko; Hazui, Tomomi; Yagi, Hiromi; Nakano, Marumi; Suzuki, Yuka; Miki, Akiko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Aims To present a case of piloerection after replacing fluvoxamine maleate with milnacipran hydrochloride, and to analyse this effect based on receptor occupancy theory. Methods A 40-year-old female with a 3-year history of panic disorder was prescribed fluvoxamine 50 mg day−1 in addition to clorazepate dipotassium and sulpiride. Depression was not improved and she complained of fatigue, lack of energy and drowsiness. These symptoms worsened within a few days of an increase in the dose of fluvoxamine to 50 mg twice daily. Since an interaction between fluvoxamine and tizanidine, prescribed by another clinic, was suspected, fluvoxamine was replaced with milnacipran 50 mg day−1. Although her drowsiness improved, she complained of piloerection throughout her body. This symptom gradually abated within a week and when the dosage of milnacipran was increased to 100 mg day−1 at 2 months, no further piloerection occurred. We calculated the changes in α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine during treatment with the usual doses of milnacipran, fluvoxamine and imipramine by using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters obtained from the literature. Results The ratios of α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine during the treatment with milnacipran, fluvoxamine and imipramine to that without drug were estimated to be 7.13, 1.00 and 4.12, respectively. The α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine was increased in a dose-dependent manner by milnacipran, whereas fluvoxamine had essentially no effect. Conclusions The piloerection observed after the replacement of fluvoxamine with milnacipran in this patient appears to have been due to an increase in the α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine induced by milnacipran. PMID:17324248

  4. Renal function after elective total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren; Petersen, Morten B

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013 ). Results - 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3-5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3-5, indicating moderately to severely reduced kidney function, was seen in 374 individuals (11%). Interpretation - Development of acute kidney injury appears to be a substantial problem compared to other complications related to elective total hip arthroplasty, i.e. luxation and infection. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease may be especially vulnerable. The clinical impact of acute kidney injury in an elective orthopedic population remains to be elucidated. PMID:26937782

  5. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren; Petersen, Morten B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality in intensive care populations and in several surgical specialties, but there are very few data concerning orthopedic populations. We have studied the incidence of AKI and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013). Results 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7–2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3–5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3–5, indicating moderately to severely reduced kidney function, was seen in 374 individuals (11%). Interpretation Development of acute kidney injury appears to be a substantial problem compared to other complications related to elective total hip arthroplasty, i.e. luxation and infection. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease may be especially vulnerable. The clinical impact of acute kidney injury in an elective orthopedic population remains to be elucidated. PMID:26937782

  6. An opposite view data replacement approach for reducing artifacts due to metallic dental objects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdi, Mehran; Lari, Meghdad Asadi; Bernier, Gaston; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To present a conceptually new method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) that can be used on patients with multiple objects within the scan plane that are also of small sized along the longitudinal (scanning) direction, such as dental fillings. Methods: The proposed algorithm, named opposite view replacement, achieves MAR by first detecting the projection data affected by metal objects and then replacing the affected projections by the corresponding opposite view projections, which are not affected by metal objects. The authors also applied a fading process to avoid producing any discontinuities in the boundary of the affected projection areas in the sinogram. A skull phantom with and without a variety of dental metal inserts was made to extract the performance metric of the algorithm. A head and neck case, typical of IMRT planning, was also tested. Results: The reconstructed CT images based on this new replacement scheme show a significant improvement in image quality for patients with metallic dental objects compared to the MAR algorithms based on the interpolation scheme. For the phantom, the authors showed that the artifact reduction algorithm can efficiently recover the CT numbers in the area next to the metallic objects. Conclusions: The authors presented a new and efficient method for artifact reduction due to multiple small metallic objects. The obtained results from phantoms and clinical cases fully validate the proposed approach.

  7. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  8. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH. PMID:25578932

  9. Imaging and minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular imaging has been the most important tool allowing for innovation in cardiac surgery. There are now a variety of approaches available for treating aortic valve disease, including standard sternotomy, minimally invasive surgery, and percutaneous valve replacement. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery relies on maximizing exposure within a limited field of view. The complexity of this approach is increased as the relationship between the great vessels and the bony thorax varies between individuals. Ultimately, the success of minimally invasive surgery depends on appropriate choices regarding the type and location of the incision, cannulation approach, and cardioprotection strategy. These decisions are facilitated by preoperative imaging, which forms the focus of this review. PMID:25694979

  10. Grey Component Replacement In Newspaper Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhola, Helene

    1990-06-01

    The possibilities to achieve a good four-colour print quality are much more limited in newspaper printing than in heat-set or gravure web printing. Nevertheless, the percentage of four-colour printing and, consequently, the quality requirements continue to grow in newspapers. One way of making the printer's work easier in the colour separation process is the socalled Grey Component Replacement (GCR). This technology has been available with digital scanners for several years. Our laboratory has also studied its applicability, especially in newspaper printing, on different occasions.

  11. Nicotine replacement therapies: patient safety and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has become a central part of the treatment of nicotine dependence. However, NRT’s potential efficacy is limited to some extent by patient adherence and persistence. Here we review the relationship between NRT compliance and adherence, and overall treatment outcome. We then examine the factors that likely impact on treatment compliance and persistence, with a special focus on users’ perceptions of treatment safety and efficacy as possible mediators. Potential clinical strategies for improving suboptimal medication use are also discussed. PMID:22915971

  12. Extending molecular-replacement solutions with SHELXE

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Andrea; Sheldrick, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the program SHELXE was originally intended for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, it can also prove useful for expanding a small protein fragment to an almost complete polyalanine trace of the structure, given a favourable combination of native data resolution (better than about 2.1 Å) and solvent content. A correlation coefficient (CC) of more than 25% between the native structure factors and those calculated from the polyalanine trace appears to be a reliable indicator of success and has already been exploited in a number of pipelines. Here, a more detailed account of this usage of SHELXE for molecular-replacement solutions is given. PMID:24189237

  13. Current status of valve replacement in children.

    PubMed

    Schaff, H V; Danielson, G K

    1986-01-01

    Management of valve diseases in children demands an eclectic approach by the surgeon. Whenever possible, valve function should be restored by repair rather than prosthetic replacement. Recent evidence firmly demonstrates that there are accelerated calcification and degeneration of porcine heterografts in children, especially in the aortic and mitral positions. For this reason, we reserve the use of heterograft prostheses for the right atrioventricular position and for conduits from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. Such patients are observed carefully for signs of valve degeneration. Long-term followup of the Starr-Edwards prosthesis in children demonstrates excellent durability and a thromboembolic rate that is equal to or lower than that found in adult patients. Hemodynamic properties of the Starr-Edwards valve are adequate even in the smallest size used in infants and have allowed children to reach early adolescence at which time valve re-replacement with an adult-sized prosthesis is possible. Intermediate-term experience with the Bjork-Shiley valve in children has also been favorable. At present we continue to use systemic anticoagulation with warfarin in all children with mechanical prostheses. PMID:3742534

  14. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL) and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy. PMID:26394728

  15. Cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wijeyekoon, Ruwani; Barker, Roger A

    2009-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the substantia nigra to the striatum is a key pathological feature of the disease. Although pharmacological dopamine replacement is generally very effective in early disease, it is only a symptomatic therapy and can have significant side effects with long term use. One of the key strategies in a more restorative approach to PD therapy involves replacement of this degenerating nigro-striatal dopaminergic network with cells and several possible cell sources are being explored. While much experience and some success have been gained with fetal ventral mesencephalic (FVM) tissue transplants, the rapidly advancing stem cell field is providing attractive alternative options which circumvent many of the ethical and practical problems inherent in trials with FVM tissue. Of these embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells seem the most promising. However further development and optimisation of the safety and efficacy of the techniques involved in generating and manipulating these, as well as other, cell sources will be essential before any further clinical trials are carried out. PMID:19007882

  16. [Volume replacement in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Nohé, B; Ploppa, A; Schmidt, V; Unertl, K

    2011-05-01

    Volume substitution represents an essential component of intensive care medicine. The amount of fluid administered, the composition and the timing of volume replacement seem to affect the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Although restrictive volume strategies bear the risk of tissue hypoperfusion and tissue hypoxia in hemodynamically unstable patients liberal strategies favour the development of avoidable hypervolemia with edema and resultant organ dysfunction. However, neither strategy has shown a consistent benefit. In order to account for the heavily varying oxygen demand of critically ill patients, a goal-directed, demand-adapted volume strategy is proposed. Using this strategy, volume replacement should be aligned to the need to restore tissue perfusion and the evidence of volume responsiveness. As the efficiency of volume resuscitation for correction of tissue hypoxia is time-dependent, preload optimization should be completed in the very first hours. Whether colloids or crystalloids are more suitable for this purpose is still controversially discussed. Nevertheless, a temporally limited use of colloids during the initial stage of tissue hypoperfusion appears to represent a strategy which uses the greater volume effect during hypovolemia while minimizing the risks for adverse reactions. PMID:21350879

  17. Meniscus tear surgery and meniscus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Javier; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective the menisci are easily injured and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to analyze the current state of meniscal surgery aimed at preserving morphology and conserving the biomechanics of the knee to prevent joint degeneration. Methodology a search of the electronic medical literature database Medline was conducted, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. The search was not limited by language. Candidate articles were identified by searching for those that included the keywords meniscus, surgery, suture, implant, allograft. The limits were included for clinical research and clinical trials. Basic research was not included. The studies selected were evaluated and classified in three different categories: basic science, reconstruction (suture and meniscectomy) and implants (scaffolds and allograft). Results the consequences of meniscectomy performed at a young age can lead to a joint cartilage degeneration twenty years later. There are few surgical options for the repair of meniscal injuries in order both to preserve the meniscus and to ensure the long term survival of the knee joint, meniscectomy, repair, suturing the tear, or reconstruction, when a meniscal allograft or synthetic substitute is used to replace the meniscus, but the biomechanical properties of the native meniscus are not reproduced entirely by the scaffolds that exist today. Conclusion therapies that successfully repair or replace the meniscus are therefore likely to prevent or delay osteoarthritis progression. PMID:27331034

  18. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2015-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL) and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy. PMID:26394728

  19. Postoperative Autologous Reinfusion in Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Crescibene, A.; Martire, F.; Gigliotti, P.; Rende, A.; Candela, M.

    2015-01-01

    Surgeries for total knee replacement (TKR) are increasing and in this context there is a need to develop new protocols for management and use of blood transfusion therapy. Autologous blood reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and the aim of the present study was to verify the safety and the clinical efficacy. An observational retrospective study has been conducted on 124 patients, undergoing cemented total knee prosthesis replacement. Observed population was stratified into two groups: the first group received reinfusion of autologous blood collected in the postoperative surgery and the second group did not receive autologous blood reinfusion. Analysis of data shows that patients undergoing autologous blood reinfusion received less homologous blood bags (10.6% versus 30%; p = 0.08) and reduced days of hospitalization (7.88 ± 0.7 days versus 8.96 ± 2.47 days for the control group; p = 0.03). Microbiological tests were negative in all postoperatively salvaged and reinfused units. Our results emphasize the effectiveness of this procedure and have the characteristics of simplicity, low cost (€97.53 versus €103.79; p < 0.01), and easy reproducibility. Use of autologous drainage system postoperatively is a procedure that allows reducing transfusion of homologous blood bags in patients undergoing TKR. PMID:26442168

  20. New replacement name Kuznetsoviella (Ostracoda): a correction.

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was found (Doweld 2016) that the generic name Aenigma Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) of fossil Ostracoda from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia), is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae), along with a few other known homonyms, Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martini & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. Therefore, a new replacement name was proposed, Kuznetsovia Doweld (2016: 68). However, it was overlooked that this generic name is already preoccupied by Kuznetsovia Kammerer (2006: 269) [Arthropoda], escaped from Nomenclator Zoologicus and Zoobank. In this connection, to resolve unexpected homonymy with an arthropod generic name, in accordance with article 60 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), a new replacement name is proposed for the fossil Ostracoda genus:. PMID:27470720

  1. Hormone replacement therapy: determinants of women's decisions.

    PubMed

    Marmoreo, J; Brown, J B; Batty, H R; Cummings, S; Powell, M

    1998-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapy: determinants of women's decisions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the decision-making process used by menopausal women initiating or remaining on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), stopping HRT, or never starting HRT. Eight focus groups, composed of women reflecting these categories, were conducted. Four major themes or spheres of influence emerged as important in the women's decision-making process: the woman's internal influence--the interface between her perceptions and feelings including the symptoms of menopause, the benefits realized by HRT usage, and the experiences of negative side effects; interpersonal relationships, including the patient-physician relationship, family, friends and information networks; external influences, such as ageism and sexism; and consequences resulting from whichever treatment decision was chosen. A new concept was elucidated called "weighted influence" to underscore the dynamic interplay among the spheres. As information about HRT continues to grow and change, an understanding and application of these spheres of influence can assist physicians in engaging in a dialogue with their patients that allows individual evaluation and application of this new information. PMID:9731166

  2. New and old technologies for organ replacement

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jeffrey L.; Cascalho, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The demand for organ transplantation has increased over time, increasingly exceeding the supply of organs. Whether and how new or old technologies separately or together could be applied to replacing organs will thus remain a question of importance. Recent findings Estimating how the demand for organ transplantation will evolve over the decades and the need to bring forward and test new technologies will help establish the dimensions of the problem and the priorities for investigation. Pluripotent stem cells can in principle expand to sufficient numbers, differentiate, and assemble complex and functional organs. However, the devising of effective and reliable means to coax the stem cells to do so remains beyond the current grasp. Summary Given the time during which novel therapies are devised and applied, which organ transplantation reaches to 2–3 decades, one can anticipate the need for organ replacement will grow dramatically, but advances in science and technology will overcome the hurdles in generating new organs. Whether these advances will address the needs and priorities of society, however, is unclear. PMID:23449347

  3. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1999-04-01

    Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important. PMID:10198143

  4. Advances in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Neal S.; Reardon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is becoming widely used for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. Data from The PARTNER Trial (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) and the Medtronic CoreValve® U.S. Pivotal Investigational Device Exemption trial indicate that survival for extreme-risk patients is superior to best medical therapy and equivalent or superior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), although long-term durability remains unknown. Paravalvular leak remains higher in TAVR than SAVR, as does permanent pacemaker implantation in self-expanding valves. New-generation valves are addressing these issues, especially for paravalvular leak. There is strong evidence that TAVR is appropriate for both extreme-risk and high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, and the continued development of new valves are making implantation more reliable. This review discusses the studies supporting the use of TAVR and explores current advances in the field. PMID:27127560

  5. Many Take Opioids Months After Hip, Knee Replacements

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159194.html Many Take Opioids Months After Hip, Knee Replacements Study findings highlight growing ... continue to take powerful prescription opioid painkillers many months after joint replacement surgery, a new study shows. ...

  6. 42 CFR 433.117 - Initial approval of replacement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.117 Initial approval of replacement systems. (a) A replacement... information retrieval system. (b) The agency must submit a APD that includes— (1) The date the...

  7. 42 CFR 433.117 - Initial approval of replacement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.117 Initial approval of replacement systems. (a) A replacement... information retrieval system. (b) The agency must submit a APD that includes— (1) The date the...

  8. 42 CFR 433.117 - Initial approval of replacement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.117 Initial approval of replacement systems. (a) A replacement... information retrieval system. (b) The agency must submit a APD that includes— (1) The date the...

  9. Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... replace all or part of your hip or knee joint with an artificial device (a prosthesis). Below are some questions you may want to ask your health care provider to help you prepare for your hip or knee replacement.

  10. 42 CFR 433.117 - Initial approval of replacement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.117 Initial approval of replacement systems. (a) A replacement... information retrieval system. (b) The agency must submit a APD that includes— (1) The date the...

  11. Many Take Opioids Months After Hip, Knee Replacements

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159194.html Many Take Opioids Months After Hip, Knee Replacements Study findings highlight growing ... continue to take powerful prescription opioid painkillers many months after joint replacement surgery, a new study shows. ...

  12. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  13. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant.

  14. Reductive dissolution of goethite by phenolic reductants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Stone, Alan T.

    1989-05-01

    The reductive dissolution of goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) by phenolic reductants has been examined in order to improve the understanding of iron transformations in soils, sediments and aquifers. Rates of goethite reductive dissolution by hydroquinone increased as the pH was increased from pH 1.8 to 4.65, arid the following reaction stoichiometry was obeyed: 2 α- FeOOH + QH2 = 2 Fe2+ + Q + 4 OH-. As the pH was increased from pH 4.5 to 6.0, the reductive dissolution rate decreased to below the detection limit. At pH 3.4, the reductive dissolution of hematite was two orders of magnitude slower than goethite. The relationship between structure and reactivity was examined for a series of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxybenzene reductants. Rates of reductive dissolution decreased in the following order: catechol ˜- hydroquinone > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid > resorcinol-phenol-4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

  15. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by...

  16. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for Newcastle disease may not be replaced by birds or poultry...

  17. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by...

  18. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of the replacement fuel supply and...

  19. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of the replacement fuel supply and...

  20. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF REPLACEMENT SOLVENTS UNDER VARYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a great need to replace many solvents that are commonly used by industry and the public, but whose continued use entails a number of human health and environmental risks. One problem hampering solvent replacement is the thought that replacement, particularly for environm...

  1. 21 CFR 870.3925 - Replacement heart valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Replacement heart valve. 870.3925 Section 870.3925...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3925 Replacement heart valve. (a) Identification. A replacement heart valve is a device intended to perform the function of...

  2. 21 CFR 870.3925 - Replacement heart valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Replacement heart valve. 870.3925 Section 870.3925...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3925 Replacement heart valve. (a) Identification. A replacement heart valve is a device intended to perform the function of...

  3. 21 CFR 870.3925 - Replacement heart valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Replacement heart valve. 870.3925 Section 870.3925...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3925 Replacement heart valve. (a) Identification. A replacement heart valve is a device intended to perform the function of...

  4. 25 CFR 700.95 - Replacement housing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement housing funds. 700.95 Section 700.95 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.95 Replacement housing funds. Replacement...

  5. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  6. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  7. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  8. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  9. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  10. 39 CFR 777.24 - Replacement housing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sanitary replacement dwelling is purchased within 12 months after the latter of: (i) The date of... sanitary replacement dwelling is purchased or rented within 12 months after the latter of: (i) The date of... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement housing payments. 777.24 Section...

  11. 37 CFR 1.805 - Replacement or supplement of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Replacement or supplement of... of Biological Material § 1.805 Replacement or supplement of deposit. (a) A depositor, after receiving... replacement or supplemental deposit will be governed by the same considerations governing the need for...

  12. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of the replacement fuel supply and...

  13. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of the replacement fuel supply and...

  14. 10 CFR 490.8 - Replacement fuel production goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement fuel production goal. 490.8 Section 490.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.8 Replacement fuel production goal. The goal of the replacement fuel supply and...

  15. 25 CFR 700.95 - Replacement housing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Replacement housing funds. 700.95 Section 700.95 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.95 Replacement housing funds. Replacement...

  16. 25 CFR 700.183 - Determination of replacement housing benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of replacement housing benefit. 700.183 Section 700.183 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.183 Determination of replacement housing benefit....

  17. 25 CFR 700.183 - Determination of replacement housing benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of replacement housing benefit. 700.183 Section 700.183 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.183 Determination of replacement housing benefit....

  18. 25 CFR 700.95 - Replacement housing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Replacement housing funds. 700.95 Section 700.95 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.95 Replacement housing funds. Replacement...

  19. 25 CFR 700.183 - Determination of replacement housing benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of replacement housing benefit. 700.183 Section 700.183 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.183 Determination of replacement housing benefit....

  20. 25 CFR 700.95 - Replacement housing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Replacement housing funds. 700.95 Section 700.95 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.95 Replacement housing funds. Replacement...

  1. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  2. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  3. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  4. 43 CFR 4750.4-4 - Replacement animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement animals. 4750.4-4 Section 4750... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.4-4 Replacement animals. The authorized officer shall replace an animal, upon request by the adopter, if (a) within 6 months of the execution...

  5. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  6. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  7. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  9. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  10. 42 CFR 433.117 - Initial approval of replacement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.117 Initial approval of replacement systems. (a) A replacement system must meet all conditions of initial approval of a mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system. (b) The agency must submit a APD that includes— (1) The date the replacement system...

  11. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  12. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  13. 25 CFR 700.95 - Replacement housing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Replacement housing funds. 700.95 Section 700.95 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.95 Replacement housing funds. Replacement...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With a Self-Expanding Prosthesis Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Lei, Yang; Wang, Kaijun; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja; Vilain, Katherine A.; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Galper, Benjamin Z.; Meduri, Christopher U.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Baron, Suzanne J.; Reardon, Michael J.; Adams, David H.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies of the cost-effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have been based primarily on a single balloon-expandable system. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Methods We performed a formal economic analysis on the basis of individual, patient-level data from the CoreValve U.S. High Risk pivotal trial. Empirical data regarding survival and quality of life (QOL) over 2 years, and medical resource use and hospital costs through 12 months were used to project life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime medical costs in order to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of TAVR versus SAVR from a U.S. perspective. Results Relative to SAVR, TAVR reduced initial length of stay an average of 4.4 days, decreased the need for rehabilitation services at discharge, and resulted in superior 1-month QOL. Index admission and projected lifetime costs were higher with TAVR than with SAVR (differences $11,260 and $17,849 per patient, respectively), whereas TAVR was projected to provide a lifetime gain of 0.32 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 0.41 life-years [LYs]) with 3% discounting. Lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were $55,090 per QALY gained and $43,114 per LY gained. Sensitivity analyses indicated that a reduction in the initial cost of TAVR by ~$1,650 would lead to an ICER <$50,000/QALY gained. Conclusions In a high-risk clinical trial population, TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis provided meaningful clinical benefits compared with SAVR, with incremental costs considered acceptable by current U.S. standards. With expected modest reductions in the cost of index TAVR admissions, the value of TAVR compared with SAVR in this patient population would become high. PMID:26764063

  15. Pregnancy in patients after valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, C; Doherty, P

    1976-01-01

    This report is based on information obtained from a questionnaire sent to major cardiac centres in the United Kingdom. This produced details of 39 pregnancies in 34 patients after valve replacement. The 39 pregnancies gave rise to 30 healthy babies. The small size of the series probably reflects both the increasing rarity of young women with rheumatic heart disease in this country and the cautious attitude of their cardiologists. This makes it likely that these women represented the best end of the spectrum of cardiac function after valve replacement. Twenty-four pregnancies in 20 women who were not given anticoagulants producted 23 healthy babies and 1 spontaneous abortion. This group comprised 6 patients with free aortic homografts, 1 patient with a fascia lata mitral valve, 1 with a Beall tricuspid prosthesis, 1 with a combined mitral homograft and Starr Edwards aortic prosthesis, and 1 with mitral and aortic frame-mounted fascia lata valves. There were no maternal deaths or thromboembolic complications in this group which included 5 patients who were in atrial fibrillation. Fifteen pregnancies in 14 women who received anticoagulants gave rise to 7 healthy babies. The fetal losses were one stillbirth, one intrauterine death at 34 weeks, and 3 spontaneous abortions; one surviving child has hydrocephalus as a result of blood clot and there were 2 maternal deaths. This group included 13 patients with Starr Edwards valves, 11 mitral and 2 aortic. A patient with a Hammersmith mitral valve was the only one to have been treated with heparin and her valve thrombosed. One patient with a mounted mitral homograft had a cerebral embolus. Nine of these patients were in atrial fibrillation. In 3 additional patients the valve replacement was carried out during pregnancy. Two of the patients survived operation. In one of these who was treated with warfarin the pregnancy well, but there is an increased fetal wastage in patients pregnancy gave rise to a congenitally malformed

  16. Minimally Invasive Versus Conventional Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Rizwan Q.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Bridgewater, Ben; Roxburgh, James C.; Kumar, Pankaj; Ridley, Paul; Bhabra, Moninder; Millner, Russell W. J.; Athanasiou, Thanos; Casula, Roberto; Chukwuemka, Andrew; Pillay, Thasee; Young, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has been demonstrated as a safe and effective option but remains underused. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of isolated MIAVR compared with conventional aortic valve replacement (CAVR). Methods Data from The National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) were analyzed at seven volunteer centers (2006–2012). Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and midterm survival. Secondary outcomes were postoperative length of stay as well as cumulative bypass and cross-clamp times. Propensity modeling with matched cohort analysis was used. Results Of 307 consecutive MIAVR patients, 151 (49%) were performed during the last 2 years of study with a continued increase in numbers. The 307 MIAVR patients were matched on a 1:1 ratio. In the matched CAVR group, there was no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality [MIAVR, 4/307,(1.3%); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%–3.4% vs CAVR, 6/307 (2.0%); 95% CI, 0.8%–4.3%; P = 0.752]. One-year survival rates in the MIAVR and CAVR groups were 94.4% and 94.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in midterm survival (P = 0.677; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56–1.46). Median postoperative length of stay was lower in the MIAVR patients by 1 day (P = 0.009). The mean cumulative bypass time (94.8 vs 91.3 minutes; P = 0.333) and cross-clamp time (74.6 vs 68.4 minutes; P = 0.006) were longer in the MIAVR group; however, this was significant only in the cross-clamp time comparison. Conclusions Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is a safe alternative to CAVR with respect to operative and 1-year mortality and is associated with a shorter postoperative stay. Further studies are required in high-risk (logistic EuroSCORE > 10) patients to define the role of MIAVR. PMID:26926521

  17. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  18. Replace with a Database: O*NET Replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Describes O*Net (Occupational Information Network), the database that replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. O*Net includes information on the knowledge, skills, abilities, interest, preparation, contexts, and tasks associated with 1,122 occupations. Includes a comparison chart and a content model. (JOW)

  19. Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications

  20. Drift sight replacement in the U-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialecki, Lawrence J.

    2005-05-01

    When first deployed in the mid 1950s, the U-2 had an inverted periscope (Drift Sight) to provide the pilot a view of the area below the aircraft. During a recent glass cockpit upgrade, this periscope was removed. This paper discusses: " The development activity leading up to flight test of an Electro Optical Viewsight System (EOVS) replacement for the Drift Sight. The impact and design consideration of using an inexpensive Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) cameral module, originally designed for small hand held video cameras, " The process used to develop the basic requirements and how early input from the user community lead to an effective design (e.g.., Hand Grip), " The ruggedization techniques necessary to ensure the camera would meet the vibration, thermal, and Electro Magnetic Interface (EMI) environment, " Actual system performance data, " Growth "hooks" and how they were accommodated in a firm fixed price contract.

  1. Allograft Replacement for Absent Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J.; Warren, Russell F.; Doyle, Maureen; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Structural instability due to poor soft tissue quality often requires augmentation. Allografts are important biological substitutes that are used for the symptomatic patient in the reconstruction of deficient ligaments, tendons, menisci, and osteochondral defects. Interest in the clinical application of allografts has arisen from the demand to obtain stable anatomy with restoration of function and protection against additional injury, particularly for high-demand patients who participate in sports. Traditionally, allografts were employed to reinforce weakened tissue. However, they can also be employed to substitute deficient or functionally absent tissue, particularly in the sports medicine setting. Objective: This article presents a series of 6 cases that utilized allografts to restore functionally deficient anatomic architecture, rather than just simply augmenting the degenerated or damaged native tissue. Detailed discussions are presented of the use of allografts as a successful treatment strategy to replace functionally weakened tissue, often after failed primary repairs. PMID:24427387

  2. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D W

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the {approx}4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles.

  3. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent studies, this paper examines whether an increased use of electronic stability control can replace studded tyres. A re-analysis of a study that evaluated the effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway is presented. It is found that if all cars have electronic stability control, the use of studded tyres can be reduced to about 15 percent before any increase in the number of accidents occurs. Even if studded tyres were eliminated entirely, any increase in the number of accidents is likely to be considerably smaller than it would have been if electronic stability control had never been invented. PMID:26436487

  4. Mechanical versus biological aortic valve replacement strategies.

    PubMed

    Reineke, D; Gisler, F; Englberger, L; Carrel, T

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the most frequently performed procedure in valve surgery. The controversy about the optimal choice of the prosthetic valve is as old as the technique itself. Currently there is no perfect valve substitute available. The main challenge is to choose between mechanical and biological prosthetic valves. Biological valves include pericardial (bovine, porcine or equine) and native porcine bioprostheses designed in stented, stentless and sutureless versions. Homografts and pulmonary autografts are reserved for special indications and will not be discussed in detail in this review. We will focus on the decision making between artificial biological and mechanical prostheses, respectively. The first part of this article reviews guideline recommendations concerning the choice of aortic prostheses in different clinical situations while the second part is focused on novel strategies in the treatment of patients with aortic valve pathology. PMID:26678683

  5. The cost of standing strong for replacement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katy

    2015-03-01

    The testimonies of these individuals largely speak for themselves. The responses point to the importance of specific institutions or research groups that focus on the development and use of alternatives, and these should, of course, be better supported. Those who find themselves outside such institutions or teams, are more likely to feel stranded and isolated. Then again, Liz did have the support of a research group dedicated to replacement, but she has still had a significant struggle to find funding. The interviews with some of these particular young researchers indeed pointed toward a tangible ‘cost’ in terms of having to steer their career on the often difficult path toward the use of non-animal based methods. PMID:25803001

  6. Replaceable Microfluidic Cartridges for a PCR Biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Kevin; Sullivan, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts a replaceable microfluidic cartridge that is a component of a miniature biosensor that detects target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. The biosensor utilizes (1) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to multiply the amount of DNA to be detected, (2) fluorogenic polynucleotide probe chemicals for labeling the target DNA sequences, and (3) a high-sensitivity epifluorescence-detection optoelectronic subsystem. Microfluidics is a relatively new field of device development in which one applies techniques for fabricating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to miniature systems for containing and/or moving fluids. Typically, microfluidic devices are microfabricated, variously, from silicon or polymers. The development of microfluidic devices for applications that involve PCR and fluorescence-based detection of PCR products poses special challenges

  7. Hormone replacement therapy: dilemmas in 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Anne

    2003-01-01

    About 6 million women in the United States are prescribed a combined estrogen-progestin regimen during and after the menopause. The immediate benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are relief of menopausal symptoms. Doctors and their patients have long presumed that the benefits on cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis outweigh the possible increased risk of breast cancer or venous thrombosis. The Women's Health Initiative, a National Institutes of Health program, is the first study to compare HRT to placebo in healthy women. The July 2002 report of increased cardiovascular events as well as increased breast cancer diagnosis in women on the HRT arm of the study brought widespread media coverage and has led to distress and confusion among women taking HRT. Women with a personal or family history of breast cancer pose a particular challenge to their physicians when they ask for advice about HRT. PMID:12813923

  8. Hormonal replacement therapy and gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Onnis, A; Marchetti, M

    1999-01-01

    The problem of quality of life and lifestyle in elderly women is today a very important social problem all over the world but particularly in rich western countries. Life expectancy of the population will be longer and longer in the future and for both females and males the biological involution correlated with the aging process must be delayed. The gonadal hormones stimulate the healthy state of the entire body (heart, skin, brain, bones, urogenital apparatus and so on) and consequently hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is mandatory. In women the biological clock of menopause allows us to intervene at the right time, with personalized estrogenic, estroprogestinic or estroandrogenic treatments. Health benefits and groundless risks allow today a careful hormonal management even in women treated for gynaecological cancers (breast and endometrium as well). PMID:10412612

  9. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  10. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  11. Monitoring of beta cell replacement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charles A; Haque, Waqas Z; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Balajii, Prathab S; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement treatment for patients with "brittle" type 1 diabetes (T1D) or intractable chronic pancreatitis to restore or preserve pancreatic endocrine function. Early after transplant, a significant islet mass is lost due to an innate inflammatory response, and further loss of the islet graft occurs over time due to immune response, drug toxicity, or metabolic exhaustion. Thus, clinically feasible techniques are essential to monitor islet graft function and survival to maintain appropriate therapy. Currently, islet graft function is monitored using blood glucose levels, insulin and C-peptide levels, and islet imaging. However, these tests are influenced by physiological changes, including beta cell stimulation. Biomarkers that are independent of metabolic stimuli would be more accurate and reliable in detecting islet damage. Antibodies against islet autoantigens are useful but not reliable markers of islet injury due to their presence during the pretransplant period. Several islet-specific proteins such as Glutamate decarboxylase-65, doublecortin, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1, and the high-mobility group box-1 protein have been proposed as candidates to monitor islet damage, but these biomarkers have short half-lives and unreliable detection. Unmethylated insulin DNA has been studied in T1D patients and has been documented as a highly correlative and selective biomarker for beta cell death. More recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) that are selectively expressed in islets have been shown to provide sensitive and accurate quantification of islet damage. Analysis of plasma samples from autologous and allogeneic islet transplant patients has demonstrated the value of miRNA-375 as a specific biomarker to accurately assess islet damage. Use of selective, sensitive, and measurably reproducible biomarkers of islets will lead to effective monitoring of beta

  12. Hormone replacement therapy and the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, K; Wells, M

    2001-01-01

    Modern hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens contain oestrogen and progestogen, given either in a cyclical or continuous combined manner. Most endometrial biopsies from women on sequential HRT show weak secretory features. Approximately 15% show proliferative activity, although this figure may be less if more than nine days of progestogen is given in each cycle. A small proportion will show an inactive or atrophic endometrium. Up to 50% of biopsies from women on continuous combined HRT contain minimal endometrial tissue for histopathological analysis: this correlates well with an atrophic endometrium with no appreciable pathology. Of the 50% with more substantial material, approximately one half will show endometrial atrophy, and one half will show weak secretory features. Proliferative, menstrual, and pseudodecidual changes are rare. Approximately 20% of women given unopposed oestrogen for one year develop endometrial hyperplasia. The relative risk of endometrial carcinoma is two to three. This is dramatically reduced by the addition of progestogen to the regimen, but cyclical progestogen as part of a sequential HRT regimen does not completely eliminate the risk of carcinoma. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia associated with sequential HRT is 5.4%, and that of atypical hyperplasia (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) is 0.7%. Continuous combined HRT is not associated with the development of hyperplasia or carcinoma, and may normalise the endometrium of women who have developed complex hyperplasia on sequential HRT. The probability of a histopathologist finding clinically relevant pathology in an endometrial biopsy specimen of a patient on HRT is low and is more likely to be a manifestation of pre-existing disease. Key Words: endometrium • hormone replacement therapy • endometrial hyperplasia • endometrial carcinoma PMID:11376015

  13. Sweating. Fluid and ion losses and replacement.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1998-04-01

    In the horse, sweat is produced by apocrine glands which are present over most haired and nonhaired skin. Although sweat secretion is initiated under a number of circumstances, the central drive for sweating in response to a thermal stimulus is the primary mechanism for its production. Sweating is an essential and primary mechanism for heat dissipation during exercise or exposure to hot ambient conditions. The rate of sweat production will reflect the interaction of numerous factors, including exercise intensity, ambient conditions, state of hydration, and the training or heat acclimation status of the individual horse. Thus, the sweating rates produced in response to an exercise-induced thermal load can be further increased by high ambient temperature or humidity which reduces evaporative efficiency, thereby contributing to the rate of rise in core body temperature. Equine sweat is an isotonic to slightly hypertonic secretion with sodium, chloride, and potassium contributing the major ionic components. The ionic composition of equine sweat is largely rate dependent and therefore is affected by factors such as ambient conditions and exercise intensity which result in elevations in sodium concentration in response to increases in sweating rate. Large sweat fluid losses associated with prolonged exercise will incur significant ion deficits, leading to alterations in skeletal muscle ion content and the potential for muscular dysfunction. With respect to exercise performance, however, the more important consequence of sweat fluid losses is the impairment of temperature regulation that accompanies severe dehydration. Although it is advantageous to restore a proportion of the fluid and ion losses incurred during prolonged exercise, few strategies will fully and safely replace the electrolyte losses incurred. Nevertheless, daily electrolyte supplementation of a good-quality diet will provide an effective method of replacing sweat ion losses during training and competition

  14. Hormone replacement therapy in a risk-benefit perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, E; Vessey, M P; Barlow, D; Gray, A; McPherson, K; Roche, M

    1996-03-01

    The relative cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was assessed within the framework of a computer model. Where data were lacking, it was necessary to make assumptions about the effects of HRT, particularly in relation to combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy and cardiovascular disease; however, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of changing these assumptions on the cost-effectiveness equation. It appears that net expenditure by the NHS will depend critically on the direct costs of treatment, rather than on any indirect costs incurred or saved as a result of side-effects. In terms of mortality, a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk would have greatest impact and would overshadow any small increase in breast cancer risk which may be associated with long-term use. If the cardioprotective effect of oestrogen is real, our results suggest that long-term prophylactic treatment of hysterectomised women would be relatively cost-effective. Treatment of symptomatic menopausal women for any period of time appears to offer very good value for money. The lack of data relating to combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy and cardioprotection, and the major importance of the latter in the equation of benefits and risks, make it more difficult to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of treating non-hysterectomised asymptomatic women for prophylactic reasons. PMID:8735363

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Levancini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR), is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence. PMID:26327857

  16. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Nimore » modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.« less

  17. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  18. Is the somatopause an indication for growth hormone replacement?

    PubMed

    Savine, R; Sönksen, P H

    1999-01-01

    In the normal population, a gradual and progressive fall in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion occurs with increasing age and is reflected in a parallel fall in circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, reduction in lean body mass, increase in body fat and rise in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Aging is also associated with a progressive failure of body functions and particularly with an increasing lack of physical strength and mobility. Many problems of aging are attributable to the progressive loss of lean tissues and to catabolic events. This can be and often is associated with a progressive decline in independence and quality of life, leading eventually to a prolonged dependence on others, followed by a distressing process of death. By analogy with the fall in ovarian function that inevitably eventually occurs in women with increasing age, this fall in GH secretion has been termed the somatopause. In cross-sectional studies on elderly people, the amount of GH secreted spontaneously correlates well with "good risk factors" such as body composition, mobility, lipid profiles and blood pressure. The important question that these scientific facts raises is whether this fall in GH secretion with increasing years is an important physiological safety event of the normal aging process, or whether it marks the development of GH deficiency which would benefit from GH replacement. It is established that a number of the clinical features of the somatopause are shared with the syndrome of adult-onset GH deficiency and Rudman first proposed the importance of GH in maintaining health and vitality with increasing age many years ago. In 1989, GH replacement was shown to be beneficial in adults with GH deficiency, and in 1990 Rudman showed remarkably similar beneficial effects in a group of elderly men with low plasma IGF-I values, but no underlying pituitary pathology, who were administered GH. In these adults, low doses of GH increased lean body mass

  19. Urban chaos and replacement dynamics in nature and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-11-01

    Replacements resulting from competition are ubiquitous phenomena in both nature and society. The evolution of a self-organized system is always a physical process substituting one type of components for another type of components. A logistic model of replacement dynamics has been proposed in terms of technical innovation and urbanization, but it fails to arouse widespread attention in the academia. This paper is devoted to laying the foundations of general replacement principle by using analogy and induction. The empirical base of this study is urban replacement, including urbanization and urban growth. The sigmoid functions can be employed to model various processes of replacement. Many mathematical methods such as allometric scaling and head/tail breaks can be applied to analyzing the processes and patterns of replacement. Among varied sigmoid functions, the logistic function is the basic and the simplest model of replacement dynamics. A new finding is that replacement can be associated with chaos in a nonlinear system, e.g., urban chaos is just a part of replacement dynamics. The aim of developing replacement theory is at understanding complex interaction and conversion. This theory provides a new way of looking at urbanization, technological innovation and diffusion, Volterra-Lotka’s predator-prey interaction, man-land relation, and dynastic changes resulting from peasant uprising, and all that. Especially, the periodic oscillations and chaos of replacement dynamics can be used to explain and predict the catastrophic occurrences in the physical and human systems.

  20. Automated Detection of Health Websites' HONcode Conformity: Can N-gram Tokenization Replace Stemming?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Célia; Dolamic, Ljiljana; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Authors evaluated supervised automatic classification algorithms for determination of health related web-page compliance with individual HONcode criteria of conduct using varying length character n-gram vectors to represent healthcare web page documents. The training/testing collection comprised web page fragments extracted by HONcode experts during the manual certification process. The authors compared automated classification performance of n-gram tokenization to the automated classification performance of document words and Porter-stemmed document words using a Naive Bayes classifier and DF (document frequency) dimensionality reduction metrics. The study attempted to determine whether the automated, language-independent approach might safely replace word-based classification. Using 5-grams as document features, authors also compared the baseline DF reduction function to Chi-square and Z-score dimensionality reductions. Overall study results indicate that n-gram tokenization provided a potentially viable alternative to document word stemming. PMID:26262363

  1. Evolution of High Tooth Replacement Rates in Sauropod Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. Methodology/Principal Findings We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Conclusions/Significance Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently

  2. Data reduction from twinned RNA crystals.

    PubMed

    Lietzke, S E; Carperos, V E; Kundrot, C E

    1996-07-01

    Methods were developed to process diffraction data from epitaxically twinned crystals. Four programs for data reduction and two display programs were developed to augment the data-reduction program XDS [Kabsch (1988). J. Appl. Cryst. 21, 916-924]. The programs can be generalized for use with other data-reduction software that provides the user with a list of the reflections used to determine lattice constants and crystal orientation. LATTICE_VIEW generates a PDB file containing 'water molecules' at the reciprocal-space coordinates of the strong spots found in the initial data frames. The PDB file is visualized to identify spots that belong to the same lattice, obtain unit-cell dimensions for a lattice, and assess data quality. VECTOR_MATCH is used to find additional spots belonging to a lattice. ACCOUNT4 determines which spots have been processed by XDS. COMFORT discards reflections that are too close to a reflection in another lattice. The display programs provide useful visual information on the quality of the crystal orientations used. Data with an R(merge) of 7.1% at 2.4 A resolution were obtained from epitaxically twinned crystals of an RNA dodecamer. The data were of sufficient quality to solve the structure with a combination of molecular replacement and single isomorphous replacement methods. PMID:15299632

  3. Study the effect of gray component replacement level on reflectance spectra and color reproduction accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is investigation of gray component replacement (GCR) levels on reflectance spectrum for different overprints of the inks and color reproduction accuracy. The most commonly implemented method in practice for generation of achromatic composition is gray component replacement (GCR). The experiments in this study, have been performed in real production conditions with special test form generated by specialized software. The measuring of reflection spectrum of printed colors, gives a complete conception for the effect of different gray component replacement levels on color reproduction accuracy. For better data analyses and modeling of processes, we have calculated (converted) the CIEL*a*b* color coordinates from the reflection spectra data. The assessment of color accuracy by using different GCR amount has been made by calculation of color difference ΔE* ab. In addition for the specific printing conditions we have created ICC profiles with different GCR amounts. A comparison of the color gamuts has been performed. For a first time a methodology is implemented for examination and estimation of effect of GCR levels on color reproduction accuracy by studying a big number of colors in entire visible spectrum. Implementation in practice of the results achieved in this experiment, will lead to improved gray balance and better color accuracy. Another important effect of this research is reduction of financial costs of printing production by decreasing of ink consumption, indirect reduction of emissions during the manufacture of inks and facilitates the process of deinking during the recycling paper.

  4. Surface engineering: a low wearing solution for metal-on-metal hip surface replacements.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Ian J; Williams, Sophie; Brown, Chris; Anderson, James; Isaac, Graham; Hatto, Peter; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2009-08-01

    Increased patient blood and serum levels of Co and Cr and dissemination of metal wear particles throughout organs and tissues are the primary concerns with metal-on-metal surface replacements. Surface engineering, providing a ceramic bearing surface on a metal substrate, could provide a solution. This study investigated thick (>10 microm) arc evaporation plasma vapor deposition chromium nitride (CrN) coated surface replacements in terms of wear, ion levels, and wear particles in a 10 million cycle hip simulator study, compared to a contemporary metal-on-metal surface replacement. The ion levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The wear particles were imaged by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. The CrN-coated bearings had 80% lower wear than the MoM controls. The Cr and Co ion levels in the lubricant of the CrN bearings were 73 and 98% lower than in the MoM controls. The wear particles produced were in the nanometer size range and round to oval in morphology. The CrN coating could provide a reduction in the wear and ion release of MoM surface replacements, thereby reducing the perceived risks to the patient associated with these prostheses. PMID:19195030

  5. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P < 0.05) batter viscosity, giving heterogeneous bubbles size distributions as it was observed by light microscopy. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy the fat was observed to be located at the bubbles' interface, enabling an optimum crumb cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). PMID:22250810

  6. The vertical replacement-gate (VRG) MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, J. M.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Nigam, T.; Monroe, D.; Klemens, F. P.; Kornblit, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have fabricated and demonstrated a new device called the vertical replacement-gate (VRG) MOSFET. This is the first MOSFET ever built in which: (1) all critical transistor dimensions are controlled precisely without lithography and dry etch, (2) the gate length is defined by a deposited film thickness, independently of lithography and etch, and (3) a high-quality gate oxide is grown on a single-crystal Si channel. In addition to this unique combination, the VRG-MOSFET includes self-aligned source/drain extensions (SDEs) formed by solid source diffusion (SSD), small parasitic overlap, junction, and source/drain capacitances, and a replacement-gate approach to enable alternative gate stacks. We have demonstrated nMOSFETs with an initial VRG process, and pMOSFETs with a more mature process. Since both sides of the device pillar drive in parallel, the drive current per μm of coded width can far exceed that of advanced planar MOSFETs. Our 100 nm VRG-pMOSFETs with tOX=25 Å drive 615 μA/μm at 1.5 V with IOFF=8 nA/μm—80% more drive than specified in the 1999 ITRS Roadmap at the same IOFF. Our 50 nm VRG-pMOSFETs with tOX=25 Å approach the 1.0 V roadmap target of ION=350 μA/μm at IOFF=20 nA/μm without the need for a hyperthin (<20 Å) gate oxide. We have described a process for integrating n-channel and p-channel VRG-MOSFETs to form side-by-side CMOS that retains the key VRG advantages while providing packing density and process complexity that is competitive with traditional planar CMOS. All of this is achieved using current manufacturing methods, materials, and tools, and high-performance devices with 50 nm physical gate lengths ( LG) have been demonstrated with precise gate length control without advanced lithography.

  7. Mineral replacement reactions and element mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    When a mineral is out of equilibrium with an aqueous fluid, reactions will take place in an attempt to reach a new equilibrium. Commonly in the Earth dissolution at a mineral-fluid interface initiates a coupled reaction involving dissolution and precipitation (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014). This is a ubiquitous reaction during such processes as metamorphism, metasomatism and weathering. When rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes are in contact with aqueous fluids (typically NaCl-rich) resultant new phases are formed and elements present in the parent mineral are released to the fluid and therefore mobilized for transport elsewhere. This has been shown in a number of systems such as the albitisation of feldspars (Hövelmann et al., 2010) when a Ca-bearing plagioclase is replaced by albite (NaAlSi3O8). However during this reaction not only is Ca released to the fluid but most other minor elements, such as Mg, Pb, rare earth elements amongst others, are almost totally mobilized and removed in solution. This interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction has many implications for the redistributon of elements in the crust of the Earth. It is also of note that albitisation occurs often in areas of high mineralization, such as in the Curnamona Province in S. Australia (Au-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn deposits) and the Bamble District of S. Norway. Secondly atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image these reactions at a nanoscale, especially at the calcite-fluid interface, such as the formation of apatite from phosphate-bearing solutions, and the sequestration of toxic elements, eg., Se and As. References Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. (2014) Coupled dissolution and precipitation at mineral-fluid interfaces. Chemical Geology, 383, 132-146. Putnis C.V. and Ruiz-Agudo E. (2013) The mineral-water interface: where minerals react with the environment. Elements, 9, 177-182. Hövelmann J., Putnis A., Geisler T., Schmidt B.C., Golla-Schindler U. (2009

  8. Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

  9. Physical training after heart valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, J P; Kappagoda, C T; Stoker, J B; Deverall, P B; Watson, D A; Linden, R J

    1980-01-01

    A controlled trial was undertaken to examine the efficacy of physical training in patients recovering from the replacement of a single heart valve. Patients were allocated to a test or control group two weeks after operation. Each patient performed a submaximal exercise test at entry, and 12 and 24 weeks after this test. The Canadian Air Force exercise programme was undertaken by the test group, while the control group continued normal activities for the 24 weeks between the first and last exercise group. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each exercise test in each patient. Alterations in this line were used as an "index" of changes in "cardiorespiratory fitness". The individual results showed a consistent improvement in "cardiorespiratory fitness" over the first 12 weeks in both groups. Only patients in the test group continued to improve between 12 and 24 weeks. Thus the exercise programme modified the recovery of "cardiorespiratory fitness" after operation. Results in patients who developed clinical complications, and were excluded from the trial, predicted a deteriorating clinical condition. This finding suggested that sequential exercise tests are of value after cardiac surgery. PMID:7459147

  10. Replacing the academic medical center's teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Reves, J G; Smith, Stuart; Greenberg, Ray; Johnson, Donald

    2005-11-01

    Addressing the need for updated teaching hospital facilities is one of the most significant issues that an academic medical center faces. The authors describe the process they underwent in deciding to build a new facility at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Initial issues included whether or not the teaching hospital would continue to play a role in clinical education and whether to replace or renovate the existing facility. Once the decision to build was reached, MUSC had to choose between an on-campus or distant site for the new hospital and determine what the function of the old hospital would be. The authors examine these questions and discuss the factors involved in different stages of decision making, in order to provide the academic medicine community guidance in negotiating similar situations. Open communication within MUSC and with the greater community was a key component of the success of the enterprise to date. The authors argue that decisions concerning site, size, and focus of the hospital must be made by developing university-wide and community consensus among many different constituencies. The most important elements in the success at MUSC were having unified leadership, incorporating constituent input, engaging an external consultant, remaining unfazed by unanticipated challenges, and adhering to a realistic, aggressive timetable. The authors share their strategies for identifying and successfully managing these complex and potentially divisive aspects of building a new teaching hospital. PMID:16249296

  11. Futility, Benefit, and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Alexander, Karen P.; O'Gara, Patrick T.; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative innovation that provides treatment for high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were previously either not referred for or denied operative intervention. Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival and symptoms after TAVR compared to medical therapy, however there remains a sizable group of patients who die or lack improvement in quality of life soon after TAVR. This raises important questions about the need to identify and acknowledge the possibility of futility in some patients considered for TAVR. In this very elderly population, a number of factors in addition to traditional risk stratification need to be considered including multimorbidity, disability, frailty, and cognition in order to assess the anticipated benefit of TAVR. Consideration by a multidisciplinary heart valve team with broad areas of expertise is critical for assessing likely benefit from TAVR. Moreover, these complicated decisions should take place with clear communication around desired health outcomes on behalf of the patient and provider. The decision that treatment with TAVR is futile should include alternative plans to optimize the patient's health state or, in some cases, discussions related to end of life care. We review issues to be considered when making and communicating these difficult decisions. PMID:24954571

  12. Temporomandibular joint replacement: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, B; Buchanan, J; Cliff, J

    2014-05-01

    Alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacement (TMJ TJR) has been performed in New Zealand utilizing the TMJ Concepts patient-fitted system since 2000. The data analysed in this study were collected retrospectively from questionnaires sent to all maxillofacial surgeons in New Zealand who had implanted TMJ Concepts devices between 2000 and 2011. A total of 63 devices were implanted in 42 patients (13 males, 29 females) during this 12-year period. The primary indication for TMJ TJR was end-stage joint disease resulting from ankylosis and arthritis. The mean age of the patients was 47 years (range 7-80 years). The most common complication reported was transient facial nerve impairment in 4.8% of the patients. Objective results, measured as the maximal incisional opening, improved by a mean of 17.3mm (P<0.01); 90% of patients reported improved quality of life. New Zealand oral and maxillofacial surgeons have concluded that TMJ TJR using the TMJ Concepts prosthesis is a reliable treatment option for the management of end-stage TMJ disease. PMID:24332584

  13. TOTAL ANKLE REPLACEMENT: WHY, WHEN AND HOW?

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Dettoni, Federico; Femino, John E; Phisitkul, Phinit; Germano, Margherita; Amendola, Annunziato

    2010-01-01

    Total ankle replacement (TAR) was first attempted in the 1970s, but poor results led to its being considered inferior to ankle fusion until the late 1980s and early 1990s. By that time, newer designs which more closely replicated the natural anatomy of the ankle, showed improved clinical outcomes.1 Currently, even though controversy still exists about the effectiveness of TAR compared to ankle fusion, TAR has shown promising mid-term results and should no longer be considered an experimental procedure. Factors related to improved TAR outcomes include: 1) better patient selection, 2) more precise knowledge and replication of ankle biomechanics, 3) the introduction of less-constrained designs with reduced bone resection and no need for cementation, and 4) greater awareness of soft-tissue balance and component alignment. When TAR is performed, a thorough knowledge of ankle anatomy, pathologic anatomy and biomechanics is needed along with a careful pre-operative plan. These are fundamental in obtaining durable and predictable outcomes. The aim of this paper is to outline these aspects through a literature review. PMID:21045984

  14. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nikos; Sinning, Jan-Malte

    2014-01-01

    Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) negatively affects prognosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). As transcatheter heart valves (THV) are anchored using a certain degree of oversizing at the level of the aortic annulus, incomplete stent frame expansion because of heavily annular calcifications, suboptimal placement of the prosthesis, and/or annulus-prosthesis size-mismatch can contribute to paravalvular AR with subsequent increased mortality risk. Echocardiography is essential to differentiate between transvalvular and paravalvular AR and to further elucidate the etiology of AR during the procedure. However, because echocardiographic quantification of AR in TAVR patients remains challenging, especially in the implantation situation, a multimodal approach to the evaluation of AR with use of hemodynamic measurements and imaging modalities is useful to precisely quantify the severity of AR immediately after valve deployment. "Next-generation" THVs are already on the market and first results show that paravalvular AR related to design modifications (eg, paravalvular space-fillers, full repositionability) are rarely seen in these valve types.  PMID:24632758

  15. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  16. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  17. Current concepts in total femoral replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo BP; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20th century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing literature is mainly composed of a rather heterogeneous mix of retrospective case series and a wide assortment of case reports. Numerous TFR prostheses are currently available and the surgeon must understand the unique implications of each implant design. Long-term functional outcomes are dependent on adherence to proper technique and an appropriate physical therapy program for postoperative rehabilitation. Revision TFR is mainly performed for periprosthetic infection and the severe femoral bone loss associated with aseptic revisions. Depending on the likelihood of attaining infection clearance, it may sometimes be advisable to proceed directly to hip disarticulation without attempting salvage of the TFR. Other reported complications of TFR include hip joint instability, limb length discrepancy, device failure, component loosening, patellar maltracking and delayed wound healing. Further research is needed to better characterize the long-term functional outcomes and complications associated with this complex procedure. PMID:26716087

  18. Effect of fat replacers on kefir quality.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Bilge; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of fat replacers on the quality of non-fat kefir. Skim milk fortified with Dairy Lo (DL) and inulin (INU) was fermented with kefir grains to manufacture kefir. The results of compositional, microbiological, rheological and sensorial analyses were compared with whole kefir (WK) and non-fat kefir (NFK) controls. Results for dry matter, pH and lactic acid ranged between 82.4 and 109.1 g kg(-1), 4.26 and 4.40, and 7.0 and 9.2 g L(-1), respectively. Acetaldehyde and ethanol contents of samples were between 2.89 and 7.28 mg L(-1), and 151.46 and 323.89 mg L(-1), respectively. In all samples, Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp. and yeast counts were between 9.1 and 9.9, 9.3 and 9.9, and 5.2 and 5.6 log cfu mL(-1), respectively. Kefir samples had non-Newtonian behaviour and pseudoplastic fluid with thixotropy. At the first day, DL had the highest apparent viscosity (3.119 Pa s) while NFK had the lowest value (1.830 Pa s). In the sensory evaluation, odour and taste scores of samples were not different. Dairy Lo and inulin could be used without any adverse effect for the production of non-fat kefir. PMID:20355079

  19. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  20. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes. PMID:25733347

  1. MMIC Replacement for Gunn Diode Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David

    2011-01-01

    An all-solid-state replacement for high-frequency Gunn diode oscillators (GDOs) has been proposed for use in NASA s millimeter- and submillimeter-wave sensing instruments. Highly developed microwave oscillators are used to achieve a low-noise and highly stable reference signal in the 10-40-GHz band. Compact amplifiers and high-power frequency multipliers extend the signal to the 100-500-GHz band with minimal added phase noise and output power sufficient for NASA missions. This technology can achieve improved output power and frequency agility, while maintaining phase noise and stability comparable to other GDOs. Additional developments of the technology include: a frequency quadrupler to 145 GHz with 18 percent efficiency and 15 percent fixed tuned bandwidth; frequency doublers featuring 124, 240, and 480 GHz; an integrated 874-GHz subharmonic mixer with a mixer noise temperature of 3,000 K DSB (double sideband) and mixer conversion loss of 11.8 dB DSB; a high-efficiency frequency tripler design with peak output power of 23 mW and 14 mW, and efficiency of 16 and 13 percent, respectively; millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers to the 30-40 GHz band with high DC power efficiency; and an 874-GHz radiometer suitable for airborne observation with state-of-the-art sensitivity at room temperature and less than 5 W of total power consumption.

  2. Extensor mechanism reconstruction after proximal tibial replacement.

    PubMed

    Oddy, M J; Pendegrass, C J; Goodship, A E; Cannon, S R; Briggs, T W R; Blunn, G W

    2005-06-01

    We developed an in vivo model of the attachment of a patellar tendon to a metal implant to simulate the reconstruction of an extensor mechanism after replacement of the proximal tibia. In 24 ewes, the patellar tendon was attached to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium prosthesis. In 12, the interface was augmented with autograft containing cancellous bone and marrow. In the remaining ewes, the interface was not grafted. Kinematic gait analysis showed nearly normal function of the joint by 12 weeks. Force-plate assessment showed a significant increase in functional weight-bearing in the grafted animals (p = 0.043). The tendon-implant interface showed that without graft, encapsulation of fibrous tissue occurred. With autograft, a developing tendon-bone-HA-implant interface was observed at six weeks and by 12 weeks a layered tendon-fibrocartilage-bone interface was seen which was similar to a direct-type enthesis. With stable mechanical fixation, an appropriate bioactive surface and biological augmentation the development of a functional tendon-implant interface can be achieved. PMID:15911677

  3. Polymers replace glass in Nova fuel capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The glass fuel-capsule designs used in previous laser-fusion research are not adaptable to the implosion-physics requirements of Nova and other more powerful laser facilities that may be available in the future. As one tries to learn more about the physics of high-density compression, it becomes increasingly important to replace the glass with lower-Z material. Accordingly, the authors have shut down the high-temperature drop-tower furnaces they used to make glass capsules, and they are focusing all their efforts on developing new techniques for making polymer capsules. These capsules are ten times larger in diameter than the glass capsules used in the early days of laser-fusion research, but they are still only one-tenth as large as a high-gain capsule must be. The polymer capsules will be used in classified indirect-drive targets. This article describes how the decisions were made on which polymers to use in the NOVA fuel capsules, the techniques explored, and the properties of the prototype capsules.

  4. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  5. Nonclinical Development of BCG Replacement Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Grode, Leander; Chang, Rosemary; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Laddy, Dominick; Hokey, David; Derrick, Steven; Morris, Sheldon; McCown, David; Kidd, Reginald; Gengenbacher, Martin; Eisele, Bernd; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Fulkerson, John; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains containing well-defined gene deletions or insertions, new vaccine candidates are under evaluation at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. Since most BCG vaccines in use today were evaluated in clinical trials decades ago and are produced by outdated processes, the development of new BCG vaccines offers a number of advantages that include a modern well-defined manufacturing process along with state-of-the-art evaluation of safety and efficacy in target populations. We provide a description of the preclinical development of two novel rBCGs, VPM1002 that was constructed by adding a modified hly gene coding for the protein listeriolysin O (LLO) from Listeria monocytogenes and AERAS-422, which carries a modified pfoA gene coding for the protein perfringolysin O (PFO) from Clostridium perfringens, and three genes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel approaches like these should be helpful in generating stable and effective rBCG vaccine candidates that can be better characterized than traditional BCG vaccines. PMID:26343962

  6. Gray component replacement using color mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Henry R.

    1994-05-01

    A new approach to the gray component replacement (GCR) has been developed. It employs the color mixing theory for modeling the spectral fit between the 3-color and 4-color prints. To achieve this goal, we first examine the accuracy of the models with respect to the experimental results by applying them to the prints made by a Canon Color Laser Copier-500 (CLC-500). An empirical halftone correction factor is used for improving the data fitting. Among the models tested, the halftone corrected Kubelka-Munk theory gives the closest fit, followed by the halftone corrected Beer-Bouguer law and the Yule-Neilsen approach. We then apply the halftone corrected BB law to GCR. The main feature of this GCR approach is based on the spectral measurements of the primary color step wedges and a software package implementing the color mixing model. The software determines the amount of the gray component to be removed, then adjusts each primary color until a good match of the peak wavelengths between the 3-color and 4-color spectra is obtained. Results indicate that the average (Delta) Eab between cmy and cmyk renditions of 64 color patches is 3.11 (Delta) Eab. Eighty-seven percent of the patches has (Delta) Eab less than 5 units. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity; there is no need for the black printer and under color addition. Because this approach is based on the spectral reproduction, it minimizes the metamerism.

  7. Total ankle replacement for posttraumatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Weme, Rebecca A Nieuwe; van Solinge, Guido; N Doornberg, Job; Sierevelt, Inger; Haverkamp, Daniël; Doets, H Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Most studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) have used a case mix of patients. We evaluated the outcome of TAR performed for end-stage arthritis either because of fracture or ligamentous injury. Patients and methods We prospectively followed 88 consecutive patients (50 postfracture ankles and 40 ankles with instability arthritis (2 bilateral)) who underwent TAR between 2001 and 2009. Mean follow-up for both groups was 5 years. Results Preoperative varus deformity of 10° or more was present in 23 ankles in the instability group. At 6 years, survival with revision or salvage fusion as an endpoint was 87% (95% CI: 74–99) in the postfracture group and 79% (95% CI: 63–94) in the instability group. Progressive periprosthetic osteolysis was seen in 23 ankles, and required salvage fusion in 6. The number of reoperations was similar in both groups. Clinical outcome, as assessed with 2 ankle scores and 2 questionnaires, showed good results and was similar at the latest follow-up. Interpretation The outcome was similar in the postfracture and instability groups and also similar to that reported in series including a case mix of patients. In contrast to earlier reports, preoperative frontal plane deformity in this series was not identified as a risk factor for failure. PMID:25772269

  8. [Vasoplegic Syndrome after Aortic Valve Replacement].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kazuto; Shigematsu, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of vasoplegic syndrome (VS) after aortic valve replacement in a 65 year old male with aortic stenosis. The patient developed hypotension after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Transesophageal echocardiography revealed well-maintained cardiac function and normal prosthetic valve function. However, his cardiac index was 3.0 l x min(-1) x m(-2) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was 1100 dynes x sec(-1) x cm(-5) x m(-2). Diagnosing VS, norepinephrine administration was commenced. Since his respiratory status was good, the patient was extubated on the day of surgery. Two days after surgery, catecholamines were discontinued with the stabilization of his circulatory status. However, his respiratory status showed gradual deterioration, and he was re-intubated. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion, which was treated by drainage and fluid restriction. With this, his oxygenation improved and he could be extubated 5 days after surgery. Vasoplegic syndrome is a potentially life-threatening complication following cardiac surgery. Hypotension at the time of separation from CPB can be due to multiple factors. Despite an incidence rate of 10%, little is known about VS. We hope that, in future, tailored therapeutic protocols for VS will be developed. PMID:27004393

  9. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies. PMID:26055025

  10. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes. PMID:25733347

  11. Imaging of enzyme replacement therapy using PET

    PubMed Central

    Phenix, Christopher P.; Rempel, Brian P.; Colobong, Karen; Doudet, Doris J.; Adam, Michael J.; Clarke, Lorne A.; Withers, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Direct enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been introduced as a means to treat a number of rare, complex genetic conditions associated with lysosomal dysfunction. Gaucher disease was the first for which this therapy was applied and remains the prototypical example. Although ERT using recombinant lysosomal enzymes has been shown to be effective in altering the clinical course of Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Hurler syndrome, Hunter syndrome, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, and Pompe disease, the recalcitrance of certain disease manifestations underscores important unanswered questions related to dosing regimes, tissue half-life of the recombinant enzyme and the ability of intravenously administered enzyme to reach critical sites of known disease pathology. We have developed an innovative method for tagging acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase), the recombinant enzyme formulated in Cerezyme® used to treat Gaucher disease, using an 18F-labeled substrate analogue that becomes trapped within the active site of the enzyme. Using micro-PET we show that the tissue distribution of injected enzyme can be imaged in a murine model and that the PET data correlate with tissue 18F counts. Further we show that PET imaging readily monitors pharmacokinetic changes effected by receptor blocking. The ability to 18F-label GCase to monitor the enzyme distribution and tissue half-life in vivo by PET provides a powerful research tool with an immediate clinical application to Gaucher disease and a clear path for application to other ERTs. PMID:20534487

  12. Control console replacement at the WPI Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    With partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) University Reactor Instrumentation Upgrade Program (DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-90ER12982), the original control console at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Reactor has been replaced with a modern system. The new console maintains the original design bases and functionality while utilizing current technology. An advanced remote monitoring system has been added to augment the educational capabilities of the reactor. Designed and built by General Electric in 1959, the open pool nuclear training reactor at WPI was one of the first such facilities in the nation located on a university campus. Devoted to undergraduate use, the reactor and its related facilities have been since used to train two generations of nuclear engineers and scientists for the nuclear industry. The reactor power level was upgraded from 1 to 10 kill in 1969, and its operating license was renewed for 20 years in 1983. In 1988, the reactor was converted to low enriched uranium. The low power output of the reactor and ergonomic facility design make it an ideal tool for undergraduate nuclear engineering education and other training.

  13. An analytical approach to toxic substance replacement in support of pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, I.B.

    1997-12-31

    In support of pollution prevention and in accordance with Executive Order 12856 concerning pollution prevention, all federal agencies must comply with the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) chemical release reduction and pollution prevention planning. The inventory lists hundreds of chemicals and choosing those to replace and finding actual replacement chemicals or procedures is not always clear. This study focuses on an analytical approach to this problem by understanding the application of ethanol. Ethanol is a volatile organic compound (VOC) used as a solvent in ammunition manufacturing. Ethanol`s use as the solvent for shellac in a primer lacquer is characterized in the laboratory. Due to interest in substituting acetone for ethanol, an acetone-based primer lacquer is fabricated and tested in comparison to its ethanol counterpart. The results form the basis for broader application and chemical change.

  14. Conversion of ankle autofusion to total ankle replacement using the Salto XT revision prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Emilie R C; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Ellis, Scott J

    2016-09-01

    Few reports in the literature have described the conversion of a surgically fused ankle to a total ankle replacement. The takedown of an autofusion and conversion to a prosthesis has not been described. We report the case of a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis with an ankle autofusion fixed in equinus and severe talonavicular arthritis that was converted to ankle replacement using the Salto XT revision system. We describe the reasons why the decision was made to perform total ankle arthroplasty while concomitantly fusing the talonavicular joint, and discuss the rationale of the various surgical treatment options considered. We describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes achieved in this case. At 12 months post-operatively the patient reported significant reduction of pain, increased FAOS scores and had increased ankle range of motion. PMID:27502236

  15. Fiber-reinforced Composite for Chairside Replacement of Anterior Teeth: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, S; Vallittu, Pk; Lassila, Lvj

    2008-01-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from implant to conventional Maryland prosthesis, can be used for the replacement of a missing anterior tooth. Whenever a minimal tooth reduction is preferred, a fiber reinforced composite (FRC) prosthesis could be a good alternative to conventional prosthetic techniques, chiefly as temporary restoration before making a final decision on the treatment. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical procedure of fabricating anterior chairside FRC prosthesis with pre-impregnated unidirectional E-glass fibers and veneered particulate filler composite. Fiber-reinforced composite in combination with adhesive technology appears to be a promising treatment option for replacing missing teeth. However, further and long-term clinical investigation will be required to provide additional information on the survival of directly-bonded anterior fixed prosthesis made with FRC systems. PMID:21499473

  16. Testosterone Replacement and Cardiovascular Safety: No Straight and Narrow!

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Sartaj S; Dhindsa, Sandeep S; Chemitiganti, Rama

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in the number of men treated for hypogonadism with the expectation of symptomatic benefit. However, the long-term cardiovascular safety of testosterone replacement remains unknown because retrospective studies of testosterone replacement have been inconsistent, and definitive, prospective, randomized studies are lacking. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the studies on testosterone replacement and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25983562

  17. [Partial replacement of obsolete prosthetic implants].

    PubMed

    Petit, R

    2005-10-01

    Thanks to better technique for cemented prostheses or to better osteointegration of porous coated implants, a long term survival can be expected for joint prostheses. Wear of the bearing surfaces resulting in osteolysis, metallosis and even rupture has become the main threat after several years. In such cases, revising all the parts of a stable and well fixed implant may cause fractures, loss of bone and thus need an extensive reconstruction. Revising only the worn out parts might be preferable, provided that they still are available. Data collected by the SFHG (French Hip and Knee Society) and AVIO group show that 45% of hip revisions and 16% of knee revisions are partial ones. The need for a total exchange instead of a partial one appeared in 6.4% of knee revisions and 2.8% of hip revisions, because parts were no longer available. These problems linked to a longer life expertancy of the patients and the increasing number of hip and knee arthroplasties will be met more and more often by orthopedic surgeons. When parts identical to the worn out ones are still on the market, there is no problem. When their production has been given up, but the company has kept their references and accepts to make a single element it may be possible to obtain the missing unit. The increased cost of such a fabrication, however is not nowadays supported by an appropriate price. But in a few remaining cases without enough industrial references, a custom-made part had to be done to allow partial replacement, with the benefit of an adapted price. Care must be taken to observe the regulations. The surgeon endorses full responsibility not only for the surgical procedure but also for the choice of the implanted device. For custom-made products he is responsible for the technical data given to the company. The patient must be thoroughly informed, and his opinion taken into account in the operative decision. As a revision arthroplasty aims at restoring a good function, the procedure should

  18. A Reduce and Replace Strategy for Suppressing Vector-Borne Diseases: Insights from a Deterministic Model

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Michael A.; Okamoto, Kenichi; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Genetic approaches for controlling disease vectors have aimed either to reduce wild-type populations or to replace wild-type populations with insects that cannot transmit pathogens. Here, we propose a Reduce and Replace (R&R) strategy in which released insects have both female-killing and anti-pathogen genes. We develop a mathematical model to numerically explore release strategies involving an R&R strain of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. We show that repeated R&R releases may lead to a temporary decrease in mosquito population density and, in the absence of fitness costs associated with the anti-pathogen gene, a long-term decrease in competent vector population density. We find that R&R releases more rapidly reduce the transient and long-term competent vector densities than female-killing releases alone. We show that releases including R&R females lead to greater reduction in competent vector density than male-only releases. The magnitude of reduction in total and competent vectors depends upon the release ratio, release duration, and whether females are included in releases. Even when the anti-pathogen allele has a fitness cost, R&R releases lead to greater reduction in competent vectors than female-killing releases during the release period; however, continued releases are needed to maintain low density of competent vectors long-term. We discuss the results of the model as motivation for more detailed studies of R&R strategies. PMID:24023839

  19. Kinetically Controlled Growth of Fine Gold Nanofractals from Au(I) via Indirect Galvanic Replacement Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2015-09-30

    Two of the most important features of Au nanostructures, size and shape, are significantly affected by the reduction kinetics of the relevant metal precursors. Because of the high standard oxidative potential of gold ionic species, AuCl4(-) in particular, Au fractals formed via various chemical or electrochemical approaches often have very coarse branches with diameters varying from tens of nanometers to submicrometers, even though extensive chemicals and/or complicated processes have been deployed to control the reduction kinetics. Herein we report an indirect galvanic replacement (IGR) strategy where the electrons generated in a galvanic replacement reaction from anode oxidation are channeled out to a separate conducting film on which the cathodic metal can be deposited. Reduction of Au(I) ionic species with relatively low standard oxidative potential has been conducted with the IGR experimental setting. 2D finely hyperbranched Au fractals (4.0 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length) with high structural integrity were produced. Controls over the deposition density, location, and microfeatures of Au nanofractals were demonstrated through a mechanistic study. In addition, the thus-prepared Au nanofractals were also thoroughly tested in electrochemical sensing of H2O2. PMID:26360961

  20. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.