Imaging the photodissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states.
Marggi Poullain, Sonia; Chicharro, David V; Zanchet, Alexandre; González, Marta G; Rubio-Lago, Luis; Senent, María L; García-Vela, Alberto; Bañares, Luis
2016-06-22
The photodissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states have been studied using the velocity map and slice ion imaging in combination with pump-probe nanosecond laser pulses. The reported translational energy and angular distributions of the H((2)S) photofragment detected by (2+1) REMPI highlight different dissociation mechanisms for the 3s and 3pz Rydberg states. A narrow peak in the translational energy distribution and an anisotropic angular distribution characterize the fast 3s photodissociation, while for the 3pz state Boltzmann-type translational energy and isotropic angular distributions are found. High level ab initio calculations have been performed in order to elucidate the photodissociation mechanisms from the two Rydberg states and to rationalize the experimental results. The calculated potential energy curves highlight a typical predissociation mechanism for the 3s state, characterized by the coupling between the 3s Rydberg state and a valence repulsive state. On the other hand, the photodissociation on the 3pz state is initiated by a predissociation process due to the coupling between the 3pz Rydberg state and a valence repulsive state and constrained, later on, by two conical intersections that allow the system to relax to lower electronic states. Such a mechanism opens up different reaction pathways leading to CH2 photofragments in different electronic states and inducing a transfer of energy between translational and internal modes.
Dipolar Dephasing of Rydberg D -State Polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tresp, C.; Bienias, P.; Weber, S.; Gorniaczyk, H.; Mirgorodskiy, I.; Büchler, H. P.; Hofferberth, S.
2015-08-01
We experimentally study the effects of the anisotropic Rydberg interaction on D -state Rydberg polaritons slowly propagating through a cold atomic sample. We observe the interaction-induced dephasing of Rydberg polaritons at very low photon input rates into the medium. We develop a model combining the propagation of the two-photon wave function through our system with nonperturbative calculations of the anisotropic Rydberg interaction to show that the observed effect can be attributed to pairwise interaction of individual Rydberg polaritons at distances larger than the Rydberg blockade.
Fractional quantum Hall states of Rydberg polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Yao, Norman Y.; Hafezi, Mohammad; Pohl, Thomas; Firstenberg, Ofer; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2015-03-01
We propose a scheme for realizing fractional quantum Hall states of light. In our scheme, photons of two polarizations are coupled to different atomic Rydberg states to form two flavors of Rydberg polaritons that behave as an effective spin. An array of optical cavity modes overlapping with the atomic cloud enables the realization of an effective spin-1 /2 lattice. We show that the dipolar interaction between such polaritons, inherited from the Rydberg states, can be exploited to create a flat, topological band for a single spin-flip excitation. At half filling, this gives rise to a photonic (or polaritonic) fractional Chern insulator—a lattice-based, fractional quantum Hall state of light.
Photodissociation Dynamics of Diacetylene Rydberg States.
Wang, Hongzhen; Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming
2015-11-19
The state-selective photodissociation of diacetylene (C4H2) was studied in the wavelength range of 127.5-164.4 nm by high-resolution Rydberg H atom time-of-flight spectroscopy measurements. In the wavelength region, two Rydberg series nR and nR' were state-selectively excited using tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser radiation. In all photolysis wavelengths, two decay channels with different dissociation dynamics were observed. In one channel, the characteristic and isotropic translational energy distributions with a peak around 1800 cm(-1) can be found, suggesting statistical dissociation through internal conversion (IC) from the Rydberg state to the ground state and then dissociation on the ground-state surface. In contrast to this, in the second channel, nonstatistical and anisotropic translational energy distributions were observed, possibly through IC to the excited repulsive state. The vibrational progressions of C4H (A(2)Π) products have also been observed and assigned to the CCC bend and C≡C stretch progressions in the second channel at 3R Rydberg states.
Autoionizing np Rydberg states of H2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, E. Y.; Helm, H.; Kachru, R.
1989-04-01
We report a study of the autoionizing np Rydberg states near the lowest ionization threshold of H2. Using resonant two-photon excitation, intermediate states in specific rotovibrational levels in the double well, E,F 1Σ+g states are prepared. Then, a second, tunable laser is used to photoionize via excitation of the np Rydberg states. Because of the stepwise laser excitation scheme employed in our experiment the photoionization occurs from states with vibrational wave functions very similar to those of the H+2 core. As a consequence, the autoionizing states appear as nearly symmetric resonances, rather than the highly asymmetric Beutler-Fano profiles observed from the direct photoexcitation from the ground state of H2. Our experiments show that the J=1 np states are broader than the J=3 np states converging to the same limit, suggesting that the two states autoionize into the ɛp and ɛf continuum, respectively. We compare our observations with a theoretical analysis using a multichannel quantum defect theory. The J=1 states reveal the profound effect caused by the perturbation of the autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the lowest vibrational and rotational state of H+2 by low-n states converging to higher vibrational states of the H2-ion core.
STIRAP on helium: Excitation to Rydberg states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Deqian
Research in optically induced transitions between dierent atomic levels has a long history. For transitions between states driven by a coherent optical eld, the theoretical eciency could be ideally high as 100% but there could be many factors preventing this. In the three state helium atom excitation process, i.e. 23S→33P→nL , the stimulated emission from intermediate state makes it hard to achieve ecient population transfer to the nal state through an intuitive excitation order. One technique to achieve a higher eciency is Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) which is being studied and under research in our lab. Unlike traditional three level excitation processes, STIRAP actually uses a counter intuitive pulsed laser beams timing arrangement. The excitation objects are metastable helium atoms traveling in a vacuum system with a longitudinal velocity of ~ 1070 m/s. We are using a 389 nm UV laser to connect the 23S and the 33P state and a frequency tunable ~790 nm IR laser to connect the 33P state and the dierent Rydberg states. A third 1083 nm wavelength laser beam drives the 23S → 23P transition to transversely separate the residual metastable atoms and the Rydberg atoms for eciency measurements. The data is taken by a stainless steel detector in the vacuum system. As the Rydberg atoms will get ionized by blackbody radiation under room temperature, we can utilize this for their detection. An ion detector sitting on the eld plate is capable to collect the ion signals of the Rydberg atoms for detection. So far the whole system has not been ready for data collection and measurement, so here we are using data and results from previous theses for discussions. The highest transition frequency that has ever been achieved in our lab is around 70% after corrections.
Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.
2009-01-01
Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.
Rydberg States of Atoms and Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stebbings, R. F.; Dunning, F. B.
2011-03-01
List of contributors; Preface; 1. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics A. Dalgarno; 2. Theoretical studies of hydrogen Rydberg atoms in electric fields R. J. Damburg and V. V. Kolosov; 3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields D. Kleppner, Michael G. Littman and Myron L. Zimmerman; 4. Spectroscopy of one- and two-electron Rydberg atoms C. Fabre and S. Haroche; 5. Interaction of Rydberg atoms with blackbody radiation T. F. Gallagher; 6. Theoretical approaches to low-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with atoms and ions A. P. Hickman, R. E. Olson and J. Pascale; 7. Experimental studies of the interaction of Rydberg atoms with atomic species at thermal energies F. Gounand and J. Berlande; 8. Theoretical studies of collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules Michio Matsuzawa; 9. Experimental studies of thermal-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules F. B. Dunning and R. F. Stebbings; 10. High-Rydberg molecules Robert S. Freund; 11. Theory of Rydberg collisions with electrons, ions and neutrals M. R. Flannery; 12. Experimental studies of the interactions of Rydberg atoms with charged particles J. -F. Delpech; 13. Rydberg studies using fast beams Peter M. Koch; Index.
Nonequilibrium Kinetics of Rydberg Atomic States
Bureyeva, L. A.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Levashova, M. G.; Lisitsa, V. S.
2008-10-22
Two-dimensional quasi-classical model of the radiative-collisional cascade for hydrogen-like systems is developed. The model establishes the correspondence between the quantum and classical approaches. Our calculations of the two-dimensional populations of highly excited atomic hydrogen states for three-body and photorecombination sources of population allow the data of one-dimensional kinetic models to be refined. The calculated intensities of recombination lines demonstrate the degree of nonequilibrium of the Rydberg state populations under typical astrophysical plasma conditions.
Atomic Fock state preparation using Rydberg blockade.
Ebert, Matthew; Gill, Alexander; Gibbons, Michael; Zhang, Xianli; Saffman, Mark; Walker, Thad G
2014-01-31
We use coherent excitation of 3-16 atom ensembles to demonstrate collective Rabi flopping mediated by Rydberg blockade. Using calibrated atom number measurements, we quantitatively confirm the expected √N Rabi frequency enhancement to within 4%. The resulting atom number distributions are consistent with an essentially perfect blockade. We then use collective Rabi π pulses to produce N=1, 2 atom number Fock states with fidelities of 62% and 48%, respectively. The N=2 Fock state shows the collective Rabi frequency enhancement without corruption from atom number fluctuations.
Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg
2012-06-01
Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).
Cpmmw Spectroscopy of Rydberg States of Nitric Oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Timothy J.; Saladrigas, Catherine A.; Grimes, David; Coy, Stephen; Eyler, Edward E.; Field, Robert W.
2016-06-01
The spectroscopy of Rydberg states of NO has a long history [1], stimulating both experimental and theoretical advances in our understanding of Rydberg structure and dynamics. The closed-shell ion-core (1Σ+) and small NO+ dipole moment result in regular patterns of Rydberg series in the Hund's case (d) limit, which are well-described by long-range electrostatic models (e.g., [2]). We will present preliminary data on the core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states of NO (orbital angular momentum, ℓ ≥ 3) collected by chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) spectroscopy. Our technique directly detects electronic free induction decay (FID) between Rydberg states with Δn* ≈ 1 in the region of n* ˜ 40-50, providing a large quantity (12 GHz bandwidth in a single shot) of high quality (resolution ˜ 350 kHz) spectra. Transitions between high-ℓ, core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states act as reporters on the subtle details of the ion-core electric structure. * * [1] Huber KP. Die Rydberg-Serien im Absorptions-spektrum des NO-Molekuuls. Helv. Phys. Acta 3, 929 (1961). * * [2] Biernacki DT, Colson SD, Eyler EE. Rotationally resolved double resonance spectra of NO Rydberg states near the first ionization limit. J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2099 (1988).
Direct excitation of butterfly states in Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippe, Carsten; Niederpruem, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig
2016-05-01
Since their first theoretical prediction Rydberg molecules have become an increasing field of research. These exotic states originate from the binding of a ground state atom in the electronic wave function of a highly-excited Rydberg atom mediated by a Fermi contact type interaction. A special class of long-range molecular states, the butterfly states, were first proposed by Greene et al.. These states arise from a shape resonance in the p-wave scattering channel of a ground state atom and a Rydberg electron and are characterized by an electron wavefunction whose density distribution resembles the shape of a butterfly. We report on the direct observation of deeply bound butterfly states of Rydberg molecules of 87 Rb. The butterfly states are studied by high resolution spectroscopy of UV-excited Rydberg molecules. We find states bound up to - 50 GHz from the 25 P1/2 , F = 1 state, corresponding to binding lengths of 50a0 to 500a0 and with permanent electric dipole moments of up to 500 Debye. This distinguishes the observed butterfly states from the previously observed long range Rydberg molecules in rubidium.
State dependence of Rydberg interaction-induced collisional loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhigang; Zhao, Kejia; Miao, Jingyuan; Li, Difei; Yang, Zhijun; Wu, Zhaochun; He, Zhao; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang
2016-09-01
We present a simple analytical formula from an existing theoretical model and theoretically investigate in detail the state dependence of interaction-induced collisional loss rate coefficients, and the various parameter effects on collisional loss rate. We also investigate the different mechanisms and corresponding effects on collisional loss by analyzing our previous experimental results using the present formula, and even investigate the time evolution of Rydberg atom number for different Rydberg states.
Coherent Excitation of Lithium to Rydberg States and Application to Rydberg Atom Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, G.; Widmer, M.; Tudorica, F.; Iu, C.-H.; Metcalf, H.
1996-05-01
We present a theoretical analysis of several schemes for coherently exciting lithium atoms in a thermal beam to Rydberg states in a four level/three laser system, previously discussed by Oreg et al.(J. Oreg et al.), Phys. Rev. A 45, 4888 (1992). The time evolution of the dressed states and their populations are calculated numerically, solving the optical Bloch equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta integration. Our code closely models actual experimental conditions, including spontaneous decay, beam profiles, intensities and detunings. Large Rydberg populations (50%) around n=15 may be obtained by non-adiabatic excitation, with each laser power on the order of 1 mW. We discuss the effects of an externally controlled time dependent detuning in the Rydberg state, for example as produced by atoms traversing an inhomogeneous electric field. An understanding of this excitation mechanism is important for large angle reflection of coherently excited atoms using field gradients. Some primitive ideas of Stark-Rydberg atom optics are presented.
Vibrational modes in excited Rydberg states of acetone: A computational study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Param Jeet
2016-04-01
Computational studies of electronically excited states of the acetone molecule [(CH3)2CO] and its fully deuterated isotopologue [(CD3)2CO] are performed using the time dependent density functional (TDDFT) methodology. In addition to vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet states, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of the n=3 Rydberg states (3s, 3p and 3d) are obtained. This is the first report of geometry optimization and frequency calculations for the 3px, 3pz, 3dyz, 3dxy, 3dxz, 3dx2-y2 and 3dz2 Rydberg states. Results of the geometry optimization indicate that the molecule retains approximate C2V geometry in most of these excited Rydberg states, with the most significant structural change seen in the CCO bond angle which is found to be reduced from the ground state value. Detailed comparison of the computationally predicted vibrational wavenumbers with experimental studies helps to confirm several of the earlier vibronic assignments while leading to revised/new assignments for some of the bands. The important role of hot bands in analysis of the room temperature photoabsorption spectra of acetone is corroborated by this study. While the vibrational frequencies in excited Rydberg states are overall found to be close to those of the ionic ground state, geometry optimization and vibrational frequency computation for each excited state proves to be very useful to arrive at a consistent set of vibronic assignments. Isotopic substitution helps in consolidating and confirming assignments. An offshoot of this study is the interpretation of the band at ~8.47 eV as the π-3s Rydberg transition converging to the second ionization potential.
Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques
2014-11-01
The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0-10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores (2)A1 and (2)B1 results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the (2)B1 cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the (2)A1 ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene.
Cornish, T.J.; Baer, T.
1987-11-11
The 2-photon excitation of the 3s Rydberg states in cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, cycloheptanone, cyclooctanone, and norcamphor has been investigated by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). A pulsed and seeded molecular beam of cold sample gas was crossed with a pulsed laser beam from an excimer pumped dye laser. Spectra in the region of 405-380 nm were obtained at sufficient resolution (<1 cm/sup -1/) to allow identification of some rotational contours. The C=O stretch and bending modes were identified on the basis of laser light polarization studies (linear versus circular) and by deuterium substitution. In all cases, the C=O stretching frequency was found to occur around 1250 cm/sup -1/ in the Rydberg spectrum which is significantly reduced from its ground-state counterpart. This reflects the increased C=O bond distance in the excited electronic state. A correlation between the origin of the n ..-->.. 3s transition energy and the ground-state C-CO-C bond angle was found.
Radio-frequency-modulated Rydberg states in a vapor cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, S. A.; Anderson, D. A.; Raithel, G.
2016-05-01
We measure strong radio-frequency (RF) electric fields using rubidium Rydberg atoms prepared in a room-temperature vapor cell as field sensors. Electromagnetically induced transparency is employed as an optical readout. We RF-modulate the 60{{{S}}}1/2 and 58{{{D}}}5/2 Rydberg states with 50 and 100 MHz fields, respectively. For weak to moderate RF fields, the Rydberg levels become Stark-shifted, and sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. In high fields, the adjacent hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect the shifted levels, providing rich spectroscopic structure suitable for precision field measurements. A quantitative description of strong-field level modulation and mixing of S and D states with hydrogenic states is provided by Floquet theory. Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC electric fields in the interior of the glass vapor cell.
Cornish, T.J.; Baer, T.
1988-05-11
The two-photon excitation of the n ..-->.. 3s Rydberg transition in monomethyl and dimethyl isomers of cyclohexanone and cyclopentanone has been studied by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (2 + 1 REMPI). This transition has been found to be highly sensitive to both the orientation and position of methyl substituents on the cyclic ketone ring. Cis and trans configurations of dimethyl isomers show characteristic 3s transition energy shifts which are additive in nature and can be used to predict the transition energy of other structures. The spectroscopic energies of configurational isomers appear to reflect relative ground-state stabilities. This correlation has been supported by thermodynamic data and molecular mechanics calculations of ground-state energies. Laser polarization effects are found to be useful in determining the degree of chromophore asymmetry in chiral molecules.
Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state
Miroshnychenko, Y.; Gaeetan, A.; Evellin, C.; Grangier, P.; Wilk, T.; Browaeys, A.; Comparat, D.; Pillet, P.
2010-07-15
We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d{sub 3/2} using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states of the atom. We analyze the observed oscillations in detail and compare them to numerical simulations which include imperfections of our experimental system. Strategies for future improvements on the coherent manipulation of a single atom in our settings are given.
Photoionization dynamics of the C2+ ion in Rydberg states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stancalie, Viorica
2014-11-01
The goal of this work is to examine in detail the ionization dynamics of Be-like C ion in Rydberg states. An initial calculation has been done to output the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with configuration interaction option implemented in the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Both the C2+ ground state and the C3+ target state energies have been carefully calculated. We report results from a detailed and systematic study of the behaviour of complex photoionization amplitudes, the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states, the `resonant' phase shift and the rapidly increasing of this shift from well below to well above the resonance position. The sum-over-state method is used to calculate the static dipole polarizability, while the frequency-dependent polarizability values of C2+ ion in these Rydberg states are obtained from two-state model calculation results. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.
Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.
2016-06-01
The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau–Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.
Resonant quenching of Rydberg atomic states by highly polar molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.
2016-06-01
The results of theoretical studies of the resonant quenching and ion-pair formation processes induced by collisions of Rydberg atoms with highly polar molecules possessing small electron affinities are reported. We elaborate an approach for describing collisional dynamics of both processes and demonstrate the predominant role of resonant quenching channel of reaction for the destruction of Rydberg states by electron-attaching molecules. The approach is based on the solution of the coupled differential equations for the transition amplitudes between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule formed during a collision of particles. It takes into account the possibility of the dipole-bound anion decay in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core and generalizes previous models of charge-transfer processes involving Rydberg atoms to the cases, when the multistate Landau-Zener approaches become inapplicable. Our calculations for {{Rb}}({nl}) atom perturbed by {{{C}}}2{{{H}}}4{{SO}}3, {{CH}}2{CHCN}, {{CH}}3{{NO}}2, {{CH}}3{CN}, {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}2{{{O}}}3, and {{{C}}}3{{{H}}}4{{{O}}}3 molecules show that the curves representing the dependence of the resonant quenching cross sections on the principal quantum number n are bell-shaped with the positions of maxima being shifted towards lower values of n and the peak values, {σ }{max}({{q})}, several times higher than those for the ion-pair formation, {σ }{max}({{i})}. We obtain a simple power relation between the energy of electron affinity of a molecule and the position of maximum in n-dependence of the resonant quenching cross section. It can be used as an additional means for determining small binding energies of dipole-bound anions from the experimental data on resonant quenching of Rydberg states by highly polar molecules.
Selective Population of Molecular Core Nonpenetrating Rydberg States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimes, David; Zhou, Yan; Barnum, Timothy J.; Klein, Ethan; Field, Robert W.
2014-06-01
Core nonpenetrating Rydberg states of molecules are a neglected state of matter. They could have a variety of uses, notably state-selective production of molecular ions. Due to the l(l+1)/r2 centrifugal barrier that prevents the Rydberg electron in high-l states from penetrating inside of the ion core, the electron is essentially uncoupled from the ion core, and the system becomes atom-like with long lifetimes, an "almost good" l quantum number, and electronic transitions that follow ΔJ+=0 and Δv+=0 propensity rules. However, in most molecules access to these states, via a sequence of Δl=+1 transitions from low-n*, low-l states, is blocked by the necessity to traverse the "zone of death," in which nonradiative decay mechanisms are prohibitively fast. We exploit Chirped Pulse millimeter-Wave (CPmmW) spectroscopy to efficiently excite Ca atoms and BaF molecules to core nonpenetrating states in the absence of nonradiative decay mechanisms. A universal method for preparing core nonpenetrating Rydberg states of molecules, which combines CPmmW spectroscopy with STImulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP), will be discussed.
Lifetimes of Heavy-Rydberg Ion-Pair States Formed through Rydberg Electron Transfer
Cannon, M.; Wang, C. H.; Dunning, F. B.; Reinhold, Carlos O
2010-01-01
The lifetimes of K{sup +}-Cl{sup -}, K{sup +}-CN{sup -}, and K{sup +}-SF{sub 6}{sup -} heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states produced through Rydberg electron transfer reactions are measured directly as a function of binding energy using electric field induced detachment and the ion-pair decay channels discussed. The data are interpreted using a Monte Carlo collision code that models the detailed kinematics of electron transfer reactions. The lifetimes of K{sup +}-Cl{sup -} ion-pair states are observed to be very long, >100 {micro}s, and independent of binding energy. The lifetimes of strongly bound (>30 meV) K{sup +}-CN{sup -} ion pairs are found to be similarly long but begin to decrease markedly as the binding energy is reduced below this value. This behavior is attributed to conversion of rotational energy in the CN{sup -} ion into translational energy of the ion pair. No long-lived K{sup +}-SF{sub 6}{sup -} ion pairs are observed, their lifetimes decreasing with increasing binding energy. This behavior suggests that ion-pair loss is associated with mutual neutralization as a result of charge transfer.
Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb
2016-05-01
We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).
Progress towards Generating Rydberg State, One Electron Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dreiling, Joan; Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Naing, Aung; Tan, Joseph
2016-05-01
We report on progress towards producing hydrogen-like ions in Rydberg states from bare nuclei. Fully stripped neon atoms (Ne10+) are produced by the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. These ions are extracted via a beamline from the EBIT into a second apparatus where they are captured at low energy in a unitary Penning trap. The second apparatus has a cross-beam configuration, with a perpendicular beam of laser excited Rb atoms intersecting the ion beam at the Penning trap. While stored in the trap, the ions can interact with the Rb and, through charge exchange interactions, the bare nuclei can capture one or more electrons from the Rb. The ions are then analyzed by dumping the trap to a time-of-flight detector, which allows determination of the ion charge state evolution. This work builds towards laser spectroscopy on hydrogen-like ions in circular Rydberg states to obtain a value for the Rydberg constant independent of nuclear size effects. Such a measurement could shed some light on the proton radius puzzle.
Coincidence spectroscopy of high-lying Rydberg states produced in strong laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larimian, Seyedreza; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Lemell, Christoph; Yoshida, Shuhei; Nagele, Stefan; Maurer, Raffael; Baltuška, Andrius; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua
2016-09-01
We demonstrate the detection of high-lying Rydberg states produced in strong laser fields with coincidence spectroscopy. Electron emission after the interaction of strong laser pulses with atoms and molecules is measured together with the parent ions in coincidence measurements. These electrons originate from high-lying Rydberg states with quantum numbers from n ˜20 up to n ≲120 formed by frustrated field ionization. Ionization rates are retrieved from the measured ionization signal of these Rydberg states. Simulations show that both tunneling ionization by a weak dc field and photoionization by blackbody radiation contribute to delayed electron emission on the nano- to microsecond scale. Furthermore, the dependence of the Rydberg-state production on the ellipticity of the driving laser field indicates that such high-lying Rydberg states are populated through electron recapture. The present experiment provides detailed quantitative information on Rydberg production in strong-field interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song
2011-11-01
We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.
Control of multiple excited Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmelcher, Peter; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Knoerzer, Johannes; Fey, Christian
2016-05-01
Electronic image Rydberg states around segmented carbon nanotubes can be confined and shaped along the nanotube axis by engineering the image potential. We show how several such image states can be prepared simultaneously along the same nanotube. The inter-electronic distance can be controlled a priori by engineering tubes of specific geometries. High sensitivity to external electric and magnetic fields can be exploited to manipulate these states and their mutual long-range interactions. These building blocks provide access to a new kind of tailored long-range interacting quantum systems.
Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Firstenberg, O.; Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M.; Lukin, M. D.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Büchler, H. P.
2014-11-01
We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons interacting via atomic Rydberg states. The method allows us to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive. Furthermore, in the regime of attractive interactions, we identify multiple two-polariton bound states, calculate their dispersion, and study the resulting scattering resonances. Finally, the two-particle scattering properties allow us to derive the effective low-energy many-body Hamiltonian. This theoretical platform is applicable to ongoing experiments.
Rydberg states of chloroform studied by VUV photoabsorption spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; D'Souza, R.; Jagatap, B. N.
2013-11-01
The VUV photoabsorption spectra of CHCl3 and CDCl3 in the energy region 6.2-11.8 eV (50,000-95,000 cm-1) have been investigated using synchrotron radiation from the Indus-1 source. Rydberg series converging to the first four ionization limits at 11.48, 11.91, 12.01 and 12.85 eV corresponding to excitation from the 1a2, 4a1, 4e, 3e, orbitals of CHCl3 respectively are identified and analyzed. Quantum defect values are observed to be consistent with excitation from the chlorine lone pair orbitals. Vibrational progressions observed in the region of 72,500-76,500 cm-1 have been reassigned to ν3 and combination modes of ν3+ν6 belonging to the 1a2→4p transition in contrast to earlier studies where they were assigned to a ν3 progression superimposed on the 3e→4p Rydberg transition. The assignments are further confirmed based on isotopic substitution studies on CDCl3 whose VUV photoabsorption spectrum is reported here for the first time. The frequencies of the ν3 and ν6 modes in the 4p Rydberg state of CHCl3 (CDCl3) are proposed to be ~454 (409) cm-1 and~130 (129) cm-1 respectively based on the vibronic analysis. DFT calculations of neutral and ionic ground state vibrational frequencies support the vibronic analysis. Experimental spectrum is found to be in good agreement with that predicted by TDDFT calculations. This work presents a consolidated analysis of the VUV photoabsorption spectrum of chloroform.
Excitation of weakly bound molecules to trilobitelike Rydberg states.
Bellos, M A; Carollo, R; Banerjee, J; Eyler, E E; Gould, P L; Stwalley, W C
2013-08-01
We observe "trilobitelike" states of ultracold (85)Rb(2) molecules, in which a ground-state atom is bound by the electronic wave function of its Rydberg-atom partner. We populate these states through the ultraviolet excitation of weakly bound molecules, and access a regime of trilobitelike states at low principal quantum numbers and with vibrational turning points around 35 Bohr radii. This demonstrates that, unlike previous studies that used free-to-bound transitions, trilobitelike states can also be excited through bound-to-bound transitions. This approach provides high excitation probabilities without requiring high-density samples, and affords the ability to control the excitation radius by selection of the initial-state vibrational level.
Rydberg-Stark states in oscillating electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.
2015-12-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of weak radio-frequency electric fields on Rydberg-Stark states with electric dipole moments as large as 10,000 D are reported. High-resolution laser spectroscopic studies of Rydberg states with principal quantum number n = 52 and 53 were performed in pulsed supersonic beams of metastable helium with the excited atoms detected by pulsed electric field ionisation. Experiments were carried out in the presence of sinusoidally oscillating electric fields with frequencies of 20 MHz, amplitudes of up to 120 mV/cm, and dc offsets of up to 4.4 V/cm. In weak fields, the experimentally recorded spectra are in excellent agreement with the results of calculations carried out using Floquet methods to account for electric dipole couplings in the oscillating fields. This highlights the validity of these techniques for the accurate calculation of the Stark energy level structure in such fields, and the limitations of the calculations in stronger fields where n-mixing and higher order contributions become important.
Rydberg States of Lithium and Other Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drachman, Richard J.
1999-01-01
The interesting calculation of retardation corrections to excited atomic state energies is facilitated by the existence of good calculations of the nonrelativistic and nonretarded energies, to which retardation corrections can be added. Here I describe a perturbation method, applicable when the angular momentum is high enough which generates an asymptotic series for the energy. It makes use of generalized polarizabilities of the atomic or ionic core (numerically obtained) but otherwise is completely analytic. It is applied here to the lithium atom in detail, and its application to hydrogen molecular ions is outlined.
Quantum defects in Rydberg nD states of optically cooled 7Li atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sautenkov, V. A.; Saakyan, S. A.; Vilshanskaya, E. V.; Murashkin, D. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.
2016-11-01
To observe Rydberg transitions we applied a spectroscopic technique based on the observation of the resonance fluorescence of cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap. By using this approach, we estimated the quantum defect in Rydberg nD states of 7Li atoms. The obtained results are in a good agreement with previously published data.
Deexcitation of high-Rydberg-state atoms with a chirped train of half-cycle pulses
Kopyciuk, T.; Parzynski, R.
2007-05-15
Encouraged by the experiments on production of antihydrogen atoms in high Rydberg states we have calculated the effect of deexcitation towards lower states by a chirped train of identical unidirectional half-cycle pulses. The calculations exploit both the one-dimensional and impulse approximations providing convenient analytical formulas for the Rydberg-to-Rydberg transition amplitudes. The calculated deexcitation is shown in terms of the mean value of localization of the Rydberg wave packet in the coordinate space, the Rydberg-state population distribution, the Husimi phase-space distribution function, and the probability density distribution, each of these measures vs the length of the applied train of half-cycle pulses. The results for chirped trains are compared with those for periodic trains and examples of higher deexcitation efficiency of the chirped trains are given.
The spectroscopy of high Rydberg states of ammonia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langford, Stephen R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Morgan, Ross A.; Western, Colin M.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Rijkenberg, Arjan; Scheper, Connie R.; Buma, Wybren Jan; de Lange, Cornelis A.
1998-04-01
This paper extends our knowledge of the higher excited states of the ammonia molecule by presenting detailed measurements of the 2+1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectrum of both NH3 and ND3 obtained following excitation in the wavelength range 298-242 nm, i.e., at energies up to the first ionization energy. Complementary analyses of the wavelength resolved REMPI spectrum and the accompanying REMPI-photoelectron spectra leads to the identification of ten new Rydberg origins of NH3 (four for ND3) with principal quantum numbers n⩽8 and, in most cases, of the accompanying out-of-plane bending vibrational progression. Symmetry assignments for the various newly identified excited states are offered, based on band contour simulation and/or quantum defect considerations. Dominant amongst these are the Ẽ″1A2″ (5sa1'←1a2″) state: ν0=74 118(2) cm-1 [NH3], ν0=74 258(2) cm-1 [ND3], the F˜″1E″ (5pe'←1a2″) state: ν0=76 220(50) cm-1 [NH3], ν0=76 240(50) cm-1/SUP [ND3], the F˜'1A1' (5pa2″←1a2″) state: ν0=76 674(1) cm-1[NH3], ν0=76 770(5) cm-1 [ND3], and the G˜'1A1' (6pa2″←1a2″) state: ν0=78 494(1) cm-1 [NH3]. The present work serves to reinforce the previously noted dominance of np←1a2″ Rydberg excitations in the 2+1 REMPI spectrum of ammonia. In addition, the adiabatic ionization energy of ND3 is estimated to be 82 280±40 cm-1 based on the assumption that analogous Rydberg states of NH3 and ND3 will have very similar quantum defects.
Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M.; Jónsson, Hannes
2014-12-21
Theoretical calculations of Rydberg excited states of molecular clusters consisting of N,N-dimethylisopropylamine molecules using a Perdew-Zunger self-interaction corrected energy functional are presented and compared with results of resonant multiphoton ionization measurements. The binding energy of the Rydberg electron in the monomer is calculated to be 2.79 eV and 2.27 eV in the 3s and 3p state, respectively, which compares well with measured values of 2.88 eV and 2.21 eV. Three different stable configurations of the dimer in the ground state were found using an energy functional that includes van der Waals interaction. The lowest ground state energy conformation has the two N-atoms widely separated, by 6.2 Å, while the Rydberg state energy is lowest for a configuration where the N-atoms of the two molecules come close together, separated by 3.7 Å. This conformational change is found to lower the Rydberg electron binding energy by 0.2 eV. The self-interaction corrected functional gives a highly localized hole on one of the two molecules, unlike results obtained using the PBE functional or the hybrid B3LYP functional which give a delocalized hole. For the trimer, the self-interaction corrected calculation gives a Rydberg electron binding energy lowered further by 0.13 eV as compared with the dimer. The calculated results compare well with trends observed in experimental measurements. The reduction of the Rydberg electron binding energy with cluster size can be ascribed to an effective delocalization of the positive charge of the hole by the induced and permanent dipole moments of the neighboring molecules. A further decrease observed to occur on a time scale of tens of ps can be ascribed to a structural rearrangement of the clusters in the Rydberg state where molecules rotate to orient their dipoles in response to the formation of the localized hole.
Laser spectroscopic studies of several Rydberg states of MgO.
Wang, Jinjin; Breckenridge, W H
2006-03-28
We report extensive spectroscopic measurements of rovibronic transitions from the MgO X 1Sigma+ ground state to the high-energy E 1Sigma+, F 1Pi1, and G 1Pi1 Rydberg states. Perturbations in the E 1Sigma+ and G 1Pi1 states were observed. The Rydberg molecular orbital character of the three states is examined, given ab initio calculations by Thummel et al. [Chem. Phys. 129, 417 (1989)]. It is concluded that the E 1Sigma+ and G 1Pi1 states consist primarily of the MgO+ X 2Pi ionic core, surrounded by 3ppi and 3psigma Rydberg electron clouds, respectively, and that the F 1Pi1 state consists primarily of the MgO+ A 2Sigma+ ionic core surrounded by a 3ppi Rydberg electron cloud. Spectroscopic characterizations of some unassigned vibrational levels of analogous MgO 3Pi2 states in this energy region are also reported.
Optically thick cascade to the O I 3s 3S state in the Earth's thermosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Gladstone, G. Randall
1993-01-01
The electron impact excitation cross section for the O I (1304 A) emission is enhanced in the terrestrial thermosphere owing to an optically thick cascade mechanism. Values for the contribution of the cascade have been calculated and deduced from measured 1304-A airglow emissions to between o and 200%. We have developed a model to calculate a large portion of the optically thick cascade contribution, including contributions from the radiative entrapment of the O I (1040, 1027, and 989 A) lines. High-resolution spectroscopic data from a sounding rocket experiment are analyzed using this model. The optically thick cascade contribution for the three lower lying states was evaluated to be 24.5% and compares well with recent calculations. The data, however, support a total contribution of 40%. The 15.5% difference is likely due to the contribution from higher Rydberg states.
Non-classical Rydberg states for metrology experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Facon, Adrien; Grosso, Dorian; Signoles, Adrien; Dotsenko, Igor; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sebastien
2015-05-01
The Stark level structure of a Rydberg atom offers a large Hilbert space in which we can implement novel complex quantum dynamics. Coupled to a well polarized radio-frequency field, the atom behaves like a large angular momentum. We have recently demonstrated that we can use Quantum Zeno dynamics to prepare the atom in a quantum superposition of coherent spin states. The atom, initially in the circular state, is driven by the radio-frequency field while a microwave field selectively addresses a given Stark sub-level. The coupling to the microwave field leads to a restricted evolution in the Hilbert space, in which the atom periodically evolves in a quantum superposition of two spins pointing in different classical directions. Those states show a Wigner function with fast oscillating interference fringes, which are very sensitive to slight changes of the atomic frequency induced by either the Stark or the Zeeman effect. We explore how such Schrodinger cat states can be used to perform metrology experiments that measure small variations of electric or magnetic fields with a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit.
Self-interaction corrected density functional calculations of molecular Rydberg states
Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M.; Jónsson, Hannes
2013-11-21
A method is presented for calculating the wave function and energy of Rydberg excited states of molecules. A good estimate of the Rydberg state orbital is obtained using ground state density functional theory including Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction and an optimized effective potential. The total energy of the excited molecule is obtained using the Delta Self-Consistent Field method where an electron is removed from the highest occupied orbital and placed in the Rydberg orbital. Results are presented for the first few Rydberg states of NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}. The mean absolute error in the energy of the 33 molecular Rydberg states presented here is 0.18 eV. The orbitals are represented on a real space grid, avoiding the dependence on diffuse atomic basis sets. As in standard density functional theory calculations, the computational effort scales as NM{sup 2} where N is the number of orbitals and M is the number of grid points included in the calculation. Due to the slow scaling of the computational effort with system size and the high level of parallelism in the real space grid approach, the method presented here makes it possible to estimate Rydberg electron binding energy in large molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, Brendan M.
2016-10-01
Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states; 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0, and 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 - 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions are also found in the spectra.
Measurement of Rydberg positronium fluorescence lifetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deller, A.; Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Hogan, S. D.; Cassidy, D. B.
2016-06-01
We report measurements of the fluorescence lifetimes of positronium (Ps) atoms with principal quantum numbers n =10 -19 . Ps atoms in Rydberg-Stark states were produced via a two-color two-step 1 3S→2 3P→n 3S/n
Predissociation of high-lying Rydberg states of molecular iodine via ion-pair states
Bogomolov, Alexandr S.; Grüner, Barbara; Mudrich, Marcel; Kochubei, Sergei A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.
2014-03-28
Velocity map imaging of the photofragments arising from two-photon photoexcitation of molecular iodine in the energy range 73 500–74 500 cm{sup −1} covering the bands of high-lying gerade Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g} has been applied. The ion signal was dominated by the atomic fragment ion I{sup +}. Up to 5 dissociation channels yielding I{sup +} ions with different kinetic energies were observed when the I{sub 2} molecule was excited within discrete peaks of Rydberg states and their satellites in this region. One of these channels gives rise to images of I{sup +} and I{sup −} ions with equal kinetic energy indicating predissociation of I{sub 2} via ion-pair states. The contribution of this channel was up to about 50% of the total I{sup +} signal. The four other channels correspond to predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states giving rise to excited iodine atoms providing I{sup +} ions by subsequent one-photon ionization by the same laser pulse. The ratio of these channels varied from peak to peak in the spectrum but their total ionic signal was always much higher than the signal of (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization of I{sub 2}, which was previously considered to be the origin of ionic signal in this spectral range. The first-tier E0{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup ′}2{sub g} ion-pair states are concluded to be responsible for predissociation of Rydberg states [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}Π{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g}, respectively. Further predissociation of these ion-pair states via lower lying Rydberg states gives rise to excited I(5s{sup 2}5p{sup 4}6s{sup 1}) atoms responsible for major part of ion signal. The isotropic angular distribution of the photofragment recoil directions observed for all channels indicates that the studied Rydberg states are long-lived compared with the rotational period of the I{sub 2} molecule.
Role of ion-pair states in the predissociation dynamics of Rydberg states of molecular iodine.
von Vangerow, J; Bogomolov, A S; Dozmorov, N V; Schomas, D; Stienkemeier, F; Baklanov, A V; Mudrich, M
2016-07-28
Using femtosecond pump-probe ion imaging spectroscopy, we establish the key role of I(+) + I(-) ion-pair (IP) states in the predissociation dynamics of molecular iodine I2 excited to Rydberg states. Two-photon excitation of Rydberg states lying above the lowest IP state dissociation threshold (1st tier) is found to be followed by direct parallel transitions into IP states of the 1st tier asymptotically correlating to a pair of I ions in their lowest states I(+)((3)P2) + I(-)((1)S0), of the 2nd tier correlating to I(+)((3)P0) + I(-)((1)S0), and of the 3rd tier correlating to I(+)((1)D2) + I(-)((1)S0). Predissociation via the 1st tier proceeds presumably with a delay of 1.6-1.7 ps which is close to the vibrational period in the 3rd tier state (3rd tier-mediated process). The 2nd tier IP state is concluded to be the main precursor for predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states proceeding with a characteristic time of 7-8 ps and giving rise to Rydberg atoms I(5s(2)5p(4)6s(1)). The channel generating I((2)P3/2) + I((2)P1/2) atoms with total kinetic energy corresponding to one-photon excitation is found to proceed via a pump - dump mechanism with dramatic change of angular anisotropy of this channel as compared with earlier nanosecond experiments. PMID:27353150
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsova, Elena; Rittenhouse, Seth T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yelin, Susanne F.
2016-09-01
We analyze the possibility to exploit charge-dipole interaction between a single polar molecule or a one-dimensional (1D) molecular array and a single Rydberg atom to read out molecular rotational populations. We calculate the energy shift of a single Rb (60 s ) atom interacting with a single KRb or RbYb molecule in their lowest two rotational states. At atom-molecule distances, relevant to trapping of molecules in optical lattices, the Rydberg electron energy shifts conditioned on the rotational states, are of the order of several MHz. Atom excitation to a Rydberg state and detection of atomic fluorescence conditioned on a rotational state preserves the molecule, making our scheme a nondestructive measurement of the rotational state. Similarly, a 1D array of polar molecules can shift the electron energy of a blockaded Rydberg superatom. We consider a scheme to read out the molecular array collective rotational states using the conditioned Rydberg energy shifts, and numerically analyze a system with three and five KRb or RbYb molecules interacting with Rb (60 s ) superatom.
Two-color photoexcitation of Rydberg states via an electric quadrupole transition
Li Leping; Gu Quanli; Knee, J. L.; Wright, J. D.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Morgan, T. J.
2008-03-15
We report the observation of an electric quadrupole transition between the 4s{sup '}[1/2]{sub 0}{sup o} and 3d[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} states in the spectrum of argon and use it in the first step of a scheme to excite Rydberg states. The initial identification of the transition is based on one-color, two-photon photoionization. A different experiment utilizing two-color, two-photon photoexcitation to Rydberg states confirms the identification. Despite the unavoidable background of one-color, two-photon photoionization, the latter experimental technique makes possible two-photon spectroscopy of Rydberg states using a resonant intermediate state populated by an electric quadrupole transition.
UV + V UV double-resonance studies of autoionizing Rydberg states of the hydroxyl radical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Amy M.; Liu, Fang; Lester, Marsha I.
2016-05-01
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is a key oxidant in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Recently, a sensitive and state-selective ionization method has been developed for detection of the OH radical that utilizes UV excitation on the A2Σ+-X2Π transition followed by fixed 118 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to access autoionizing Rydberg states [J. M. Beames et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 241102 (2011)]. The present study uses tunable VUV radiation generated by four-wave mixing to examine the origin of the enhanced ionization efficiency observed for OH radicals prepared in specific A2Σ+ intermediate levels. The enhancement is shown to arise from resonant excitation to distinct rotational and fine structure levels of two newly identified 2Π Rydberg states with an A3Π cationic core and a 3d electron followed by ionization. Spectroscopic constants are derived and effects due to uncoupling of the Rydberg electron are revealed for the OH 2Π Rydberg states. The linewidths indicate a Rydberg state lifetime due to autoionization on the order of a picosecond.
UV + V UV double-resonance studies of autoionizing Rydberg states of the hydroxyl radical.
Green, Amy M; Liu, Fang; Lester, Marsha I
2016-05-14
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is a key oxidant in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Recently, a sensitive and state-selective ionization method has been developed for detection of the OH radical that utilizes UV excitation on the A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π transition followed by fixed 118 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to access autoionizing Rydberg states [J. M. Beames et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 241102 (2011)]. The present study uses tunable VUV radiation generated by four-wave mixing to examine the origin of the enhanced ionization efficiency observed for OH radicals prepared in specific A(2)Σ(+) intermediate levels. The enhancement is shown to arise from resonant excitation to distinct rotational and fine structure levels of two newly identified (2)Π Rydberg states with an A(3)Π cationic core and a 3d electron followed by ionization. Spectroscopic constants are derived and effects due to uncoupling of the Rydberg electron are revealed for the OH (2)Π Rydberg states. The linewidths indicate a Rydberg state lifetime due to autoionization on the order of a picosecond. PMID:27179488
The interaction potential of NO-H2 in ground and A Rydberg state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pajón-Suárez, Pedro; Valentín-Rodríguez, Mónica; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón
2016-08-01
The interaction potential for the ground and A Rydberg state of NO-H2 has been calculated using high level ab initio methods. The complex is very floppy in nature and large amplitude motions are expected to characterize its dynamics. The ground state is characterized by two very close-lying states which exhibit crossings. By analogy with other complexes the Rydberg state is characterized by much smaller well depth and larger intermolecular distance. We compare with model potentials used in previous molecular dynamics simulations of photoexcitation and relaxation and conclude on the importance of performing new studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Santosh; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Ewel, Charlie; Fan, Haoquan; Shaffer, James
2015-05-01
We investigate the coherent manipulation of interacting Rydberg atoms placed inside a high-finesse optical cavity for the preparation of strongly coupled light-matter systems. We consider a four-level diamond scheme with one common Rydberg level. One side of the diamond is used to collectively excite the atoms to the Rydberg level using a pair of pulses. The other side of the diamond is used to produce a collective state that is close to resonance with a field mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. The interaction between Rydberg atoms creates a blockade which is useful for synthesizing the coherent collective state. We use numerical simulation to generate non-classical states of light and also investigate different decay mechanisms affecting this system. We also analyze our system in the case of two Rydberg excitations within the blockade volume. In this case, we show that more elaborate few excitation quantum states can be prepared in the cavity to observe interesting dynamics and analyze the correlation of the two-photon emission. This work is supported by the DARPA Quasar program by a grant through ARO, AFOSR and NSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topcu, T.; Derevianko, A.
2016-07-01
We predict the possibility of ‘triply magic’ optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the {}1{{{S}}}0 and {}3{{{P}}}0 clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.
Ramsey, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Goeringer, D.E.; Buckley, B.T.
1990-01-01
Rydberg states of rubidium are selectively generated by one and two photon laser excitation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Collisional and electric-field ionization is investigated in trapping device. CCl{sub 4} is studied as a target for ionization of Rydberg states through electron attachment.
GHz Rabi Flopping to Rydberg States in Hot Atomic Vapor Cells
Huber, B.; Baluktsian, T.; Schlagmueller, M.; Koelle, A.; Kuebler, H.; Loew, R.; Pfau, T.
2011-12-09
We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a time scale below 1 ns in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of {approx}4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor, thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room-temperature quantum devices. Furthermore, the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single-atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by 3 orders of magnitude.
Ion rotational distributions following vibrational autoionization of Rydberg states of water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glab, W. L.; Pratt, S. T.
2003-10-01
Rotationally resolved, energy-dispersive photoelectron spectra of vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg states of water were aquired using double-resonance pulsed laser excitation in a high-resolution magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. Symmetry considerations and angular momentum coupling dictate the possible ionic rotational quantum numbers corresponding to various Rydberg states. The measured ionic distributions contain information both on the excited electron's angular momentum in the Rydberg molecule and the dynamics of the autoionization process. These results, which are difficult to reconcile with current simplified theoretical pictures, suggest directions for future theoretical work leading to a better understanding of autoionization in polyatomic molecules. This work was supported by the Welch Foundation under grant D-1204, and by the Department of Energy under contract W-31-109-Eng-38.
Doppler- and recoil-free laser excitation of Rydberg states via three-photon transitions
Ryabtsev, I. I.; Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.
2011-11-15
Three-photon laser excitation of Rydberg states by three different laser beams can be arranged in a starlike geometry that simultaneously eliminates the recoil effect and Doppler broadening. Our analytical and numerical calculations for a particular laser excitation scheme 5S{sub 1/2}{yields}5P{sub 3/2}{yields}6S{sub 1/2}{yields}nP in Rb atoms have shown that, compared to the one- and two-photon laser excitation, this approach provides much narrower linewidth and longer coherence time for both cold atom samples and hot vapors, if the intermediate one-photon resonances of the three-photon transition are detuned by more than respective single-photon Doppler widths. This method can be used to improve fidelity of Rydberg quantum gates and precision of spectroscopic measurements in Rydberg atoms.
Production of autoionizing Rydberg states by transfer excitation in high energy ion atom collisions
Stolterfoht, N.; Miller, P.D.; Krause, H.F.; Yamazaki, Y.; Dittner, P.F.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Sellin, I.A.; Datz, S.
1986-01-01
The method of zero-degree Auger spectroscopy was used to study the production of autoionizing Rydberg states in collisions of carbon and oxygen projectiles incident at several MeV on He gas and carbon foils. The autoionization electrons were measured with high resolution so that the quantum defect corresponding to the angular momenta of the Rydberg electrons could be observed. The main purpose of the present experiment is to gain information about the n and l distribution of the Rydberg electron captured in the collision. The well-known n/sup -3/ law is confirmed. For the He gas target it is found that the angular momenta p and d are predominantly produced. For the foil target the higher angular momenta are clearly enhanced. 15 refs., 6 figs.
Time and frequency resolved spectra of high molecular Rydberg states by dynamical computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.
1997-09-01
The absorption spectrum of bound Rydberg states which can be detected by a delayed, pulsed field ionization is computed. The spectrum, measured for various delay times, provides information on the short and the longer time dynamics of high molecular Rydberg states. A quantitative dynamical theory, based on an effective Hamiltonian formalism is applied, illustrating the role of the Rydberg electron-core coupling and of an external electrical field in the delay-time dependent spectra. The sharpening of the spectra for longer delay times is reproduced by the dynamical computations. It is found that the overall intensity, as a function of the delay time before detection, is well described by a double exponential decay where the short lifetime is primarily a manifestation of the direct autoionization to the continuum, while the long lifetime is due to interseries coupling. Both lifetimes increase with the principal quantum number of the Rydberg states. The notion of trapped "reservoir states" is illustrated by the computational results, with special reference to a kinetic model analysis. The role of the initially optically accessed state(s) and of the depth of detection, in particular with regard to the intensity, is demonstrated. The effect of varying the strength of an external dc field in the time interval prior to the detection is illustrated by the dynamical computations, with respect to both the decay kinetics and the intensity of the spectrum.
Spin-charge separation of dark-state polaritons in a Rydberg medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xiao-Feng; Svetlichnyy, P.; Kennedy, T. A. B.
2016-04-01
The propagation of light fields through a quasi one-dimensional cold atomic gas, exciting atomic Rydberg levels of large principal quantum number under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency, can lead to a stable two-mode Luttinger liquid system. Atomic van der Waals interactions induce a coupling of bosonic field modes that display both photonic and atomic character, the Rydberg dark-state polaritons (RDPs). It is shown that by tunable control of the van der Waals coupling, the RDP may decouple into independent ‘spin’ and ‘charge’ fields which propagate at different speeds, analogous to spin-charge separation of electrons in a one-dimensional metal.
Observation of g/u-symmetry mixing in the high-n Rydberg states of HD.
Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric
2014-03-28
The structure and dynamics of high-n Rydberg states belonging to series converging to the (v(+) = 0, N(+) = 0-2) levels of the X(+) (2)Σ(g)(+)electronic ground state of HD(+) were studied by high-resolution spectroscopy from the GK (1)Σ(g)(+) (v = 1, N = 1) state under field-free conditions. Three effects of g/u-symmetry breaking were detected: (i) Single-photon transitions from the GK (v = 1, N = 1) state of gerade symmetry to the 30d21 and 31g22 Rydberg states of gerade symmetry were observed after careful compensation of the stray electric fields. (ii) The singlet 61p12 Rydberg state of ungerade symmetry was found to autoionize to the N(+) = 0, ℓ = 2 ionization continuum of gerade symmetry with a lifetime of 77(10) ns. (iii) Shifts of up to 20 MHz induced by g/u-symmetry mixing were measured for members of the np11 Rydberg series which lie close to nd21 Rydberg states. These observations were analyzed in the framework of multichannel quantum-defect theory. From the observed level shifts, the off-diagonal eigenquantum-defect element μ(pd) of singlet-π symmetry was determined to be 0.0023(3) and the corresponding autoionization dynamics could be characterized. The ionization energy of the GK (v = 1, N = 1) state of HD was determined to be 12 710.544 23(10) cm(-1).
Observation of g/u-symmetry mixing in the high-n Rydberg states of HD
Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric
2014-03-28
The structure and dynamics of high-n Rydberg states belonging to series converging to the (v{sup +} = 0, N{sup +} = 0–2) levels of the X{sup +2}Σ{sub g}{sup +} electronic ground state of HD{sup +} were studied by high-resolution spectroscopy from the GK{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} (v= 1, N = 1) state under field-free conditions. Three effects of g/u-symmetry breaking were detected: (i) Single-photon transitions from the GK (v = 1, N = 1) state of gerade symmetry to the 30d2{sub 1} and 31g2{sub 2} Rydberg states of gerade symmetry were observed after careful compensation of the stray electric fields. (ii) The singlet 61p1{sub 2} Rydberg state of ungerade symmetry was found to autoionize to the N{sup +} = 0, ℓ = 2 ionization continuum of gerade symmetry with a lifetime of 77(10) ns. (iii) Shifts of up to 20 MHz induced by g/u-symmetry mixing were measured for members of the np1{sub 1} Rydberg series which lie close to nd2{sub 1} Rydberg states. These observations were analyzed in the framework of multichannel quantum-defect theory. From the observed level shifts, the off-diagonal eigenquantum-defect element μ{sub pd} of singlet-π symmetry was determined to be 0.0023(3) and the corresponding autoionization dynamics could be characterized. The ionization energy of the GK (v = 1, N = 1) state of HD was determined to be 12 710.544 23(10) cm{sup −1}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, N. J. A.; Minns, R. S.; Patel, R.; Fielding, H. H.
2008-09-01
The Stark spectra of Rydberg states of NO below the υ+ = 0 ionization limit, with principal quantum numbers n = 25-30, have been investigated in the presence of dc electric fields in the range 0-150 V cm-1. The Stark states were accessed by two-colour, double-resonance excitation via the υ' = 0, N' = 0 rovibrational state of the A2Σ+ state. The N(2D) atoms produced by predissociation were measured by (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, and compared with pulsed-field ionization spectra of the bound Rydberg state population (Patel et al 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1369).
Hróðmarsson, Helgi Rafn; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst
2014-06-28
Mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization data for hydrogen iodide (HI), for two-photon resonance excitation to Rydberg and ion-pair states in the 69 600–72 400 cm{sup −1} region were recorded and analyzed. Spectral perturbations due to homogeneous and heterogeneous interactions between Rydberg and ion-pair states, showing as deformations in line-positions, line-intensities, and line-widths, were focused on. Parameters relevant to photodissociation processes, state interaction strengths and spectroscopic parameters for deperturbed states were derived. Overall interaction and dynamical schemes to describe the observations are proposed.
Hudgens, J.W.; Dearden, D.V.; Johnson, R.D. III
1993-12-31
The authors report detection and characterization of AlF and AlCl using 1+2, 2=1, 2+2, 3+1, and 3+2 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy. REMPI Spectra of AlF reveal 13 new Rydberg states that lie between 70,000 and 77,000 cm{sup {minus}1}. These new states, in combination with previously known states, form six Rydberg series. Least-squares fitting of the Rydberg series to the Rydberg equation yields the precise adiabatic ionization potential, IP{sub a}(AlF) = 9.729 {+-} 0.001 eV. Vibrational intervals of the new Rydberg states are about 25% greater than those of AlF (X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}), with most lying between 930-980 cm{sup {minus}1}. REMPI spectra of AlCl reveal new Rydberg states that lie between 54000 and 60000 cm{sup {minus}1}. Vibrational intervals of these new Rydberg states are about 25% greater than those of AlCl (X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}), with most lying between 570-600 cm{sup {minus}1}.
Rudakov, Fedor M; Zhang, Zhili
2012-01-01
We present a technique for nonintrusive and standoff detection of large organic molecules using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from plasma produced by structure sensitive photoionization through Rydberg states. We test the method on 1,4-diazobicyclooctane. Transitions between the 3s Rydberg state and higher lying Rydberg states are probed using two-color photoionization with 266?nm photons and photons in the range of 460-2400 nm. Photoionization is detected using microwave radiation, which is scattered by the unbounded electrons. Highly resolved Rydberg spectra are acquired in vacuum and in air.
Comparative study on atomic and molecular Rydberg-state excitation in strong infrared laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Hang; Zuo, Wanlong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Haifeng; Jin, Mingxing; Ding, Dajun; Hu, Shilin; Chen, Jing
2016-03-01
Rydberg-state excitation of atoms in strong infrared laser fields provides a new complementary aspect of the perspective of atom-strong field interactions. In this article, we perform an experimental and theoretical study on the corresponding process of diatomic molecules, N2 and O2. We show that neutral molecules can also survive strong 800-nm laser fields in high Rydberg states, while their behavior is remarkably different in comparison with their companion atoms, Ar and Xe. The Rydberg excitation of N2 generally behaves similarly to Ar, while that of O2 is more significantly suppressed than the ionization compared to Xe in a high intensity region, which can be understood in the frame of a semiclassical picture, together with their different structures of molecular orbitals. However, distinct quantum features in the Rydberg excitation processes that are apparently beyond the semiclassical picture have been identified, i.e., the less suppressed probability of O2 at low intensity and the oscillation behavior of the ratio between N2 and Ar, indicating that our understanding of the relevant physics is still far from complete.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Jorge M.; Šibalić, Nikola; Guttridge, Alexander; Wade, Christopher G.; De Melo, Natalia R.; Adams, Charles S.; Weatherill, Kevin J.
2015-12-01
We report on the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a four-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this four-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to two- or three-step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. This scheme enables new applications such as dephasing free Rydberg excitation. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.
Collisional destruction of circular Rydberg states by atoms with small electron affinities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironchuk, Elena S.; Narits, Alexander A.; Lebedev, Vladimir S.
2014-12-01
The results of theoretical studies of interaction between neutral targets with small electron affinities and Rydberg atoms in circular states are reported. The cross sections of collisional destruction of such states due to the resonant quenching mechanism are calculated on the basis of the semiclassical theory of nonadiabatic transitions between the ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule combined with recently developed technique for exact evaluation of matrix elements. We obtain the basic formula for the square of the coupling parameter involving Rydberg nlm-state with the given values of the principal, orbital, and magnetic quantum numbers. It is employed for the derivation of explicit expressions for transitions from circular states applicable in cases of s- and p-states of negative ion temporarily formed during a collision of atoms. Numerical calculations are carried out for thermal collisions of Li∗ and Na∗ atoms with Ca(4s2) and Sr(5s2). We explore n-, l-, m-, and velocity-dependences of the cross sections and analyze orientation effects in such collisions. Cross sections of resonant quenching for circular states (l = | m | = n - 1) are shown to be much smaller than those for states with small l values and typically two times lower than for nearly-circular states (l = n - 1) averaged over m.
Ultrafast structural dynamics and isomerization in Rydberg-exited Quadricyclane
Rudakov, Fedor M
2012-01-01
The quadricyclane - norbornadiene system is an important model for the isomerization dynamics between highly strained molecules. In a breakthrough observation for a polyatomic molecular system of that complexity, we follow the photoionization from Rydberg states in the time-domain to derive a measure for the time-dependent structural dynamics and the time-evolving structural dispersion even while the molecule is crossing electronic surfaces. The photoexcitation to the 3s and 3p Rydberg states deposits significant amounts of energy into vibrational motions. We observe the formation and evolution of the vibrational wavepacket on the Rydberg surface and the internal conversion from the 3p Rydberg states to the 3s state. In that state, quadricyclane isomerizes to norbornadiene with a time constant of {tau}{sub 2} = 136(45) fs. The lifetime of the 3p Rydberg state in quadricyclane is {tau}{sub 1} = 320(31) and the lifetime of the 3s Rydberg state in norbornadiene is {tau}{sub 3} = 394(32).
Secular motion of three-dimensional Rydberg states in a microwave field
Buchleitner, A.; Delande, D.
1997-03-01
We study the spectral properties of three-dimensional Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen in a microwave field of linear polarization. We identify a novel structure in the Floquet spectrum as the {open_quotes}backbone{close_quotes} of the experimentally observed ionization process. Localization properties, energies, {ital and lifetimes} of the individual Floquet states are shown to faithfully reflect the structure of classical phase space, which can be described by a perturbative approach. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swann, A. R.; Cassidy, D. B.; Deller, A.; Gribakin, G. F.
2016-05-01
Predicted 20 years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for charge transfer in Ps collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.
Classical Monte-Carlo simulation for Rydberg states ionization in strong field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrat, Vincent; Magnuson, Eric; Gallagher, Thomas
2016-05-01
The resilience of Rydberg states against ionization has fascinated physicists for a long time. One might expect that the loosely bound electron would be ionized by modest electromagnetic field. However, experiments show that a notable fraction of neutral atoms survive in Rydberg states when exposed to strong microwave or laser fields. Energy transfer between the field and the photoelectron occurs when the electron is close to the ionic core and depends on the phase of the field. Since those states have orbital times that can be larger than the field pulse duration, these energy exchanges will only occur a few times. While we can experimentally control the initial time when we create the Rydberg states and as a consequence the initial energy transfer from the field, our classical calculation suggests that the phase when the electron is returning to the ionic core on the next orbit is chaotic. Statistically the electron only has a 50% chance to gain energy which may lead to ionization. Additionally the population tends to accumulate in very high n states where ionization is less likely due to fewer rescattering events. Though incomplete, this classical Monte-Carlo simulation provides useful insights for understanding the experimental observations. This work has been entirely performed at University of Virginia and is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic energy Sciences.
Effective Ion-In Potentials for Non-Penetrating Rydberg States of Polar Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coy, Stephen; Grimes, David; Zhou, Yan; Field, Robert W.; Wong, Bryan M.
2015-06-01
Rydberg states of atoms or molecules for which the inner turning point of the Rydberg electron on the radial plus centrifugal potential lies outside the bulk of the ion core electron density are known as core-non-penetrating states. Interpretation of Rydberg spectroscopic data for polar molecules makes use of effective potentials that include ionic bonding and polarizability in order to represent electric properties of the ion core. We examine the accuracy and convergence properties of single-center polarization potentials and show that the center of charge representation, for which the core dipole moment is zero so that first-order l-mixing can be neglected, is excluded by the convergence sphere for use with l-states that can be treated by an expansion about the center or mass, the center of dipole or a newly-defined center of polarizability. The potential expansion converges only outside a sphere enclosing the charge distribution, and the sphere is much larger when the center of charge is used. For higher l-states of the rotating molecule (turning points defined in center of mass), the sphere required for convergence is much smaller for an origin within the charge distribution, so that lower l states are modeled correctly.
Transport of charge and atomic particles in Rydberg state-rich plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagström, Magnus; Davidsson, Jan; Holmlid, Leif
1998-02-01
New methods make it possible to form considerable flux densities of Rydberg atoms of alkali metals. It is now possible to study the transport processes in regions where the density of Rydberg atoms is large. Examples of such studies have been given by Svensson and coworkers. In the present study, 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 ions and Rydberg states 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2 are formed by desorption at 1300-1800 K from an Ir surface covered by a thin graphite layer. Due to the very large cross sections for collision processes involving Rydberg species, the Rydberg state-rich plasma between the Ir emitter and a cold grid electrode is not collision free, even at a pressure of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img3 mbar. Electron or 0022-3727/31/4/013/img4 emission takes place from the grid at a rate controlled by the flux of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 and 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2. The transition to penetration of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 and 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2 through the cloud of excited species between the emitter and grid is observed directly by molecular beam and ion sampling to detectors in a separate chamber. There is a space-charge limited behaviour for the positive current through the plasma as well as, in some modes, a clear positive saturation current, which shows that little gas phase ionization takes place. A current larger than expected from the saturation current as well as maxima in the voltage dependences are observed at high Rydberg densities. These effects are probably caused by space charge compensation due to a dielectric phase of condensed excited species, which means, for example, that the effective distance between the emitter and grid is decreased, as observed. The temperature variation of the space charge limited behaviour gives an activation energy of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img9, while the saturation current gives an activation energy of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img10. This agrees well with the electronic excitations 0022-3727/31/4/013/img11 at 0.90 eV and 0022
Studying dissociative electron attachment through formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Michael; Buathong, Sitti; Dunning, F. Barry
2016-05-01
Following dissociative electron transfer in collisions between Rydberg atoms and electron-attaching targets, it is possible for the resulting pair of ions to remain electrostatically bound, forming heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states. Precise measurement of the velocity distributions of such ion-pair states provides information concerning the dissociation dynamics of the excited intermediates initially created by electron transfer. Here, electric-field-induced dissociation is used to detect the product ion pairs and observe their velocity distributions. These distributions are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models the electron transfer. Measurements with a number of different target species show that through this analysis, dissociation energetics, the branching ratios into different dissociation products, and the lifetimes of the excited intermediates can be examined. Research supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation.
Donovan, Robert J. E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Lawley, Kenneth P. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk
2015-05-28
We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(E{sub b}) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(E{sub b}), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18 000-20 000 cm{sup −1} below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(E{sub b}) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions.
Donovan, Robert J; Lawley, Kenneth P; Ridley, Trevor
2015-05-28
We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I2, Cl2, ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect δ(Eb) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of δ(Eb), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ∼18,000-20,000 cm(-1) below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of δ(Eb) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions.
Strong field radio-frequency measurements using Rydberg states in a vapor cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Stephanie; Anderson, David; Raithel, Georg
2016-05-01
There has been a growing interest in using electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell as an all-optical readout method for measuring microwave electric fields. We present results from RF-modulating the 60S1 / 2 and 58D5 / 2 Rydberg states of rubidium with 50 MHz and 100 MHz fields, respectively. Weak RF fields AC Stark-shifts the Rydberg states. As the field strength is increased, sidebands appear at even multiples of the driving frequency. When strong fields are applied, the nearby hydrogenic manifold begins to intersect with the shifted levels. Similar investigations have been performed in cesium. Due to the significant amount of state mixing and level structure, Floquet theory is required to describe the level shifts and mixing. By comparing the calculation with the experimental data, we obtain an absolute determination of the RF electric field reaching a maximum field of 296 V/m to within +/- 0 . 35 % . Additionally, we estimate the shielding of DC fields within the vapor cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorofeev, Dmitry L.; Elfimov, Sergei V.; Zon, Boris A.
2012-02-01
This paper is dedicated to the implementation of a generalized approach for calculating quantum defects in high Rydberg states of polar molecules with an account for the dipole moment of the molecular core and l uncoupling of the Rydberg electron. Adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) and nonadiabatic (inverse Born-Oppenheimer) regions of the spectrum are considered. The nonadiabatic case with a nonzero projection of the core momentum on the core axis is considered and is illustrated by the example of the SO molecule.
Rydberg, valence, and ion-pair quintet states of O2.
Lefebvre-Brion, H; Liebermann, H P; Amero, J M; Vázquez, G J
2016-04-14
We report an ab initio study of the quintet states of molecular oxygen. The calculations are carried out employing the multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction package. Potential energy curves of the six quintet valence states dissociating into ground state atoms and of the four quintet states dissociating to ion-pair atoms were computed. A number of bound quintet Rydberg series converging to the a(4)Πu and b(4)Σg(-) states of the O2(+) cation have been identified. PMID:27083716
Half-cycle-pulse-train induced state redistribution of Rydberg atoms
Mandal, P. K.; Speck, A.
2010-01-15
Population transfer between low-lying Rydberg states independent of the initial state is realized using a train of half-cycle pulses with pulse durations much shorter than the classical orbital period. We demonstrate experimentally the population transfer from initial states around n=50 with 10% of the population de-excited down to n<40 as well as up to the continuum. This is a demonstration of a state-independent de-excitation technique applicable to the currently produced state distribution of antihydrogen. The measured population transfer matches well to a model of the process for one-dimensional atoms.
Electron capture into large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedeljković, N.; Nedeljković, Lj.; Mirković, M.
2003-07-01
We have investigated the electron capture into large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ionic projectiles (e.g., the core charges Z=6, 7, and 8) escaping solid surfaces with intermediate velocities (v≈1 a.u.) in the normal emergence geometry. A model of the nonresonant electron capture from the solid conduction band into the moving large angular-momentum Rydberg states of the ions is developed through a generalization of our results obtained previously for the low-l cases (l=0, 1, and 2). The model is based on the two-wave-function dynamics of the Demkov-Ostrovskii type. The electron exchange process is described by a mixed flux through a moving plane (“Firsov plane”), placed between the solid surface and the ionic projectile. Due to low eccentricities of the large-l Rydberg systems, the mixed flux must be evaluated through the whole Firsov plane. It is for this purpose that a suitable asymptotic method is developed. For intermediate ionic velocities and for all relevant values of the principal quantum number n≈Z, the population probability Pnl is obtained as a nonlinear l distribution. The theoretical predictions concerning the ions S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII are compared with the available results of the beam-foil experiments.
Rydberg states of helium in electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary relative orientation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkáč, Ondřej; Žeško, Matija; Agner, Josef A.; Schmutz, Hansjürg; Merkt, Frédéric
2016-05-01
A spectroscopic study of Rydberg states of helium (n = 30 and 45) in magnetic, electric and combined magnetic and electric fields with arbitrary relative orientations of the field vectors is presented. The emphasis is on two special cases where (i) the diamagnetic term is negligible and both paramagnetic Zeeman and Stark effects are linear (n = 30, B ≤ 120 mT and F = 0-78 V cm-1), and (ii) the diamagnetic term is dominant and the Stark effect is linear (n = 45, B = 277 mT and F = 0-8 V cm-1). Both cases correspond to regimes where the interactions induced by the electric and magnetic fields are much weaker than the Coulomb interaction, but much stronger than the spin-orbit interaction. The experimental spectra are compared to spectra calculated by determining the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrix describing helium Rydberg states in the external fields. The spectra and the calculated energy-level diagrams in external fields reveal avoided crossings between levels of different m l values and pronounced m l -mixing effects at all angles between the electric- and magnetic-field vectors other than 0. These observations are discussed in the context of the development of a method to generate dense samples of cold atoms and molecules in a magnetic trap following Rydberg-Stark deceleration.
Static and dynamic polarizability for C{sup 2+} in Rydberg states
Stancalie, V.
2015-07-15
This work presents results from a non-perturbative calculation of dynamic polarizability of C III ions in 1s{sup 2}2sns ({sup 1}S{sup e}) Rydberg states. We employ a two-state model for dressed atomic states to investigate the effect of the frequency-dependent polarizability of optically dressed 1s{sup 2}2sns({sup 1}S{sup e}) states (n = 5 − 12) on transitions to nearby states (1s{sup 2}2pns({sup 1}P{sub 1}{sup o})). Our model calculation results indicate that the resonance structure of the polarizabilities is entirely captured by the transition terms whereas the free electron polarizability only provides a smooth background. The resonance structure is evident in the plots and the widths increase with increasing principal quantum number. This work refers to highly excited 1s{sup 2}2sns ({sup 1}S) Rydberg states, embedded in the electric dipole field of the 2s – 2p core transition in Li-like C{sup 3+} ion. The contributions of the individual transitions to the static polarizabilities of these Rydberg states are obtained from the use of the sum-over-state method. To this aim, both the C{sup 2+} ground state and the C{sup 3+} target state energies have been carefully calculated based on the configuration interactions method implemented in the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package. Agreement is reasonably good with existing data wherever available. These results are believed to be the first such values for this system and will be important for ionic spectroscopy and plasma diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafizadeh, N.; Fillion, J.-H.; Gauyacq, D.; Couris, S.
1997-08-01
In order to understand the role of the Rydberg states in the photodestruction of acetylene in circumstellar envelopes, the authors have investigated the spectroscopy of some of the ungerade and gerade states by resonant multiphoton ionization in a magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The ungerade ns+nd Rydberg supercomplexes of C2H2 have been investigated by one-colour (3+1) multiphoton ionization, in the energy region 79500 - 87000 cm-1. The highly excited gerade nf Rydberg states have been observed for the first time, by two-colour (3+1') multiphoton ionization. A value for the adiabatic ionization potential, 91956 cm-1, has been obtained from the observed series limit and from earlier high-resolution infrared data on the ground state of the ion. This value is 4 cm-1 higher than the one measured by ZEKE spectroscopy. The apparent broadening of the observed Rydberg features may originate both from Zeeman 'broadening' of the non-penetrating nf complexes and from predissociation. The np Rydberg states, for which observation is fully allowed in the same spectral region, do not appear in the ionization signal at least in the low-n range, most probably because of their very short lifetime. In the high-energy region, spectral congestion, probably involving p-f mixing, occurs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gauyacq, Dolores; Couris, Stelios
1997-08-01
In order to understand the role of the Rydberg states in the photodestruction of acetylene in circumstellar envelopes, we have investigated the spectroscopy of some of the ungerade and gerade states by resonant multiphoton ionization in a magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer. The ungerade ns + nd Rydberg supercomplexes of C2H2 have been investigated by one-colour (3 + 1) multiphoton ionization, in the energy region 79 500-87 000 cm-1. Our spectral data show a very different behaviour of the various components of these supercomplexes towards predissociation. The highly excited gerade nf Rydberg states have been observed for the first time, by two-colour (3+1') multiphoton ionization. A value for the adiabatic ionization potential, 91 956 cm-1, has been obtained from the observed series limit and from earlier high-resolution infrared data on the ground state of the ion. This value is 4 cm-1 higher than the one measured by ZEKE spectroscopy. The apparent broadening of the observed Rydberg features may originate both from Zeeman `broadening' of the non-penetrating nf complexes and from predissociation. The np Rydberg states, for which observation is fully allowed in the same spectral region, do not appear in the ionization signal at least in the low-n range, most probably because of their very short lifetime. In the high-energy region, spectral congestion, probably involving p-f mixing, occurs.
Spectra and Autoionization Lifetimes of Long-Range Rydberg Molecular States of 85 Rb2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carollo, Ryan; Eyler, Edward; Gould, Phillip; Stwalley, William
2016-05-01
We present high-resolution autoionization data and modeling of the 7 p long-range Rydberg molecular states in 85 Rb2. Our process excites a photoassociation resonance in the 1 (0g-) state which decays to v'' = 35 and 36 long-range levels of the a3Σu+ state and to the continuum. These bound molecules are then excited via a single UV photon to target states below the 5 s + 7 p asymptote by a frequency-doubled pulse-amplified CW laser with narrow linewidth, ~ 150 MHz. The long-range portion of the bonding potential is formed by the scattering interaction of the Rydberg electron of a perturbed 7 p atom scattering from a nearby ground-state atom. We use time-of-flight to selectively measure molecular ions, which are formed via autoionization. Using a hyperfine model of the a3Σu+ and its coupling to the X1Σg+ state, we are able to place an upper limit on the autoionization linewidth of 450 MHz, corresponding to a lifetime >= 3 . 5 ×10-10 s. Excited-state hyperfine structure suggests a still-lower linewidth (and thus longer lifetime), but its contribution is not yet fully understood. This work is supported by NSF and AFOSR.
A sensitive electrometer based on a Rydberg atom in a Schrödinger-cat state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Facon, Adrien; Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Grosso, Dorian; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sébastien
2016-07-01
Fundamental quantum fluctuations caused by the Heisenberg principle limit measurement precision. If the uncertainty is distributed equally between conjugate variables of the meter system, the measurement precision cannot exceed the standard quantum limit. When the meter is a large angular momentum, going beyond the standard quantum limit requires non-classical states such as squeezed states or Schrödinger-cat-like states. However, the metrological use of the latter has been so far restricted to meters with a relatively small total angular momentum because the experimental preparation of these non-classical states is very challenging. Here we report a measurement of an electric field based on an electrometer consisting of a large angular momentum (quantum number J ≈ 25) carried by a single atom in a high-energy Rydberg state. We show that the fundamental Heisenberg limit can be approached when the Rydberg atom undergoes a non-classical evolution through Schrödinger-cat states. Using this method, we reach a single-shot sensitivity of 1.2 millivolts per centimetre for a 100-nanosecond interaction time, corresponding to 30 microvolts per centimetre per square root hertz at our 3 kilohertz repetition rate. This highly sensitive, non-invasive space- and time-resolved field measurement extends the realm of electrometric techniques and could have important practical applications: detection of individual electrons in mesoscopic devices at a distance of about 100 micrometres with a megahertz bandwidth is within reach.
Preparation of circular Rydberg states in helium using the crossed-fields method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.
2016-08-01
Helium atoms have been prepared in the circular |n =55 ,ℓ =54 , mℓ=+54 > Rydberg state using the crossed electric and magnetic fields method. The atoms, initially traveling in pulsed supersonic beams, were photoexcited from the metastable 1 s 2 s S31 level to the outermost, mℓ=0 Rydberg-Stark state with n =55 in the presence of a strong electric field and weak perpendicular magnetic field. Following excitation, the electric field was adiabatically switched off causing the atoms to evolve into the circular state with mℓ=+54 defined with respect to the magnetic-field quantization axis. The circular states were detected by ramped electric-field ionization along the magnetic-field axis. The dependence of the circular state production efficiency on the strength of the excitation electric field, and the electric-field switch-off time was studied, and microwave spectroscopy of the circular-to-circular |55 ,54 ,+54 >→|56 ,55 ,+55 > transition at ˜38.5 GHz was performed.
Long, Jingming; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst
2014-03-13
Mass-resolved (2 + n) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of CH2Br2 in the two-photon resonance excitation region from 71 200 to 82 300 cm(-1) were recorded and analyzed. Spectral structures allowed characterization of new molecular Rydberg states. C*((1)D2) was found to be an important intermediate in the photodissociation processes. A broad spectral feature peaking at about 80 663 cm(-1) in the C(+) spectrum and frequently seen in related studies is reinterpreted and associated with switching between three- and two-photon ionization of C*((1)D2). Analysis of band structures due to transitions from the A(2)Δ state of CH* that were seen in the CH(+) and C(+) REMPI spectra allowed characterization of three electronic states of CH, assigned as E(2)Π, D(2)Π, and F(2)Σ(+), which clarifies a long-term puzzle concerning the energetics of the CH radical. Predissociation of the E, D, and F states to form C*((1)D2) occurs. Bromine atomic lines were observed and are believed to be associated with bromine atom formation via predissociation of CH2Br2 Rydberg states.
Evolution of Rydberg states in half-cycle pulses: Classical, semiclassical, and quantum dynamics
Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C. |
1994-12-31
We summarize recent theoretical advances in the description of the evolution of Rydberg atoms subject to ultrashort pulses extending only a fraction of an optical cycle. We have performed classical. semiclassical and full quantum calculations in order to delineate the classical-quantum correspondence for impulsively perturbed atomic systems. We observe classical and quantum (or semiclassical) oscillations in excitation and ionization which depend on the initial state of atoms and on the strength of the perturbation. These predictions can be experimentally tested. 4 figs.
Vela-Arevalo, Luz V.; Fox, Ronald F.
2005-06-15
A methodology to calculate generalized coherent states for a periodically driven system is presented. We study wave packets constructed as a linear combination of suitable Floquet states of the three-dimensional Rydberg atom in a microwave field. The driven coherent states show classical space localization, spreading, and revivals and remain localized along the classical trajectory. The microwave strength and frequency have a great effect in the localization of Floquet states, since quasienergy avoided crossings produce delocalization of the Floquet states, showing that tuning of the parameters is very important. Using wavelet-based time-frequency analysis, the classical phase-space structure is determined, which allows us to show that the driven coherent state is located in a large regular region in which the z coordinate is in resonance with the external field. The expectation values of the wave packet show that the driven coherent state evolves along the classical trajectory.
Limão-Vieira, P; Duflot, D; Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Śmiałek, M A; Jones, D B; Brunger, M J
2016-07-21
We present the experimental high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of phenol covering for the first time the full 4.3-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross sections determined. Theoretical calculations on the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths were performed using time-dependent density functional theory and the equation-of-motion coupled cluster method restricted to single and double excitations level. These have been used in the assignment of valence and Rydberg transitions of the phenol molecule. The VUV spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature, with particular reference to the 6.401 eV transition, which is here assigned to the 3sσ/σ(∗)(OH)←3π(3a″) transition. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of phenol in the earth's atmosphere (0-50 km). PMID:27448882
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Śmiałek, M. A.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.
2016-07-01
We present the experimental high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of phenol covering for the first time the full 4.3-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross sections determined. Theoretical calculations on the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths were performed using time-dependent density functional theory and the equation-of-motion coupled cluster method restricted to single and double excitations level. These have been used in the assignment of valence and Rydberg transitions of the phenol molecule. The VUV spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature, with particular reference to the 6.401 eV transition, which is here assigned to the 3sσ/σ∗(OH)←3π(3a″) transition. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of phenol in the earth's atmosphere (0-50 km).
Energy shift and state mixing of Rydberg atoms in ponderomotive optical traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao; Robicheaux, F.
2016-08-01
We present a degenerate perturbation analysis in the spin–orbit coupled basis for Rydberg atoms in an optical trap. The perturbation matrix is found to be nearly the same for two states with the same total angular momentum j, and orbital angular momentum number l differing by 1, The same perturbation matrices result in the same state-mixing and energy shift. We also study the dependence of state mixing and energy shift on the periodicity and symmetry of the ponderomotive potentials induced by different optical traps. State mixing in a one-dimensional lattice formed with two counterpropagating Gaussian beams is studied and yields a state-dependent trap depth. We also calculate the state-mixing in an optical trap formed by four parallel, separated and highly focused Gaussian beams.
Neutral atoms are entangled in hyperfine states via Rydberg blockade
Miller, Johanna
2010-02-15
Ions and neutral atoms held in electromagnetic traps are two of many candidates that may one day become the qubits in a quantum computer: Their hyperfine states could serve as the computer's ones and zeroes. Ions interact via long-range Coulomb forces, which can facilitate creation of the entangled states that are the prerequisite for quantum computation. But that same Coulomb interaction gives rise to collective motions that can disrupt a qubit array. Atoms aren't susceptible to such disruptions. But they're also more difficult to entangle.
Prospects of charged-oscillator quantum-state generation with Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, Robin; Minář, Jiří; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-10-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that in principle permits versatile dissipative creation of squeezed and other nonclassical states which are central to sensing applications or for studies of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects. We show that these features survive thermal coupling of the oscillator with the environment. We perform a detailed feasibility study finding that current state-of-the-art parameters result in atom-oscillator couplings which are too weak to efficiently implement the proposed oscillator state preparation protocol. Finally, we comment on ways to circumvent the present limitations.
Circular Rydberg States of the Hydrogen Atom in a Magnetic Field
Germann, T.C.; Herschbach, D.R. ); Dunn, M.; Watson, D.K. )
1995-01-30
Dimensional perturbation theory is used to study circular Rydberg states ([vert bar][ital m][vert bar]=[ital n][minus]1[much gt]1) and other large [vert bar][ital m][vert bar] states of the hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field. Because of a degeneracy between states of increased angular momentum and states of increased Cartesian dimensionality, the accuracy of the zeroth-order [ital D][r arrow][infinity] limit and a dimensional perturbation expansion improves significantly for states with larger [vert bar][ital m][vert bar]. In contrast to other approaches, this method is applicable to the entire range of magnetic field strengths. Energies and expectation values are presented as functions of the field strength.
Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A
2016-03-28
New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X(2)B1(3b1 (-1)) < A(2)A2(1a2 (-1)) < B(2)B2(6b2 (-1)) < C(2)B1(2b1 (-1)). The absorption onset near 4.6 eV has been investigated using MRD-CI and TDDFT calculations; the principal component of this band is (1)B2 and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a (1)A1 state, but an underlying weak (1)B1 state (πσ(∗)) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ(∗) states of (1)A1 (higher oscillator strength) and (1)B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Michael H.; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A.
2016-03-01
New photoelectron (PE) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for chlorobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work and are subjected to detailed analysis. In addition, we report on the mass-resolved (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of a jet-cooled sample. Both the VUV and REMPI spectra have enabled identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The use of ab initio calculations, which include both multi-reference multi-root doubles and singles configuration interaction (MRD-CI) and time dependent density functional theoretical (TDDFT) methods, has led to major advances in interpretation of the vibrational structure of the ionic and electronically excited states. Franck-Condon (FC) analyses of the PE spectra, including both hot and cold bands, indicate much more complex envelopes than previously thought. The sequence of ionic states can be best interpreted by our multi-configuration self-consistent field computations and also by comparison of the calculated vibrational structure of the B and C ionic states with experiment; these conclusions suggest that the leading sequence is the same as that of iodobenzene and bromobenzene, namely: X2B1(3b1-1) < A2A2(1a2-1) < B2B2(6b2-1) < C2B1(2b1-1). The absorption onset near 4.6 eV has been investigated using MRD-CI and TDDFT calculations; the principal component of this band is 1B2 and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. The other low-lying absorption band near 5.8 eV is dominated by a 1A1 state, but an underlying weak 1B1 state (πσ∗) is also found. The strongest band in the VUV spectrum near 6.7 eV is poorly resolved and is analyzed in terms of two ππ∗ states of 1A1 (higher oscillator strength) and 1B2 (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The calculated vertical excitation energies of these two
Rydberg states of the hydrogen-antihydrogen quasimolecule
Sharipov, V.; Labzowsky, L.; Plunien, G.
2006-05-15
A description of the excited lepton states of the hydrogen-antihydrogen quasimolecule is presented. Potential energy curves and the leptonic part of the wave functions corresponding to a variety of such states are calculated within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation employing the Ritz variational principle. Nonadiabatic corrections to the leptonic potentials are also obtained. Basis functions are constructed as products of explicitly correlated Gaussians and spherical harmonics which describe correctly the motion of leptons with arbitrary orbital angular momentum projection onto the molecular (internuclear) axis. The hadronic part of the wave function for each leptonic level of the hydrogen-antihydrogen system is calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation with the obtained leptonic potentials. Corresponding solutions are generated utilizing precise B-spline representations. Employing leptonic and hadronic parts of the wave function the electron-positron and proton-antiproton annihilation rates are computed for a number of quasimolecular states. The decay rates of the hydrogen-antihydrogen system into separate positronium and protonium atoms are also estimated for the quasimolecular levels under consideration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Gorniaczyk, Hannes; Tresp, Christoph; Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Hofferberth, Sebastian
2016-08-01
Förster resonances provide a highly flexible tool to tune both the strength and the angular shape of interactions between two Rydberg atoms. We give a detailed explanation about how Förster resonances can be found by searching through a large range of possible quantum number combinations. We apply our search method to SS, SD and DD pair states of 87Rb with principal quantum numbers from 30 to 100, taking into account the fine structure splitting of the Rydberg states. We find various strong resonances between atoms with a large difference in principal quantum numbers. We quantify the strength of these resonances by introducing a figure of merit {\\tilde{C}}3 which is independent of the magnetic quantum numbers and geometry to classify the resonances by interaction strength. We further predict to what extent excitation exchange is possible on different resonances and point out limitations of the coherent hopping process. Finally, we discuss the angular dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction and its tunability near resonances.
Rydberg states of helium in electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary relative orientation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkáč, Ondřej; Žeško, Matija; Agner, Josef A.; Schmutz, Hansjürg; Merkt, Frédéric
2016-05-01
A spectroscopic study of Rydberg states of helium (n = 30 and 45) in magnetic, electric and combined magnetic and electric fields with arbitrary relative orientations of the field vectors is presented. The emphasis is on two special cases where (i) the diamagnetic term is negligible and both paramagnetic Zeeman and Stark effects are linear (n = 30, B ≤ 120 mT and F = 0–78 V cm‑1), and (ii) the diamagnetic term is dominant and the Stark effect is linear (n = 45, B = 277 mT and F = 0–8 V cm‑1). Both cases correspond to regimes where the interactions induced by the electric and magnetic fields are much weaker than the Coulomb interaction, but much stronger than the spin–orbit interaction. The experimental spectra are compared to spectra calculated by determining the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian matrix describing helium Rydberg states in the external fields. The spectra and the calculated energy-level diagrams in external fields reveal avoided crossings between levels of different m l values and pronounced m l -mixing effects at all angles between the electric- and magnetic-field vectors other than 0. These observations are discussed in the context of the development of a method to generate dense samples of cold atoms and molecules in a magnetic trap following Rydberg–Stark deceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Gorniaczyk, Hannes; Tresp, Christoph; Mirgorodskiy, Ivan; Hofferberth, Sebastian
2016-08-01
Förster resonances provide a highly flexible tool to tune both the strength and the angular shape of interactions between two Rydberg atoms. We give a detailed explanation about how Förster resonances can be found by searching through a large range of possible quantum number combinations. We apply our search method to SS, SD and DD pair states of 87Rb with principal quantum numbers from 30 to 100, taking into account the fine structure splitting of the Rydberg states. We find various strong resonances between atoms with a large difference in principal quantum numbers. We quantify the strength of these resonances by introducing a figure of merit {\\tilde{C}}3 which is independent of the magnetic quantum numbers and geometry to classify the resonances by interaction strength. We further predict to what extent excitation exchange is possible on different resonances and point out limitations of the coherent hopping process. Finally, we discuss the angular dependence of the dipole–dipole interaction and its tunability near resonances.
Palmer, Michael H; Ridley, Trevor; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare; Zhang, Teng; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Baiardi, Alberto; Peterson, Kirk A
2016-05-28
New photoelectron spectra (PES) and ultra violet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) absorption spectra of fluorobenzene recorded at higher resolution than previously, have been combined with mass-resolved (2 + 1) and (3 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra; this has led to the identification of numerous Rydberg states. The PES have been compared with earlier mass-analyzed threshold ionization and photoinduced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) spectra to give an overall picture of the ionic state sequence. The analysis of these spectra using both equations of motion with coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been combined with vibrational analysis of both the hot and cold bands of the spectra, in considerable detail. The results extend several earlier studies on the vibronic coupling leading to conical intersections between the X(2)B1 and A(2)A2 states, and a further trio (B, C, and D) of states. The conical intersection of the X and A states has been explicitly identified, and its structure and energetics evaluated. The energy sequence of the last group is only acceptable to the present study if given as B(2)B2
Analysis of 1s(2s2p {sup 3}P)nl Rydberg states in the K-shell photoionization of the Be atom
Yoshida, Fumiko; Matsuoka, Leo; Takashima, Ryuta; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Nagata, Tetsuo; Azuma, Yoshiro; Obara, Satoshi; Koike, Fumihiro
2006-06-15
We have observed inner-shell photoionization of Be using synchrotron radiation in the energy region of the 1s(2s2p {sup 3}P)nl Rydberg states. We used a time-of-flight method to distinguish singly and doubly charged photoions and obtained the Be{sup +} [ns; n=5-12 ({sup 1}P)3s] and Be{sup 2+} [ns; n=5-8, nd=5,6 ({sup 1}P)3s] ion spectra with high resolution corresponding to an instrumental bandpass of 13 meV. Detailed analysis enabled the autoionization parameters, resonance energy position E{sub 0}, resonance width {gamma}, and Fano parameter q, to be obtained. From the resonance positions of the {sup 3}Pnl series members, the series limit was determined to be 127.97 eV, which is in good agreement with previous experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Martin; Raunhardt, Matthias; Merkt, Frédéric
2009-06-01
In the range 0-45 cm^{-1} below the ionization limit, the separation between adjacent electronic states (Rydberg states with principal quantum number n>50) of atoms and molecules is smaller than 2 cm^{-1}. In order to resolve the fine or hyperfine structure of these states, it is necessary to combine high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser radiation, which is required to access the Rydberg states from the ground state, with millimeter wave radiation. Such double-resonance experiments have been used to study the hyperfine structure of high Rydberg states of ^{83}Kr, H_2 or D_2. Millimeter wave transitions (240-350 GHz) between nℓ (52≤ n≤64, ℓ≤3) Rydberg states of different xenon isotopes were detected by pulsed field ionization followed by mass-selective detection of the cations. Because of the high polarizability of high-n Rydberg states (∝ n^7, ˜10^4 MHz cm^{2} V^{-2} for n≈ 50), it is necessary to reduce the electric stray fields to values of the order of mV/cm (or less) in order to minimize the (quadratic) Stark shift of the millimeter wave transitions. Some p and d Rydberg states of Xe are nearly degenerate and efficiently mixed by small stray fields, making it possible to observe transitions forbidden by the Δℓ=±1 selection rule or transitions exhibiting a linear Stark effect, which is typical for the degenerate high-ℓ Rydberg states. Multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was used to analyze the millimeter wave data and to determine the hyperfine structures of the ^2P_{3/2} ground electronic states of ^{129}Xe^+ and ^{131}Xe^+. C. Fabre, P. Goy, S. Haroche, J. Phys. B: Atom. Mol. Phys. 10, L183-189 (1977). F. Merkt, A. Osterwalder, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21, 385-403 (2002). M. Schäfer, M. Andrist, H. Schmutz, F. Lewen, G. Winnewisser, F. Merkt, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 831-845 (2006) M. Schäfer, F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A, 74, 062506 (2006). A. Osterwalder, A. Wüest, F. Merkt, Ch. Jungen, J. Chem. Phys., 121, 11810
Three-body bound states in dipole-dipole interacting Rydberg atoms.
Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter
2013-12-01
We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between three identical Rydberg atoms can give rise to bound trimer states. The microscopic origin of these states is fundamentally different from Efimov physics. Two stable trimer configurations exist where the atoms form the vertices of an equilateral triangle in a plane perpendicular to a static electric field. The triangle edge length typically exceeds R≈2 μm, and each configuration is twofold degenerate due to Kramers degeneracy. The depth of the potential wells and the triangle edge length can be controlled by external parameters. We establish the Borromean nature of the trimer states, analyze the quantum dynamics in the potential wells, and describe methods for their production and detection.
Explicitly correlated Gaussian calculations of the {sup 2}D Rydberg states of the boron atom
Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2012-08-14
Accurate non-relativistic variational calculations are performed for the seven lowest members of the {sup 2}D Rydberg series (1s{sup 2}2s2p{sup 2}, and 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}nd, n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 8) of the boron atom. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions and the effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the calculations allowing for determining the isotopic shifts of the energy levels. The Gaussian basis is optimized independently for each state with the aid of the analytic energy gradient with respect to the Gaussian parameters. The calculations represent the highest accuracy level currently achievable for the considered states. The computed energies are compared with the available experimental data.
Electric-Field-Induced Dissociation of Heavy Rydberg Ion-Pair States
Reinhold, Carlos O; Yoshida, S.; Dunning, F. B.
2011-01-01
A classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate the dissociation of H+..F and K+..Cl heavy Rydberg ion pairs induced by a ramped electric-field, a technique used experimentally to detect and probe ion-pair states. The simulations include the effects of the strong short-range repulsive interaction associated with ion-pair scattering and provide results in good agreement with experimental data for Stark wavepackets probed by a ramped field, demonstrating that many of the characteristics of field-induced dissociation can be well described using a purely classical model. The data also show that states with a given value of principal quantum number (i.e., binding energy) can dissociate over a broad range of applied fields, the exact field being governed by the initial orbital angular momentum and orientation of the state.
A sensitive electrometer based on a Rydberg atom in a Schrödinger-cat state.
Facon, Adrien; Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Grosso, Dorian; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sébastien
2016-07-14
Fundamental quantum fluctuations caused by the Heisenberg principle limit measurement precision. If the uncertainty is distributed equally between conjugate variables of the meter system, the measurement precision cannot exceed the standard quantum limit. When the meter is a large angular momentum, going beyond the standard quantum limit requires non-classical states such as squeezed states or Schrödinger-cat-like states. However, the metrological use of the latter has been so far restricted to meters with a relatively small total angular momentum because the experimental preparation of these non-classical states is very challenging. Here we report a measurement of an electric field based on an electrometer consisting of a large angular momentum (quantum number J ≈ 25) carried by a single atom in a high-energy Rydberg state. We show that the fundamental Heisenberg limit can be approached when the Rydberg atom undergoes a non-classical evolution through Schrödinger-cat states. Using this method, we reach a single-shot sensitivity of 1.2 millivolts per centimetre for a 100-nanosecond interaction time, corresponding to 30 microvolts per centimetre per square root hertz at our 3 kilohertz repetition rate. This highly sensitive, non-invasive space- and time-resolved field measurement extends the realm of electrometric techniques and could have important practical applications: detection of individual electrons in mesoscopic devices at a distance of about 100 micrometres with a megahertz bandwidth is within reach. PMID:27411632
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, D. H.; Bakker, B. L. G.; Samartzis, P. C.; Kitsopoulos, T. N.
2001-07-01
Velocity map images are reported for photoelectrons and atomic chlorine ions produced during one-color REMPI (resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization) of molecular chlorine via the v=0-15 vibrational levels of the 2 1Πg(4s) Rydberg state. Previous magnetic bottle photoelectron studies by Koenders et al. of the same process have shown that REMPI proceeds by two-photon resonant excitation, followed by core-excitation to a super-excited Rydberg state at the three-photon level. This state undergoes (auto)-ionization, resulting in the formation of ground-state molecular chlorine ions, and/or dissociation to neutral products, resulting in the production of electronically excited neutral chlorine atoms. Photoelectrons arise from ionization of Cl2 and electronically excited Cl atoms, while Cl+ ions arise from the dissociation of Cl2+ and from ionization of the excited Cl atoms. The chlorine ion velocity map images reveal new information on the dissociation-ionization dynamics of superexcited Cl2 and the dissociation dynamics of the subsequently formed Cl2+ ions. In the latter case an unexpected low-energy Σ←Π (perpendicular) dissociation pathway to Cl+(1D)+Cl(3P) product atoms is observed. Results from the photoelectron images are compared with those from the magnetic bottle studies. While the imaging kinetic-energy resolution is less than that of the magnetic bottle spectrometer, the angular distribution information and lack of velocity bias of imaging is advantageous. Most of the trends observed in the electron and Cl+ images can be rationalized in terms of single-electron excitation processes and the known molecular orbital structure of the electronic states involved.
Davis, I.L.
1983-01-01
Two methods for calculating state-changing collisional matrix elements, and hence angular-momentum-mixing cross sections, are presented for a ground state noble gas atom colliding with a Rydberg atom at thermal energies. The first is a fully quantal method using Monte Carlo integration to perform the necessary nonseparable fifteen-dimensional collision integrals. The equations are developed for general treatment in the first and higher Born approximations, the distorted wave approximations,and several close-coupling schemes. The Monte Carlo method is carefully developed and tested for use in the types of integrals involved, and variance reduction techniques are discussed and applied. The second method uses a Gegenbauer polynomial expansion of the -1/r/sup 4/ polarization potential to find the necessary matrix elements. It also employs the elliptic functions and elliptic integrals to calculate the classical trajectory of the ground state atom as it passes the ionic Rydberg core. This semiclassical method is easily transformed into a fully quantal method, retaining only the polarization potential feature, by integrating the translational wave function of the incoming ground state atom and the matrix elements calculated via the Gegenbauer polynomials. The equations of scattering for the first quantal method are then specifically developed for ground state helium colliding with Rydberg helium, and calculation of the l-mixing cross section for He(10/sup 1/P) is performed using over a half million random fifteen-dimensional points. The result, accurate to within a factor of two, gives a result of 1600 A/sup 2/ compared to the experimental value of 2580 +/- 590 A/sup 2/. This experimental value is within the variance of the Monte Carlo calculation.
Excitation of high orbital angular momentum Rydberg states with Laguerre-Gauss beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, J. D.; Marcassa, L. G.; Mendonça, J. T.
2016-04-01
We consider the excitation of Rydberg states through photons carrying an intrinsic orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Laguerre-Gauss modes, with a helical wave-front structure, correspond to such a set of laser beams, which carry {{\\ell }}0 units of orbital angular momentum in their propagation direction, with ℓ 0 the winding number. We demonstrate that, in a proper geometry setting, this orbital angular momentum can be transferred to the internal degrees of freedom of the atoms, thus violating the standard dipole selection rules. Higher orbital angular momentum states become accessible through a single photon excitation process. We investigate how the spacial structure of the Laguerre-Gauss beam affects the radial coupling strength, assuming the simplest case of hydrogen-like wavefunctions. Finally we discuss a generalization of the angular momentum coupling, in order to include the effects of the fine and hyperfine splitting, in the context of the Wigner-Eckart theorem.
Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms
Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; Kempen, E. G. M. van; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Cote, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.
2009-05-15
We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s{yields}nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27-59. Compared to dipole-allowed (E1) transitions from 5s{yields}np, these E2 transitions are weaker by a factor of approximately 2000. We also report measurements of the anomalous np{sub 3/2}:np{sub 1/2} fine-structure transition strength ratio for n=28-75. Both results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.
Sprecher, D.; Liu, J.; Krähenmann, T.; Schäfer, M.; Merkt, F.
2014-02-14
Photoionization spectra and Rydberg-state-resolved threshold-ionization spectra of the gerade triplet np Rydberg states of {sup 4}He{sub 2} located in the vicinity of the X{sup +2}Σ{sub u}{sup +}(ν{sup +} =0) ionization threshold were recorded from the 2sσa{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} metastable state. An accuracy of 0.01 cm{sup −1} was achieved for the experimental term values of the observed Rydberg states. The data were combined with spectroscopic data on low-lying triplet np and nf Rydberg states from the literature to derive energy- and internuclear-distance-dependent eigenquantum-defect parameters of multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT). The MQDT calculations reproduce the experimental data within their experimental uncertainties and enabled the derivation of potential-energy curves for the lowest triplet p Rydberg states (n = 2–5) of He{sub 2}. The eigenquantum-defect parameters describing the p -f interaction were found to be larger than 0.002 at the energies corresponding to the high-n Rydberg states, so that the p -f interaction plays an important role in the autoionization dynamics of np Rydberg states with ν{sup +} = 0. By extrapolating the experimental term values of triplet np Rydberg states of {sup 4}He{sub 2} in the range of principal quantum number n between 87 and 110, the positions of the (ν{sup +} = 0, N{sup +} = 3) and (ν{sup +} = 0, N{sup +} = 5) levels of the ground state of {sup 4}He{sub 2}{sup +} were determined to lie 70.937(3) cm{sup −1} and 198.369(6) cm{sup −1}, respectively, above the (ν{sup +} = 0, N{sup +} = 1) ground rotational level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Ying; Dai, Chang-Jian; Qin, Wen-Jie
2009-10-01
Isolated-core-excitation (ICE) scheme and autoionization detection are employed to study the bound Rydberg states of europium atom. The high-lying states with odd parity have been measured using the autoionization detection method with three different excitation paths via 4f76s6p[8P5/2], 4f76s6p[8P7/2] and 4f76s6p[8P9/2] intermediate states, respectively. In this paper the spectra of bound Rydberg states of Eu atom are reported, which cover the energy regions from 36000 cm-1 to 38250 cm-1 and from 38900 cm-1 to 39500 cm-1. The study provides the information about level energy, the possible J values and relative line intensity as well as the effective principal quantum number n* for these states. This work not only confirms the previous results of many states, but also discovers 11 new Rydberg states of Eu atom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aptekarev, A. I.; Dehesa, J. S.; Martínez-Finkelshtein, A.; Yáñez, R. J.
2010-04-01
The radial position (\\langle r^\\alpha \\rangle,\\; \\alpha \\in \\mathbb {R}) and momentum (langpβrang, β in ( - 1, 3)) expectation values of the D-dimensional Rydberg hydrogenic states (i.e. states where the electron has a large hyperquantum number n) are rigorously determined by means of powerful tools of the modern approximation theory relative to the asymptotics of the varying orthogonal Laguerre and Gegenbauer polynomials which control the corresponding wavefunctions in position and momentum spaces.
Zhang, Qun; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Li, Quanxin; Yu, Shuqin; Ma, Xingxiao
2008-04-14
Sulfur difluoride radicals in their ground state have been produced by a "laser-free" pulsed dc discharge of the SF6Ar gas mixtures in a supersonic molecular beam and detected by mass-selective resonance-enhanced multilphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 408-420 nm. Analyses of the (3+1) REMPI excitation spectrum have enabled identification of three hitherto unknown Rydberg states of this radical. Following the Rydberg state labeling in our previous work [see J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7233 (1998)], these we label the K(5p1) [nu 0-0=71 837 cm(-1), omega'1(a1 sym str)=915 cm(-1)], L(5p2) [nu 0-0=72 134 cm(-1), omega'1(a1 sym str)=912 cm(-1)], and M(5p3) [nu 0-0=72 336 cm(-1), omega'1(a1 sym str)=926 cm(-1)] Rydberg states, respectively. [Origins, relative to the lowest vibrational level of the X 1A1 ground state, and vibrational frequencies of the symmetric S-F stretching mode are suggested by the numbers in brackets.] Photofragmentation process of SF2+-->SF+ +F that relates to the REMPI spectrum was discussed. PMID:18412444
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholson, Travis; Thompson, Jeff; Liang, Qiyu; Cantu, Sergio; Venkatramani, Aditya; Pohl, Thomas; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The realization of strong optical nonlinearities between two photons has been a longstanding goal in quantum science. We achieve large single-photon-level nonlinearities with Rydberg EIT, which combines slow light techniques with strongly interacting Rydberg states. For two Rydberg atoms in the same state, a Van der Waals interaction is the dominant coupling mechanism. Inherently stronger dipole-dipole interactions are also possible between atoms in different Rydberg states. Using light storage and microwave resonances, we study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions in Rydberg EIT. We observe a coherent spin exchange effect for pairs of states dominated by dipole-dipole interactions. Spin exchange manifests as an increase in optical transmission through a cold Rubidium gas that is highly dissipative in the presence of Van der Waals interactions. We also observe a controlled π / 2 phase shift due to this effect, which paves the way for robust, universal all-optical quantum gates.
Lifetimes of ultra-long-range strontium Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camargo, F.; Whalen, J. D.; Ding, R.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdorfer, J.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.
2016-05-01
The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultralong-range strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5s 38s3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using field ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p-wave resonance in low-energy electron-rubidium scattering, which strongly influences the rubidium molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. This research was supported by the AFOSR, NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, the FWF (Austria), FWF-SFB049 NextLite. H.R.S. was supported by a Grant to ITAMP from the NSF.
Walz-Flannigan, A.; Guest, J.R.; Choi, J.-H.; Raithel, G.
2004-06-01
Using state-selective field ionization, the state distributions of Rydberg atoms in cold Rydberg gases are measured for various initially excited Rydberg levels, populations, and evolution times. We provide direct experimental evidence for l-changing collisions that we previously observed indirectly [S. K. Dutta, D. Feldbaum, A. Walz-Flannigan, J. R. Guest, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3993 (2001)]. We also observe n-mixing and find that its effects are largely in agreement with recent theoretical work on n-changing collisions between electrons and Rydberg atoms, thus enabling an estimation of the electron temperature. Unexpectedly large populations of atoms are found in states with principal quantum numbers much lower than that of the initially excited atoms. We explain this observation by collisions between high-l Rydberg atoms, which are highly polar and can collide due to static electric-dipole forces between them.
Rydberg state, metastable, and electron dynamics in the low-pressure argon afterglow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Johnsen, Rainer; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-12-01
In this work a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for recombining plasmas is developed. It tracks the collisional and radiative capture of electrons into highly-excited (Rydberg) states and their consecutive deexcitation through collisions and radiation to the ground or the metastable state. The model allows the calculation of the net recombination rate and the electron energy gain by recombination. It is coupled to the volume-averaged balance equations for the electron density and temperature. The numerical solution of these equations includes a model for the diffusion cooling of the electrons (Celik et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 046407) and a simplified model for the gas cooling. Using as only input the experimentally determined initial values of the electron density and temperature, gas temperature and metastable density, the temporal evolution of all parameters in the afterglow is calculated and compared with measurements. The results reproduce very well the measured quantities (electron density, light emission and metastable density) without the need to invoke adjustable parameters. This gives confidence in the validity of the model that allows it to be used not only to deepen the understanding of afterglow plasmas but also to tailor their properties as required for applications. The analysis of the model results further shows that gas heating and cooling must be explicitly taken into account to reproduce experimental observations. The electron heating by recombination is another process that is important for the good agreement. Both of these effects were largely ignored in previous works on afterglows.
Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states
Bookless, W.
1980-12-01
A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.
Dynamics of Bloch State Positronium Emission from MOF Targets Studied via Rydberg TOF Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piñeiro Escalera, Alina; Jones, Adric; Mills, Allen
2016-05-01
Recent advances in the efficient production and detection of Rydberg positronium (Ps) have made it possible to perform energy- and angle- resolved time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy with Ps. We report here TOF measurements of Ps emission from the metal-oxide framework (MOF) targets, MOF-5 and ZIF-8. MOFs are a recently synthesized class of chemical structures, characterized by high long-range order and large surface area to volume ratios (i.e., they are highly porous and uniform, crystalline materials). Ps is found to be emitted predominantly in a series of monoenergetic peaks, providing clear evidence of Ps Bloch states. Measuring the relative populations of the monoenergetic peaks, as a function of implantation energy and target temperature, provides insight into the target-dependent dynamics of Bloch state Ps. Work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grants No. PHY 1206100 and No. PHY 1040590 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Progam (NSF-GRFP). DOE BES DE-FG02-13ER46972 (MOF-5 synthesis and characterization).
Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario
2016-05-01
Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules are formed when a ground-state atom is bound to a Rydberg atom. The binding mechanism of these Rydberg molecules is based on the low-energy collisions between a Rydberg electron and a ground-state atom and leads to the unusual oscillatory behavior of the adiabatic potential energy curves. If the ground-state atom immersed into the Rydberg wave function is replaced by a heteronuclear diatomic molecule another type of polyatomic Rydberg molecules can form. In this case, the Rydberg electron is coupled to the internal states of the polar ground-state molecule. In this talk, we will explore the electronic structure and rovibrational properties of these ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecule. For the second type of Rydberg molecules, the polar dimer is allowed to rotate in the electric fields generated by the Rydberg electron and Rydberg core as well as an additional external field. We will investigate the metamorphosis of the Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, essential for the binding mechanism, with varying electric field and analyze the resulting properties such as the vibrational structure and the alignment and orientation of the polar dimer.
Ultralong-range Molecules in Strontium Rydberg Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Killian, Thomas
2016-05-01
Alkaline-earth metal atoms are attracting increased attention for studies of ultracold Rydberg gases because of new opportunities created by strong core transitions accessible with visible light and the presence of excited triplet states. We have created and characterized ultralong-range Sr2 molecules formed from one ground-state 5 s21 S0 atom and one atom in a 5sns 3 S1 Rydberg state. Molecules are formed in a trapped ultracold atomic gas using two-photon excitation, near resonance with the 5s5p 3 P1 intermediate state. Spectra for both a thermal gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied, and highly structured vibrational spectra are obtained for molecular dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Measured lifetimes of Rydberg atoms and molecules in dense gases of ground state atoms show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This reflects the fact that in strontium there is no p-wave resonance for electron scattering in this energy regime, unlike the situation in rubidium. The absence of a resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, and the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.
Laser diagnostics of the energy spectrum of Rydberg states of the lithium-7 atom
Zelener, B. B. Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Manykin, E. A.; Zelener, B. V.; Fortov, V. E.
2015-12-15
The spectra of excited lithium-7 atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap are studied using a UV laser. The laser diagnostics of the energy of Rydberg atoms is developed based on measurements of the change in resonance fluorescence intensity of ultracold atoms as the exciting UV radiation frequency passes through the Rydberg transition frequency. The energies of various nS configurations are obtained in a broad range of the principal quantum number n from 38 to 165. The values of the quantum defect and ionization energy obtained in experiments and predicted theoretically are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fillion, J.-H.; Dulieu, F.; Baouche, S.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Jochims, H. W.; Leach, S.
2003-07-01
The absorption cross section and the ionization quantum yield of H2O have been measured using a synchrotron radiation source between 9 and 22 eV. Comparison between the two curves highlights competition between relaxation processes for Rydberg states converging to the first tilde A 2A 1 and to the second tilde B 2B 2 excited states of H2O+. Comparison with D2O absorption and ionization yields, derived from Katayama et al (1973 J. Chem. Phys. 59 4309), reveals specific energy-dependent deuteration effects on competitive predissociation and autoionization relaxation channels. Direct ionization was found to be only slightly affected by deuteration.
Zaouris, Dimitris; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Glodic, Pavle; Samartzis, Peter C; Rafn Hróðmarsson, Helgi; Kvaran, Ágúst
2015-04-28
Photoexcitation dynamics of the E((1)Σ(+)) (v' = 0) Rydberg state and the V((1)Σ(+)) (v') ion-pair vibrational states of HBr are investigated by velocity map imaging (VMI). H(+) photoions, produced through a number of vibrational and rotational levels of the two states were imaged and kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions were extracted from the data. In agreement with previous work, we found the photodissociation channels forming H*(n = 2) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) to be dominant. Autoionization pathways leading to H(+) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) via either HBr(+)((2)Π3/2) or HBr(+)*((2)Π1/2) formation were also present. The analysis of KER and angular distributions and comparison with rotationally and mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra revealed the excitation transition mechanisms and characteristics of states involved as well as the involvement of the E-V state interactions and their v' and J' dependence. PMID:25801122
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruse, H. A.; Jungen, Ch.; Merkt, F.
2008-04-01
The hyperfine structure of transitions between n=51-53d and n=54-57f Rydberg states belonging to series converging on the XΣ2g+ (v+=0,N+=1) , ground state of para- D2+ has been measured at an experimental resolution of about 1 MHz by millimeter-wave spectroscopy and assigned on the basis of combination differences. A map of the hyperfine structure of these Rydberg states has been determined. The analysis of the hyperfine structure of the nf series by multichannel quantum defect theory has confirmed the experimental assignments and enabled the derivation of the hyperfine structure of the ground state of para- D2+ with a precision of better than 1 MHz.
Kalemos, Apostolos; Prosmiti, Rita
2014-09-14
We present for the first time a coherent ab initio study of 39 states of valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair character of the diatomic interhalogen ICl species through large scale multireference variational methods including spin-orbit effects coupled with quantitative basis sets. Various avoided crossings are responsible for a non-adiabatic behaviour creating a wonderful vista for its theoretical description. Our molecular constants are compared with all available experimental data with the aim to assist experimentalists especially in the high energy regime of up to ∼95 000 cm{sup −1}.
Magnetic trapping of long-lived cold Rydberg atoms.
Choi, J-H; Guest, J R; Povilus, A P; Hansis, E; Raithel, G
2005-12-01
We report on the trapping of long-lived strongly magnetized Rydberg atoms. 85Rb atoms are laser cooled and collected in a superconducting magnetic trap with a strong bias field (2.9 T) and laser excited to Rydberg states. Collisions scatter a small fraction of the Rydberg atoms into long-lived high-angular momentum "guiding-center" Rydberg states, which are magnetically trapped. The Rydberg atomic cloud is examined using a time-delayed, position-sensitive probe. We observe magnetic trapping of these Rydberg atoms for times up to 200 ms. Oscillations of the Rydberg-atom cloud in the trap reveal an average magnetic moment of the trapped Rydberg atoms of approximately -8microB. These results provide guidance for other Rydberg-atom trapping schemes and illuminate a possible route for trapping antihydrogen.
Magnetic Trapping of Long-Lived Cold Rydberg Atoms
Choi, J.-H.; Guest, J.R.; Povilus, A.P.; Hansis, E.; Raithel, G.
2005-12-09
We report on the trapping of long-lived strongly magnetized Rydberg atoms. {sup 85}Rb atoms are laser cooled and collected in a superconducting magnetic trap with a strong bias field (2.9 T) and laser excited to Rydberg states. Collisions scatter a small fraction of the Rydberg atoms into long-lived high-angular momentum 'guiding-center' Rydberg states, which are magnetically trapped. The Rydberg atomic cloud is examined using a time-delayed, position-sensitive probe. We observe magnetic trapping of these Rydberg atoms for times up to 200 ms. Oscillations of the Rydberg-atom cloud in the trap reveal an average magnetic moment of the trapped Rydberg atoms of {approx_equal}-8{mu}{sub B}. These results provide guidance for other Rydberg-atom trapping schemes and illuminate a possible route for trapping antihydrogen.
Schmidt-May, Alice F; Grütter, Monika; Neugebohren, Jannis; Kitsopoulos, T N; Wodtke, Alec M; Harding, Dan J
2016-07-14
We present a 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme for acetylene via the linear G̃ 4sσ (1)Πu Rydberg state, offering partial rotational resolution and the possibility to detect excitation in both the cis- and trans-bending modes. The resonant transition to the G̃ state is driven by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon, generated by resonant four-wave mixing (FWM) in krypton. Ionization from the short-lived G̃ state then occurs quickly, driven by the high intensity of the residual light from the FWM process. We have observed nine bands in the region between 79 200 cm(-1) and 80 500 cm(-1) in C2H2 and C2D2. We compare our results with published spectra in this region and suggest alternative assignments for some of the Renner-Teller split bands. Similar REMPI schemes should be applicable to other small molecules with picosecond lifetime Rydberg states. PMID:27073931
Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.
2007-01-19
The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.
Direct Electron Impact Excitation of Rydberg-Valence States of Molecular Nitrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Liu, X.; Ajdari, B.; Muleady, S.; Kanik, I.; Khakoo, M. A.
2012-12-01
Collisions between electrons and neutral N2 molecules result in emissions that provide an important diagnostic probe for understanding the ionospheric energy balance and the effects of space weather in upper atmospheres. Also, transitions to singlet ungerade states cause N2 to be a strong absorber of solar radiation in the EUV spectral range where many ro-vibrational levels of these Rydberg-valence (RV) states are predissociative. Thus, their respective excitation and emission cross sections are important parameters for understanding the [N]/[N2] ratio in the thermosphere of nitrogen dominated atmospheres. The following work provides improved constraints on absolute and relative excitation cross sections of numerous RV states of N2, enabling more physically accurate atmospheric modeling. Here, we present recent integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of RV states of N2 [6], which were based on the differential cross sections (DCSs) derived from electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra of [5]. This work resulted in electronic excitation cross sections over the following measured vibrational levels: b 1Πu (v‧=0-14), c3 1Πu (v‧=0-3), o3 1Πu (v‧=0-3), b‧ 1Σu+ (v‧=0-10), c‧4 1Σu+ (v‧=0-3), G 3Πu (v‧=0-3), and F 3Πu (v‧=0-3). We further adjusted the cross sections of the RV states by extending the vibronic contributions to unmeasured v‧-levels via the relative excitation probabilities (REPs) as discussed in [6]. This resulted in REP-scaled ICSs over the following vibrational levels for the singlet ungerade states: b(0-19), c3(0-4), o3(0-4), b‧(0-16), and c‧4(0-8). Comparison of the ICSs of [6] with available EEL based measurements, theoretical calculations, and emission based work generally shows good agreement within error estimations, except with the recent reevaluation provided by [1]. Further, we have extended these results, using the recent EEL data of [3], to include the unfolding of better resolved features above ~13
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schütte, Bernd; Arbeiter, Mathias; Fennel, Thomas; Jabbari, Ghazal; Gokhberg, Kirill; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Rouzée, Arnaud
2015-05-01
Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) describes a process, where an excited atom relaxes by transferring its energy to an atom in the environment that gets ionized. So far, ICD has been observed following XUV ionization or excitation of clusters. Here we present novel results of an intracluster Coulombic decay mechanism induced by intense NIR pulses and following Rydberg atom formation in the generated nanoplasma. When a highly-excited Rydberg atom relaxes to its ground state by transferring its excess energy to a weakly bound electron in the environment, electrons with kinetic energies close to the atomic ionization potential are emitted. We show evidence for such an intracluster Coulombic decay process that leaves clear signatures in the electron kinetic energy spectra. ICD is time-resolved in a pump-probe experiment, where a weak probe pulse depopulates the excited states, leading to a quenching of the ICD signal. We find a decay time of 87 ps, which is siginificantly longer than for previous ICD observations, where inner-shell holes were created by XUV pulses. Intracluster Coulombic decay is found to be a generic process that takes places in atomic and molecular clusters and at different wavelengths. It may play an important role in biological systems and in astronomical plasmas. Previous affiliation: Max-Born-Institut, Berlin, Germany.
Effective Field Theory for Rydberg Polaritons.
Gullans, M J; Thompson, J D; Wang, Y; Liang, Q-Y; Vuletić, V; Lukin, M D; Gorshkov, A V
2016-09-01
We develop an effective field theory (EFT) to describe the few- and many-body propagation of one-dimensional Rydberg polaritons. We show that the photonic transmission through the Rydberg medium can be found by mapping the propagation problem to a nonequilibrium quench, where the role of time and space are reversed. We include effective range corrections in the EFT and show that they dominate the dynamics near scattering resonances in the presence of deep bound states. Finally, we show how the long-range nature of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions induces strong effective N-body interactions between Rydberg polaritons. These results pave the way towards studying nonperturbative effects in quantum field theories using Rydberg polaritons. PMID:27661685
Unified theory of bound and scattering molecular Rydberg states as quantum maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietz, Barbara; Lombardi, Maurice; Seligman, Thomas H.
2004-08-01
Using a representation of multichannel quantum defect theory in terms of a quantum Poincaré map for bound Rydberg molecules, we apply Jung's scattering map to derive a generalized quantum map, that includes the continuum. We show that this representation not only simplifies the understanding of the method, but moreover produces considerable numerical advantages. Finally we show under what circumstances the usual semi-classical approximations yield satisfactory results. In particular we see that singularities that cause problems in semi-classics are irrelevant to the quantum map.
Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S.
2015-11-15
The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S.
2015-11-01
The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular ( l = | m| = n-1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ~ n-1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau-Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li( nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n-1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4 s 2) and Sr(5 s 2) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l ( l ≪ n).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dewangan, D. P.
2008-01-01
We give an exact quantum formula for the z-component of the dipole matrix element between parabolic states of a hydrogen atom in terms of the Jacobi polynomials. The formula extends the range of numerical computation to larger values of the parabolic quantum numbers for which computation from the standard textbook formula, which is in terms of the hypergeometric functions, is defined. We obtain an accurate quantum expression of the z-dipole matrix element in terms of the ordinary Bessel functions for transition between nearby Rydberg parabolic states. We derive for the first time the formula of the z-dipole matrix element of the correspondence principle method directly from the quantum expression, and in the process of derivation, clarify the nature of classical-quantum correspondence. The expressions obtained in this work solve the problem of computation of the z-dipole matrix element of hydrogen to a large extent.
Rydberg atom spectroscopy enabled by blackbody radiation ionization
Lu Xiaoxu; Sun Yuan; Metcalf, Harold
2011-09-15
We have excited helium atoms from their metastable 2 {sup 3} S state to Rydberg states in the range 13
Rydberg atoms in ultracold plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolston, Steven
2009-05-01
Ultracold plasmas are formed through the photoionization of laser-cooled atoms, or spontaneous ionization of a dense cloud of Rydberg atoms or now molecules[1]. Ultracold plasmas are inherently metastable, as the ions and electrons would be in a lower energy state bound together as atoms. The dominant process of atom formation in these plasmas is three-body recombination, a collision between two electrons and an ion that leads to the formation of a Rydberg atom. This collisional process is not only important in determining the lifetime and density of the plasma, but is also critical in determining the time evolution of the temperature. The formation of the Rydberg atoms is accompanied by an increase in electron energy for the extra electron in the collision, and is a source of heating in these plasmas. Classical three-body recombination theory scales as T-9/2, and thus as a plasma cools due to a process such as adiabatic expansion, recombination-induced heating turns on, limiting the temperature [2]. The Rydberg atoms formed live in the plasma and contribute to the temperature dynamics, as collisions with plasma electrons can change the principal quantum number of the Rydberg atom, driving it to more tightly bound states (a source of plasma heating) or to higher states (a source of plasma cooling). If the plasma is cold and dense enough to be strongly coupled, classical three-body recombination theory breaks down. Recent theoretical work [3] suggests that the rate limits as the plasma gets strongly coupled. I will review the role of Rydberg atoms in ultracold plasmas and prospects for probing Rydberg collisions in the strongly coupled environment. [4pt] [1] J. P. Morrison, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205005 (2008 [0pt] [2] R. S. Fletcher, X. Zhang, and S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 145001 (2007 [0pt] [3] T. Pohl, private communication.
Mack, Markus; Karlewski, Florian; Hattermann, Helge; Hoeckh, Simone; Jessen, Florian; Cano, Daniel; Fortagh, Jozsef
2011-05-15
We report the measurement of absolute excitation frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states. The Rydberg transition frequencies are obtained by observing electromagnetically induced transparency on a rubidium vapor cell. The accuracy of the measurement of each state is < or approx. 1 MHz, which is achieved by frequency stabilizing the two diode lasers employed for the spectroscopy to a frequency comb and a frequency comb calibrated wavelength meter, respectively. Based on the spectroscopic data we determine the quantum defects of {sup 87}Rb, and compare it with previous measurements on {sup 85}Rb. We determine the ionization frequency from the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=1) ground state of {sup 87}Rb to 1010.029 164 6(3)THz, providing the binding energy of the ground state with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude.
Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph
2016-08-01
We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.
Towards exciting a Rydberg gas in optical lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjappa, Manukumara; Han, Jingshan; Guo, Ruixiang; Vogt, Thibault; Li, Wenhui; Quantum Matter Group Team
2013-05-01
Rydberg atoms are highly excited atoms with principal quantum number n >10. They have exaggerated properties such as large dipole moment and high polarizability. Large dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms, which lead to Rydberg blockade and giant non linearity, provide unique opportunities for studying quantum many-body physics. Rydberg excitation of ground state quantum gas in optical lattices has already shown the formation of spatially organized structures and Rydberg dressed systems are promising for entering the strongly correlated regime. Our current project is to study the collective excitation to Rydberg states from a quantum gas of ground state atoms in an optical lattice. In this poster we present the latest development in building up the experimental apparatus and our plans on spectroscopic measurements and spatially imaging of Rydberg excitations. Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore.
Efficient Multiparticle Entanglement via Asymmetric Rydberg Blockade
Saffman, M.; Moelmer, K.
2009-06-19
We present an efficient method for producing N particle entangled states using Rydberg blockade interactions. Optical excitation of Rydberg states that interact weakly, yet have a strong coupling to a second control state is used to achieve state dependent qubit rotations in small ensembles. On the basis of quantitative calculations, we predict that an entangled quantum superposition state of eight atoms can be produced with a fidelity of 84% in cold Rb atoms.
Gilchrist, A. J.; Ritchie, G. A. D.
2013-06-07
(2 + 1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in combination with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOF-MS) has been used to detect both the O({sup 3}P) and O({sup 1}D) fragments produced as a result of predissociation of the C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} (v= 0) and (v= 1) Rydberg states of O{sub 2}, accessed via two-photon absorption from the ground X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup -} state. In particular, TOF profiles have been recorded at various fixed two-photon absorption wavelengths within the two bands, with circular polarized probe laser light used to probe the angular momentum orientation of these photofragments. All photofragments are found to display coherent orientation resulting from interference between two possible two-photon absorption pathways. The measured orientation is affected by rotational depolarization due to the long lifetime of the excited C state; once this effect is accounted for the orientation is found to be nearly constant over all dissociation wavelengths. The origin of the coherent orientation is attributed to two-photon absorption to different spin-orbit components of the C state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketkov, Sergey Yu.; Selzle, Heinrich L.; Schlag, Edward W.
2004-07-01
Two-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of jet-cooled (η6-C6H6)2Cr(1), (η6-C6D6)2Cr(2), and (η6-C6D6)(η6-C6D5H)Cr(3) have been measured with use of the 3dz2→R4px,y Rydberg transition as the first step of the electronic excitation. The 000 Rydberg component shifts by 59 and 54 cm-1 to red when one goes from 1 to 2 and 3, respectively. Surprisingly, the REMPI spectra of 1-3 show very rich vibronic structures revealing both totally symmetric vibrations and degenerate vibrational modes. Presence of intense peaks corresponding to the e2g modes in the spectra of 1 and 2 is indicative of Jahn-Teller coupling in the R4px,y Rydberg state. Additional REMPI resonances appear on going from 1 and 2 to 3 as a result of the symmetry reduction. The vibronic components in the spectra of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of the selection rules and comparison with the vibrational frequencies of the 1 and 2 ground-state molecules. The frequencies of over 10 normal vibrations have been determined for the gas-phase 1-3 Rydberg-state molecules from the REMPI experiment. The wavenumber corresponding to the lowest-energy mode (the ring torsion vibration) appears to be 40 cm-1 in 1 and 35 cm-1 in the deuterated complexes. The REMPI peaks are homogeneously broadened. The lower lifetime limits for the upper-state components increase on going from the vibrationless level to higher-lying vibronic states and on going from 1 to the deuterated derivatives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedeljković, N. N.; Majkić, M. D.; Božanić, D. K.; Dojčilović, R. J.
2016-06-01
We consider the population dynamics of the intermediate Rydberg states of highly charged ions (core charge Z\\gg 1, principal quantum number {n}{{A}}\\gg 1) interacting with solid surfaces at arbitrary collision geometry. The recently developed resonant two-state vector model for the grazing incidence (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 215202) is extended to the quasi-resonant case and arbitrary angle of incidence. According to the model, the population probabilities depend both on the projectile parallel and perpendicular velocity components, in a complementary way. A cascade neutralization process for {{{Xe}}}Z+ ions, for Z=15{--}45, interacting with a conductive-surface is considered by taking into account the population dynamics. For an arbitrary collision geometry and given range of ionic velocities, a micro-staircase model for the simultaneous calculation of the kinetic energy gain and the charge state of the ion in front of the surface is proposed. The relevance of the obtained results for the explanation of the formation of nanostructures on solid surfaces by slow highly charged ions for normal incidence geometry is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhali, I.; Bezzaouia, S.; Telmini, M.; Jungen, Ch.
2016-08-01
Variational ab initio R -matrix theory combined with generalized multichannel quantum defect theory is used to calculate singly excited Rydberg states of the hydrohelium molecular ion, HeH+, for Σ,3+1,Π,31,Δ,31,Φ,31, and Γ,31 symmetry. Bound levels are calculated for n values up to n ≈10 , and continuum states up to ≈3 eV above the HeH2 + threshold. The calculations span the range of internuclear distances R from 1 to 5 bohrs. The present work follows a preliminary study on the Δ,31 states of HeH+ [Bouhali, Bezzaouia, Telmini, and Jungen, EPJ Web Conf. 84, 04004 (2015), 10.1051/epjconf/20158404004] which was also based on R -matrix theory. Further—although limited to rather small R values—the present work extends the recent ab initio computations of Jungen and Jungen [Mol. Phys. 113, 2333 (2015), 10.1080/00268976.2015.1040094] to higher excitation energies which are not accessible to standard quantum-chemical methods. Where a comparison with the calculations of Jungen and Jungen and other older results can be made, namely for n ≤5 , very good agreement with previous ab initio results is obtained.
Observation of the bottomonium ground state in the decay Upsilon(3S)-->gammaetab.
Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; da Costa, J Firmino; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Schott, G; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Li, X; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Esteve, L; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Bertsche, K; Cai, Y; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Decker, F J; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ecklund, S; Erickson, R; Field, R C; Fisher, A; Fox, J; Gabareen, A M; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Iverson, R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Kulikov, A; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Novokhatski, A; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Rivetta, C; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Van Winkle, D; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wittmer, W; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yan, Y; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Yocky, G; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L
2008-08-15
We report the results of a search for the bottomonium ground state etab(1S) in the photon energy spectrum with a sample of (109+/-1) million of Upsilon(3S) recorded at the Upsilon(3S) energy with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. We observe a peak in the photon energy spectrum at Egamma=921.2(-2.8)+2.1(stat)+/-2.4(syst) MeV with a significance of 10 standard deviations. We interpret the observed peak as being due to monochromatic photons from the radiative transition Upsilon(3S)-->gammaetab(1S). This photon energy corresponds to an etab(1S) mass of 9388.9(-2.3)+3.1(stat)+/-2.7(syst) MeV/c2. The hyperfine Upsilon(1S)-etab(1S) mass splitting is 71.4(-3.1)+2.3(stat)+/-2.7(syst) MeV/c2. The branching fraction for this radiative Upsilon(3S) decay is estimated to be [4.8+/-0.5(stat)+/-1.2(syst)]x10(-4). PMID:18764521
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Kwanghsi; McKoy, V.
1991-12-01
Results of studies of rotational ion distributions in the X 2Π3/2 and X 2Π1/2 spin-orbit states of HCl+ resulting from (2+1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the S(0) branch of the F 1Δ2 Rydberg state are reported and compared with measured threshold-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy spectra reported recently [K. S. Haber, Y. Jiang, G. Bryant, H. Lefebvre-Brion, and E. R. Grant, Phys. Rev. A (in press)]. These results show comparable intensities for J+=3/2 of the X 2Π3/2 ion and J+=1/2 of the X 2Π1/2 ion. Both transitions require an angular momentum change of ΔN=-1 upon photoionization. To provide further insight into the near-threshold dynamics of this process, we also show rotationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions, alignment of the ion rotational levels, and rotational distributions for the parity components of the ion rotational levels. About 18% population is predicted to occur in the (+) parity component, which would arise from odd partial-wave contributions to the photoelectron matrix element. This behavior is similar to that in (2+1) REMPI via the S(2) branch of the F 1Δ2 state of HBr and was shown to arise from significant l mixing in the electronic continuum due to the nonspherical molecular ion potential. Rotational ion distributions resulting from (2+1) REMPI via the S(10) branch of the F 1Δ2 state are also shown.
Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris
2016-05-01
A generalized class of exotic long-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 < n < 22 , promoting its admixture into the high l deeply bound ``trilobite'' molecule states and thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Further novel molecular states are predicted to occur in the low- J states of silicon, which are strongly perturbed due to channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.
Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric; Jungen, Christian
2014-03-14
Multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT) is used to calculate the electron binding energies of np Rydberg states of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} around n = 60 at an accuracy of better than 0.5 MHz. The theory includes the effects of rovibronic channel interactions and the hyperfine structure, and has been extended to the calculation of the asymmetric hyperfine structure of Rydberg states of a heteronuclear diatomic molecule (HD). Starting values for the eigenquantum-defect parameters of MQDT were extracted from ab initio potential-energy functions for the low-lying p Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen and subsequently refined in a global weighted fit to available experimental data on the singlet and triplet Rydberg states of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}. The electron binding energies of high-np Rydberg states derived in this work represent important quantities for future determinations of the adiabatic ionization energies of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} at sub-MHz accuracy.
Electrostatically Guided Rydberg Positronium.
Deller, A; Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Hogan, S D; Cassidy, D B
2016-08-12
We report experiments in which positronium (Ps) atoms were guided using inhomogeneous electric fields. Ps atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number n=10 and electric dipole moments up to 610 D were prepared via two-color two-photon optical excitation in the presence of a 670 V cm^{-1} electric field. The Ps atoms were created at the entrance of a 0.4 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide, and were detected at the end of the guide via annihilation gamma radiation. When the lasers were tuned to excite low-field-seeking Stark states, a fivefold increase in the number of atoms reaching the end of the guide was observed, whereas no signal was detected when high-field-seeking states were produced. The data are consistent with the calculated geometrical guide acceptance. PMID:27563960
Electrostatically Guided Rydberg Positronium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deller, A.; Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Hogan, S. D.; Cassidy, D. B.
2016-08-01
We report experiments in which positronium (Ps) atoms were guided using inhomogeneous electric fields. Ps atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number n =10 and electric dipole moments up to 610 D were prepared via two-color two-photon optical excitation in the presence of a 670 V cm-1 electric field. The Ps atoms were created at the entrance of a 0.4 m long electrostatic quadrupole guide, and were detected at the end of the guide via annihilation gamma radiation. When the lasers were tuned to excite low-field-seeking Stark states, a fivefold increase in the number of atoms reaching the end of the guide was observed, whereas no signal was detected when high-field-seeking states were produced. The data are consistent with the calculated geometrical guide acceptance.
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Ammonia adopts sp(3) hybridization (HNH bond angle 108°) whereas the other members of the XH3 series PH3, AsH3, SbH3, and BiH3 instead prefer octahedral bond angles of 90-93°. We use a recently developed general diabatic description for closed-shell chemical reactions, expanded to include Rydberg states, to understand the geometry, spectroscopy and inversion reaction profile of these molecules, fitting its parameters to results from Equation of Motion Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations using large basis sets. Bands observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum of NH3 at 18.3 eV, 30 eV, and 33 eV are reassigned from Rydberg (formally forbidden) double excitations to valence single-excitation resonances. Critical to the analysis is the inclusion of all three electronic states in which two electrons are placed in the lone-pair orbital n and/or the symmetric valence σ* antibonding orbital. An illustrative effective two-state diabatic model is also developed containing just three parameters: the resonance energy driving the high-symmetry planar structure, the reorganization energy opposing it, and HXH bond angle in the absence of resonance. The diabatic orbitals are identified as sp hybrids on X; for the radical cations XH3(+) for which only 2 electronic states and one conical intersection are involved, the principle of orbital following dictates that the bond angle in the absence of resonance is acos(-1/5) = 101.5°. The multiple states and associated multiple conical intersection seams controlling the ground-state structure of XH3 renormalize this to acos[3 sin(2)(2(1/2)atan(1/2))/2 - 1/2] = 86.7°. Depending on the ratio of the resonance energy to the reorganization energy, equilibrium angles can vary from these limiting values up to 120°, and the anomalously large bond angle in NH3 arises because the resonance energy is unexpectedly large. This occurs as the ordering of the lowest Rydberg orbital and the σ* orbital swap, allowing
Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S
2015-10-14
Ammonia adopts sp(3) hybridization (HNH bond angle 108°) whereas the other members of the XH3 series PH3, AsH3, SbH3, and BiH3 instead prefer octahedral bond angles of 90-93°. We use a recently developed general diabatic description for closed-shell chemical reactions, expanded to include Rydberg states, to understand the geometry, spectroscopy and inversion reaction profile of these molecules, fitting its parameters to results from Equation of Motion Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations using large basis sets. Bands observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum of NH3 at 18.3 eV, 30 eV, and 33 eV are reassigned from Rydberg (formally forbidden) double excitations to valence single-excitation resonances. Critical to the analysis is the inclusion of all three electronic states in which two electrons are placed in the lone-pair orbital n and/or the symmetric valence σ* antibonding orbital. An illustrative effective two-state diabatic model is also developed containing just three parameters: the resonance energy driving the high-symmetry planar structure, the reorganization energy opposing it, and HXH bond angle in the absence of resonance. The diabatic orbitals are identified as sp hybrids on X; for the radical cations XH3(+) for which only 2 electronic states and one conical intersection are involved, the principle of orbital following dictates that the bond angle in the absence of resonance is acos(-1/5) = 101.5°. The multiple states and associated multiple conical intersection seams controlling the ground-state structure of XH3 renormalize this to acos[3 sin(2)(2(1/2)atan(1/2))/2 - 1/2] = 86.7°. Depending on the ratio of the resonance energy to the reorganization energy, equilibrium angles can vary from these limiting values up to 120°, and the anomalously large bond angle in NH3 arises because the resonance energy is unexpectedly large. This occurs as the ordering of the lowest Rydberg orbital and the σ* orbital swap, allowing
Excitation of {sup 1}S and {sup 3}S Metastable Helium Atoms to Doubly Excited States
Alagia, M.; Coreno, M.; Farrokhpour, H.; Omidyan, R.; Tabrizchi, M.; Franceschi, P.; Mihelic, A.; Zitnik, M.; Moise, A.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; Soederstroem, J.; Stranges, S.
2009-04-17
We present spectra of triplet and singlet metastable helium atoms resonantly photoexcited to doubly excited states. The first members of three dipole-allowed {sup 1,3}P{sup o} series have been observed and their relative photoionization cross sections determined, both in the triplet (from 1s2s {sup 3}S{sup e}) and singlet (from 1s2s {sup 1}S{sup e}) manifolds. The intensity ratios are drastically different with respect to transitions from the ground state. When radiation damping is included the results for the singlets are in agreement with theory, while for triplets spin-orbit interaction must also be taken into account.
Schaefer, Martin; Raunhardt, Matthias; Merkt, Frederic
2010-03-15
Millimeter-wave transitions between high-n Rydberg states of several isotopes of xenon have been recorded at sub-megahertz resolution. The fine and, for {sup 129}Xe and {sup 131}Xe, hyperfine structures of s, p, d, and f Rydberg states with principal quantum number in the range 52{<=}n{<=}64 have been determined from combination differences and analyzed using multichannel quantum defect theory. Improved eigenquantum defects and channel interaction parameters for the odd- and even-parity Rydberg states of xenon and the hyperfine structure of the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} ground state of {sup 129}Xe{sup +} and {sup 131}Xe{sup +} have been obtained. Nearly degenerate p and d fine or hyperfine levels are very easily mixed by even weak stray electric fields.
Storage Enhanced Nonlinearities in a Cold Atomic Rydberg Ensemble.
Distante, E; Padrón-Brito, A; Cristiani, M; Paredes-Barato, D; de Riedmatten, H
2016-09-01
The combination of electromagnetically induced transparency with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides an effective interaction between photons. In this Letter, we investigate the storage of optical pulses as collective Rydberg atomic excitations in a cold atomic ensemble. By measuring the dynamics of the stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. At short storage times, we observe a strong enhancement of the interaction due to the reduction of the Rydberg polariton group velocity down to 0. For longer storage times, we observe a further, weaker enhancement dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. In this regime, we observe a nonlinear dependence of the Rydberg polariton coherence time with the input photon number. Our results have direct consequences in Rydberg quantum optics and may enable the test of new theories of strongly interacting Rydberg systems.
Storage Enhanced Nonlinearities in a Cold Atomic Rydberg Ensemble.
Distante, E; Padrón-Brito, A; Cristiani, M; Paredes-Barato, D; de Riedmatten, H
2016-09-01
The combination of electromagnetically induced transparency with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides an effective interaction between photons. In this Letter, we investigate the storage of optical pulses as collective Rydberg atomic excitations in a cold atomic ensemble. By measuring the dynamics of the stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. At short storage times, we observe a strong enhancement of the interaction due to the reduction of the Rydberg polariton group velocity down to 0. For longer storage times, we observe a further, weaker enhancement dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. In this regime, we observe a nonlinear dependence of the Rydberg polariton coherence time with the input photon number. Our results have direct consequences in Rydberg quantum optics and may enable the test of new theories of strongly interacting Rydberg systems. PMID:27661683
Storage Enhanced Nonlinearities in a Cold Atomic Rydberg Ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Distante, E.; Padrón-Brito, A.; Cristiani, M.; Paredes-Barato, D.; de Riedmatten, H.
2016-09-01
The combination of electromagnetically induced transparency with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides an effective interaction between photons. In this Letter, we investigate the storage of optical pulses as collective Rydberg atomic excitations in a cold atomic ensemble. By measuring the dynamics of the stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. At short storage times, we observe a strong enhancement of the interaction due to the reduction of the Rydberg polariton group velocity down to 0. For longer storage times, we observe a further, weaker enhancement dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. In this regime, we observe a nonlinear dependence of the Rydberg polariton coherence time with the input photon number. Our results have direct consequences in Rydberg quantum optics and may enable the test of new theories of strongly interacting Rydberg systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanayei, Ali; Schopohl, Nils
2016-07-01
We present numerically accurate calculations of the bound-state spectrum of the highly excited valence electron in the heavy alkali-metal atoms solving the radial Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with a modern spectral collocation method that applies also for a large principal quantum number n ≫1 . As an effective single-particle potential we favor the reputable potential of Marinescu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 982 (1994)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.982. Recent quasiclassical calculations of the quantum defect of the valence electron agree for orbital angular momentum l =0 ,1 ,2 ,... overall remarkably well with the results of the numerical calculations, but for the Rydberg states of rubidium and also cesium with l =3 this agreement is less fair. The reason for this anomaly is that in rubidium and cesium the potential acquires for l =3 deep inside the ionic core a second classical region, thus invalidating a standard Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) calculation with two widely spaced turning points. Comparing then our numerical solutions of the radial Schrödinger eigenvalue problem with the uniform analytic WKB approximation of Langer constructed around the remote turning point rn,j ,l (" close=")n -δ0)">+ we observe everywhere a remarkable agreement, apart from a tiny region around the inner turning point rn,j ,l (-). For s states the centrifugal barrier is absent and no inner turning point exists: rn,j ,0 (-)=0 . With the help of an ansatz proposed by Fock we obtain for the s states a second uniform analytic approximation to the radial wave function complementary to the WKB approximation of Langer, which is exact for r →0+ . From the patching condition, that is, for l =0 the Langer and Fock solutions should agree in the intermediate region 0
Correlated n1,3S states for two-electron atoms in screened potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Rodriguez, Karina V.; Gasaneo, Gustavo
2013-09-01
We investigate two-electron atoms placed in a plasma environment, and consider both exponential cosine screened Coulomb potentials (ESCP) and Debye-Hückel or screened Coulomb potentials (SCP), for which the screening parameter λ is related to the plasma frequency. Using highly correlated Hylleraas-type expansions, Ghoshal and Ho have published the first calculations of the ground states of H- and He in ECSCP and SCP for a wide range of λ values. We have confirmed these results with relatively simpler wave functions within a Configuration Interaction approach with explicitly correlated basis functions satisfying exactly all two-body Kato cusp conditions. The main aim of the present contribution is to extend the findings of Ghoshal and Ho in various directions: (i) we evaluate the energy for the ground and the first 1,3S excited states, and provide analytical fits of the energy E(λ) (ii) we further extend the investigation to the iso-electronic series considering higher values of the nuclear charge Z and provide a double fit E(λ,Z) - thus a practical estimation tool for plasma applications; (iii) we make a systematic investigation of the λ0 value for which the ground state ceases to exist.
Redistributing populations of Rydberg atoms with half-cycle pulses
Hu, S.X.; Collins, L.A.
2004-04-01
Expanding the wave function in terms of eigenstates, we calculated the population redistribution of high-Rydberg hydrogen atoms under the interactions of external time-dependent electromagnetic fields. Our numerical results show that populations of Rydberg atoms can be driven down to lower n levels with a train of half-cycle pulses. Oscillations of the Rydberg population through both n levels and l levels are observed during these interactions. The approach may have applications in providing an effective mechanism for producing near ground-state atoms from the initially high-Rydberg distributions found in recombining ultracold plasmas such as encountered in the antihydrogen trapping experiments at CERN.
Measurement of the Rydberg ionization current in thermal vapor cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loew, Robert; Barredo, Daniel; Daschner, Renate; Kuebler, Harald; Ritter, Ralf; Pfau, Tilman
2013-05-01
Rydberg atoms confined in atomic vapor cells are promising candidates for the realization of single photon sources and quantum optical devices. To date, most information about the behavior of the Rydberg ensembles in thermal vapors has been extracted by absorptive measurements, e.g. EIT. However, to access directly quantities, like the population of the excited states, new methods are needed. In this task, the detection of the Rydberg ionization current provides a complementary and direct insight in the atomic processes. We show measurements of the Rydberg-ion current in thermal vapor cells equipped with field plates inside the vacuum. arXiv:1209.655.
Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yerokhin, V. A.; Buhmann, S. Y.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.
2016-09-01
Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali-metal atoms, Rb and Cs, for the n S , n P½,3 /2 , and n D3 /2 ,5 /2 states with large principal quantum numbers up to n =50 . The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semiempirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semiempirical approach and with available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buathong, S.; Kelley, M.; Dunning, F. B.
2016-10-01
Electron transfer in collisions between low-n, n = 12, Rydberg atoms and targets that attach low-energy electrons can lead to the formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states comprising a weakly-bound positive-negative ion pair that orbit each other at large separations. Measurements of the velocity and angular distribution of ion-pair states produced in collisions with 1,1,1-C2Cl3F3, CBrCl3, BrCN, and Fe(CO)5 are used to show that electron transfer reactions furnish a new technique with which to examine the lifetime and decay energetics of the excited intermediates formed during dissociative electron capture. The results are analyzed with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations based on the free electron model of Rydberg atom collisions. The data further highlight the capabilities of Rydberg atoms as a microscale laboratory in which to probe the dynamics of electron attachment reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, Alexander T.
Every day, millions of cubic feet of natural gas is transported through interstate pipelines and consumed by customers all over the United States of America. Gas distributors, responsible for sending natural gas to individual customers, are eager for an estimate of how much natural gas will be used in the near future. GasHour(TM) software, a reliable forecasting tool from the Marquette University GasDay(TM) lab, has been providing highly accurate hourly forecasts over the past few years. Our goal is to improve current GasHour forecasts, and my thesis presents an approach to achieve that using a blending technique. This thesis includes detailed explanations of the multi-horizon forecasting technique employed by GasHour models. Several graphs are displayed to reveal the structure of hourly forecasts from GasHour. We present SMHF (Smoothing Multi-horizon Forecasts), a step-by-step method showing how a polynomial smoothing technique is applied to current GasHour predications. A slightly different approach of smoothing has also been introduced. We compare RMSEs of both GasHour forecasts and smoothed ones. Different comparisons resulting from different situations have been demonstrated as well. Several conclusions have been reached. Based on the results, blending techniques can improve current GasHour forecasts. We look forward to applying this blending technique to other fields of forecasting.
Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Sarah E.
2012-06-01
Optical lattice traps for Rydberg atoms are of interest in advanced science and in practical applications. After a brief discussion of these areas of interest, I will review some basics of optical Rydberg-atom trapping. The trapping potential experienced by a Rydberg atom in an optical lattice is given by the spatial average of the free-electron ponderomotive energy weighted by the Rydberg electron's probability distribution. I will then present experimental results on the trapping of ^85Rb Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). The principal methods employed to study the lattice performance are microwave spectroscopy, which is used to measure the lattice's trapping efficiency, and photo-ionization, which is used to measure the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice. I have achieved a 90% trapping efficiency for ^85Rb 50S atoms by inverting the lattice immediately after laser excitation of ground-state atoms into Rydberg states. I have characterized the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice using photo-ionization of 50D5/2 atoms. In continued work, I have explored the dependence of the Rydberg-atom trapping potential on the angular portion of the atomic wavefunction. Distinct angular states exhibit different trapping behavior in the optical lattice, depending on how their wavefunctions are oriented relative to the lattice planes. Specifically, I have measured the lattice potential depth of sublevels of ^85Rb nD atoms (50<=n<=65) in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a transverse DC electric field. The trapping behavior varies substantially for the various angular sublevels, in agreement with theory. The talk will conclude with an outlook into planned experiments.
Blockade involving high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry
2016-05-01
The blockade of high- n strontium n1F3 Rydberg states contained in a hot atomic beam is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. One difficulty in such experiments is that, once created, Rydberg atoms move out of the excitation volume reducing blockade effects. While the effects of such motion are apparent, the data provide strong evidence of blockade, consistent with theoretical predictions. Because of their relatively high angular momentum (L = 3) , a pair of n1F3 Rydberg atoms have many degenerate states whose degeneracy is removed by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions yielding a high density of states near the target energy. To evaluate the effect of blockade not only the energy shifts but also the modification of the oscillator strengths for excitation have to be taken into account. The n-scaling of the interactions and the importance of high-order multipoles will also be discussed. Research supported by the NSF and Robert A. Welch Foundation.
Electromagnetically induced transparency and fluorescence in blockaded Rydberg atomic system
Li, Cheng; Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunzhe; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng
2013-10-28
We investigate the interaction between dark states and Rydberg excitation blockade by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), fluorescence, and four-wave mixing (FWM) signals both theoretically and experimentally. By scanning the frequency detunings of the probe and dressing fields, respectively, we first observe these signals (three coexisting EIT windows, two fluorescence signals, and two FWM signals) under Rydberg excitation blockade. Next, frequency detuning dependences of these signals are obtained, in which the modulated results are well explained by introducing the dressing effects (leading to the dark states) with the corrected factor of the Rydberg excitation blockade. In addition, the variations by changing the principal quantum number n of Rydberg state shown some interesting phenomena resulting from Rydberg blockade are observed. The unique nature of such blockaded signals can have potential application in the demonstration of quantum computing.
Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2011-05-21
Very accurate variational non-relativistic calculations are performed for four higher Rydberg {sup 2}D states (1s{sup 2}nd{sup 1}, n= 8, ..., 11) of the lithium atom ({sup 7}Li). The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and finite nuclear mass is used. The exponential parameters of the Gaussians are optimized using the variational method with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to those parameters. The results of the calculations allow for refining the experimental energy levels determined with respect to the {sup 2}S 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 1} ground state.
Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.
2013-10-15
Electron-transfer processes are studied in thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}), Sr(5s{sup 2}), and Ba(6s{sup 2}) atoms capable of forming negative ions with a weakly bound outermost p-electron. We consider the ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of highly excited atomic states caused by transitions between Rydberg covalent and ionic terms of a quasi-molecule produced in collisions of particles. The contributions of these reaction channels to the total depopulation cross section of Rydberg states of Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) atoms as functions of the principal quantum number n are compared for selectively excited nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n and for states with large orbital quantum numbers l = n - 1, n - 2. It is shown that the contribution from resonant quenching dominates at small values of n, and the ion-pair formation process begins to dominate with increasing n. The values and positions of the maxima of cross sections for both processes strongly depend on the electron affinity of an alkaline-earth atom and on the orbital angular momentum l of a highly excited atom. It is shown that in the case of Rydberg atoms in states with large l {approx} n - 1, the rate constants of ion-pair formation and collisional quenching are considerably lower than those for nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n.
Storage enhanced non-linearities in a cold Rydberg ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Distante, Emanuele; Padron-Brito, Auxiliadora; Cristiani, Matteo; Paredes-Barato, David; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2016-05-01
The possibility to control the interaction between photons provided by highly nonlinear media is a key ingredient to the goal of quantum information processing using photons and a unique tool to study the dynamics of the many-body correlated system. To mediate this interaction, one can exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to map the state of the photons into atomic coherence in the form of Rydberg dark-state polaritons. The combination of EIT with the nonlinear interaction between Rydberg atoms provides and effective interaction between photons. By measuring the dynamics of stored Rydberg polaritons, we experimentally demonstrate that storing a probe pulse as Rydberg polaritons strongly enhances the Rydberg mediated interaction compared to the slow-propagation case. We show that the process is characterized by two time scales. We measure a strong enhancement of the interaction at short time scales. By measuring the time-dependent coherence of the stored polariton, we also show that the long time scale dynamics is dominated by Rydberg induced dephasing of the multiparticle components of the state. Our results have a direct consequence in Rydberg quantum optics and enable the test of new theories of strongly interacting Rydberg systems. This work has been funded by: ERC starting Grant QuLIMA, MINECO, Severo Ochoa Grant, AUGAUR and the Europea Union's Horizon 2020.
Rydberg atom interactions from 300 K to 300 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillet, P.; Gallagher, T. F.
2016-09-01
Cold Rydberg atoms provide novel approaches to many-body problems and quantum simulation. To introduce the recent work presented in this special issue, we present here a quick history of a half-century research activity in the Rydberg-atom field, focusing our attention on the giant interactions between Rydberg atoms and other atoms. These interactions are the origin of many effects observed with Rydberg atoms: pressure shifts, dipole–dipole energy transfer, and avalanche-ionization. These effects have led to evidence of new bound chemical states, such as trilobites states, many-body effects in frozen Rydberg gases, and the spontaneous formation of ultra-cold plasmas. They open exciting new prospects at the intersection of atomic physics, condensed matter physics, and plasma physics.
Rydberg atom interactions from 300 K to 300 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillet, P.; Gallagher, T. F.
2016-09-01
Cold Rydberg atoms provide novel approaches to many-body problems and quantum simulation. To introduce the recent work presented in this special issue, we present here a quick history of a half-century research activity in the Rydberg-atom field, focusing our attention on the giant interactions between Rydberg atoms and other atoms. These interactions are the origin of many effects observed with Rydberg atoms: pressure shifts, dipole-dipole energy transfer, and avalanche-ionization. These effects have led to evidence of new bound chemical states, such as trilobites states, many-body effects in frozen Rydberg gases, and the spontaneous formation of ultra-cold plasmas. They open exciting new prospects at the intersection of atomic physics, condensed matter physics, and plasma physics.
Anomalous broadening in driven dissipative Rydberg systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulier, Thomas; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Brown, Roger; Koller, Silvio; Young, Jeremy; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rolston, Steven; Porto, James
2016-05-01
Due to their strong, long-range, coherently-controllable interactions, Rydberg atoms have been proposed as a basis for quantum information processing and simulation of many-body physics. Using the coherent dynamics of such highly excited atomic states, however, requires addressing challenges posed by the dense spectrum of Rydberg levels, the detrimental effects of spontaneous emission, and strong interactions. We report the observation of interaction-induced broadening of the two-photon 5s-18s Rydberg transition in ultra-cold 87Rb atoms, trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The measured linewidth increases by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing atomic density and excitation strength, with corresponding suppression of resonant scattering and enhancement of off-resonant scattering. We attribute the increased linewidth to resonant dipole-dipole interactions of 18s atoms with spontaneously created populations of nearby Rydberg p-states. This dephasing mechanism implies that the timescales available for the coherent addressing of such systems are dramatically shortened, hampering many recent proposals to use Rydberg-dressed atoms for quantum simulation. Now at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt.
Signatures of Quantum Coherences in Rydberg Excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grünwald, P.; Aßmann, M.; Heckötter, J.; Fröhlich, D.; Bayer, M.; Stolz, H.; Scheel, S.
2016-09-01
Coherent optical control of individual particles has been demonstrated both for atoms and semiconductor quantum dots. Here we demonstrate the emergence of quantum coherent effects in semiconductor Rydberg excitons in bulk Cu2O . Because of the spectral proximity between two adjacent Rydberg exciton states, a single-frequency laser may pump both resonances with little dissipation from the detuning. As a consequence, additional resonances appear in the absorption spectrum that correspond to dressed states consisting of two Rydberg exciton levels coupled to the excitonic vacuum, forming a V -type three-level system, but driven only by one laser light source. We show that the level of pure dephasing in this system is extremely low. These observations are a crucial step towards coherently controlled quantum technologies in a bulk semiconductor.
Li, Shaohong L.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2014-09-14
Kohn-Sham (KS) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with most exchange-correlation functionals is well known to systematically underestimate the excitation energies of Rydberg and charge-transfer excited states of atomic and molecular systems. To improve the description of Rydberg states within the KS TDDFT framework, Gaiduk et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 253005 (2012)] proposed a scheme that may be called HOMO depopulation. In this study, we tested this scheme on an extensive dataset of valence and Rydberg excitation energies of various atoms, ions, and molecules. It is also tested on a charge-transfer excitation of NH{sub 3}-F{sub 2} and on the potential energy curves of NH{sub 3} near a conical intersection. We found that the method can indeed significantly improve the accuracy of predicted Rydberg excitation energies while preserving reasonable accuracy for valence excitation energies. However, it does not appear to improve the description of charge-transfer excitations that are severely underestimated by standard KS TDDFT with conventional exchange-correlation functionals, nor does it perform appreciably better than standard TDDFT for the calculation of potential energy surfaces.
Spin squeezing in a Rydberg lattice clock.
Gil, L I R; Mukherjee, R; Bridge, E M; Jones, M P A; Pohl, T
2014-03-14
We theoretically demonstrate a viable approach to spin squeezing in optical lattice clocks via optical dressing of one clock state to a highly excited Rydberg state, generating switchable atomic interactions. For realistic experimental parameters, these interactions are shown to generate over 10 dB of squeezing in large ensembles within a few microseconds and without degrading the subsequent clock interrogation. PMID:24679291
Coherence in Rydberg Atoms: Measurement and Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kutteruf, Mary
We demonstrate a variety of techniques for measuring and controlling dephasing and decoherence in alkali metal Rydberg atom systems. Specifically, we investigate the coherence of the spin-orbit interaction in individual atoms and of dipole-dipole resonant energy exchange between pairs of atoms. Rydberg atoms are a good model system for exploring decoherence because they are sensitive to noise in their environments. The phase coherence of wave packets encoded on the fine-structure Rydberg states of lithium atoms is measured using a population echo and preserved using pulsed and continuous dynamic decoupling techniques. Pulsed electric fields toggle the spin-orbit coupling, repeatedly flipping the state vector, and preventing the slow acquisition of phase noise in a bang-bang scheme. Continuous dynamic decoupling is implemented by driving population between the relevant electronic states with a resonant rf field. The energy spacing between the levels is locked to the rf frequency as long as the Rabi rate is much greater than the dephasing rate. We demonstrate a technique which reduces the average relative velocity between interacting potassium Rydberg atoms, extending the atom transit time and allowing us to control when all resonant energy exchange interactions in the ensemble begin and end. Velocity reduction is achieved without the use of a chopper wheel by exciting a small cylinder of atoms and allowing them to thermally expand prior to tuning them into resonance. Resonant energy transfer is explored further in a nearly frozen rubidium Rydberg gas. We observe enhancement in the transition signal when the probability amplitudes acquired on opposite sides of the resonance interfere constructively compared to the population transferred when remaining on either side of the resonance. This enhancement reflects the coherence of the energy exchange interaction and decays over 10 us microseconds. The observed coherence time is much longer than previously measured
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letscher, Fabian; Linzner, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael
2016-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we study spatial and temporal correlations of Rydberg excitations of optically driven ultra-cold atoms in the anti-blockade regime. In particular, we discuss the influence of dissipation on the excitation dynamics of a linear chain of atoms, described by the dissipative, transverse-field Ising model. Using t-DMRG simulations of the density matrix we identify parameter regimes with diverging correlation lengths in the coherent regime of weak dissipation. Correlation lengths remain short-ranged in the incoherent regime of strong dissipation, where classical rate equations can be employed. We discuss the different physical mechanisms determining the many-body dynamics in the two regimes and compare theoretical predictions with recent experimental results. In particular we discuss the formation of excitation cluster in the incoherent regime and explain the observed slow-down of the relaxation process due to cluster formation.
Rydberg Excitation of a Single Trapped Ion.
Feldker, T; Bachor, P; Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Gerritsma, R; Walz, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F
2015-10-23
We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold (40)Ca(+) ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 122 nm. Observed resonances are identified as 3d(2)D(3/2) to 51F, 52F and 3d(2)D(5/2) to 64F. We model the line shape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps. PMID:26551109
Mason, Rod S
2010-04-21
A steady state chemical kinetic model is developed to describe the conduction of electrical current between two probes, of relatively large surface area, immersed in a fast flowing plasma by the mechanism of charge transfer through a gas of Rydberg atoms. It correctly predicts the shape of current-voltage profiles which are similar to those of Langmuir, or floating double probe measurements. The difference is that the plateau current at the probe reflects the transport limited ion current at the cathodic electrode, even when the probe is being scanned in the anodic region. The sharp gradient leading up to the plateau of the I-V curve is associated with the field dependence of the efficiency of Rydberg atom ionisation, not the electron temperature. This approach gives a good qualitative explanation of experimental behaviour over a wide range of probe bias voltages and includes the occurrence of electron impact ionisation at the anode. It also gives a value for the thermal rate coefficient of symmetrical charge transfer between Rydberg atoms of Ar (8.2 x 10(-7) molecule(-1) cm(3) s(-1), at 313 K; plasma density approximately = 10(10) atoms cm(-3), total pressure = 2.7 mbar).
Applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryabtsev, Igor I.; Tretyakov, Denis B.; Beterov, Ilya I.
2005-01-01
The applicability of Rydberg atoms to quantum computers is examined from an experimental point of view. In many recent theoretical proposals, the excitation of atoms into highly excited Rydberg states was considered as a way to achieve quantum entanglement in cold atomic ensembles via dipole-dipole interactions that could be strong for Rydberg atoms. Appropriate conditions to realize a conditional quantum phase gate have been analysed. We also present the results of modelling experiments on microwave spectroscopy of single- and multi-atom excitations at the one-photon 37S1/2 → 37P1/2 and two-photon 37S1/2 → 38S1/2 transitions in an ensemble of a few sodium Rydberg atoms. The microwave spectra were investigated for various final states of the ensemble initially prepared in its ground state. The results may be applied to the studies on collective laser excitation of ground-state atoms aiming to realize quantum gates.
Two-stage Rydberg charge exchange: An efficient method for production of antihydrogen
Hessels, E.A.; Homan, D.M.; Cavagnero, M.J.
1998-03-01
An efficient method for production of cold antihydrogen ({bar H}) is proposed. Alkali-metal atoms laser excited to a Rydberg state are charge exchanged with cold trapped positrons, producing Rydberg states of positronium. In a second Rydberg-state charge exchange, the positronium atoms give up their Rydberg positrons to cold trapped antiprotons, producing Rydberg states of {bar H}. These {bar H} atoms soon decay down to the ground state, and, because they are cold, could be trapped in a magnetic trap. The efficiency of the process results from the extremely large cross sections for Rydberg charge exchange. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations indicate an {bar H} instantaneous production rate of 10{sup 6}/s. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Dislocation-mediated melting of one-dimensional Rydberg crystals
Sela, Eran; Garst, Markus; Punk, Matthias
2011-08-15
We consider cold Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott regime with a single atom per site at zero temperature. An external laser drive with Rabi frequency {Omega} and laser detuning {Delta} creates Rydberg excitations whose dynamics is governed by an effective spin-chain model with (quasi) long-range interactions. This system possesses intrinsically a large degree of frustration resulting in a ground-state phase diagram in the ({Delta},{Omega}) plane with a rich topology. As a function of {Delta}, the Rydberg blockade effect gives rise to a series of crystalline phases commensurate with the optical lattice that form a so-called devil's staircase. The Rabi frequency {Omega}, on the other hand, creates quantum fluctuations that eventually lead to a quantum melting of the crystalline states. Upon increasing {Omega}, we find that generically a commensurate-incommensurate transition to a floating Rydberg crystal that supports gapless phonon excitations occurs first. For even larger {Omega}, dislocations within the floating Rydberg crystal start to proliferate and a second, Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson-Halperin-Young dislocation-mediated melting transition finally destroys the crystalline arrangement of Rydberg excitations. This latter melting transition is generic for one-dimensional Rydberg crystals and persists even in the absence of an optical lattice. The floating phase and the concomitant transitions can, in principle, be detected by Bragg scattering of light.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman; Moelmer, Klaus
2010-11-15
The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e> via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest that the absence of interactions between remote Rydberg atoms may, due to a combinatorial effect, induce a cavity-assisted excitation blockade whose range is larger than the typical Rydberg dipole-dipole interaction length.
Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks
Ovsiannikov, Vitali D.; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt
2011-08-26
We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10{sup -16} accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10{sup -18}.
Rydberg spectroscopy in an optical lattice: blackbody thermometry for atomic clocks.
Ovsiannikov, Vitali D; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt
2011-08-26
We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10(-16) accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10(-18).
S3-S4 linker length modulates the relaxed state of a voltage-gated potassium channel.
Priest, Michael F; Lacroix, Jérôme J; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Bezanilla, Francisco
2013-11-19
Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are membrane protein modules found in ion channels and enzymes that are responsible for a large number of fundamental biological tasks, such as neuronal electrical activity. The VSDs switch from a resting to an active conformation upon membrane depolarization, altering the activity of the protein in response to voltage changes. Interestingly, numerous studies describe the existence of a third distinct state, called the relaxed state, also populated at positive potentials. Although some physiological roles for the relaxed state have been suggested, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for the development and modulation of VSD relaxation. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the linker (S3-S4 linker) between the third (S3) and fourth (S4) transmembrane segments of the VSD alters the equilibrium between resting and active conformations. By measuring gating currents from the Shaker potassium channel, we demonstrate here that shortening the S3-S4 linker stabilizes the relaxed state, whereas lengthening the linker or splitting it and coinjecting two fragments of the channel have little effect. We propose that natural variations of the length of the S3-S4 linker in various VSD-containing proteins may produce differential VSD relaxation in vivo.
Imaging spatial correlations of Rydberg excitations in cold atom clouds.
Schwarzkopf, A; Sapiro, R E; Raithel, G
2011-09-01
We use direct spatial imaging of cold 85Rb Rydberg atom clouds to measure the Rydberg-Rydberg correlation function. The results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions [F. Robicheaux and J. V. Hernández, Phys. Rev. A 72, 063403 (2005)]. We determine the blockade radius for states 44D(5/2), 60D(5/2), and 70D(5/2) and investigate the dependence of the correlation behavior on excitation conditions and detection delay. Experimental data hint at the existence of long-range order.
Imaging Spatial Correlations of Rydberg Excitations in Cold Atom Clouds
Schwarzkopf, A.; Sapiro, R. E.; Raithel, G.
2011-09-02
We use direct spatial imaging of cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atom clouds to measure the Rydberg-Rydberg correlation function. The results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions [F. Robicheaux and J. V. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. A 72, 063403 (2005)]. We determine the blockade radius for states 44D{sub 5/2}, 60D{sub 5/2}, and 70D{sub 5/2} and investigate the dependence of the correlation behavior on excitation conditions and detection delay. Experimental data hint at the existence of long-range order.
Addressing single trapped ions for Rydberg quantum logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachor, P.; Feldker, T.; Walz, J.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.
2016-08-01
We demonstrate the excitation of ions to the Rydberg state 22F by vacuum ultraviolet radiation at a wavelength of 123 nm combined with the coherent manipulation of the optical qubit transition in {}40{{Ca}}+. With a tightly focused beam at 729 nm wavelength we coherently excite a single ion from a linear string into the metastable 3{D}5/2 state before a VUV pulse excites it to the Rydberg state. In combination with ion shuttling in the trap, we extend this approach to the addressed excitation of multiple ions. The coherent initialization as well as the addressed Rydberg excitation are key prerequisites for more complex applications of Rydberg ions in quantum simulation or quantum information processing.
Photodissociation dynamics of superexcited O2: Dissociation channels O(5S) vs. O(3S)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yiyong; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang
2014-07-01
The photodissociation dynamics of O2, O2 + hυ → O(3P) + O(2p3(4S)3s, 3S/5S), has been studied by combining the XUV laser pump / UV laser probe and velocity map imaging methods in the photon energy range 14.64-15.20 eV. The fragment yield spectra of O(3S) and O(5S) and their velocity map images have been recorded using the state-selective (1+1) REMPI method to detect the fragments. The fragment yield spectra show resolved fine structure that arises from the predissociated Rydberg states I, I' and I″ (3ΠΩ = 0,1,2). The branching ratios between the two decay channels have been measured by one-photon ionization of the fragments O(3S) and O(5S) simultaneously. It is surprising to find that the dissociation cross sections for the production of O(5S) are larger than, or comparable to, those of O(3S) for the I and I' states, while the cross sections for the production of O(5S) are smaller than those of O(3S) for the I″ state. All fragments O(5S) arise from perpendicular transitions, which provides direct experimental evidence about the symmetry assignments of the states I, I' and I″ excited in this energy region. Although most of the fragments O(3S) arise from perpendicular transitions, some of them are from parallel transitions. Based on the calculated ab initio potential energy curves, we propose that the neutral dissociation into O(3P) + O(3S) occurs mainly via the interaction of the Rydberg states I, I', and I″ with the vibrational continuum of the diabatic 83Πu state (1π _u^{ - 1} (a^4 {Π}_u {)3}sσ _g ,^3 Π_u), while the neutral dissociation into O(3P) + O(5S) occurs mainly via the interaction of Rydberg states I, I', and I″ with the diabatic 73Πu (1π _g^{ - 1} (X^2 {Π}_g {)3}p{σ }_u ,^3 Π_u).
Collisions of Rydberg Atoms with Charged Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacAdam, Keith B.
2000-10-01
The long range of Coulomb interactions, together with the large size, long radiative lifetimes and high state densities of highly excited Rydberg atoms, results in inelastic collision cross sections of prodigious size -- often large enough to outweigh small number densities in astrophysica and cool laboratory plasmas -- and in other unusual features. This talk will provide: (a) a brief survey of the significant features of collisions between electron or positive ions and state-selected Rydberg atoms and of recent experiments( O. Makarov and K.B. MacAdam, Phys. Rev. A 60), 2131-8 (1999); and K.B. MacAdam, J.C. Day and D.M. Homan, Comm. At. Mol. Phys./Comm. Mod. Phys. 1(2), Part D, 57-73 (1999). to investigate them; (b) an introduction to some of the special techniques that have been developed(J.L. Horn, D.M. Homan, C.S. Hwang, W.L. Fuqua III and K.B. MacAdam, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69), 4086-93 (1998). for preparation, manipulation and detection of Rydberg atoms; and (c) a glimpse at new directions in Rydberg atom collision research.
Interactions of Rydberg atoms in MOTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldbaum, David M.
We have studied the development of gases of ultra-cold Rydberg atoms in Magneto Optic Traps, and discovered that such gases exhibit a range of density-dependent phenomena. In particular, we have found that at the densities of ˜ 107 cm-3 the Rydberg atoms spontaneously evolve into long-lived high angular momentum states. These states slowly decay due to microwave background radiation over tens of milliseconds. We have numerically simulated the effects leading to such behavior, and investigated numerically the l- and n-mixing collisions of Rydberg atoms with electrons in the range of 10 meV. These calculations show that the l- and n-mixing cross-sections follow the n5 scaling law, expected from simple Stark map considerations, but also depend on the velocities of the colliding electrons, reflecting the adiabaticity of the atom-electron interactions. We have developed a novel technique of measuring the electric fields inside plasmas by using Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of embedded atoms, based on the disappearance of regions of zero oscillator strength in the presence of such fields. We have applied this technique to study the evolution of ultra-cold non-neutral plasmas excited from the MOT, and have found that it expands over 1 mus. We have simulated such an expansion by considering only Coulomb repulsion between the constituent ions, and have found that such a model is consistent with the experimental observations.
Rydberg excitation of trapped strontium ions (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennrich, Markus; Higgins, Gerard; Pokorny, Fabian; Kress, Florian; Maier, Christine; Haag, Johannes; Colombe, Yves
2016-04-01
Trapped Rydberg ions are a novel approach for quantum information processing [1,2]. This idea joins the advanced quantum control of trapped ions with the strong dipolar interaction between Rydberg atoms. For trapped ions this method promises to speed up entangling interactions [3] and to enable such operations in larger ion crystals [4]. We report on the first experimental realization of trapped strontium Rydberg ions. A single ion was confined in a linear Paul trap and excited to Rydberg states (25S to 37S) using a two-photon excitation with 243nm and 308nm laser light. The transitions we observed are narrow and the excitation can be performed repeatedly which indicates that the Rydberg ions are stable in the ion trap. Similar results have been recently reported on a single photon Rydberg excitation of trapped calcium ions [5]. The tunability of the 304-309nm laser should enable us to excite our strontium ions to even higher Rydberg levels. Such highly excited levels are required to achieve a strong interaction between neighboring Rydberg ions in the trap as will be required for quantum gates using the Rydberg interaction. References [1] M. Müller, L. Liang, I. Lesanovsky, P. Zoller, New J. Phys. 10, 093009 (2008). [2] F. Schmidt-Kaler, et al., New J. Phys. 13, 075014 (2011). [3] W. Li, I. Lesanovsky, Appl. Phys. B 114, 37-44 (2014). [4] W. Li, A.W. Glaetzle, R. Nath, I. Lesanovsky, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052304 (2013). [5] T. Feldker, et al., arXiv:1506.05958
Structures and properties of double-Rydberg anions
Ortiz, J.V. )
1990-06-14
Double-Rydberg anions consist of a closed-shell cation core and two Rydberg-like, diffuse electrons. Ground-state geometry optimizations disclose stable minima for OH{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and PH{sub 4}{sup {minus}} but not for SH{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, FH{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and ClH{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. An alternative PH{sub 4}{sup {minus}} structure with C{sub 2v} symmetry, based on valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, is a more stable minimum than its double-Rydberg counterpart. Vibrational frequencies of the minima are reported. Other optimizations of alternative structures based on valence shell electron pair repulsion theory converge either to double-Rydberg minima or to transition states. Electron propagator calculations yield ionization energies for the minima.
Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.
2016-06-01
In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.
Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres.
Epple, G; Kleinbach, K S; Euser, T G; Joly, N Y; Pfau, T; Russell, P St J; Löw, R
2014-06-19
The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms-six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms--makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems.
Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epple, G.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Euser, T. G.; Joly, N. Y.; Pfau, T.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.
2014-06-01
The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms—six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms—makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems.
Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
Epple, G.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Euser, T. G.; Joly, N. Y.; Pfau, T.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.
2014-01-01
The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms—six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms—makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems. PMID:24942281
Ultracold Chemical Reactions of a Single Rydberg Atom in a Dense Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlagmüller, Michael; Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Engel, Felix; Kleinbach, Kathrin S.; Böttcher, Fabian; Hermann, Udo; Westphal, Karl M.; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.
2016-07-01
Within a dense environment (ρ ≈1014 atoms /cm3 ) at ultracold temperatures (T <1 μ K ), a single atom excited to a Rydberg state acts as a reaction center for surrounding neutral atoms. At these temperatures, almost all neutral atoms within the Rydberg orbit are bound to the Rydberg core and interact with the Rydberg atom. We have studied the reaction rate and products for n S 87Rb Rydberg states, and we mainly observe a state change of the Rydberg electron to a high orbital angular momentum l , with the released energy being converted into kinetic energy of the Rydberg atom. Unexpectedly, the measurements show a threshold behavior at n ≈100 for the inelastic collision time leading to increased lifetimes of the Rydberg state independent of the densities investigated. Even at very high densities (ρ ≈4.8 ×1014 cm-3 ), the lifetime of a Rydberg atom exceeds 10 μ s at n >140 compared to 1 μ s at n =90 . In addition, a second observed reaction mechanism, namely, Rb2+ molecule formation, was studied. Both reaction products are equally probable for n =40 , but the fraction of Rb2+ created drops to below 10% for n ≥90 .
A Rydberg impurity in a dense background gas (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebisch, Tara; Schlagmüller, Michael; Engel, Felix; Westphal, Karl; Kleinbach, Kathrin; Böttcher, Fabian; Loew, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Greene, Chris
2016-04-01
A single Rydberg atom impurity excited in a BEC is a system that can be utilized to measure the quantum mechanical properties of electron - neutral scattering andthe electron probability density of a Rydberg atom. The Rydberg electron - neutral atom scattering process, is a fundamental scattering process, which can be described via Fermi's pseudopotential as V{ěc{r},ěc{R} )=2pi {a}[k(R)]&delta^{(3)}(ěc{r}-ěc{R}). The scattering length is dependent on the momentum of the Rydberg electron, and therefore is dependent on the separation of the Rydberg electron from the ion core. At the classical outermost turning point of the electron, it has the slowest momentum leading to s-wave dominated scattering potentials 10's of MHz in depth for n<40 (Greene et al. PRL 85 2458 (2000), Bendkowsky et al. PRL 105 163201 (2010)). In alkali atoms there is a shape resonance for p-wave scattering, which becomes relevant at ion-neutral separations of 75nm (I.I. Fabrikant J.Phys B 19, 1527 (1985)). This shape resonance potential is several GHz deep, spanning the energy level spacing between n and n-1 principal quantum numbers. At high BEC densities of 5x10^14cm-3 the nearest neighbor spacing is less than 70nm. A Rydberg atom excited within a BEC, is an excitation of the Rydberg atom and all N neutral atoms located within the Rydberg orbit, described as nS+N x 5S. The nS+N x 5S state is density shifted from the Rydberg resonance. Not only does the distribution of atoms within the Rydberg orbit lead to a density shift, but, at these high densities, atoms excited in the nS+N x 5S state near the shape resonance potential cause large perturbations to the density shift, leading to a line broadening. Therefore the spectroscopic line shape of a Rydberg atom in a BEC allows us to probe the theoretically calculated p-wave shape resonance potential. Furthermore, we can observe and measure the dynamics of neutrals excited in the nS+N x 5S state. In the ultracold regime of a BEC, the background
Observation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, James
2009-05-01
In 1934, Enrico Fermi described the scattering of a low energy electron from a neutral atom by using the ideas of scattering length and pseudopotential. Although the long range potential for an electron-atom interaction is always attractive, Fermi realized that the s-wave scattering length that characterizes the low energy collision can be either positive or negative. For a positive scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted away from the atom, the electron is repelled; whereas for a negative scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted to the atom, the electron is attracted. Based on Fermi's approach, Greene and co-workers predicted a novel molecular binding mechanism where a low energy Rydberg electron is scattered from a ground state atom in the case of negative scattering length. In this situation, the interaction between the electron and ground state atom is attractive and results in the formation of bound states of the ground state atom and the Rydberg atom. Molecules bound by electron scattering can have an internuclear separation of several thousand Bohr radii and are very different from molecules formed by 2 Rydberg atoms where the binding is the result of multipolar forces between the atoms alone. In this talk, we present experimental data on the observation of these exotic molecular states for Rb Rydberg atoms in S states for principal quantum numbers n between 34 and 40. The spectroscopic results for the vibrational ground and first excited state of the dimer Rb(5S)-Rb(nS) are presented and the s-wave scattering length for electron-Rb(5S) scattering in the low energy regime where the kinetic energy is less than 100 meV. Finally, we discuss and present data on the lifetimes and decay mechanisms of these molecules in a magnetic trap.
Many-body Physics of Rydberg Polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelman, Alexander; Littlewood, Peter
2014-03-01
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in cold dense atomic gasses with Rydberg states in has attracted considerable interest as a means of realizing strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions. The coherent light-matter coupling provided by the EIT medium combined with interactions between Rydberg states whose strength and shape can be engineered provide a parameter space with rich phenomenology including photon bound states and spatially ordered structures. Past theoretical treatments of these systems have relied on equations of motion to predict dynamics in particular limits. Here we present progress towards a full many-body path integral description that considers interaction effects beyond the Dicke model as well as the intrinsically non-equilibrium nature of the system, and explore a tentative phase diagram.
Polarized Autler-Townes splitting of Rydberg six-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Junling; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yufei; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-09-01
Polarized Autler-Townes (AT) splitting of six-wave mixing (SWM) involving Rydberg atoms is for the first time observed in a thermal vapor cell. By scanning the frequency detuning of the dressing field, AT splitting of Rydberg SWM is compared with that of non-Rydberg SWM with an elliptically polarized probe field. It is demonstrated that the AT spectra are strongly dependent on the interaction between Rydberg atoms. Moreover, AT splitting of SWM is cyclically modulated via a multi-dark state and presented by the corresponding spatial SWM AT splitting images. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Giant Cross Section for Molecular Ion Formation in Ultracold Rydberg Gases.
Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Manthey, Torsten; Weber, Tobias M; Ott, Herwig
2015-07-01
We have studied the associative ionization of a Rydberg atom and a ground-state atom in an ultracold Rydberg gas. The measured scattering cross section is 3 orders of magnitude larger than the geometrical size of the produced molecule. This giant enhancement of the reaction kinetics is due to an efficient directed mass transport which is accelerated by the Rydberg electron. We also find that the total inelastic scattering cross section is given by the geometrical size of the Rydberg electron's wave function.
Polarized Autler–Townes splitting of Rydberg six-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Junling; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yufei; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Qiyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-09-01
Polarized Autler–Townes (AT) splitting of six-wave mixing (SWM) involving Rydberg atoms is for the first time observed in a thermal vapor cell. By scanning the frequency detuning of the dressing field, AT splitting of Rydberg SWM is compared with that of non-Rydberg SWM with an elliptically polarized probe field. It is demonstrated that the AT spectra are strongly dependent on the interaction between Rydberg atoms. Moreover, AT splitting of SWM is cyclically modulated via a multi-dark state and presented by the corresponding spatial SWM AT splitting images. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Goy, P.; Liang, J.; Gross, M.; Haroche, S.
1986-10-01
By high-resolution double-resonance spectroscopy experiments in the millimeter-wavelength domain, we have determined precise values of the quantum defects in the s and p Rydberg levels of /sup 6/Li and /sup 7/Li (principal quantum number n ranging from 18 to 40). A detailed comparison of the /sup 6/Li and /sup 7/Li data has yielded the value of the specific isotopic shift in the np series, which is the first evidence to our knowledge of an exchange effect between a tightly bound core electron and a very weakly bound Rydberg electron in an alkali-metal atom.
Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.; Ott, Herwig
2016-10-01
Engineering molecules with a tunable bond length and defined quantum states lies at the heart of quantum chemistry. The unconventional binding mechanism of Rydberg molecules makes them a promising candidate to implement such tunable molecules. A very peculiar type of Rydberg molecules are the so-called butterfly molecules, which are bound by a shape resonance in the electron-perturber scattering. Here we report the observation of these exotic molecules and employ their exceptional properties to engineer their bond length, vibrational state, angular momentum and orientation in a small electric field. Combining the variable bond length with their giant dipole moment of several hundred Debye, we observe counter-intuitive molecules which locate the average electron position beyond the internuclear distance.
Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules
Niederprüm, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.; Ott, Herwig
2016-01-01
Engineering molecules with a tunable bond length and defined quantum states lies at the heart of quantum chemistry. The unconventional binding mechanism of Rydberg molecules makes them a promising candidate to implement such tunable molecules. A very peculiar type of Rydberg molecules are the so-called butterfly molecules, which are bound by a shape resonance in the electron–perturber scattering. Here we report the observation of these exotic molecules and employ their exceptional properties to engineer their bond length, vibrational state, angular momentum and orientation in a small electric field. Combining the variable bond length with their giant dipole moment of several hundred Debye, we observe counter-intuitive molecules which locate the average electron position beyond the internuclear distance. PMID:27703143
Supersymmetry in Rydberg-dressed lattice fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weimer, Hendrik; Huijse, Liza; Gorshkov, Alexey; Pupillo, Guido; Zoller, Peter; Lukin, Mikhail; Demler, Eugene
2012-06-01
Supersymmetry is a powerful tool that allows the characterization of strongly correlated many-body systems, in particular in the case of supersymmetric extensions of the fermionic Hubbard model [1]. At the same time, these models can exhibit rich and exotic physics on their own, such as flat bands with a vanishing dispersion relation. We show that such lattice models can be realized with Rydberg-dressed fermions in optical lattices. Strong interactions within the ground state manifold of the atoms can be realized by admixing a weak contribution of a highly excited Rydberg state [2]. We discuss the unique possbilities of ultracold atoms for the detection of supersymmetry and the effects of tuning the system away from the supersymmetric point.[4pt] [1] P. Fendley, K. Schoutens, J. de Boer, PRL 90, 120402 (2003).[0pt] [2] J. Honer, H. Weimer, T. Pfau, H. P. B"uchler, PRL 105, 160404 (2010).
Simultaneous ionization-excitation of helium to the 3s, 3p, and 3d states of He+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus
2015-05-01
We extended our work on ionization of helium with simultaneous excitation to the n = 2 states to include the n = 3 manifold of the residual ion. This requires the inclusion of pseudo-states constructed on the 3s, 3p, and 3d ionic core. We used a parallelized version of the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) package to perform a calculation with 1,254 target states, resulting in up to 3,027 coupled channels and matrices of rank up to 200,000 to be diagonalized. The triple-differential cross section (TDCS) was extracted by the projection method. We obtain excellent agreement with experiment regarding the angular dependence of the TDCS for all kinematical situations available for comparison. Some discrepancies remain for the absolute magnitude. Results for the n = 2 states are stable and closely agree with previous predictions. Work supported by the United States National Science Foundation under grants No. PHY-1212450, PHY-1430245 and the XSEDE allocation PHY-090031.
Nonlinear quantum optics mediated by Rydberg interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firstenberg, O.; Adams, C. S.; Hofferberth, S.
2016-08-01
By mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg excitations in ultra-cold atomic ensembles onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency, it is now possible to realize a medium which exhibits a strong optical nonlinearity at the level of individual photons. We review the theoretical concepts and the experimental state-of-the-art of this exciting new field, and discuss first applications in the field of all-optical quantum information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markson, Samuel; Rittenhouse, Seth; Sadeghpour, Hossein
2016-05-01
We will present the admixture of singlet electron scattering into the more dominant triplet scattering in the formation of ultracold Cs Rydberg molecules excited into non-zero electronic angular momentum states. This admixture comes about due to both spin-orbit (SO) coupling in the Rydberg atom as well as the hyperfine (HF) coupling in the ground state atom. In Cs, the Rydberg SO and ground HF interactions are on par. The interaction between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atom includes both s-wave and p-wave scattering components which can cause additional mixing of electronic Rydberg states in the bound molecules. We intend to apply the formalism to Rydberg excitation in Cs in p and d states and will give a progress report at the meeting.
Kleiman, U.; Pindzola, M.S.; Robicheaux, F.
2005-08-15
Partial cross-sections for photoionization with excitation of Li{sup +} leaving the remaining bound electron in the 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 3d states and total cross-sections for double photoionization have been calculated employing the time-dependent close-coupling method. The calculations include both the ground state 1s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and the two lowest metastable excited states 1s2s {sup 1,3}S. Photon energies below and up to about 200 eV above the respective thresholds for double ionization are considered. Comparisons are drawn mainly with convergent close-coupling results [A. S. Kheifets and I. Bray, Phys. Rev. A 58, 4501 (1998)] and B-spline based R-matrix results [H. W. van der Hart and L. Feng, J. Phys. B 34, L601 (2001)].
Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg–Rydberg autoionization rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiffner, Martin; Ceresoli, Davide; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter
2016-10-01
We present quantum mechanical calculations of autoionization rates for two rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. We neglect exchange effects and consider tensor products of independent atom states forming an approximate basis of the two-electron state space. We consider large sets of two-atom states with randomly chosen quantum numbers and find that the charge overlap between the two Rydberg electrons allows one to characterise the magnitude of the autoionization rates. If the electron clouds overlap by more than one percent, the autoionization rates increase approximately exponentially with the charge overlap. This finding is independent of the energy of the initial state.
THz Detection and Imaging using Rydberg Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wade, Christopher; Sibalic, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge; de Melo, Natalia; Adams, Charles; Weatherill, Kevin
2016-05-01
Atoms make excellent electromagnetic field sensors because each atom of the same isotope is identical and has well-studied, permanent properties allowing calibration to SI units. Thus far, atoms have not generally been exploited for terahertz detection because transitions from the atomic ground state are constrained to a limited selection of microwave and optical frequencies. In contrast, highly excited `Rydberg' states allow us access to many strong, electric dipole transitions from the RF to THz regimes. Recent advances in the coherent optical detection of Rydberg atoms have been exploited by a number of groups for precision microwave electrometry Here we report the demonstration of a room-temperature, cesium Rydberg gas as a THz to optical interface. We present two configurations: First, THz-induced fluorescence offers non-destructive and direct imaging of the THz field, providing real-time, single shot images. Second, we convert narrowband terahertz photons to infrared photons with 6% quantum efficiency allowing us to use nano-Watts of THz power to control micro-Watts of laser power on microsecond timescales. Exploiting hysteresis and a room-temperature phase transition in the response of the medium, we demonstrate a latching optical memory for sub pico-Joule THz pulses.
Experimental investigations of dipole–dipole interactions between a few Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browaeys, Antoine; Barredo, Daniel; Lahaye, Thierry
2016-08-01
This review summarizes experimental works performed over the last decade by several groups on the manipulation of a few individual interacting Rydberg atoms. These studies establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a promising platform for quantum-state engineering, with potential applications to quantum metrology, quantum simulation and quantum information.
Magic-wavelength optical traps for Rydberg atoms
Zhang, S.; Saffman, M.; Robicheaux, F.
2011-10-15
We propose blue-detuned optical traps that are suitable for trapping of both ground-state and Rydberg excited atoms. The addition of a background compensation field or a suitable choice of the trap geometry provides a magic trapping condition for ground-state and Rydberg atoms at the trap center. Deviations from the magic condition at finite temperature are calculated. Designs that achieve less than 200-kHz differential trap shift between Cs ground states and 125s Rydberg states for 10 {mu}K Cs atoms are presented. Consideration of the trapping potential and photoionization rates suggests that these traps will be useful for quantum-information experiments with atomic qubits.
Crystallization in Ising quantum magnets and Rydberg superatoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schauss, Peter
2016-05-01
Dominating finite-range interactions in many-body systems can lead to intriguing self-ordered phases of matter. For quantum magnets, Ising models with power-law interactions are among the most elementary systems that support such phases. These models can be implemented by laser coupling ensembles of ultracold atoms to Rydberg states. In this talk, I will report on the experimental preparation of crystalline ground states of such spin systems. We observe a magnetization staircase as a function of the system size and show directly the emergence of crystalline states with vanishing susceptibility. Recent results connect these findings with the picture of Rydberg superatoms. We investigated their scalability and observed collective Rabi oscillations with the perspective of using Rydberg superatoms as collective qubits. Experiments performed at Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching, Germany.
Three-body interactions between slow light Rydberg polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jachymski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemyslaw; Büchler, Hans Peter
2016-05-01
Rydberg polaritons have recently emerged as a promising platform for nonlinear optics and photonic quantum simulation. They are created in an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme involving a Rydberg excitation. Cavity photons can be used in this context to create long-lived, coherent samples consisting of several polaritons. We show that in addition to effective two-body interaction potential inherited from the Rydberg states, the polaritons also exhibit effective three-body interactions. For attractive two-body forces, the three-body term induces short-range repulsion. We analyze the impact of this interaction on the three-body photonic bound states in one-dimensional geometry and discuss the prospects for engineering novel quantum states.
Simplified scheme for entanglement preparation with Rydberg pumping via dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Shi-Lei; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou
2015-08-01
Inspired by recent work [Carr and Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033607 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.033607], we propose a simplified scheme to prepare the two-atom maximally entangled states via dissipative Rydberg pumping. Compared with the former scheme, the simplified one involves fewer classical laser fields and Rydberg interactions, and the asymmetric Rydberg interactions are avoided. Master equation simulations demonstrate that the fidelity and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation of the maximally entangled state could reach up to 0.999 and 2.821, respectively, under certain conditions. Furthermore, we extend the physical thoughts to prepare the three-dimensional entangled state, and the numerical simulations show that, in theory, both the fidelity and the negativity of the desired entanglement could be very close to unity under certain conditions.
Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities.
Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian
2015-07-24
We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal.
Two-body interactions and decay of three-level Rydberg-dressed atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helmrich, S.; Arias, A.; Pehoviak, N.; Whitlock, S.
2016-02-01
We theoretically analyze the interactions and decay rates for atoms dressed by multiple laser fields to strongly interacting Rydberg states using a quantum master equation approach. In this framework a comparison of two-level and three-level Rydberg-dressing schemes is presented. We identify a resonant enhancement of the three-level dressed interaction strength which originates from cooperative multiphoton couplings as well as small distance dependent decay rates. In this regime the soft-core shape of the potential is independent of the sign of the bare Rydberg-Rydberg interaction, while its sign can be repulsive or attractive depending on the intermediate state detuning. As a consequence, near-resonant Rydberg dressing in three-level atomic systems may enable the realization of laser driven quantum fluids with long-range and anisotropic interactions and with controllable dissipation.
Stretching and bending dynamics in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fey, Christian; Kurz, Markus; Schmelcher, Peter
2016-07-01
We investigate polyatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of three ground-state atoms bound to a Rydberg atom via s - and p -wave interactions. By employing the finite basis set representation of the unperturbed Rydberg electron Green's function we reduce the computational effort to solve the electronic problem substantially. This method is subsequently applied to determine the potential energy surfaces of triatomic systems in electronic s - and p -Rydberg states. Their molecular geometry and resulting vibrational structure are analyzed within an adiabatic approach that separates the vibrational bending and stretching dynamics. This procedure yields information on the radial and angular arrangement of the nuclei and indicates in particular that kinetic couplings between bending and stretching modes induce a linear structure in triatomic l =0 ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.
Beams, Timothy J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Peach, Gillian
2006-07-15
The properties of the least-bound vibrational level (v=14) of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state formed during the ultracold collision of two spin-polarized metastable 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1} helium atoms are crucial to studies of photoassociation spectroscopy of metastable helium. We report a calculation of the autoionization lifetime {tau}{sub g} of this state induced by spin-dipole coupling of the {sup 5}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state to the {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state from which Penning and associative ionization processes are highly probable. We find {tau}{sub g}{approx_equal}150 {mu}s, significantly larger than the recent experimental estimates of (0.5-3) {mu}s.
Systematics of Rydberg Series of Diatomic Molecules and Correlation Diagrams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chun-Woo
2015-06-01
Rydberg states are studied for H2, Li2, HeH, LiH and BeH using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The systematics and regularities of the physical properties such as potential energies curves (PECs), quantum defect curves, permanent dipole moment and transition dipole moment curves of the Rydberg series are studied. They are explained using united atom perturbation theory by Bingel and Byers-Brown, Fermi model, Stark theory, and Mulliken's theory. Interesting mirror relationships of the dipole moments are observed between l-mixed Rydberg series, indicating that the members of the l-mixed Rydberg series have dipole moments with opposite directions, which are related to the reversal of the polarity of a dipole moment at the avoided crossing points. The assignment of highly excited states is difficult because of the usual absence of the knowledge on the behaviors of potential energy curves at small internuclear separation whereby the correlation between the united atom limit and separated atoms limit cannot be given. All electron MRCI calculations of PECs are performed to obtain the correlation diagrams between Rydberg orbitals at the united-atom and separated atoms limits.
Three-Body Interaction of Rydberg Slow-Light Polaritons.
Jachymski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Büchler, Hans Peter
2016-07-29
We study a system of three photons in an atomic medium coupled to Rydberg states near the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Based on the analytical analysis of the microscopic set of equations in the far-detuned regime, the effective three-body interaction for these Rydberg polaritons is derived. For slow light polaritons, we find a strong three-body repulsion with the remarkable property that three polaritons can become essentially noninteracting at short distances. This analysis allows us to derive the influence of the three-body repulsion on bound states and correlation functions of photons propagating through a one-dimensional atomic cloud. PMID:27517770
Three-Body Interaction of Rydberg Slow-Light Polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jachymski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Büchler, Hans Peter
2016-07-01
We study a system of three photons in an atomic medium coupled to Rydberg states near the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Based on the analytical analysis of the microscopic set of equations in the far-detuned regime, the effective three-body interaction for these Rydberg polaritons is derived. For slow light polaritons, we find a strong three-body repulsion with the remarkable property that three polaritons can become essentially noninteracting at short distances. This analysis allows us to derive the influence of the three-body repulsion on bound states and correlation functions of photons propagating through a one-dimensional atomic cloud.
Towards Rydberg quantum optics in a hollow core fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noaman, Mohammad; Langbecker, Maria; Windpassinger, Patrick
2016-05-01
Cold atoms inside hollow-core fibers present a promising candidate to study strongly coupled light-matter systems. Adding coherent quantum state control and the intriguing features of Rydberg atoms, i.e. long range dipolar interactions leading to a dipole blockade, to the system should allow for the generation of exotic polaritonic and photonic states. This talk will review the current status of our experimental setup where laser cooled Rubidium atoms are transported into a hollow-core fiber. We present the first measurements of Rydberg EIT in the dipole trap in front of the fiber and discuss the progress towards Rydberg physics in a quasi-one-dimensional geometry. This work is supported by FP7, Marie Curie ITN 317485, QTea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebel, H.; Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H.; Demekhin, Ph V.; Lagutin, B. M.; Sukhorukov, V. L.
2002-02-01
Absolute cross sections for the total fluorescence emission between 97 and 131 nm by atomic oxygen formed after the photoexcitation of 2σ-1u(c4Σ- u)nσg3Σ- u Rydberg states in O2 and their successive predissociation were measured for the first time. The dissociation lifetimes and fluorescence yields were estimated using a stepwise model and the potential curve of the O2+2σ- 1u(c4Σ-u) state known from Beebe et al (Beebe N H F, Thulstrup E W and Andersen A 1976 J. Chem. Phys. 64 2080). The calculated lifetimes of the vibrational levels v = 0 and 1 of the 2σ-1u(c4Σ- u) state are 3.4×10-12 and 6.3×10-14 s, respectively. They agree with the measured data of Evans et al (Evans M, Stimson S, Ng C Y and Hsu C-W 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 1285) and are consistent with the results of the present experiment. The calculated lifetimes support the model of `fast' dissociation of the O2+2σ- 1u(c4Σ-u), v states in contrast to the earlier model of `slow' dissociation of Tanaka and Yoshimine (Tanaka K and Yoshimine M 1979 J. Chem. Phys. 70 1626).
Deceleration and electrostatic trapping of hydrogen Rydberg molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, Stephen
2009-05-01
Recent progress in the development of methods by which to decelerate and manipulate the translational motion of Rydberg atoms in the gas phase using static and time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields [1] has led to the experimental realization of Rydberg atom optics elements including a lens [2], a mirror [3] and two- and three-dimensional traps [4,5]. These experiments exploit the very large electric dipole moments associated with Rydberg Stark states, and have demonstrated the possibility to stop a seeded, pulsed, supersonic beam of atomic hydrogen traveling with an initial velocity of 700 ms-1 within 2 mm and only ˜5 μs using electric fields of a few kVcm-1. We have now extended these techniques to manipulate the translational motion of molecular hydrogen, for applications in precision spectroscopy and in studies of molecular collisions at low temperature or with a high degree of control over collision energies. The results of recent experiments in which we have been able to load hydrogen Rydberg molecules into a three-dimensional electrostatic traps will be summarized. These experiments have relied upon the preparation of nonpenetrating (l>=3) Rydberg-Stark states, with principal quantum number in the range n=20-30, using circularly polarized laser radiation. The rate of decay of these states in the trap has been determined providing, for the first time, experimental information on the predissociation of nonpenetrating molecular Rydberg states.[4pt] [1] S. R. Procter et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 374, 667 (2003).[0pt] [2] E. Vliegen et al., Eur. Phys. J. D, 40, 73 (2006).[0pt] [3] E. Vliegen and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 033002 (2006).[0pt] [4] E. Vliegen et al., Phys. Rev. A, 76, 023405 (2007).[0pt] [5] S. D. Hogan and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 043001 (2008).
Bünermann, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg; Haxton, Daniel J; Leone, Stephen R; Neumark, Daniel M; Gessner, Oliver
2012-12-01
The ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets are studied with time-resolved extreme ultraviolet ion imaging spectroscopy. At excitation energies of 23.6 ± 0.2 eV, Rydberg atoms in n = 3 and n = 4 states are ejected on different time scales and with significantly different kinetic energy distributions. Specifically, n = 3 Rydberg atoms are ejected with kinetic energies as high as 0.85 eV, but their appearance is delayed by approximately 200 fs. In contrast, n = 4 Rydberg atoms appear within the time resolution of the experiment with considerably lower kinetic energies. Major features in the Rydberg atom kinetic energy distributions for both principal quantum numbers can be described within a simple elastic scattering model of localized perturbed atomic Rydberg atoms that are expelled from the droplet due to their repulsive interaction with the surrounding helium bath. Time-dependent kinetic energy distributions of He(2) (+) and He(3) (+) ions are presented that support the formation of molecular ions in an indirect droplet ionization process and the ejection of neutral Rydberg dimers on a similar time scale as the n = 3 Rydberg atoms.
Slow-light polaritons in Rydberg gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischhauer, Michael
2012-02-01
Slow-light polaritons are quasi-particles generated in the interaction of photons with laser-driven atoms with a λ- or ladder-type coupling scheme under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). They are a superposition of electromagnetic and collective spin excitations. If one of the states making up the atomic spin is a high lying Rydberg level, the polaritons are subject to a strong and non-local interaction mediated by a dipole-dipole or van-der Waals coupling between excited Rydberg atoms. I will present and discuss an effective many-body model for these Rydberg polaritons. Depending on the detuning of the control laser the interaction potential between the polaritons can be repulsive or attractive and can have a large imaginary component for distances less than the so-called blockade radius. The non-local effective interaction gives rize to interesting many-body phenomena such as the generation of photons with an avoided volume, visible in stronlgy suppressed two-particle correlations inside the blockade volume. Moreover the long-range, power-law scaling of the interaction can in the repulsive case give rize to the formation of quasi-crystalline structures of photons. In a one dimensional system the low-energy dynamics of the polaritons can be described in terms of a Luttinger liquid. Using DMRG simulations the Luttinger K parameter is calculated and conditions for the formation of a quasi-crystal are derived. When confined to a two-dimensional geometry, e.g. using a resonator with quasi-degenerate transversal mode spectrum, Rydberg polaritons are an interesting candidate to study the bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect. I will argue that the formation of photons with an avoided volume is essential for explaining recent experiments on stationary EIT in Rydberg gases [1,2].[4pt] [1] J.D. Pritchard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010). [0pt] [2] D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, arXiv:1106.1360
Frolov, Alexei M
2007-03-14
The bound state properties of the ground 1 1S(L=0) state and the lowest triplet 2 3S(L=0) state of the 3He, 4He, and infinityHe helium atoms are determined to very high accuracy from the results of direct numerical computations. To compute the bound state properties of these atoms the author applied his exponential variational expansion in relative/perimetric three-body coordinates. For the ground 1 1S(L=0) state and the lowest triplet 2 3S(L=0) state of the 3He, 4He, and infinityHe atoms the author also determined the lowest order QED corrections and the field component of isotopic shift (=field shift). For the 2 3S(L=0) state of the 3He atom the hyperfine structure splitting is evaluated. The considered properties of the ground 1 1S state and the lowest 2 3S state in the 3He and 4He atoms are of great interest in a number of applications.
Rydberg atoms inside hollow-core photonic crystal fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löw, Robert; Epple, Georg; Kleinbach, Kathrin; Euser, Tijmen; Joly, Nicolas; Pfau, Tilman; Russell, Philip
2014-05-01
Rydberg atoms have peculiar properties as enhanced sensitivities to AC/DC electric fields or exaggerated strong interactions between them, leading to optical non-linearities on the single photon level. These properties are mostly studied with spectroscopic methods often limited by the free space diffraction limit. This can be avoided by confining Rydberg atoms inside hollow core fibres offering a perfect match of guided light modes with the atomic gas in terms of atom-light coupling. Additionally we choose Kagome type fibres due to their extremely thin structures, promising a reduced atom wall coupling. With coherent three photon spectroscopy we can show that Rydberg atoms can be excited within these fibres up to states of n = 46 without severe perturbations by the fibre environment.
Molecular Spectra in an Ultracold Strontium Rydberg Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalen, Joseph D.; Camargo, Francisco; Ding, Roger; Woehl, Germano, Jr.; Dunning, F. Barry; Killian, Thomas C.
2016-05-01
The interaction between a ground state atom and a highly excited Rydberg electron creates a potential that can support ultra-long-range bound molecular states comprising a Rydberg atom and several ground-state atoms. We excite these molecular states using two-photon spectroscopy in an ultracold gas of 84 Sr. In a thermal gas, we observe a highly structured spectrum of many-body bound states with one Rydberg atom and as many as three ground-state atoms in various vibrational levels. We also describe the spectrum in a dense, quantum degenerate gas, which is sensitive to the properties of the polaron formed by the binding of many atoms in the quantum gas to the Rydberg impurity. Because of the absence of a p-wave shape resonance in e-Sr scattering, the molecular spectrum in Sr provides a sensitive probe of the excitation dynamics in a quantum gas in a different regime than is accessible using Rb. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.
Formation of Antihydrogen Rydberg atoms in strong magnetic field traps
Pohl, T.; Sadeghpour, H. R.
2008-08-08
It is shown that several features of antihydrogen production in nested Penning traps can be described with accurate and efficient Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that cold deeply-bound Rydberg states of antihydrogen (H-bar) are produced in three-body capture in the ATRAP experiments and an additional formation mechanism -Rydberg charge transfer-, particular to the nested Penning trap geometry, is responsible for the observed fast (hot) H-bar atoms. Detailed description of the numerical propagation technique for following extreme close encounters is given. An analytic derivation of the power law behavior of the field ionization spectrum is provided.
Electro-optical properties of Rydberg excitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zielińska-Raczyńska, Sylwia; Ziemkiewicz, David; Czajkowski, Gerard
2016-07-01
We show how to compute the electro-optical functions (absorption, reflection, and transmission) when Rydberg exciton-polaritons appear, including the effect of the coherence between the electron-hole pair and the electromagnetic field. With the use of the real density matrix approach, numerical calculations applied for the Cu2O crystal are performed. We also examine in detail and explain the dependence of the resonance displacement on the state number and applied electric field strength. We report a fairly good agreement with recently published experimental data.
Cesium Ultra-Long-Range Rydberg Molecules and Many-Body Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jin; Jahangiri, Akbar; Rittenhouse, Seth; Reschke, Margarita; Booth, Donald; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Shaffer, James
2016-05-01
Ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules have received increasing interest recently because of their novel properties such as the ability to serve as an electron trap, the potential to possess kilo-Debye dipole moments, and their unique binding mechanism. Recently, experiments focusing on Rydberg P-state and D-state molecules have revealed interesting new features of these novel molecules, like coupling between singlet and triplet scattering channels, p-wave scattering dominated states and their behavior in magnetic fields. In this presentation, we report our recent observation of Cesium D-state ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules and compare our observations to theoretical calculations. We also report our preliminary data on ``polymer'' molecules, which are formed by one Cs Rydberg atom but more than one Cs ground state atom. The transition from a few-body system to a many-body system can provide insight into many-body physics. We acknowledge funding from the NSF.
Rydberg-blockaded medium inside a high-finesse optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Jiteng; Kumar, Santosh; Whiteneck, William; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Shaffer, James
2015-05-01
We present experimental and theoretical progress on a Rydberg-blockaded atomic ensemble coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. Theoretically, we analyze the role that the Rydberg blockade mechanism can play in synthesizing collective quantum states and non-classical states of light in this system. We study the correlation of two photon emission in the case of two Rydberg excitations within the cavity. Experimentally, we show that a cold atomic cloud can be transported into a high-finesse optical cavity by using a focus-tunable lens and that a collective state can be created inside the cavity using Rydberg atom blockade. Future work to realize collective quantum states in the atom-cavity experiment and study the interesting dynamics of the correlated photon emission will be presented.
Fast and robust entanglement using Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Côté, Robin
2001-05-01
In recent years, numerous proposals to build quantum information processors have been suggested. Due to their very long coherence times and the well-developed techniques for cooling and trapping them, neutral atoms are particularly attractive for quantum computing. To design fast quantum gates, one needs to identify strong and controllable two-body interactions. However, large interactions are usually associated with strong mechanical forces on the trapped atoms: their internal states (the qubits) may become entangled with their motional degrees of freedom, leading to rapid decoherence. A new system for implementing quantum logic gates based on ultracold Rydberg atoms is presented. Atoms in excited Rydberg states have long lifetimes and enormous dipole moments. When excited in a constant electric field, their controllable strong dipole-dipole interactions provide the large interaction energy required to perform fast gate operations. The mechanical effects can also be greatly suppressed by using the ``dipole blockade" resulting from the strong dipole-dipole interactions. The gate becomes insensitive to the temperature of the atoms and to the variations in atom-atom separation. Hence, a fast and robust two-qubit quantum gate with operation time much faster than the time scale of the atomic motion is possible(D. Jaksch et al.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000).. The generalization to collective states of mesoscopic ensembles can be accomplished using the same dipole blockade(M.D. Lukin et al.), quant-phy/0011028..
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Beer, E.; Buma, W. J.; de Lange, C. A.
1993-09-01
In this paper, we report the first rotationally resolved one- and two-color resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (REMPI-PES) study of the HCl molecule. The agreement between our experimental branching ratios and theoretical investigations is excellent. We also report the first zero kinetic energy pulsed field ionization (ZEKE-PFI) experiments carried out in a ``magnetic bottle'' electron spectrometer. A direct comparison is made between ZEKE-PFI and REMPI-PES spectra for ionization via several rotational levels of the F 1Δ2(v'=0) and f 3Δ2(v'=0) Rydberg states of HCl. Large differences in both the spin-orbit and rotational branching ratios are found between the ZEKE-PFI and REMPI-PES spectra. These differences can be understood qualitatively on the basis of rotational and spin-orbit autoionization mechanisms.
Liu, Youwen; Xiao, Chong; Lyu, Mengjie; Lin, Yue; Cai, Weizheng; Huang, Pengcheng; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Xie, Yi
2015-09-14
Development of efficient and affordable electrocatalysts in neutral solutions is paramount importance for the renewable energy. Herein, we report that the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of Co3 S4 under neutral conditions can be enhanced by exposed octahedral planes and self-adapted spin states in atomically thin nanosheets. A HAADF image clearly confirmed that the active octahedra with Jahn-Teller distortions were exposed exclusively. Most importantly, in the atomically thin nanosheets, the spin states of Co(3+) in the octahedral self-adapt from low-spin to high-spin states. As a result, the synergistic effect endow the Co3 S4 nanosheets with superior OER performance, with exceptional low onset overpotentials of circa 0.31 V in neutral solutions, which is state-of-the-art among inorganic non-noble metal compounds. PMID:26235387
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia
2016-08-01
Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia
2016-08-01
Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Shi, Ting-Yun
2016-05-01
The tune-out wavelength at 413 nm for the 2 3S1 state of helium is expected to be sensitive to finite nuclear mass, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections, which provides a scheme for testing atomic structure theory [J. Mitroy and L.-Y. Tang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052515 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052515]. In the present work, a large-scale full-configuration-interaction calculation based on both the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian and the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is performed for the dynamic dipole polarizabilities of helium in the 2 3S1 state. The tune-out wavelengths for the magnetic sublevels MJ=0 and MJ=±1 are determined to be 413.0801(4) nm and 413.0859(4) nm, respectively, at sub-ppm accuracy, including finite nuclear mass and relativistic corrections. Our value for the MJ=1 sublevel agrees with the measured value of 413.0938(20)(9) nm [B. M. Henson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043004 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.043004] at the level of 19 ppm. The discrepancy between these two values is mainly due to the uncalculated QED contribution. Our current value confirms quantitatively the prediction of Mitroy and Tang. Also, for the state of 2 3S1 we find that the corrections due to finite nuclear mass and relativistic effects to the static dipole polarizability of 315.7227(4)a03 are about 600 ppm and 310 ppm, respectively, which are about 1.4 and 5.4 times larger than those for the ground state. A measurement at the level of 10 ppm for the static dipole polarizability of helium in 2 3S1 can be used to determine the transition matrix element between 2 3S and 2 3P at the level of 10-5.
Collision-induced shifts of Rydberg levels of strontium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marafi, M.; Bhatia, K. S.; Makdisi, Y. Y.; Philips, G.
2003-05-01
Measurements of spectral line shifts induced by collisions with rare gas perturbers are reported. High Rydberg states were prepared by multiphoton excitation using an excimer pumped tunable dye laser. A thermionic detector inside a heat pipe was used to collect the ionization products resulting from excited states. Analysis of the data for the shifts of the absorption transition to 5snd 1D 2 states in strontium is presented.
Spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with Rydberg-dressing interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Hao; Zhu, Shao-Bing; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu
2015-09-01
Interaction between Rydberg atoms can be used to control the properties of interatomic interaction in ultracold gases by weakly dressing the atoms with a Rydberg state. Here we investigate the effect of the Rydberg-dressing interaction on the ground-state properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate imposed by Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. We find that, in the case of SU(2)-invariant s-wave interactions, the gas is only in the plane-wave phase and the zero-momentum phase is absent. In particular, we also predict an unexpected magnetic stripe phase composed of two plane-wave components with unequal weight when s-wave interactions are non-symmetric, which originates from the Rydberg-dressing interaction. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11104292).
Resonant charge transfer of hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a metallic sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbard, J. A.; Softley, T. P.
2016-06-01
A wavepacket propagation study is reported for the charge transfer of low principal quantum number (n = 2) hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at an isolated metallic sphere. Such a sphere acts as a model for a nanoparticle. The three-dimensional confinement of the sphere yields discrete surface-localized ‘well-image’ states, the energies of which vary with sphere radius. When the Rydberg atom energy is degenerate with one of the quantized nanoparticle states, charge transfer is enhanced, whereas for off-resonant cases little to no charge transfer is observed. Greater variation in charge-transfer probability is seen between the resonant and off-resonant examples in this system than for any other Rydberg-surface system theoretically investigated thus far. The results presented here indicate that it may be possible to use Rydberg-surface ionization as a probe of the surface electronic structure of a nanoparticle, and nanostructures in general.
Quantum interface between Rydberg ensembles and mechanical oscillators in free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bariani, Francesco; Otterbach, Johannes; Tan, Huatang; Buchmann, L. F.; Meystre, Pierre
2013-05-01
We analyze theoretically an electro-mechanical interface between a charged mechanical oscillator and an ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The charged mechanical oscillator acting as an oscillating electric dipole is coupled to the large electric dipole of the Rydberg transition. The Rydberg blockade effect guarantees that only a single collective spin wave is excited in the atomic ensemble. This hybrid system allows for quantum control of the state of one or more mechanical oscillators. The rich atomic Rydberg spectrum and high level of control of atomic transitions allow to build feedback protocols that maximize its fidelity. We also comment on the use of this interface for phononic state tomography. We ackowledge financial support from NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.
High Angular Momentum Rydberg Wave Packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyker, Brendan
2011-12-01
High angular momentum Rydberg wave packets are studied. Application of carefully tailored electric fields to low angular momentum, high- n (n ˜ 300) Rydberg atoms creates coherent superpositions of Stark states with near extreme values of angular momentum, ℓ. Wave packet components orbit the parent nucleus at rates that depend on their energy, leading to periods of localization and delocalization as the components come into and go out of phase with each other. Monitoring survival probability signals in the presence of position dependent probing leads to observation of characteristic oscillations based on the composition of the wave packet. The discrete nature of electron energy levels is observed through the measurement of quantum revivals in the wave packet localization signal. Time-domain spectroscopy of these signals allows determination of both the population and phase of individual superposition components. Precise manipulation of wave packets is achieved through further application of pulsed electric fields. Decoherence effects due to background gas collisions and electrical noise are also detailed. Quantized classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations are introduced and agree remarkably well with experimental results.
High-Rydberg fragment formation via core dissociation of superexcited Rydberg molecules
Pinnaduwage, L.A. |; Zhu, Y.
1998-04-01
Formation of high-Rydberg iodine atoms via core dissociation of ArF-excimer-laser excited methyl iodide high-Rydberg molecules is observed using a time-resolved, mass-analyzed, pulsed field ionization technique. This observation confirms that the Rydberg electron is essentially a spectator in the core dissociation process. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conradie, Marrigje Marianne; Conradie, Jeanet
2013-11-01
A neutral columnar stacking of [Rh(PhCOCHCOC4H3S)(CO)2] molecules was obtained in the crystalline solid state, i.e. the complex forms "molecular wires" in the solid state. The metal-metal interactions of [Rh(PhCOCHCOC4H3S)(CO)2] and related [Rh(β-diketonato)(CO)2] complexes show, that [Rh(β-diketonato)(CO)2] complexes generally form a dimer-like arrangement, with a RhIsbnd RhI distance of 3.18-3.54 Å. The dimeric units either stack in infinite chains, or interact with each other via weak Rhsbnd π, or weak hydrogen bond interactions.
Bartlett, Philip L.; Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris T.; Williams, J. F.; Mikosza, A. G.
2006-08-15
Integrated cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of ground-state hydrogen to the 3s, 3p, and 3d final states have been calculated using propagating exterior complex scaling and convergent close-coupling methods at energies between the n=3 and 4 excitation thresholds. The calculations are in excellent agreement and demonstrate that exterior complex scaling methods can accurately reproduce the resonance structure and magnitude of the excitation cross sections below the ionization threshold. Measurements of the separate 3s, 3p, and 3d differential cross sections were made at 12.24 eV, and are consistent with both calculations within a total experimental uncertainty of about 35%.
Two-way interconversion of millimeter-wave and optical fields in Rydberg gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiffner, Martin; Feizpour, Amir; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T.; Jaksch, Dieter; Nunn, Joshua
2016-09-01
We show that cold Rydberg gases enable an efficient six-wave mixing process where terahertz or microwave fields are coherently converted into optical fields and vice versa. This process is made possible by the long lifetime of Rydberg states, the strong coupling of millimeter waves to Rydberg transitions and by a quantum interference effect related to electromagnetically induced transparency. Our frequency conversion scheme applies to a broad spectrum of millimeter waves due to the abundance of transitions within the Rydberg manifold, and we discuss two possible implementations based on focussed terahertz beams and millimeter wave fields confined by a waveguide, respectively. We analyse a realistic example for the interconversion of terahertz and optical fields in rubidium atoms and find that the conversion efficiency can in principle exceed 90%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hessels, E. A.
2003-05-01
Antihydrogen production via two-stage charge exchange(E.A.Hessels, D.M. Homan and M.J. Cavagnero, Phys. Rev. A. 57), (1998) 1668. may provide extremely cold antimatter atoms that can be trapped for spectroscopic studies. Positrons(J. Estrada, T. Roach, J.N. Tan, P. Yesley, and G. Gabrielse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), (2000) 859. and antiprotons(G. Gabrielse, N. S. Bowden, P. Oxley, A. Speck, C. H. Storry, J. N. Tan, M. Wessels, D. Grozonka, W. Oelert, G. Schepers, T. Sefzick, J. Walz, H. Pittner, T. W. Hansch, E. A. Hessels, Phys. Lett. B 548), (2002) 140-145., both cooled to 4 K and loaded into adjacent wells of a Penning trap, provide the basic components. Laser-excited Rydberg cesium atoms are passed through the cloud of trapped positrons and charge exchange with the positrons to form Rydberg states of positronium. These positronium atoms have been observed and are studied by ionizing them and counting the resulting positrons. State analysis of the positronium is obtained by varying the electric field used to ionize the atoms. Large numbers of positronium atoms are produced and their binding energies are found to be similar to that of the incoming Rydberg cesium atoms. A second charge exchange is proposed, in which the neutral positronium travels a short distance to an adjacent antiproton cloud. The result of this second charge exchange would be antihydrogen atoms. The apparatus to test this second charge exchange has already been constructed and preliminary studies have already been made.
Entanglement generation between spinor Bose-Einstein condensates using Rydberg excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idlas, Sandrine; Domenzain, Luis; Spreeuw, Robert; Byrnes, Tim
2016-02-01
We propose an experimental scheme of generating entangled states between two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) using Rydberg excitations. Due to the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms, the Rydberg excitation creates an interaction between two closely located BECs. The method is suitable particularly for atom chip and permanent magnetic trap systems, which can create many BECs with an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry. We show two schemes of entangled state generation, based on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) methods. The first method produces a symmetric state with total Sx spin zero between ground and excited states of the atoms using a single STIRAP pair, while the second produces a NOON state between hyperfine ground states using two STIRAP pairs. We show that despite the additional complexity of the BECs, it is possible to identify the initial and final adiabatic states exactly. We verify our theoretical predictions using numerical simulations on small boson number systems.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (cz) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a cz gate in <10 μ s with error probability on the order of 10-3.
Entropy and complexity analysis of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Rosa, S.; Toranzo, I. V.; Sánchez-Moreno, P.; Dehesa, J. S.
2013-05-01
The internal disorder of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms as contained in their position and momentum probability densities is examined by means of the following information-theoretic spreading quantities: the radial and logarithmic expectation values, the Shannon entropy, and the Fisher information. As well, the complexity measures of Crámer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and López Ruiz-Mancini-Calvet types are investigated in both reciprocal spaces. The leading term of these quantities is rigorously calculated by use of the asymptotic properties of the concomitant entropic functionals of the Laguerre and Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of the Rydberg states in both position and momentum spaces. The associated generalized Heisenberg-like, logarithmic and entropic uncertainty relations are also given. Finally, application to linear (l = 0), circular (l = n - 1), and quasicircular (l = n - 2) states is explicitly done.
Entropy and complexity analysis of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms
Lopez-Rosa, S.; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.; Sanchez-Moreno, P.
2013-05-15
The internal disorder of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms as contained in their position and momentum probability densities is examined by means of the following information-theoretic spreading quantities: the radial and logarithmic expectation values, the Shannon entropy, and the Fisher information. As well, the complexity measures of Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez Ruiz-Mancini-Calvet types are investigated in both reciprocal spaces. The leading term of these quantities is rigorously calculated by use of the asymptotic properties of the concomitant entropic functionals of the Laguerre and Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of the Rydberg states in both position and momentum spaces. The associated generalized Heisenberg-like, logarithmic and entropic uncertainty relations are also given. Finally, application to linear (l= 0), circular (l=n- 1), and quasicircular (l=n- 2) states is explicitly done.
Nonlinear optical susceptibility of EIT systems with a degenerate Rydberg level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanojevic, Jovica; Grangier, Philippe; Côté, Robin
2016-06-01
It has been demonstrated that very large optical nonlinearities can arise in cold Rydberg gases from strong Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. The interactions between atoms excited to a degenerate Rydberg level are described by a large number of molecular potentials which greatly complicates the theoretical treatment of these systems. We here present a method for very accurate calculation of the third order interaction-induced optical nonlinearities that fully includes the angle-dependent mixing of molecular states by the control optical field. In addition, we investigate how an effective potential can be introduced to describe the third-order optical susceptibility arising from the underlying multi-potential Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. We show that a single effective potential can replace a manifold of asymptotically degenerate potentials of the same sign. Therefore, one effective potential has to be defined for attractive interactions and another for repulsive ones. As an example, we have calculated effective C 6 coefficients of nd + nd asymptotes of rubidium and cesium. We compare accurately calculated collisional integrals with those obtained using effective potentials.
Rydberg EIT in High Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lu; Anderson, David; Miller, Stephanie; Raithel, Georg
2016-05-01
We present progress towards an all-optical approach for measurements of strong magnetic fields using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with Rydberg atoms in an atomic vapor. Rydberg EIT spectroscopy is a promising technique for the development of atom-based, calibration- and drift-free technology for high magnetic field sensing. In this effort, Rydberg EIT is employed to spectroscopically investigate the response of Rydberg atoms exposed to strong magnetic fields, in which Rydberg atoms are in the strong-field regime. In our setup, two neodymium block magnets are used to generate fields of about 0.8 Tesla, which strongly perturb the atoms. Information on the field strength and direction is obtained by a comparison of experimental spectra with calculated spectral maps. Investigations of magnetic-field inhomogeneities and other decoherence sources will be discussed.
Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min
2010-06-01
Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.
Deterministic entanglement of two neutral atoms via Rydberg blockade
Zhang, X. L.; Isenhower, L.; Gill, A. T.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.
2010-09-15
We demonstrate the deterministic entanglement of two individually addressed neutral atoms using a Rydberg blockade mediated controlled-not gate. Parity oscillation measurements reveal a Bell state fidelity of F=0.58{+-}0.04, which is above the entanglement threshold of F=0.5, without any correction for atom loss, and F=0.71{+-}0.05 after correcting for background collisional losses. The fidelity results are shown to be in good agreement with a detailed error model.
Low-lying {sup 3}P{sup o} and {sup 3}S{sup e} states of Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -}
Bahrim, C.; Thumm, U.
2000-02-01
Our Dirac R-matrix calculations suggest that none of the heavy alkali-metal negative ions, Rb, Cs, and Fr, has an excited bound state. Their lowest excited state appears to be a multiplet of {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o}-shape resonances, the J=1 component of which was recently observed in photodetachment experiments on Cs{sup -}. We analyze these {sup 3}P{sub J}{sup o} and the {sup 3}S{sup e} excited negative ion states in partial and converged total scattering cross sections for slow electrons with incident kinetic energies below 120 meV. Our results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. We also propose a new value for the electron affinity of Fr, provide the scattering length for electronic collisions with Rb, Cs, and Fr, and discuss the nuclear charge dependence of relativistic effects in the resonance profiles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif
2016-03-01
For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.
Observation of Rydberg-Atom Macrodimers: Micrometer-Sized Diatomic Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes
2016-08-01
Long-range metastable molecules consisting of two cesium atoms in high Rydberg states have been observed in an ultracold gas. A sequential three-photon two-color photoassociation scheme is employed to form these molecules in states, which correlate to n p (n +1 )s dissociation asymptotes. Spectral signatures of bound molecular states are clearly resolved at the positions of avoided crossings between long-range van der Waals potential curves. The experimental results are in agreement with simulations based on a detailed model of the long-range multipole-multipole interactions of Rydberg-atom pair states. We show that a full model is required to accurately predict the occurrence of bound Rydberg macrodimers. The macrodimers are distinguished from repulsive molecular states by their behavior with respect to spontaneous ionization and possible decay channels are discussed.
Observation of Rydberg-Atom Macrodimers: Micrometer-Sized Diatomic Molecules.
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes
2016-08-19
Long-range metastable molecules consisting of two cesium atoms in high Rydberg states have been observed in an ultracold gas. A sequential three-photon two-color photoassociation scheme is employed to form these molecules in states, which correlate to np(n+1)s dissociation asymptotes. Spectral signatures of bound molecular states are clearly resolved at the positions of avoided crossings between long-range van der Waals potential curves. The experimental results are in agreement with simulations based on a detailed model of the long-range multipole-multipole interactions of Rydberg-atom pair states. We show that a full model is required to accurately predict the occurrence of bound Rydberg macrodimers. The macrodimers are distinguished from repulsive molecular states by their behavior with respect to spontaneous ionization and possible decay channels are discussed. PMID:27588856
Intrinsic optical bistability in a strongly driven Rydberg ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Melo, Natalia R.; Wade, Christopher G.; Šibalić, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge M.; Adams, Charles S.; Weatherill, Kevin J.
2016-06-01
We observe and characterize intrinsic optical bistability in a dilute Rydberg vapor. The bistability is characterized by sharp jumps between states of low and high Rydberg occupancy with jump-up and -down positions displaying hysteresis depending on the direction in which the control parameter is changed. We find that the shift in frequency of the jump point scales with the fourth power of the principal quantum number. Also, the width of the hysteresis window increases with increasing principal quantum number, before reaching a peak and then closing again. The experimental results are consistent with predictions from a simple theoretical model based on semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch equations including the effects of interaction-induced broadening and level shifts. These results provide insight into the dynamics of driven dissipative systems.
Wigner Crystallization of Single Photons in Cold Rydberg Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otterbach, Johannes; Moos, Matthias; Muth, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael
2013-09-01
The coupling of weak light fields to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency leads to the formation of Rydberg polaritons which are quasiparticles with tunable effective mass and nonlocal interactions. Confined to one spatial dimension their low energy physics is that of a moving-frame Luttinger liquid which, due to the nonlocal character of the repulsive interaction, can form a Wigner crystal of individual photons. We calculate the Luttinger K parameter using density-matrix renormalization group simulations and find that under typical slow-light conditions kinetic energy contributions are too strong for crystal formation. However, adiabatically increasing the polariton mass by turning a light pulse into stationary spin excitations allows us to generate true crystalline order over a finite length. The dynamics of this process and asymptotic correlations are analyzed in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger theory.
Wigner crystallization of single photons in cold Rydberg ensembles.
Otterbach, Johannes; Moos, Matthias; Muth, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael
2013-09-13
The coupling of weak light fields to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency leads to the formation of Rydberg polaritons which are quasiparticles with tunable effective mass and nonlocal interactions. Confined to one spatial dimension their low energy physics is that of a moving-frame Luttinger liquid which, due to the nonlocal character of the repulsive interaction, can form a Wigner crystal of individual photons. We calculate the Luttinger K parameter using density-matrix renormalization group simulations and find that under typical slow-light conditions kinetic energy contributions are too strong for crystal formation. However, adiabatically increasing the polariton mass by turning a light pulse into stationary spin excitations allows us to generate true crystalline order over a finite length. The dynamics of this process and asymptotic correlations are analyzed in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger theory. PMID:24074081
Exploring multiple degrees of freedom in Rydberg wave packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Haidan
2006-12-01
Recent advances in the study of Rydberg atoms have focused on the control, manipulation and detection of Rydberg wave packets using novel external fields such as half-cycle pulses. The radial degree of freedom has been controlled and used to process information encoded in Rydberg states. However, these previous experiments make use of only a single degree of freedom, restricting the potential of other degrees of freedom for quantum computing in Rydberg atoms. In this dissertation, we explore the control and detection of other degrees of freedom in an electron wave packet, such as the angular momentum quantum number ℓ, the magnetic quantum number m and the electron spin; so that the full range of quantum numbers can participate in information processing. We first propose an interferometric control of the population of angular momentum states using two time-delayed phase-locked ultrafast laser pulses. The population of arbitrary angular momentum states can be greatly enhanced by optimizing the time delay and the relative phases between two laser pulses. We then qualitatively measure the evolution of angular momentum components in Stark wave packets by a weak half-cycle pulse (HCP). This measurement utilizes a time-delayed HCP and is proved to be effective for detecting various aspects of wave packet dynamics, particularly, the evolution of non-stationary states. The technique relies on the fact that the HCP redistributes the eigenstate populations and induced the population variation which reflects the evolution of eigenstate phases. Finally, we find that the dynamics of m-states could be highly correlated with the internal degree of freedom of the electron, the spin. We study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the wave packet dynamics and observe the angular precession of a Rydberg wave packet. The population redistribution from p to s states is highly sensitive to the polarization of the HCP and changes with the precession of the electron orbit. We obtain the
Rydberg wave packets and half-cycle electromagnetic pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Chandra Shekar
1997-08-01
This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work (1, 10) has shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work we investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques we are able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate. We then observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial and angular coordinates, and can view it directly with the half-cycle pulse anywhere on its trajectory. This is the unique feature of half- cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in our data, and in the absence of a rigorous model we rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between quantum and classical mechanics.
Two body and multibody interaction in a cold Rydberg gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jianing; Gallagher, Tom
2009-05-01
Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) are not isolated and they tend to bond through dipole-dipole and multiple-multiple interactions between Rydberg atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the fact that the dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction show the same size of broadening, studied by Raithel's group, and there is transition between two molecular states, studied by Farooqi and Overstreet, can not be explained by the two atom picture. The purpose of this paper is to show the multibody nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular state microwave spectrum. Specifically, single body, two body and three body interaction regions are separated. Moreover, the multibody energy levels for selected geometries are calculated. In addition, multibody blockade will be discussed. [3pt] [1] A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. Cubel Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008).[0pt] [2] S.M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic,Y.P. Zhang, J.R. Ensher, A.S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E.E. Eyler, and P.L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).[0pt] [3] K. Richard Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403 (2007).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodsell, Anne; Erwin, Emma
2016-05-01
We are preparing to accelerate and decelerate cold Rydberg atoms in the field of a charged wire. We cool and launch rubidium atoms and observe the distribution of atoms up to 16 mm above the trap location. We report a transverse speed less than 1/10 of the longitudinal launch speed. For Rydberg-atom observations, the cold cloud will be illuminated in mid-flight to promote atoms into the desired Rydberg state (e.g. n = 33-40). With a three-photon sequence we will access nf states and the nearby manifolds with linear Stark shifts. We observed the first two steps of this process using counter-propagating beams of 780 nm and 776 nm in a Rb cell. For cold Rydberg atoms, we will compare states that are strongly accelerated to states that are strongly decelerated by the field around the charged-wire target. We calculate that the displacement during the Rydberg lifetime (e.g. n = 35, τ = 30 μs) will be 200-300 μm farther for extreme attracted states. Detection will occur by spatially-dependent field ionization. Observations of atoms with zero angular momentum around the wire can be extended to atoms with nonzero angular momentum and also to study dynamics of Rydberg atoms with a quadratic Stark shift, building on previous work with ground-state atoms.
The two-photon Rydberg atom micromaser
Brune, M.; Raimond, J.M.; Goy, P.; Davidovich, L.; Haroche, S.
1988-07-01
The authors recently operated a Rydberg atom maser on a two-photon degenerate atomic transition. This device combines two interesting features: it is a quantum oscillator working on an intrinsically nonlinear effect and it is a micromaser, with only a few atoms and few tens of photons at a time in the cavity. In this paper, they discuss why Rydberg atom-superconducting cavity systems are well adapted for two-photon maser studies and the authors analyze the main properties of this new device by comparing it to Rydberg masers operating on one-photon transitions.
Crystallization of photons via light storage in Rydberg gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moos, Matthias; Otterbach, Johannes; Muth, Dominik; Fleischhauer, Michael
2013-05-01
Rydberg atoms driven by light fields under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be described in terms of strongly interacting slow-light Rydberg-polaritons with tunable effective mass. In a 1D setting the physics can be described by a Luttinger liquid model. The Rydberg interaction gives rise to density-wave correlations decaying as a power law. For sufficiently strong interactions the density-wave becomes dominant, marking the onset of a quasi-crystalline photon state. We calculate the Luttinger K parameter using DMRG simulations and compare it to analytic approximations. We find that under typical slow-light conditions the interactions are too weak for crystalline order to emerge. However, adiabatically increasing the effective mass of the polaritons by turning them into stationary spin excitations allows to generate long-range crystalline order. This can be done by storing the polaritons in a stationary spin-wave. We analyze the dynamics of this process in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger theory and derive conditions for an optimal storage scenario.
Laser frequency locking based on Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuechun, Jiao; Jingkui, Li; Limei, Wang; Hao, Zhang; Linjie, Zhang; Jianming, Zhao; Suotang, Jia
2016-05-01
We present a laser frequency locking to Rydberg transition with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra in a room-temperature cesium vapor cell. Cesium levels 6S1/2, 6P3/2, and the nD5/2 state, compose a cascade three-level system, where a coupling laser drives Rydberg transition, and probe laser detects the EIT signal. The error signal, obtained by demodulating the EIT signal, is used to lock the coupling laser frequency to Rydberg transition. The laser frequency fluctuation, ∼0.7 MHz, is obtained after locking on, with the minimum Allan variance to be 8.9 × 10‑11. This kind of locking method can be used to stabilize the laser frequency to the excited transition. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11274209, 61475090, 61378039, and 61378013), and the Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2014-009).
Laser frequency locking based on Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuechun, Jiao; Jingkui, Li; Limei, Wang; Hao, Zhang; Linjie, Zhang; Jianming, Zhao; Suotang, Jia
2016-05-01
We present a laser frequency locking to Rydberg transition with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra in a room-temperature cesium vapor cell. Cesium levels 6S1/2, 6P3/2, and the nD5/2 state, compose a cascade three-level system, where a coupling laser drives Rydberg transition, and probe laser detects the EIT signal. The error signal, obtained by demodulating the EIT signal, is used to lock the coupling laser frequency to Rydberg transition. The laser frequency fluctuation, ˜0.7 MHz, is obtained after locking on, with the minimum Allan variance to be 8.9 × 10-11. This kind of locking method can be used to stabilize the laser frequency to the excited transition. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921603), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11274209, 61475090, 61378039, and 61378013), and the Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2014-009).
A Rydberg atom-photon-superconductor quantum interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaacs, J. A.; Booth, D. W.; Beck, M. A.; Pritchard, J. D.; Xia, T.; McDermott, R.; Saffman, M.; UW Hybrid QC Collaboration
2016-05-01
Hybrid quantum computation bridges disparate quantum technologies in order to achieve fast gates with long coherence times. Our implementation combines superconducting circuit-QED with singly trapped Rydberg atoms. Introducing typical AMO techniques into cryogenic environments required the development of several novel approaches that we will discuss in our talk. Our current experiment involves trapping cesium atoms inside a 4 K cryostat, transporting them first horizontally and then vertically up to a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator. After transport we use a novel two-photon Rydberg excitation via the 6S1 / 2 --> 5D5 / 2 quadrupole transition to enable direct excitation of nP3 / 2 states for strong electric-dipole coupling to the cavity. This excitation scheme significantly reduces the Doppler mismatch compared to previous two-photon excitation schemes to enable high fidelity operations. First optical spectroscopy and Rabi oscillation results will be shown along with microwave cavity coupling data. Experimental and theoretical efforts toward increasing fidelity of our operations by minimizing sensitivity of the Rydberg atoms to stray external electric fields will be discussed. This work is supported by an ARO DURIP award.
Dynamic formation of Rydberg aggregates at off-resonant excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gärttner, Martin; Heeg, Kilian P.; Gasenzer, Thomas; Evers, Jörg
2013-10-01
The dynamics of a cloud of ultracold two-level atoms is studied at off-resonant laser driving to a Rydberg state. We find that resonant excitation channels lead to strongly peaked spatial correlations associated with the buildup of asymmetric excitation structures. These aggregates can extend over the entire ensemble volume, but are in general not localized relative to the system boundaries. The characteristic distances between neighboring excitations depend on the laser detuning and on the interaction potential. These properties lead to characteristic features in the spatial excitation density, the Mandel Q parameter, and the total number of excitations. As an application an implementation of the three-atom cswap or Fredkin gate with Rydberg atoms is discussed. The gate not only exploits the Rydberg blockade, but also utilizes the special features of an asymmetric geometric arrangement of the three atoms. We show that continuous-wave off-resonant laser driving is sufficient to create the required spatial arrangement of atoms out of a homogeneous cloud.
Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Mueller, M.; Lesanovsky, I.; Zoller, P.; Weimer, H.; Buechler, H. P.
2009-05-01
We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows us to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering electromagnetically induced transparency. By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms between two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many-body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.
Nonradiative Rydberg ⇆ valence relaxation of NO trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chergui, M.; Schwentner, N.
1989-11-01
Electronic and vibrational relaxation of NO in Ar, Kr and Xe matrices has been studied using excitation spectra and time and energy resolved emission spectra. In addition to the vibrationally relaxed emissions from a 4Π(v=0), B 2Π(v=0) and A 2Σ+(v=0) in Ar and Kr matrices, B(v=5 and 7) emissions are observed in Ar matrices. In Xe matrices, only Rydberg A 2Σ+(v=0) fluorescence is observed. Nonradiative Rydberg-valence transitions are observed in all matrices and valence-Rydberg transitions only in Ar matrices. The intensity ratios IA/IB/Ia are ˜3/9/88 in Ar, ˜9/3/88 in Kr, and ˜2-5/0/0 in Xe matrices. The quantum efficiency for total luminescence being near unity in Ar and Kr matrices. The branching ratios for intramolecular relaxation between Rydberg and valence states are described in terms of a model which combines the intramolecular Franck-Condon factors with the spectroscopically determined phonon Franck-Condon factors and solvent enhanced spin-orbit matrix elements. The latter increase from Ar to Xe matrices. This increase is rationalized in terms of a semiempirical model for the heavy-atom effect on spin-orbit mixing. Weak Rydberg-Rydberg relaxation by a Δv=2 step in Ar and a Δv=1 step in Kr is also observed and interpreted in terms of a resonant Förster-Dexter-type energy transfer. Finally in Xenon matrices, a strongly nonresonant energy transfer from the n=l exciton of solid xenon to the A(v=0) Rydberg level is observed.
Spectroscopy of cesium Rydberg atoms in strong radio-frequency fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Yuechun; Han, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Zhiwei; Li, Jingkui; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang
2016-08-01
We study Rydberg atoms modulated by strong radio-frequency (rf) fields with a frequency of 70 MHz. The Rydberg atoms are prepared in a room-temperature cesium cell, and their level structure is probed using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). As the rf field increases from the weak- into the strong-field regime, the range of observed rf-induced phenomena progresses from ac level shifts through increasingly pronounced and numerous rf modulation sidebands to complex state mixing and level crossings with high - l hydrogenlike states. Weak anharmonic admixtures in the rf field generate clearly visible modifications in the Rydberg EIT spectra. A Floquet analysis is employed to model the Rydberg spectra, and good agreement with the experimental observations is found. Our results show that all-optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms in vapor cells can serve as an antenna-free, atom-based, and calibration-free technique to measure rf electric fields and to analyze their higher-harmonic contents.
Rydberg spectroscopy of H2 via stepwise resonant two-photon ion-pair (H++H-) production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kung, A. H.; Page, Ralph H.; Larkin, R. J.; Shen, Y. R.; Lee, Yuan T.
1986-01-01
High-resolution spectra of new Rydberg states of H2 in the extreme uv region were obtained by two-step doubly resonant excitation followed by H--ion detection. Resolved Fano-line profiles showing a sign reversal of the profile index along the Rydberg series were observed for the first time in H2. Dynamical information such as lifetimes and relative transition strengths was also derived.
Exotic Chemistry with Ultracold Rydberg Atoms.
Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes; Merkt, Frédéric
2016-01-01
We review recent experiments carried out with dense (10(12) cm(-3)) ultracold (T = 40 μK) samples of Cs atoms which have the goal to characterize, by high-resolution spectroscopy, the interactions between Cs atoms, Cs(+) ions and electrons that lead to the formation of metastable long-range molecules. The types of molecules observed in these experiments and the mechanisms leading to the aggregation of atoms in weakly bound molecules are very different from those encountered in warmer samples. In particular, we present results on molecules with binding energies of less than 0.05 J/mol and discuss their properties in the context of a new category of molecular states arising from slow-electron-atom scattering and their relation to atomic and molecular Rydberg states. One of the astonishing aspects of these types of molecules is that they can still be treated in good approximation in the realm of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation despite a huge electronic-state density. Non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are revealed by the decay of the molecules into neutral and charged fragments.
Rydberg Wave Packets and Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Chandra S.
1998-05-01
This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work ( R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 70, 1993. had shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work I investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques I am able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate, and to observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial ( C. Raman, C. Conover, C. Sukenik, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg wavepackets by sub-picosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 76, 1996.and angular ( C. Raman, T. Weinacht, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Stark wavepackets viewed with half cycle pulses.'' Phys. Rev. A), vol. 55, No. 6, 1997. coordinates. This is the first time a wavepacket technique has been used to view electron motion everywhere on its trajectory, and not just at the nucleus. This is the principal feature of half-cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in the data, and in the absence of a rigorous model I rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between
Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi
2009-01-22
Outer valence ionic states of ferrocene were investigated by means of Penning ionization electron spectroscopy upon collision with metastable He*(2(3)S) excited atoms. By two-dimensional measurement combining electron spectroscopy and collision-energy-resolved technique of the metastable atomic beam, ionic-state-resolved measurements of collision energy dependence of partial Penning ionization cross sections (CEDPICS) were carried out. Since the partial Penning ionization cross sections can be connected with spatial extension of corresponding molecular orbitals (MOs) outside the boundary surface for the collision with He* atoms, different slope values of CEDPICS were related with stereodynamics in Penning ionization as well as anisotropic interaction around the ionization region: attractive interaction around ligand pi orbitals and repulsive interaction around ligand sigma orbtials and the metal atom. The observed negative collision energy dependence of ionization cross sections for the first ((2)E(2)') and second ((2)A(1)') ionic states was consistent with configuration interactions suggested by ab initio MO calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 6533], which is due to the strong electron correlation effects beyond the one-electron MO description.
Interpretation of the predissociation of the CO Rydberg W 1Π (v = 1) level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefebvre-Brion, H.; Kalemos, A.
2016-04-01
With the goal to interpret the experimental results obtained quite recently by Heays et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 144311 (2014)] on the predissociation of the Rydberg W 1Π (v = 1) vibrational level of the CO molecule, we report herein ab initio potential energy curves of some of its valence and Rydberg states of both 1Π and 3Π symmetry. Our results confirm that the above vibrational level is perturbed by a new electronic 1Π state not observed until now. They correctly reproduce the linewidths of predissociation of the two interacting levels.
Spatial discrimination of Rydberg tagged molecular photofragments in an inhomogeneous electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monti, O. L. A.; Cruse, H. A.; Softley, T. P.; Mackenzie, S. R.
2001-11-01
A new approach to detecting the spatial and energetic distribution of photodissociation products is demonstrated, in which an inhomogeneous electric field is used for spatially selective field ionization of Rydberg molecules. State-selected NO fragments from NO2 photodissociation in a supersonic beam are excited to high-n Rydberg states and allowed to expand through the inhomogeneous field provided by an octopole. The field in the octopole results in the field ionization of those fragments that have moved to large radial distances (˜5 mm) from the beam axis, and therefore this device transmits only those Rydberg molecules with a low velocity component in the direction perpendicular to the beam. A detailed characterization of the properties of this "steradiancy analyzer" is carried out and factors limiting the energy resolution (currently approximately 100 cm-1 at an excess energy of 250 cm-1), along with possible improvements, are discussed in detail.
High-fidelity Rydberg-blockade entangling gate using shaped, analytic pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theis, L. S.; Motzoi, F.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Saffman, M.
2016-09-01
We show that the use of shaped pulses improves the fidelity of a Rydberg-blockade two-qubit entangling gate by several orders of magnitude compared to previous protocols based on square pulses or optimal control pulses. Using analytical derivative removal by adiabatic gate (DRAG) pulses that reduce excitation of primary leakage states and an analytical method of finding the optimal Rydberg blockade, we generate Bell states with a fidelity of F >0.9999 in a 300 K environment for a gate time of only 50 ns , which is an order of magnitude faster than previous protocols. These results establish the potential of neutral atom qubits with Rydberg-blockade gates for scalable quantum computation.
Out-of-equilibrium structures in strongly interacting Rydberg gases with dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.
2014-07-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a gas of cold atoms in which Rydberg states are off-resonantly excited is studied in the presence of noise. The interplay between interaction and off-resonant excitation leads to an initial dynamics where aggregates of excited Rydberg atoms slowly nucleate and grow, eventually reaching long-lived metastable arrangements which then relax further on much longer time scales. This growth dynamics is governed by an effective Master equation which permits a transparent and largely analytical understanding of the underlying physics. By means of extensive numerical simulations we study the many-body dynamics and the correlations of the resulting nonequilibrium states in various dimensions. Our results provide insight into the dynamical richness of strongly interacting Rydberg gases in noisy environments, and highlight the usefulness of these kinds of systems for the exploration of soft-matter-type collective behavior.
Resonant Rydberg Dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency.
Gaul, C; DeSalvo, B J; Aman, J A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C; Pohl, T
2016-06-17
We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay, and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms. PMID:27367387
Rydberg-Rydberg interaction in the second-harmonic generation from rubidium atoms
Melo, Natalia R. de; Vianna, Sandra S.
2008-02-15
We report on the observation of long range interaction in the second-harmonic generation from rubidium Rydberg atoms. The asymmetric spectral broadening of the resonant lines provides evidence of the van der Waals interaction between pairs of Rydberg atoms. This effect is investigated when the two-photon transition is resonant with nd levels for n{approx_equal}13.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Bingxin; Yao, Xiayin; Huang, Zhen; Guan, Yibiao; Jin, Yi; Xu, Xiaoxiong
2015-06-01
70Li2S·(30-x)P2S5·xLi3PO4 (mol%) amorphous powders are prepared by a high-energy ball milling technique, and the glass-ceramics are obtained by the crystallization of as-prepared amorphous samples. The XRD patterns show that a crystalline phase with a Li7P3S11 structure is obtained for x ≤ 3, while a structure change is observed for x = 5. The Li+-ion conductivity is enhanced by the substitution of Li3PO4 for P2S5, and the 70Li2S·29P2S5·1Li3PO4 glass-ceramics exhibit the highest total conductivity of 1.87 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C and the lowest activation energy of 18 kJ mol-1. The LiCoO2 in the all-solid-state cell of In-Li/70Li2S·29P2S5·1Li3PO4/LiCoO2 exhibits a discharge capacity of 108 mAh g-1, which is 20% higher than that in the In-Li/70Li2S·30P2S5/LiCoO2 cell. The higher discharge capacity of the LiCoO2 electrode is attributed to the higher Li+-ion conductivity of the solid electrolyte and lower interface resistance of electrode-electrolyte.
Storage and control of optical photons using Rydberg polaritons.
Maxwell, D; Szwer, D J; Paredes-Barato, D; Busche, H; Pritchard, J D; Gauguet, A; Weatherill, K J; Jones, M P A; Adams, C S
2013-03-01
We use a microwave field to control the quantum state of optical photons stored in a cold atomic cloud. The photons are stored in highly excited collective states (Rydberg polaritons) enabling both fast qubit rotations and control of photon-photon interactions. Through the collective read-out of these pseudospin rotations it is shown that the microwave field modifies the long-range interactions between polaritons. This technique provides a powerful interface between the microwave and optical domains, with applications in quantum simulations of spin liquids, quantum metrology and quantum networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorniaczyk, H.; Tresp, C.; Bienias, P.; Paris-Mandoki, A.; Li, W.; Mirgorodskiy, I.; Büchler, H. P.; Lesanovsky, I.; Hofferberth, S.
2016-08-01
Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates.
Gorniaczyk, H.; Tresp, C.; Bienias, P.; Paris-Mandoki, A.; Li, W.; Mirgorodskiy, I.; Büchler, H. P.; Lesanovsky, I.; Hofferberth, S.
2016-01-01
Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates. PMID:27515278
Gorniaczyk, H; Tresp, C; Bienias, P; Paris-Mandoki, A; Li, W; Mirgorodskiy, I; Büchler, H P; Lesanovsky, I; Hofferberth, S
2016-01-01
Mapping the strong interaction between Rydberg atoms onto single photons via electromagnetically induced transparency enables manipulation of light at the single-photon level and few-photon devices such as all-optical switches and transistors operated by individual photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that Stark-tuned Förster resonances can substantially increase this effective interaction between individual photons. This technique boosts the gain of a single-photon transistor to over 100, enhances the non-destructive detection of single Rydberg atoms to a fidelity beyond 0.8, and enables high-precision spectroscopy on Rydberg pair states. On top, we achieve a gain larger than 2 with gate photon read-out after the transistor operation. Theory models for Rydberg polariton propagation on Förster resonance and for the projection of the stored spin-wave yield excellent agreement to our data and successfully identify the main decoherence mechanism of the Rydberg transistor, paving the way towards photonic quantum gates. PMID:27515278
Probing dipole-dipole interactions in a frozen Rydberg gas with millimeter waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenhui
2005-11-01
Frozen Rydberg gases are currently of interest for two reasons. First, the atoms in such cold samples only move roughly 3% of the average interatomic spacing during the 1mus time scale of experimental interest, so the interactions between them are almost static, as in a disordered solid. Second, a frozen Rydberg gas can spontaneously evolve into an ultracold plasma, and the ultracold plasma can recombine to form Rydberg atoms. In this dissertation, I present experimental studies of these collective phenomena of cold Rydberg gases, with emphasis on the experiments done using millimeter waves. The many-body nature of the dipole-dipole interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms is clearly demonstrated in the resonant energy transfer experiment by adding an additional state to the system using a microwave transition. Moreover, the microwave spectroscopy studies show that the attractive dipole-dipole interaction provides the initial ionization mechanism responsible for producing the free ions for trapping the electrons. This suggests an intimate connection between dipole-dipole interaction and plasma formation.
Far-infrared Rydberg-Rydberg transitions in a magnetic field: Deexcitation of antihydrogen atoms
Wetzels, A.; Guertler, A.; Noordam, L. D.; Robicheaux, F.
2006-06-15
The dynamics of (de)excitation between highly excited Rydberg states (15
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
Hankin, Aaron Michael
2014-08-01
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the eld of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped ^{133}Cs atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyper ne structure of ^{133}Cs. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of lightpulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) m. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Li, Wenhui
2016-10-01
We perform spectroscopic measurements of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a strongly interacting Rydberg gas. We observe a significant spectral shift and attenuation of the transparency resonance due to the presence of interactions between Rydberg atoms. We characterize the attenuation as the result of an effective dephasing and show that the shift and the dephasing rate increase versus atomic density, probe Rabi frequency, and principal quantum number of Rydberg states. Moreover, we find that the spectral shift is reduced if the size of a Gaussian atomic cloud is increased and that the dephasing rate increases with the EIT pulse duration at large-parameter regimes. We simulate our experiment with a semianalytical model, which yields results in good agreement with our experimental data.
Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, J. D. D.
2013-05-01
Rydberg atoms may enable hybrid systems that combine the benefits of gas-phase atoms with those of solid-state devices. However, these hybrid systems will require atoms to be located near a heterogeneous surface with exposed metal electrodes and dielectric insulators, which are sources of uncontrollable and unwanted electric fields. With this motivation, we have measured the electric fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms. We have also developed a technique for reducing the influence of dc and low-frequency electric fields on Rydberg atom transitions, while retaining their sensitivity to high-frequency resonant fields. Work performed in collaboration with J. D. Carter, L. A. Jones, and O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.
Accessing Rydberg-dressed interactions using many-body Ramsey dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Rick; Killian, Thomas; Hazzard, Kaden
2016-05-01
We demonstrate that Ramsey spectroscopy can be used to observe Rydberg-dressed interactions in a many-body system. Our scheme operates comfortably within experimentally measured lifetimes, and accesses a regime where quantum superpositions are crucial. We build a spin-1/2 from one level that is Rydberg-dressed and another that is not. These levels may be hyperfine or long-lived electronic states. An Ising spin model governs the Ramsey dynamics, for which we derive an exact solution. Due to the structure of Rydberg interactions, the dynamics differs significantly from that in other spin systems. As one example, spin echo can increase the rate at which coherence decays. The results are relevant for the current ongoing experiments, including those at Rice University.
Rydberg-induced solitons: three-dimensional self-trapping of matter waves.
Maucher, F; Henkel, N; Saffman, M; Królikowski, W; Skupin, S; Pohl, T
2011-04-29
We propose a scheme for the creation of stable three-dimensional bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, i.e., the matter-wave analog of so-called spatiotemporal "light bullets." Off-resonant dressing to Rydberg nD states is shown to provide nonlocal attractive interactions, leading to self-trapping of mesoscopic atomic clouds by a collective excitation of a Rydberg atom pair. We present detailed potential calculations and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons under realistic experimental conditions by means of numerical simulations.
REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Spontaneous and induced emission of a Rydberg atom in a cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beterov, I. M.; Lerner, P. B.
1989-12-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of Rydberg masers-quantum-electronic devices which produce and employ microwave radiation from highly excited atoms in a cavity-are reviewed. The experimental results are based mainly on studies performed by S. Haroche's group in Paris and H. Walther's group in Munich. In contradistinction to the usual quantum generators the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field itself play an important role in the analysis of the behavioral dynamics of Rydberg masers. The most striking results obtained in this field are the discovery of "quantum revival" and the achievement of maser generation on two-photon transitions and Fok states of the electromagnetic field.
Rydberg-Induced Solitons: Three-Dimensional Self-Trapping of Matter Waves
Maucher, F.; Henkel, N.; Pohl, T.; Saffman, M.; Krolikowski, W.; Skupin, S.
2011-04-29
We propose a scheme for the creation of stable three-dimensional bright solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, i.e., the matter-wave analog of so-called spatiotemporal ''light bullets.'' Off-resonant dressing to Rydberg nD states is shown to provide nonlocal attractive interactions, leading to self-trapping of mesoscopic atomic clouds by a collective excitation of a Rydberg atom pair. We present detailed potential calculations and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons under realistic experimental conditions by means of numerical simulations.
Controlled long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms and ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Secker, T.; Gerritsma, R.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Negretti, A.
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate trapped ions interacting with atoms that are coupled to Rydberg states. The strong polarizabilities of the Rydberg levels increase the interaction strength between atoms and ions by many orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of ground-state atoms, and may be mediated over micrometers. We calculate that such interactions can be used to generate entanglement between an atom and the motion or internal state of an ion. Furthermore, the ion could be used as a bus for mediating spin-spin interactions between atomic spins in analogy to much employed techniques in ion-trap quantum simulation. The proposed scheme comes with attractive features as it maps the benefits of the trapped-ion quantum system onto the atomic one without obviously impeding its intrinsic scalability. No ground-state cooling of the ion or atom is required and the setup allows for full dynamical control. Moreover, the scheme is to a large extent immune to the micromotion of the ion. Our findings are of interest for developing hybrid quantum information platforms and for implementing quantum simulations of solid-state physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spesyvtsev, R.; Horio, T.; Suzuki, Y.-I.; Suzuki, T.
2015-07-01
The excited-state dynamics of furan were studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a sub-20-fs deep UV (198 nm) and vacuum UV (159 nm) light source. The 198- and 159-nm pulses produce photoionization signals in both pump-probe and probe-pump pulse sequences. When the 198-nm pulse precedes the 159-nm pulse, it creates the 1A2(3s) Rydberg and 1B2(ππ∗) valence states, and the former decays exponentially with a time constant of about 20 fs whereas the latter exhibits more complex wave-packet dynamics. When the 159-nm pulse precedes the 198-nm pulse, a wave packet is created on the 1A1(ππ∗) valence state, which rapidly disappears from the observation window owing to structural deformation. The 159-nm photoexcitation also creates the 3s and 3px,y Rydberg states non-adiabatically.
Effect of dispersion forces on squeezing with Rydberg atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, S. K.; Muhamad, M. R.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.
1994-01-01
We report exact results concerning the effect of dipole-dipole interaction (dispersion forces) on dynamic and steady-state characteristics of squeezing in the emitted fluorescent field from two identical coherently driven two-level atoms. The atomic system is subjected to three different damping baths in particular the normal vacuum, a broad band thermal field and a broad band squeezed vacuum. The atomic model is the Dicke model, hence possible experiments are most likely to agree with theory when performed on systems of Rydberg atoms making microwave transitions. The presence of dipole-dipole interaction can enhance squeezing for realizable values of the various parameters involved.
Landau-Zener Transitions in Frozen Pairs of Rydberg Atoms
Saquet, Nicolas; Cournol, Anne; Beugnon, Jerome; Robert, Jacques; Pillet, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Nicolas
2010-04-02
We have induced adiabatic transitions in pairs of frozen Rydberg sodium atoms of a supersonic beam. The diatomic ns+ns{yields}np+(n-1)p transition takes place in a time-dependent electric field and originates from the adiabatic change of the internal state of the pair induced by the dipole-dipole interaction. This is experimentally achieved by sweeping an electric field across the energy degeneracy ns ns-np(n-1)p. Our results fully agree with a two-level Landau-Zener model in the diatom system.
The kicked Rydberg atom: Regular and stochastic motion
Burgdoerfer, J.
1988-01-01
We have investigated the dynamics of a three-dimensional classical Rydberg atom driven by a sequence of pulses. Both the deterministic system with periodic pulses and the closely related ''noisy'' system with random pulses have been studied in parallel. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of pulse height and the angular momentum of the initial state. We find differences between noisy and deterministic perturbations to be most pronounced for small pulse heights. Low angular momentum orbits show enhanced diffusion in agreement with recent experimental data for ion-solid interaction. 22 refs., 6 figs.
Ershova, Olga V.; Besley, Nicholas A. Wright, Timothy G.; Kłos, Jacek
2015-01-21
We present new potential energy surfaces for the interaction of NO(C {sup 2}Π) with each of Ne, Kr, and Xe. The potential energy surfaces have been calculated using second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, exploiting a procedure to converge the reference Hartree-Fock wavefunction for the excited states: the maximum overlap method. The bound rovibrational states obtained from the surfaces are used to simulate the electronic spectra and their appearance is in good agreement with available (2+1) REMPI spectra. We discuss the assignment and appearance of these spectra, comparing to that of NO-Ar.
Entropic properties of D-dimensional Rydberg systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toranzo, I. V.; Puertas-Centeno, D.; Dehesa, J. S.
2016-11-01
The fundamental information-theoretic measures (the Rényi Rp [ ρ ] and Tsallis Tp [ ρ ] entropies, p > 0) of the highly-excited (Rydberg) quantum states of the D-dimensional (D > 1) hydrogenic systems, which include the Shannon entropy (p → 1) and the disequilibrium (p = 2), are analytically determined by use of the strong asymptotics of the Laguerre orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of these states. We first realize that these quantities are derived from the entropic moments of the quantum-mechanical probability ρ(r →) densities associated to the Rydberg hydrogenic wavefunctions Ψ n , l , { μ }(r →) , which are closely connected to the Lp-norms of the associated Laguerre polynomials. Then, we determine the (n → ∞)-asymptotics of these norms in terms of the basic parameters of our system (the dimensionality D, the nuclear charge and the hyperquantum numbers (n , l , { μ }) of the state) by use of recent techniques of approximation theory. Finally, these three entropic quantities are analytically and numerically discussed in terms of the basic parameters of the system for various particular states.
Studies of singlet Rydberg series of LiH derived from Li(nl) + H(1s), with n ≤ 6 and l ≤ 4
Gim, Yeongrok; Lee, Chun-Woo
2014-10-14
The 50 singlet states of LiH composed of 49 Rydberg states and one non-Rydberg ionic state derivable from Li(nl) + H(1s), with n ≤ 6 and l ≤ 4, are studied using the multi-reference configuration interaction method combined with the Stuttgart/Köln group's effective core potential/core polarization potential method. Basis functions that can yield energy levels up to the 6g orbital of Li have been developed, and they are used with a huge number of universal Kaufmann basis functions for Rydberg states. The systematics and regularities of the physical properties such as potential energies, quantum defects, permanent dipole moments, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements of the Rydberg series are studied. The behaviors of potential energy curves and quantum defect curves are explained using the Fermi approximation. The permanent dipole moments of the Rydberg series reveal that they are determined by the sizes of the Rydberg orbitals, which are proportional to n{sup 2}. Interesting mirror relationships of the dipole moments are observed between l-mixed Rydberg series, with the rule Δl = ±1, except for s–d mixing, which is also accompanied by n-mixing. The members of the l-mixed Rydberg series have dipole moments with opposite directions. The first derivatives of the dipole moment curves, which show the charge-transfer component, clearly show not only mirror relationships in terms of direction but also oscillations. The transition dipole moment matrix elements of the Rydberg series are determined by the small-r region, with two consequences. One is that the transition dipole moment matrix elements show n{sup −3/2} dependence. The other is that the magnitudes of the transition dipole moment matrix elements decrease rapidly as l increases.
Long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deiglmayr, Johannes
2016-10-01
We present an overview over theoretical models to describe adiabatic potential-energy curves, experimental excitation spectra, and electronic and nuclear dynamics in interacting Rydberg-atom pairs at large internuclear separations. The potential-energy curves and molecular wavefunctions are determined from the multipole expansion of the static Coulomb interaction which is evaluated numerically in a product basis of atomic orbitals. The convergence of this approach both in the truncation of the multipole expansion as well as in the size of the product basis is discussed, and the comparison of simulated excitation spectra is established as a useful criterium to test the convergence of the calculation. We finally discuss the dynamics of electronic and nuclear motions of pairs of Rydberg atoms, focusing on the stability of ultralong range Rydberg molecules with respect to autoionization.
Zhou, Yiyong; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang
2014-07-07
The photodissociation dynamics of O{sub 2}, O{sub 2} + hυ → O({sup 3}P) + O(2p{sup 3}({sup 4}S)3s, {sup 3}S/{sup 5}S), has been studied by combining the XUV laser pump / UV laser probe and velocity map imaging methods in the photon energy range 14.64–15.20 eV. The fragment yield spectra of O({sup 3}S) and O({sup 5}S) and their velocity map images have been recorded using the state-selective (1+1) REMPI method to detect the fragments. The fragment yield spectra show resolved fine structure that arises from the predissociated Rydberg states I, I{sup ′} and I{sup ″} ({sup 3}Π{sub Ω=0,1,2}). The branching ratios between the two decay channels have been measured by one-photon ionization of the fragments O({sup 3}S) and O({sup 5}S) simultaneously. It is surprising to find that the dissociation cross sections for the production of O({sup 5}S) are larger than, or comparable to, those of O({sup 3}S) for the I and I{sup ′} states, while the cross sections for the production of O({sup 5}S) are smaller than those of O({sup 3}S) for the I{sup ″} state. All fragments O({sup 5}S) arise from perpendicular transitions, which provides direct experimental evidence about the symmetry assignments of the states I, I{sup ′} and I{sup ″} excited in this energy region. Although most of the fragments O({sup 3}S) arise from perpendicular transitions, some of them are from parallel transitions. Based on the calculated ab initio potential energy curves, we propose that the neutral dissociation into O({sup 3}P) + O({sup 3}S) occurs mainly via the interaction of the Rydberg states I, I{sup ′}, and I{sup ″} with the vibrational continuum of the diabatic 8{sup 3}Π{sub u} state (1π{sub u}{sup −1}(a{sup 4}Π{sub u})3sσ{sub g},{sup 3}Π{sub u}), while the neutral dissociation into O({sup 3}P) + O({sup 5}S) occurs mainly via the interaction of Rydberg states I, I{sup ′}, and I{sup ″} with the diabatic 7{sup 3}Π{sub u} (1π{sub g}{sup −1}(X{sup 2}Π{sub g})3pσ{sub u
\\cal{PT} -symmetry in Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2016-07-01
We propose a scheme to realize parity-time ( {PT} )-symmetry in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as superatoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. We show that Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a four-level inverted Y-type configuration is highly efficient to generate the refractive index for a probe field, with a symmetric (antisymmetric) profile spatially in the corresponding real (imaginary) part. Comparing with earlier investigations, the present scheme provides a versatile platform to control the system from {PT} -symmetry to non-PT -symmetry via different external parameters, i.e., coupling field detuning, probe field intensity and control field intensity.
Dipole-dipole interaction between rubidium Rydberg atoms
Altiere, Emily; Fahey, Donald P.; Noel, Michael W.; Smith, Rachel J.; Carroll, Thomas J.
2011-11-15
Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a static electric field can exchange energy via the dipole-dipole interaction. The Stark effect shifts the energy levels of the atoms which tunes the energy exchange into resonance at specific values of the electric field (Foerster resonances). We excite rubidium atoms to Rydberg states by focusing either a 480 nm beam from a tunable dye laser or a pair of diode lasers into a magneto-optical trap. The trap lies at the center of a configuration of electrodes. We scan the electric field by controlling the voltage on the electrodes while measuring the fraction of atoms that interact. Dipole-dipole interaction spectra are presented for initially excited rubidium nd states for n=31 to 46 and for four different pairs of initially excited rubidium ns states. We also present the dipole-dipole interaction spectra for individual rubidium 32d (j, m{sub j}) fine structure levels that have been selectively excited. The data are compared to calculated spectra.
Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaopeng
2016-05-01
Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here I will discuss Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice where we predict the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless sermonic states with long-range interactions could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. JQI-NSF-PFC, AROAtomtronics- MURI, and LPS-MPO-CMTC, UMD supercomputing resources.
Deterministic spin-wave interferometer based on the Rydberg blockade
Wei Ran; Deng Youjin; Pan Jianwei; Zhao Bo; Chen Yuao
2011-06-15
The spin-wave (SW) N-particle path-entangled |N,0>+|0,N> (NOON) state is an N-particle Fock state with two atomic spin-wave modes maximally entangled. Attributed to the property that the phase is sensitive to collective atomic motion, the SW NOON state can be utilized as an atomic interferometer and has promising application in quantum enhanced measurement. In this paper we propose an efficient protocol to deterministically produce the atomic SW NOON state by employing the Rydberg blockade. Possible errors in practical manipulations are analyzed. A feasible experimental scheme is suggested. Our scheme is far more efficient than the recent experimentally demonstrated one, which only creates a heralded second-order SW NOON state.
Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan; Civiš, Svatopluk
2013-09-14
Recently optimized exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets [P. R. Kapralova-Zdanska and J. Smydke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024105 (2013)] are employed in quantitative simulations of helium absorption cross-sections and two-photon excitation yields of doubly excited resonances. Linearly polarized half-infinite and Gaussian laser pulses at wavelengths 38–58 nm and large intensities up to 100 TW/cm{sup 2} are considered. The emphasis is laid on convergence of the results with respect to the quality of the Gaussian basis sets (typically limited by a number of partial waves, density, and spatial extent of the basis functions) as well as to the quality of the basis set of field-free states (typically limited by the maximum rotational quantum number and maximum excitation of the lower electron). Particular attention is paid to stability of the results with respect to varying complex scaling parameter. Moreover, the study of the dynamics is preceded by a thorough check of helium energies and oscillator strengths as they are obtained with the exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets, being also compared with yet unpublished emission wavelengths measured in electric discharge experiments.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less
Ionization of Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface
Sjakste, J.; Borisov, A. G.; Gauyacq, J. P.
2006-04-15
We report on a theoretical study of the ionization process of Xe* Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface, in the presence of an external electric field. The evolution of the Xe* outer electron is studied by a wave packet propagation approach, allowing to include all dynamical aspects of the collision, in particular nonadiabatic inter-Rydberg transitions. We investigate how the different Xe* Stark states formed in the external field couple together and ionize on the surface and how the different polarizations of the electronic cloud in the Xe* states are reflected in their ionization properties. We show that the presence of the external electric field can significantly perturb the dynamics of the ionization process. Our results account for recent results from Dunning et al. [Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 203, 69 (2003)]. In particular, it is explained how the external electric field present in the experimental procedure of Dunning et al. leads to the apparent absence of a polarization effect in the ionization process.
Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.
2015-01-28
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ_{+}/σ_{-} orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of ^{133}Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10^{-3}.
Laser cooling, trapping, and Rydberg spectroscopy of neutral holmium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetter, James Allen
This thesis focuses on progress towards using ensembles of neutral holmium for use in quantum computing operations. We are particularly interested in using a switchable interaction between neutral atoms, the Rydberg blockade, to implement a universal set of quantum gates in a collective encoding scheme that presents many benefits over quantum computing schemes which rely on physically distinct qubits. We show that holmium is uniquely suited for operations in a collective encoding basis because it has 128 ground hyperfine states, the largest number of any stable, neutral atom. Holmium is a rare earth atom that is very poorly described for our purposes as it has never been cooled and trapped, its spectrum is largely unknown, and it presents several unique experimental challenges related to its complicated atomic structure and short wavelength transitions. We demonstrate important progress towards overcoming these challenges. We produce the first laser cooling and trapping of holmium into a MOT. Because we use a broad cooling transition, our cooling technique does not require the use of a Zeeman slower. Using MOT depletion spectroscopy, we provide precise measurements of holmium's Rydberg states and its ionization potential. Our work continues towards cooling holmium into a dipole trap by calculating holmium's AC polarizability and demonstrating the results of early attempts at an optical dipole trap. We provide details of future upgrades to the experimental apparatus and discuss interesting potential for using holmium in quantum computing using single atoms in a magnetically trapped lattice. This thesis shows several promising indicators for continued work in this field.
Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics
Jungen, Ch.
2015-01-22
Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.
Cavity polaritons with Rydberg blockade and long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litinskaya, Marina; Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido
2016-08-01
We study interactions between polaritons, arising when photons strongly couple to collective excitations in an array of two-level atoms trapped in an optical lattice inside a cavity. We consider two types of interactions between atoms: dipolar forces and atomic saturability, which range from hard-core repulsion to Rydberg blockade. We show that, in spite of the underlying repulsion in the subsystem of atomic excitations, saturability induces a broadband bunching of photons for two-polariton scattering states. We interpret this bunching as a result of interference, and trace it back to the mismatch of the quantization volumes for atomic excitations and photons. We also examine bound bipolaritonic states: these include states created by dipolar forces, as well as a gap bipolariton, which forms solely due to saturability effects in the atomic transition. Both types of bound states exhibit strong bunching in the photonic component. We discuss the dependence of bunching on experimentally relevant parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish
2016-07-01
We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.
Nonlinear optical susceptibility of EIT systems with a degenerate Rydberg level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanojevic, Jovica; Grangier, Philippe; Côté, Robin
2016-06-01
It has been demonstrated that very large optical nonlinearities can arise in cold Rydberg gases from strong Rydberg–Rydberg interactions. The interactions between atoms excited to a degenerate Rydberg level are described by a large number of molecular potentials which greatly complicates the theoretical treatment of these systems. We here present a method for very accurate calculation of the third order interaction-induced optical nonlinearities that fully includes the angle-dependent mixing of molecular states by the control optical field. In addition, we investigate how an effective potential can be introduced to describe the third-order optical susceptibility arising from the underlying multi-potential Rydberg–Rydberg interactions. We show that a single effective potential can replace a manifold of asymptotically degenerate potentials of the same sign. Therefore, one effective potential has to be defined for attractive interactions and another for repulsive ones. As an example, we have calculated effective C 6 coefficients of nd + nd asymptotes of rubidium and cesium. We compare accurately calculated collisional integrals with those obtained using effective potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavryusev, V.; Signoles, A.; Ferreira-Cao, M.; Zürn, G.; Hofmann, C. S.; Günter, G.; Schempp, H.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.
2016-08-01
We present combined measurements of the spatially resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, while the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and light degrees of freedom and will facilitate new studies of many-body effects in optically driven Rydberg gases.
Ultracold molecular Rydberg physics in a high density environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eiles, Matthew T.; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Robicheaux, F.; Greene, Chris H.
2016-06-01
Sufficiently high densities in Bose–Einstein condensates provide favorable conditions for the production of ultralong-range polyatomic molecules consisting of one Rydberg atom and a number of neutral ground state atoms. The chemical binding properties and electronic wave functions of these exotic molecules are investigated analytically via hybridized diatomic states. The effects of the molecular geometry on the system’s properties are studied through comparisons of the adiabatic potential curves and electronic structures for both symmetric and randomly configured molecular geometries. General properties of these molecules with increasing numbers of constituent atoms and in different geometries are presented. These polyatomic states have spectral signatures that lead to non-Lorentzian line-profiles.
Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.
Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments.
Designing Frustrated Quantum Magnets with Laser-Dressed Rydberg Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaetzle, Alexander W.; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1 /2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1 /2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments.
Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.
Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter
2015-05-01
We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments. PMID:25978228
Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice
Anderson, S. E.; Younge, K. C.; Raithel, G.
2011-12-23
Rubidium Rydberg atoms are laser excited and subsequently trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). Efficient trapping is achieved by a lattice inversion immediately after laser excitation using an electro-optic technique. The trapping efficiency is probed via analysis of the trap-induced shift of the two-photon microwave transition 50S{yields}51S. The inversion technique allows us to reach a trapping efficiency of 90%. The dependence of the efficiency on the timing of the lattice inversion and on the trap laser power is studied. The dwell time of 50D{sub 5/2} Rydberg atoms in the lattice is analyzed using lattice-induced photoionization.
Motion of Rydberg atoms with strong permanent-electric-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonçalves, Luís Felipe; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg
2016-08-01
Using classical trajectories simulations, we investigate the dynamics of a cold sample of Rydberg atoms with high permanent electric dipole moments. The dipolar state can be created using an adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing between an S-like state and a linear Stark state. The simulations yield the pair-correlation functions (PCF) of the atom samples, which allow us to extract the motion of Rydberg-atom pairs in the many-body system. The results reveal the strength and the anisotropic character of the underlying interaction. The simulation is employed to test the suitability of experimental methods designed to derive interaction parameters from PCF. Insight is obtained about the stability of the method against variation of experimentally relevant parameters. Transient correlations due to interaction-induced heating are observed.
Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions
Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das
2015-01-01
Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134
Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions.
Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das
2015-01-01
Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134
Transition rates in proton - Rydberg atom collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vrinceanu, Daniel
2016-05-01
Monte Carlo simulations for energy and angular momentum transfer processes in proton - Ryderg atom collisions were performed and the corresponding rates are reported.The relevance of these rates in the context of cosmological recombination is discussed. The rates are contrasted with the similar rates in electron - Rydberg atom collisions. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation through grants for the Center for Research on Complex Networks (HRD-1137732) and Research Infrastructure for Science and Engineering (RISE) (HRD-1345173).
Magnetically stimulated diffusion of Rydberg gases.
Dumin, Yurii V
2013-01-18
The specific kind of diffusion stimulated (rather than suppressed) by the external magnetic field, which was predicted for the first time by Schmelcher and Cederbaum in 1992, is considered here for the case of high-angular-momentum (i.e., approximately "circular") Rydberg atoms. The coefficient of such diffusion was calculated by a purely analytical approach and was found to be very relevant to the experiments on antihydrogen formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efimov, D. K.; Miculis, K.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.
2016-06-01
We consider Penning ionization of Rydberg atom pairs as an Auger-type process induced by the dipole-dipole interaction and employ semiclassical formulae for dipole transitions to calculate the autoionization width as a function of the principal quantum numbers, n d , n i , of both atoms. While for symmetric atom pairs with {n}d={n}i={n}0 the well-known increase of the autoionization width with increasing n 0 is obtained, the result for asymmetric pairs is counterintuitive—for a fixed n i of the ionizing atom of the pair, the autoionization width strongly increases with decreasing n d of the de-excited atom. For H Rydberg atoms this increase reaches two orders of magnitude at the maximum of the n d dependence, and the same type of counterintuitive behavior is exhibited also by Na, Rb and Cs atoms. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect, which points towards existence of optimal (we call them ‘Tom’ and ‘Jerry’ for ‘big’ and ‘small’) pairs of Rydberg atoms with respect to autoionization efficiency. Building on the model of population redistribution in cold Rydberg gases proposed in [1], we demonstrate that population evolution following the initial laser excitation of Rydberg atoms in state n 0 would eventually lead to the formation of such Tom-Jerry pairs with {n}i\\gt {n}0\\gt {n}d which feature autoionization widths that are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to that of two atoms in the initial laser-excited state n 0. We also show that in the high-density regime of cold Rydberg gas experiments the ionization rate of Tom-Jerry pairs can be substantially larger than the blackbody radiation-induced photoionization rate.
Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr
Andreev, S.V.; Letokhov, V.S.; Mishin, V.I.
1987-09-21
We investigated for the first time the high-lying Rydberg levels in the rare radioactive element francium (Fr). The investigations were conducted by the highly sensitive laser resonance atomic photoionization technique with Fr atoms produced at a rate of about 10/sup 3/ atoms/s in a hot cavity. We measured the wave numbers of the 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/..-->..nd/sup 2/D (n = 22--33) and 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/..-->..ns/sup 2/S (n = 23, 25--27,29--31) transitions and found the binding energy of the 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ state to be T = -18 924.8(3) cm/sup -1/, which made it possible to establish accurately the ionization potential of Fr.
Negative ion formation by Rydberg electron transfer: Isotope-dependent rate constants
Carman, H.S. Jr.; Klots, C.E.; Compton, R.N.
1991-01-01
The formation of negative ions during collisions of rubidium atoms in selected ns and nd Rydberg states with carbon disulfide molecules has been studied for a range of effective principal quantum numbers (10 {le} n* {le} 25). For a narrow range of n* near n* = 17, rate constants for CS{sub 2}{sup {minus}} formation are found to depend upon the isotopic composition of the molecule, producing a negative ion isotope ratio (mass 78 to mass 76, amu) up to 10.5 times larger than the natural abundance ratio of CS{sub 2} isotopes in the reagent. The isotope ratio is found to depend strongly upon the initial quantum state of the Rydberg atom and perhaps upon the collision energy and CS{sub 2} temperature. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Towards a controlled-phase gate using Rydberg-dressed atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant
2014-05-01
We are implementing a controlled-phase gate based on singly trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interaction of Rydberg states. An off-resonant laser field dresses ground state cesium atoms in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism, providing the required entangling interaction. We will present our progress toward implementing the controlled-phase gate with an analysis of possible sources of decoherence such as RF radiation from wireless communication devices. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philip, G.
2008-03-01
An efficient atomic jet setup offering many unprecedented advantages over a conventional heat pipe setup used in multi-photon spectroscopy, mainly of alkaline-earth metals, has been constructed by a scheme in which the sample material is encapsulated in a disposable cartridge oven located inside a thermally stabilised heat-pipe and is made to effuse in to a row of atomic beams merging to form a jet target. This novel scheme combines the advantages of both high density atomic beam with convenient geometry for orthogonal excitation and high sensitive ionisation detection capabilities of thermionic diodes, besides eliminating several problems inherent in the usual heat-pipe operation. Out of various designs, typical results are presented for a linear heat-pipe with vertical atomic jet used in two-photon spectroscopy of highly excited states of Sr I. Controlled excitations of both Rydberg and non-Rydberg states, which cannot otherwise be accessed from the ground state due to parity and spectroscopic selection rules, have been achieved by employing a weak electric field complimented by collisions. The atomic jet setup is also found very useful for the study of collisional broadening and shift of excited states and time evolution of Rydberg atoms.
Multiply-Charged Positive Ion Polarizabilities from Rydberg Ion Fine Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundeen, Stephen R.; Wright, Laura E.; Snow, Erica L.
2006-05-01
Experimental methods originally developed for study of fine structure patterns in high-L Rydberg states of neutral atoms and molecules have recently been extended to allow study of similar states in Rydberg states of multiply-charged ions[1]. Initial studies, carried out in Rydberg states of Si^+ and Si^2+, led to determination of the polarizabilities of Na-like and Mg-like Silicon ions [2,3], but similar studies may be feasible in a wide range of systems. Continued studies are aimed at studying ions with higher charge, such as the closed shell ion Kr^6+, and eventually the Radon-like ions U^6+ and Th^4+. [1] S.R. Lundeen in Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 52, edited by P.R. Berman and C.C. Lin, p. 161 [2] R.A. Komara, M.A. Gearba, S.R. Lundeen, C.W. Fehrenbach, Phys. Rev. A 67, 062502 (2003) [3] R.A. Komara, M.A. Gearba, C.W. Fehrenbach, and S.R. Lundeen, J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 28, 2787 (2005)
Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R
2015-06-19
We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them.
Ionization of sodium and rubidium nS, nP, and nD Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation
Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Ekers, A.; Bezuglov, N. N.
2007-05-15
Results of theoretical calculations of ionization rates of Rb and Na Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation (BBR) are presented. Calculations have been performed for nS, nP, and nD states of Na and Rb, which are commonly used in a variety of experiments, at principal quantum numbers n=8-65 and at three ambient temperatures of 77, 300, and 600 K. A peculiarity of our calculations is that we take into account the contributions of BBR-induced redistribution of population between Rydberg states prior to photoionization and field ionization by extraction electric field pulses. The obtained results show that these phenomena affect both the magnitude of measured ionization rates and shapes of their dependences on n. The calculated ionization rates are compared with the results of our earlier measurements of BBR-induced ionization rates of Na nS and nD Rydberg states with n=8-20 at 300 K. A good agreement for all states except nS with n>15 is observed. We also present the useful analytical formulas for the quick estimation of BBR ionization rates of Rydberg atoms.
Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant
2015-05-01
We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a σ+ /σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in <10 μs with error probability of order 10-3. We generalize this protocol to exploit the multi-body nature of the Rydberg blockade and go beyond two qubits. We show how one can implement a three-qubit Toffoli gate in a single-step. Finally, we consider encoding in collective states of small ensembles of atoms, and show how such a scheme can allow for scalable, robust, quantum logic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnický, D.; Caravita, R.; Canali, C.; Testera, G.
2016-08-01
The antihydrogen formation by charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium Ps* is studied by using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. In the absence of external magnetic field the cross section scaled by the fourth power of the Ps* principal quantum number nPs shows a universal behavior as a function of the ratio kv between the velocity of the Ps center of mass and that of the positron in the classical circular orbit. At low velocity, below about kv≃0.2 -0.3 , we show for Rydberg positronium that the cross section increases as 1 /kv2 or, in an equivalent way, as 1 /EPs cm with EPs cm being the Ps* center-of-mass energy. In this regime the distribution of the principal quantum number of the antihydrogen state is narrow and it shows a peak at about √{2}nPs while at higher kv values a broad distribution of antihydrogen states is produced. The study of the collision process in the presence of moderate magnetic field (0.5-2 T) shows that there is an experimentally interesting region of kv with the cross section slightly higher than that in the absence of field. However the presence of a magnetic field changes significantly the cross section behavior as a function of kv, especially at low velocities, where reductions of the cross sections and deviations from the 1 /kv2 (1 /EPs cm) are observed. Our calculations show a dependance of the cross section upon the angle between the magnetic field and the flight direction of the incoming Ps*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnický, D.; Caravita, R.; Canali, C.; Testera, G.
2016-08-01
The antihydrogen formation by charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium Ps* is studied by using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. In the absence of external magnetic field the cross section scaled by the fourth power of the Ps* principal quantum number nPs shows a universal behavior as a function of the ratio kv between the velocity of the Ps center of mass and that of the positron in the classical circular orbit. At low velocity, below about kv≃0.2 -0.3 , we show for Rydberg positronium that the cross section increases as 1 /kv2 or, in an equivalent way, as 1 /EPs cm with EPs cm being the Ps* center-of-mass energy. In this regime the distribution of the principal quantum number of the antihydrogen state is narrow and it shows a peak at about √{2}nPs while at higher kv values a broad distribution of antihydrogen states is produced. The study of the collision process in the presence of moderate magnetic field (0.5-2 T) shows that there is an experimentally interesting region of kv with the cross section slightly higher than that in the absence of field. However the presence of a magnetic field changes significantly the cross section behavior as a function of kv, especially at low velocities, where reductions of the cross sections and deviations from the 1 /kv2 (1 /EPs cm) are observed. Our calculations show a dependance of the cross section upon the angle between the magnetic field and the flight direction of the incoming Ps*.
Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P
2015-04-01
Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics.
Investigation of short-time many-body dynamics in multilevel Rydberg systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracamontes, Carlos; Young, Jeremy; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Boulier, Thomas; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rolston, Steve; Porto, James
2016-05-01
We present follow-up work to previous results in which we observe anomalous broadening in a driven-dissipative system of Rydberg atoms. We address rubidium atoms in a 3D optical lattice on 5s-18s transition and see substantial broadening of this line with increasing excitation strength and atomic density. We attribute the broadening mechanism to dipole-dipole interactions with spontaneously populated nearby Rydberg states. This mechanism implies complex dynamics at early times as the contaminant population is built up. A full microscopic model of this many-body multilevel system has proved elusive, but initial experiments to study these dynamics using single photon counting provided qualitative information that was consistent with simple theoretical estimates. We implement optical heterodyne detection for short probe pulses to study this dynamics in depth and gain further understanding of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruse, H. A.; Softley, T. P.
2004-09-01
The slice-imaging variant of photofragment ion imaging is combined with Rydberg tagging. The photodissociation of NO2 at 355 nm is used as the test system and the NO fragments are Rydberg tagged by two-photon two-color excitation via the intermediate A2Σ+ state. Images obtained by this method are compared with ion images obtained in the same apparatus using the approach of Kitsopoulos and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3848 (2001)]. Comparable resolution and angular distributions are obtained in the two cases. It is proposed that the method demonstrated here could provide a complementary approach to existing ion-imaging methods, especially where resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization detection of fragments is problematic.
Two-channel emission model for collective quantum jumps in Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cayayan, Lyndon; Clemens, James
2016-05-01
We consider a system of driven, damped Rydberg atoms with dipole-dipole energy shifts which can give rise to a Rydberg blockade when the atoms are driven on resonance and collective quantum jumps when the atoms are driven off resonance. For the damping we consider a two-channel emission model with competition between fully independent and fully collective spontaneous emission. For independent emission a quasiclassical model predicts a bistable steady state and quantum fluctuations drive collective jumps between the two bistable branches. We show that the collective emission is enhanced, relative to the independent emission, which shifts the total effective spontaneous emission rate and impacts the presence or absence of bistability predicted by the quasiclassical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lida; Evers, Jörg
2016-09-01
Nonlinear and nonlocal effects are discussed in the interaction of laser fields with thermal Rydberg atoms in an electromagnetically induced transparency configuration. We assume that the system's steady state adiabatically follows the time variation in the dipole-dipole interactions due to the atomic motion and use a continuum description for the atomic medium. Based on these approximations, we obtain an analytical form for the nonlocal nonlinear atomic response of the thermal medium and study it for different parameter cases. We further propose a generalized model to describe the modulational instability (MI) in absorptive nonlinear media, in order to understand the propagation dynamics in the thermal Rydberg medium. Interestingly, this model predicts that at short propagation distances, each wave component exhibits the MI effect in absorptive nonlinear media, unlike in the purely dispersive case.
Dipole–quadrupole Förster resonance in cesium Rydberg gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maineult, Wilfried; Pelle, Bruno; Faoro, Riccardo; Arimondo, Ennio; Pillet, Pierre; Cheinet, Patrick
2016-11-01
The resonant energy transfer between two close particles, also known as Förster resonance in atomic or biological systems, is usually associated with dipole–dipole interaction. In Rydberg atoms, it is a widely used tool to enhance the interactions between particles. Here, we observe a resonant energy transfer between Rydberg atoms that cannot be attributed to a dipole–dipole interaction, owing to selection rules, and comes instead from an efficient dipole–quadrupole process. We compare the measured probability transfer with a theoretical model including quadrupolar terms and find very good agreement with our measurement. Further studies of those multipolar resonances should probe their dependences on various parameters (quantum numbers, relative orientation of the atoms), and may find some applications in quantum procedures where dipole–dipole resonance cannot be used, for instance where the states of interest have a difference in angular momentum of two.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiler, Ch; Agner, J. A.; Pillet, P.; Merkt, F.
2016-05-01
Supersonic beams of hydrogen atoms, prepared selectively in Rydberg-Stark states of principal quantum number n in the range between 25 and 35, have been deflected by {90}\\circ , decelerated and loaded into off-axis electric traps at initial densities of ≈ {10}6 atoms cm-3 and translational temperatures of 150 mK. The ability to confine the atoms spatially was exploited to study their decay by radiative and collisional processes. The evolution of the population of trapped atoms was measured for several milliseconds in dependence of the principal quantum number of the initially prepared states, the initial Rydberg-atom density in the trap, and the temperature of the environment of the trap, which could be varied between 7.5 and 300 K using a cryorefrigerator. At room temperature, the population of trapped Rydberg atoms was found to decay faster than expected on the basis of their natural lifetimes, primarily because of absorption and emission stimulated by the thermal radiation field. At the lowest temperatures investigated experimentally, the decay was found to be multiexponential, with an initial rate scaling as {n}-4 and corresponding closely to the natural lifetimes of the initially prepared Rydberg-Stark states. The decay rate was found to continually decrease over time and to reach an almost n-independent rate of more than (1 ms)-1 after 3 ms. To analyze the experimentally observed decay of the populations of trapped atoms, numerical simulations were performed which included all radiative processes, i.e., spontaneous emission as well as absorption and emission stimulated by the thermal radiation. These simulations, however, systematically underestimated the population of trapped atoms observed after several milliseconds by almost two orders of magnitude, although they reliably predicted the decay rates of the remaining atoms in the trap. The calculations revealed that the atoms that remain in the trap for the longest times have larger absolute values of the
Measurement of strong electric fields using room-temperature Rydberg-EIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Stephanie; Anderson, David; Holloway, Christopher; Gordon, Joshua; Raithel, Georg
2015-05-01
We present a measurement of strong electric fields using room-temperature Rydberg-EIT. In a vapor cell, we drive microwave transitions between 85Rb Rydberg states and use the resultant resonances as probes of the applied field. We focus on the 65D5/2 - 66D5/2 two-photon transition and model the spectra with a non-perturbative Floquet analysis, which provides information about the strong microwave-induced n- and l-mixing effects on levels and excitation rates. We are able to measure fields up to ~250 V/m to within ~1 % relative uncertainty. This is approximately 50 times higher in intensity than we have previously measured with this technique. We are also able to account for electric field inhomogeneities within the vapor cell by comparing the experimental line strengths to the calculated excitation rates. The accessible field range can be extended to even higher fields by utilizing transitions between lower-lying Rydberg states, where dipole moments generally are smaller and larger fields are needed to enter the strong-field regime. We also discuss how the sensitivity of the method at small fields can be enhanced by analyzing minute changes of the EIT-signatures that occur at fields much lower than where Autler-Townes splitting occurs.
Ohno, K.; Takami, T.; Mitsuke, K. ); Ishida, T. )
1991-02-15
The state-resolved collision-energy dependences of Penning ionization cross sections {sigma}({ital E}) were measured in an energy range (60{lt}{ital E}{lt}400 meV) for N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with He*2{sup 3}{ital S} by using a very high-intensity He* beam (1.8{times}10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1} sr{sup {minus}1}) and detecting energy-analyzed electrons as functions of time-of-flight of He*. The partial ionization cross sections for {Pi} states (N{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital A}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital u}}, CO{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital X}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital g}}, {ital A}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital u}}) were observed to increase more rapidly with the increase of the collision energy than those for {Sigma} states (N{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital X}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital g}}, {ital B}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital u}}, CO{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital B}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital u}},{ital C}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital g}}). In the studied energy range, the repulsive walls for end-on collisions were indicated to be harder than those for side-on collisions. The directional peculiarity of the potential surfaces was related to the anisotropy in the hybridization of He* orbitals interacting with the target molecules.
RF-dressed Rydberg atoms in hollow-core fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veit, C.; Epple, G.; Kübler, H.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.; Löw, R.
2016-07-01
The giant electro-optical response of Rydberg atoms manifests itself in the emergence of sidebands in the Rydberg excitation spectrum if the atom is exposed to a radio-frequency (RF) electric field. Here we report on the study of RF-dressed Rydberg atoms inside hollow-core photonic crystal fibres, a system that enables the use of low modulation voltages and offers the prospect of miniaturised vapour-based electro-optical devices. Narrow spectroscopic features caused by the RF field are observed for modulation frequencies up to 500 MHz.
Microwave electric field sensing with Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stack, Daniel T.; Kunz, Paul D.; Meyer, David H.; Solmeyer, Neal
2016-05-01
Atoms form the basis of precise measurement for many quantities (time, acceleration, rotation, magnetic field, etc.). Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. Highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole allowed transitions in the range of 1 - 500 GHz. It is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for very sensitive field amplitude, polarization, and sub-wavelength imaging measurements. These quantities can be extracted by measuring properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a warm rubidium vapor cell. Thus far, Rydberg microwave electrometry has relied upon the absorption of the probe laser. We report on our use of polarization rotation, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility, for measuring the properties of microwave frequency electric fields. Our simulations show that when a magnetic field is present and directed along the optical propagation direction a polarization rotation signal exists and can be used for microwave electrometry. One central advantage in using the polarization rotation signal rather than the absorption signal is that common mode laser noise is naturally eliminated leading to a potentially dramatic increase in signal-to-noise ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrosyan, David; Mølmer, Klaus; Fleischhauer, Michael
2016-04-01
We examine the adiabatic preparation of crystalline phases of Rydberg excitations in a one-dimensional lattice gas by frequency sweep of the excitation laser, as proposed by Pohl et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 043002) and recently realized experimentally by Schauß et al (2015 Science 347 1455). We find that the preparation of crystals of a few Rydberg excitations in a unitary system of several tens of atoms requires exceedingly long times for the adiabatic following of the ground state of the system Hamiltonian. Using quantum stochastic (Monte Carlo) wavefunction simulations, we show that realistic decay and dephasing processes affecting the atoms during the preparation lead to a final state of the system that has only a small overlap with the target crystalline state. Yet, the final number and highly sub-Poissonian statistics of Rydberg excitations and their spatial order are little affected by the relaxations.
Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases
Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; Zuliani, A.; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.
2015-01-01
Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance energy transfer in cold Rydberg atoms using cold caesium atoms. In these resonances, additional relay atoms carry away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of energy transfer. These few-body processes present strong similarities with multistep FRET between chromophores sometimes called donor-bridge-acceptor or superexchange. Most importantly, they generalize to any Rydberg atom and could lead to new implementations of few-body quantum gates or entanglement. PMID:26348821
van der Waals explosion of cold Rydberg clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faoro, R.; Simonelli, C.; Archimi, M.; Masella, G.; Valado, M. M.; Arimondo, E.; Mannella, R.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.
2016-03-01
We report on the direct measurement in real space of the effect of the van der Waals forces between individual Rydberg atoms on their external degrees of freedom. Clusters of Rydberg atoms with interparticle distances of around 5 μ m are created by first generating a small number of seed excitations in a magneto-optical trap, followed by off-resonant excitation that leads to a chain of facilitated excitation events. After a variable expansion time the Rydberg atoms are field ionized, and from the arrival time distributions the size of the Rydberg cluster after expansion is calculated. Our experimental results agree well with a numerical simulation of the van der Waals explosion.
Dynamics of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in K(14p,20p)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions
Wang, C. H.; Kelley, M.; Buathong, S.; Dunning, F. B.
2014-06-21
The dynamics of formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states through electron transfer in K(np)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions is examined by measuring the velocity, angular, and binding energy distributions of the product ion pairs. The results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models both the initial electron capture and the subsequent evolution of the ion pairs. The model simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data and highlight the factors such as Rydberg atom size, the kinetic energy of relative motion of the Rydberg atom and target particle, and (in the case of attaching targets that dissociate) the energetics of dissociation that can be used to control the properties of the product ion-pair states.
Rzadkiewicz, J.; Stoehlker, Th.; Gumberidze, A.; Reuschl, R.; Spillmann, U.; Tashenov, S.; Trotsenko, S.; Banas, D.; Beyer, H. F.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Ionescu, D. C.; Kozhuharov, C.; Nandi, T.; Dong, C. Z.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Gojska, A.; Hagmann, S.; Sierpowski, D.
2006-07-15
The formation of the [1s2s] S states in heliumlike uranium (U{sup 90+}) has been studied in relativistic collisions of initially lithiumlike uranium (U{sup 89+}) ions with N{sub 2} target molecules. By measuring projectile x-ray emission in coincidence with projectile ionization, a strong selectivity for the formation of the [1s2s] S states in heliumlike uranium is observed. This selectivity is found to be unaffected by the subsequent rearrangement of the atomic orbitals involved. By measuring the photon emission associated with the decay of the [1s2s] {sup 1}S{sub 0} and the [1s2s] {sup 3}S{sub 1} substates, we obtain for their relative population probabilities a ratio of close to 1. This finding deviates considerably from the assumption of a statistical distribution 2J+1.
Atomic Rydberg Reservoirs for Polar Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, B.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.
2012-05-01
We discuss laser-dressed dipolar and van der Waals interactions between atoms and polar molecules, so that a cold atomic gas with laser admixed Rydberg levels acts as a designed reservoir for both elastic and inelastic collisional processes. The elastic scattering channel is characterized by large elastic scattering cross sections and repulsive shields to protect from close encounter collisions. In addition, we discuss a dissipative (inelastic) collision where a spontaneously emitted photon carries away (kinetic) energy of the collision partners, thus providing a significant energy loss in a single collision. This leads to the scenario of rapid thermalization and cooling of a molecule in the mK down to the μK regime by cold atoms.
Observation of a Rydberg series of CO in the two-electron excited region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, C. Y. R.
1982-01-01
Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum background, the absorption spectrum of CO in the 380-470 A range was taken by using a double ion chamber. A Rydberg series in the 450 A (27.5 eV) region has been observed to converge to the F 2Pi, a two-electron excited state of CO(+). The series limit determined at 28.11 eV is in excellent agreement with the vertical ionization potential of the F 2Pi state measured by the high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. A few dissociation processes leading to the productions of atomic ions and excited atomic fragments are also discussed.
Scaled-energy spectroscopy of helium \\|M\\|=1 Rydberg atoms in a static electric field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kips, Annemieke; Vassen, Wim; Hogervorst, Wim; Dando, Paul A.
1998-10-01
We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. \\|M\\|=1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 1S0 metastable state. Spectra were recorded for ɛ=-2.940(4), ɛ=-2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and ɛ=-1.760(4), above the saddle point. Closed-orbit theory was applied to interpret the spectra. A recent extension to closed-orbit theory, incorporating core effects, was used. This significantly improved agreement between experiment and theory.
Eliminating the dipole phase in attosecond pulse characterization using Rydberg wave packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pabst, Stefan; Dahlström, Jan Marcus
2016-07-01
We propose a technique to fully characterize the temporal structure of extreme ultraviolet pulses by ionizing a bound coherent electronic wave packet. The influence of the dipole phase, which is the main obstacle for state-of-the-art pulse characterization schemes, can be eliminated by angle integration of the photoelectron spectrum. We show that in particular, atomic Rydberg wave packets are ideal and that wave packets involving multiple electronic states provide redundant information that can be used to cross-check the consistency of the phase reconstruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Quan, Wei; Shen, Li; Yang, Hai-Feng; Shi, Ting-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ping; Zhan, Ming-Sheng
2009-11-01
We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M| = 1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ɛ = -2.000, ɛ = -2.500 and ɛ = -3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schregel, Christian-Georg; Carbone, Emile A. D.; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2016-10-01
This work presents the results of Thomson scattering measurements, optical emission spectroscopy and laser absorption spectroscopy applied to a high pressure nanosecond pulsed helium micro-discharge. All data are recorded with high temporal resolution, giving an insight into the processes determining the discharge dynamics. From Thomson scattering measurements, the electron velocity distribution function is determined. Photo-ionization of helium Rydberg molecules presents a complication for the direct measurement of the electron density by Thomson scattering. Laser pulse energy variation measurements however allow to obtain absolute Rydberg state densities to be obtained. For the first time, the electron velocity distribution function and total Rydberg molecules density for a high-pressure pure helium discharge are reported in this paper. These measurements provide new insights into high pressure pure helium discharge chemical pathways.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarana, Michal; Čurík, Roman
2016-05-01
We introduce a computational method developed for study of long-range molecular Rydberg states of such systems that can be approximated by two electrons in a model potential of the atomic cores. The method is based on a two-electron R-matrix approach inside a sphere centered on one of the atoms. The wave function is then connected to a Coulomb region outside the sphere via a multichannel version of the Coulomb Green's function. This approach is applied to a study of Rydberg states of Rb2 for internuclear separations R from 40 to 320 bohrs and energies corresponding to n from 7 to 30. We report bound states associated with the low-lying 3Po resonance and with the virtual state of the rubidium atom that turn into ion-pair-like bound states in the Coulomb potential of the atomic Rydberg core. The results are compared with previous calculations based on single-electron models employing a zero-range contact-potential and short-range modele potential. Czech Science Foundation (Project No. P208/14-15989P).
Resonances and thresholds in the Rydberg-level population of multiply charged ions at solid surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedeljković, Lj. D.; Nedeljković, N. N.
1998-12-01
We present a theoretical study of resonances and thresholds, two specific features of Rydberg-state formation of multiply charged ions (Z=6, 7, and 8) escaping a solid surface at intermediate velocities (v~1 a.u.) in the normal emergence geometry. The resonances are recognized in pronounced maxima of the experimentally observed population curves of Ar VIII ions for resonant values of the principal quantum number n=nres=11 and for the angular momentum quantum numbers l=1 and 2. Absence of optical signals in detectors of beam-foil experiments for n>nthr of S VI and Cl VII ions (with l=0, 1, and 2) and Ar VIII for l=0 is interpreted as a threshold phenomenon. An interplay between resonance and threshold effects is established within the framework of quantum dynamics of the low angular momentum Rydberg-state formation, based on a generalization of Demkov-Ostrovskii's charge-exchange model. In the model proposed, the Ar VIII resonances appear as a consequence of electron tunneling in the very vicinity of the ion-surface potential barrier top and at some critical ion-surface distances Rc. The observed thresholds are explained by means of a decay mechanism of ionic Rydberg states formed dominantly above the Fermi level EF of a solid conduction band. The theoretically predicted resonant and threshold values, nres and nthr of the principal quantum number n, as well as the obtained population probabilities Pnl=Pnl(v,Z), are in sufficiently good agreement with all available experimental findings.
Properties of Th4+ and Th3+ from rf spectroscopy of high-L thorium Rydberg ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keele, Julie Adel
Several properties of radon-like Th4+ and francium-like Th3+ were determined from measurements of high-L Rydberg fine structure in Th3+ and Th2+ ions. The measurements were carried out using the resonant excitation Stark ionization spectroscopy (RESIS) technique to detect rf transitions between levels in the same n. The measured Rydberg fine structures were then fit to an effective potential model, and the properties of the ions were extracted. Properties of the 1S0 ground state of Th4+ extracted from the measurements of the n=37 Th3+ Rydberg fine structure were the scalar dipole polarizability, alpha D,0=7.702(6)a.u. and the scalar quadrupole polarizability, alphaQ,0=29.1(1.6) a.u. The Th2+ Rydberg fine structure is much more complex since the ground state of Th3+ is a 2 F5/2, and the presence of low-lying excited states cause non-adiabatic effects in the fine structure which are not well described by the effective potential. To extract the properties, non-adiabatic corrections had to be calculated. The properties of Th3+ extracted were the permanent quadrupole moment, Q=0.5931(14)a.u. , the scalar and tensor dipole polarizabilities, alpha D,0=15.224(33)a.u. and alpha D,2=--5.30(11)a.u., the permanent hexadecapole moment, pi=--0.69(28)a.u., and the reduced dipole and octupole matrix elements coupling the ground state to the 6 d 2D3/2 state, |
Holloway, Christopher L. Gordon, Joshua A.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg
2014-06-16
We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.
Controlling Rydberg atom excitations in dense background gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubel Liebisch, Tara; Schlagmüller, Michael; Engel, Felix; Nguyen, Huan; Balewski, Jonathan; Lochead, Graham; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M.; Kleinbach, Kathrin S.; Schmid, Thomas; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.
2016-09-01
We discuss the density shift and broadening of Rydberg spectra measured in cold, dense atom clouds in the context of Rydberg atom spectroscopy done at room temperature, dating back to the experiments of Amaldi and Segrè in 1934. We discuss the theory first developed in 1934 by Fermi to model the mean-field density shift and subsequent developments of the theoretical understanding since then. In particular, we present a model whereby the density shift is calculated using a microscopic model in which the configurations of the perturber atoms within the Rydberg orbit are considered. We present spectroscopic measurements of a Rydberg atom, taken in a Bose–Einstein condensate and thermal clouds with densities varying from 5 × 1014 to 9 × 1012 cm‑3. The density shift measured via the spectrum’s center of gravity is compared with the mean-field energy shift expected for the effective atom cloud density determined via a time of flight image. Lastly, we present calculations and data demonstrating the ability of localizing the Rydberg excitation via the density shift within a particular density shell for high principal quantum numbers.
Controlling Rydberg atom excitations in dense background gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cubel Liebisch, Tara; Schlagmüller, Michael; Engel, Felix; Nguyen, Huan; Balewski, Jonathan; Lochead, Graham; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M.; Kleinbach, Kathrin S.; Schmid, Thomas; Gaj, Anita; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.
2016-09-01
We discuss the density shift and broadening of Rydberg spectra measured in cold, dense atom clouds in the context of Rydberg atom spectroscopy done at room temperature, dating back to the experiments of Amaldi and Segrè in 1934. We discuss the theory first developed in 1934 by Fermi to model the mean-field density shift and subsequent developments of the theoretical understanding since then. In particular, we present a model whereby the density shift is calculated using a microscopic model in which the configurations of the perturber atoms within the Rydberg orbit are considered. We present spectroscopic measurements of a Rydberg atom, taken in a Bose-Einstein condensate and thermal clouds with densities varying from 5 × 1014 to 9 × 1012 cm-3. The density shift measured via the spectrum’s center of gravity is compared with the mean-field energy shift expected for the effective atom cloud density determined via a time of flight image. Lastly, we present calculations and data demonstrating the ability of localizing the Rydberg excitation via the density shift within a particular density shell for high principal quantum numbers.
The ionized electron return phenomenon of Rydberg atom in crossed-fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Chengwei; Wang, Peijie; Du, Mengli; Uzer, Turgay; Lan, Yueheng
2016-05-01
Rydberg atom is highly excited with one valence electron being in a high quantum state, which is very far away from the nucleus. The energy level is similar to that of the hydrogen atom. Introducing externally perpendicular electric and magnetic fields breaks the rotation symmetry and the traditional view is that the ionized electron crosses from the bound into the unbound region and will never return. However, we find that when the field is strong enough, the electron does not move off to infinity and there is a certain possibility of return. Three new periodic orbits are found by the variational method and the physical significance of the phenomenon is also discussed.
Two-stage Rydberg charge exchange in a strong magnetic field
Wall, M. L.; Norton, C. S.; Robicheaux, F.
2005-11-15
We have performed calculations of two successive charge transfers from Rydberg states in a strong magnetic field. In the first charge transfer, a positron interacts with a highly excited atom to form positronium. In the second stage, the positronium interacts with an antiproton to give antihydrogen. For many parameters, our results are in qualitative agreement with previous calculations with no magnetic field. However, we do find that there are important changes which may affect the usefulness of the method for efficient formation of antihydrogen that can be trapped.
Seiler, Ch.; Hogan, S. D.; Schmutz, H.; Agner, J. A.; Merkt, F.
2011-02-18
A supersonic beam of Rydberg hydrogen atoms has been adiabatically deflected by 90 deg., decelerated to zero velocity in less than 25 {mu}s, and loaded into an electric trap. The deflection has allowed the suppression of collisions with atoms in the trailing part of the gas pulse. The processes leading to trap losses, i.e., fluorescence to the ground state, and transitions and ionization induced by blackbody radiation have been monitored over several milliseconds and quantitatively analyzed.
Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Lerch, Eliza-Beth W; Wen, Patrick; Leone, Stephen R
2007-09-28
A two-color (3+1(')) pump-probe scheme is employed to investigate Rydberg wave packet dynamics in carbon disulfide (CS(2) (*)). The state superpositions are created within the 4f and 5p Rydberg manifolds by three photons of the 400 nm pump pulse, and their temporal evolution is monitored with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an 800 nm ionizing probe pulse. The coherent behavior of the non-stationary superpositions are observed through wavepacket revivals upon ionization to either the upper (12) or lower (32) spin-orbit components of CS(2) (+). The results show clearly that the composition of the wavepacket can be efficiently controlled by the power density of the excitation pulse over a range from 500 GWcm(2) to 10 TWcm(2). The results are consistent with the anticipated ac-Stark shift for 400 nm light and demonstrate an effective method for population control in molecular systems. Moreover, it is shown that Rydberg wavepackets can be formed in CS(2) with excitation power densities up to 10 TWcm(2) without significant fragmentation. The exponential 1e population decay (T(1)) of specific excited Rydberg states are recovered by analysis of the coherent part of the signal. The dissociation lifetimes of these states are typically 1.5 ps. However, a region exhibiting a more rapid decay ( approximately 800 fs) is observed for states residing in the energy range of 74 450-74 550 cm(-1), suggestive of an enhanced surface crossing in this region.
Spatial Patterns in Rydberg Excitations from Logarithmic Pair Interactions.
Lechner, Wolfgang; Zoller, Peter
2015-09-18
The collective excitations in ensembles of dissipative, laser driven ultracold atoms exhibit crystal-like patterns, a many-body effect of the Rydberg blockade mechanism. These crystalline structures are revealed in an experiment from a postselection of configurations with fixed numbers of excitations. Here, we show that these subensembles can be well represented by ensembles of effective particles that interact via logarithmic pair potentials. This allows one to study the emergent patterns with a small number of effective particles to determine the phases of Rydberg crystals and to systematically study contributions from N-body terms. PMID:26430998
Polarization-selective optical nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.
2015-12-01
We study the interaction between a probe and a trigger weak fields in a sample of cold rubidium atoms in the presence of a coupling and a dressing strong fields. Dipole Rydberg blockade may occur and can be set to depend on the probe and trigger polarizations giving rise to diverse regimes of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a concomitant small probe and trigger absorption and dispersion. This is shown to be relevant to the implementation of polarization conditional probe and trigger cross nonlinearities in cold Rydberg atoms.
Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Owen, S. M.
1998-03-01
Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; ``core shadowing'' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.
Implementation of chiral quantum optics with Rydberg and trapped-ion setups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermersch, Benoît; Ramos, Tomás; Hauke, Philipp; Zoller, Peter
2016-06-01
We propose two setups for realizing a chiral quantum network, where two-level systems representing the nodes interact via directional emission into discrete waveguides, as introduced in T. Ramos et al. [Phys. Rev. A 93, 062104 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104]. The first implementation realizes a spin waveguide via Rydberg states in a chain of atoms, whereas the second one realizes a phonon waveguide via the localized vibrations of a string of trapped ions. For both architectures, we show that strong chirality can be obtained by a proper design of synthetic gauge fields in the couplings from the nodes to the waveguide. In the Rydberg case, this is achieved via intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the dipole-dipole interactions, while for the trapped ions it is obtained by engineered sideband transitions. We take long-range couplings into account that appear naturally in these implementations, discuss useful experimental parameters, and analyze potential error sources. Finally, we describe effects that can be observed in these implementations within state-of-the-art technology, such as the driven-dissipative formation of entangled dimer states.
Measurement of time-varying electric fields near an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, J. D.; Martin, J. D. D.
2013-05-01
Inhomogeneous fluctuating electric fields near metal surfaces cause undesired heating or decoherence in devices which confine atoms or ions near such a surface (microfabricated ion traps or proposed gas-phase atom/solid-state hybrid quantum systems, for example). Heating of the motion of trapped ions has been used to measure the noise spectral density of these fields but the microscopic mechanism responsible is unknown. We have implemented a complementary measurement technique using cold atoms released from an atom chip and excited to Rydberg states. The dephasing of a coherent superposition of two Rydberg states is used to measure the inhomogeneous electric field, and spin-echo techniques are used to constrain the frequency scaling of the noise spectral density. Compared to ion trap measurements, this technique has the advantage of flexibility in varying parameters such as atom-surface distance since the atoms do not need to be trapped. Field noise at levels typical for room temperature ion traps is detectable in principle, though the frequency resolution and ultimate sensitivity are inferior to ion traps. Work performed in collaboration with O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.
Entanglement and the Jaynes-Cummings model with Rydberg-dressed atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biedermann, Grant
2016-05-01
Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, high-precision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate for the first time a strong and tunable Rydberg-dressed interaction between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz in units of Planck's constant. We spectroscopically demonstrate that this system is isomorphic to a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, and observe the √{ N} nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder with a single symmetric Rydberg excitation. This interaction enables a ground-state spin-flip blockade, whereby simultaneous hyperfine spin flips of two atoms are blockaded due to their mutual interaction. We employ this spin-flip blockade to rapidly produce single-step Bell-state entanglement between atoms. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories and through the National Science Foundation's Center for Quantum Information and Control NSF-1212445.
Ionization of nS, nP, and nD lithium, potassium, and cesium Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation
Beterov, I. I. Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ekers, A.
2008-07-15
The results of theoretical calculations of the blackbody ionization rates of lithium, potassium, and cesium atoms residing in Rydberg states are presented. The calculations are performed for nS, nP, and nD states in a wide range of principal quantum numbers, n = 8-65, for blackbody radiation temperatures T = 77, 300, and 600 K. The calculations are performed using the known quasi-classical formulas for the photoionization cross sections and for the radial matrix elements of transitions in the discrete spectrum. The effect of the blackbody-radiation-induced population redistribution between Rydberg states on the blackbody ionization rates measured under laboratory conditions is quantitatively analyzed. Simple analytical formulas that approximate the numerical results and that can be used to estimate the blackbody ionization rates of Rydberg atoms are presented. For the S series of lithium, the rate of population of high-lying Rydberg levels by blackbody radiation is found to anomalously behave as a function of n. This anomaly is similar to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the discrete spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Hui-Yan; Shi, Ting-Yun
2009-08-01
By combining the B-spline basis set with model potential (B-spline + MP), we present oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg Li atoms in external fields. The photoabsorption spectra are analyzed. Over the narrow energy ranges considered in this paper, the structure of the spectra can be independent of the initial state chosen for a given atom. Our results are in good agreement with previous high-precision experimental data and theoretical calculations, where the R-matrix approach together with multichannel quantum defect theory (R-matrix+MQDT) was used. It is suggested that the present methods can be applied to deal with the oscillator strength spectra of Rydberg atoms in crossed electric and magnetic fields.
Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Dyubko, S. F.; Alekseev, E. A.; Pogrebnyak, N. L.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Arimondo, E.
2012-01-15
Experiments are carried out on the spectroscopy of the Foerster resonance lines Rb(37P) + Rb(37P) {yields} Rb(37S) + Rb(38S) and microwave transitions nP {yields} n Prime S, n Prime D between Rydberg states of cold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Under ordinary conditions, all spectra exhibit a linewidth of 2-3 MHz irrespective of the interaction time between atoms or between atoms and microwave radiation, although the limit resonance width should be determined by the inverse interaction time. The analysis of experimental conditions has shown that the main source of line broadening is the inhomogeneous electric field of cold photoions that are generated under the excitation of initial nP Rydberg states by broadband pulsed laser radiation. The application of an additional electric-field pulse that rapidly extracts photoions produced by a laser pulse leads to a considerable narrowing of lines of microwave resonances and the Foerster resonance. Various sources of line broadening in cold Rydberg atoms are analyzed.
Quantum simulation of a topological Mott insulator with Rydberg atoms in a Lieb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauphin, A.; Müller, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-04-01
We propose a realistic scheme to quantum simulate the so-far experimentally unobserved topological Mott insulator phase—an interaction-driven topological insulator—using cold atoms in an optical Lieb lattice. To this end, we study a system of spinless fermions in a Lieb lattice, exhibiting repulsive nearest- and next-to-nearest-neighbor interactions and derive the associated zero-temperature phase diagram within mean-field approximation. In particular, we analyze how the interactions can dynamically generate a charge density wave ordered, a nematic, and a topologically nontrivial quantum anomalous Hall phase. We characterize the topology of the different phases by the Chern number and discuss the possibility of phase coexistence. Based on the identified phases, we propose a realistic implementation of this model using cold Rydberg-dressed atoms in an optical lattice. The scheme, which allows one to access, in particular, the topological Mott insulator phase, robustly and independently of its exact position in parameter space, merely requires global, always-on off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states and is feasible with state-of-the-art experimental techniques that have already been demonstrated in the laboratory.
High teleportation rates using cold-atom-ensemble-based quantum repeaters with Rydberg blockade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-04-01
We present a simplified version of a repeater protocol in a cold neutral-atom ensemble with Rydberg excitations optimized for two-node entanglement generation and describe a protocol for quantum teleportation. Our proposal draws from previous proposals [B. Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052329 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052329; Y. Han et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052311 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052311] that described efficient and robust protocols for long-distance entanglement with many nodes. Using realistic experimental values, we predict an entanglement generation rate of ˜25 Hz and a teleportation rate of ˜5 Hz . Our predicted rates match the current state-of-the-art experiments for entanglement generation and teleportation between quantum memories. With improved efficiencies we predict entanglement generation and teleportation rates of ˜7.8 and ˜3.6 kHz, respectively, representing a two-order-of-magnitude improvement over the currently realized values. Cold-atom ensembles with Rydberg excitations are promising candidates for repeater nodes because collective effects in the ensemble can be used to deterministically generate a long-lived ground-state memory which may be efficiently mapped onto a directionally emitted single photon.
Theory of the Rydberg-atom two-photon micromaser
Brune, M.; Raimond, J.M.; Haroche, S.
1987-01-01
A continuous-wave maser operating on a two-photon transition between Rydberg levels is expected to oscillate with about one atom and a few tens of microwave photons at any time in its superconducting cavity. We analyze in detail the characteristics of this new microscopic quantum electronics device presently under construction in our laboratory.
Multiple time scales in the microwave ionization of Rydberg atoms
Buchleitner, A.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.; Mantegna, R.N.; Arndt, M.; Walther, H. ||||
1995-11-20
We investigate the time dependence of the ionization probability of Rydberg atoms driven by microwave fields, both numerically and experimentally. Our exact quantum results provide evidence for an algebraic decay law on suitably chosen time scales, a phenomenon that is considered to be the signature of nonhyperbolic scattering in unbounded classically chaotic motion. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.
An extended multireference study of the electronic states of para-benzyne
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Evan B.; Parish, Carol A.; Lischka, Hans
2008-07-01
A state-averaged, multireference complete active space (CAS) approach was used for the determination of the vertical excitation energies of valence and Rydberg states of para-benzyne. Orbitals were generated with a 10- and 32-state averaged multiconfigurational self-consistent field approach. Electron correlation was included using multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles, including the Pople correction for size extensivity, multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster (MR-AQCC), and MR-AQCC based on linear response theory. There is a very high density of electronic states in this diradical system-there are more than 17 states within 7 eV of the ground state including two 3s Rydberg states. All excitations, except 2 1Ag, are from the π system to the σσ* system. Of the 32 states characterized, 15 were multiconfigurational, including the ground 1Ag state, providing further evidence for the necessity of a multireference approach for p-benzyne. The vertical singlet-triplet splitting was also characterized using a two-state averaged approach. A CAS(2,2) calculation was shown to be inadequate due to interaction with the π orbitals.
An extended multireference study of the electronic states of para-benzyne.
Wang, Evan B; Parish, Carol A; Lischka, Hans
2008-07-28
A state-averaged, multireference complete active space (CAS) approach was used for the determination of the vertical excitation energies of valence and Rydberg states of para-benzyne. Orbitals were generated with a 10- and 32-state averaged multiconfigurational self-consistent field approach. Electron correlation was included using multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles, including the Pople correction for size extensivity, multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster (MR-AQCC), and MR-AQCC based on linear response theory. There is a very high density of electronic states in this diradical system-there are more than 17 states within 7 eV of the ground state including two 3s Rydberg states. All excitations, except 2 (1)A(g), are from the pi system to the sigmasigma(*) system. Of the 32 states characterized, 15 were multiconfigurational, including the ground (1)A(g) state, providing further evidence for the necessity of a multireference approach for p-benzyne. The vertical singlet-triplet splitting was also characterized using a two-state averaged approach. A CAS(2,2) calculation was shown to be inadequate due to interaction with the pi orbitals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogan, S. D.; Seiler, Ch; Merkt, F.
2013-02-01
Hydrogen and deuterium Rydberg atoms, initially moving at velocities of 600 and 560 m s-1, respectively, in pulsed supersonic beams, have been decelerated and electrostatically trapped following adiabatic 90° deflection from their initial axis of propagation to minimize collisions with the trailing edge of the gas pulses. The time evolution of the potential energy surfaces, over which the atoms undergoing deceleration travel during the trap-loading process, is analogous to that of a moving electrodynamic trap. It has been studied in the laboratory-fixed frame of reference and in the continuously moving frame of reference defined by the instantaneous position of the electric-field minimum around which the atoms are located. The importance of the quadratic Stark effect in the deceleration of samples in Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers above 35 has also been investigated by comparison of experimental results with predictions resulting from the numerical calculation of particle trajectories. The data presented for deuterium atoms represent the first application of Rydberg-Stark deceleration and trapping for this atom. Comparison of the rate of loss of n = 30 H and D atoms from the trap enables one to conclude that it is not affected by the particle dynamics during deceleration and trap loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Michael H.
2009-06-01
The 1,2,5-oxadiazole VUV absorption spectrum in the range 5-11.5 eV, shows broad bands centred near 6.2, 7.1, 8.3, 8.8, 10.6 and 11.3 eV. Rydberg states associated with three ionisation energies (IE) were identified in the complex fine structure above 8.7 eV. Electronic vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet valence, and Rydberg states were computed using ab initio multi-reference multi-root CI methods. There is generally a good correlation between the envelope of the theoretical intensities and the experimental spectrum. The nature of the more intense calculated Rydberg states, and positions of the main valence and Rydberg bands are discussed. The lowest triplet, singlet and Rydberg 3s excited states have equilibrium structures that are non-planar with CS symmetry, in a chair-like orientation where the O and H atoms lie out of the NCCN plane. This finding is consistent with the doubling of the low energy UV spectral lines [B.J. Forrest, A.W. Richardson, Can. J. Chem., 50 (1972) 2088]. The nearly degenerate IE of the UV-photoelectron spectrum (UV-PES, Palmer et al. 1977) makes analysis of the VUV spectrum difficult, leading to the necessity for reinvestigation. Vertical studies (IEV) using CI, Tamm-Dancoff (TDA) and Green's Function (GF) methods all gave similar results, with near degeneracy of the first 3IEV confirming the earlier study. Studies of the adiabatic IE (IEA) using CCSD(T) and B3LYP methods, showed the energy sequence 2A2 < 2B1 < 2B2, but these states are all saddle points, in contrast to the 4th state (2A1) which is a minimum. In contrast, MP2 study of the 2B2 state showed a minimum, with only two saddle points. Complete minima were found after minor twisting of the structures. The lowest energy cationic state is 2A″ (CS), which closely resembles the 2B2 state. The O-N-C-C skeleton is twisted by 8°. The corresponding 2A‧ state (CS) is effectively identical to the 2B1 state. Attempts to find minima for other symmetry states were
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-01
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-15
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik
2014-11-01
Accurate variational nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical calculations are performed for the five lowest 1D and four lowest 3D states of the 9Be isotope of the beryllium atom. All-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions are used in the calculations and their nonlinear parameters are optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the Hamiltonian used in the calculations. The singlet-triplet energy gaps between the corresponding 1D and 3D states, are reported.
Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.
2009-05-15
Rates of depopulation by blackbody radiation (BBR) and effective lifetimes of alkali-metal nS, nP, and nD Rydberg states have been calculated in a wide range of principal quantum numbers n{<=}80 at the ambient temperatures of 77, 300, and 600 K. Quasiclassical formulas were used to calculate the radial matrix elements of the dipole transitions from Rydberg states. Good agreement of our numerical results with the available theoretical and experimental data has been found. We have also obtained simple analytical formulas for estimates of effective lifetimes and BBR-induced depopulation rates, which well agree with the numerical data.
Measuring the van der Waals forces between a Rydberg atom and a metallic surface
Anderson, A.; Haroche, S.; Hinds, E.A.; Jhe, W.; Meschede, D.
1988-05-01
We have observed the deflection of Rydberg atoms towards a metallic surface by the van der Waals force. Cs and Na atoms in states of principal quantum number n were sent between two parallel gold-coated mirrors, spaced by a gap w (2.1 ..mu..mless than or equal towless than or equal to8.5 ..mu..m). We measured the value n/sub m/ at which the transmission cuts off and from the variation of n/sub m/ versus w, we obtained a measure of the atom-surface interaction. For 12
Spesyvtsev, R.; Horio, T.; Suzuki, Y.-I.; Suzuki, T.
2015-07-07
The excited-state dynamics of furan were studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging using a sub-20-fs deep UV (198 nm) and vacuum UV (159 nm) light source. The 198- and 159-nm pulses produce photoionization signals in both pump-probe and probe-pump pulse sequences. When the 198-nm pulse precedes the 159-nm pulse, it creates the {sup 1}A{sub 2}(3s) Rydberg and {sup 1}B{sub 2}(ππ{sup ∗}) valence states, and the former decays exponentially with a time constant of about 20 fs whereas the latter exhibits more complex wave-packet dynamics. When the 159-nm pulse precedes the 198-nm pulse, a wave packet is created on the {sup 1}A{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) valence state, which rapidly disappears from the observation window owing to structural deformation. The 159-nm photoexcitation also creates the 3s and 3p{sub x,y} Rydberg states non-adiabatically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimes, David; Yelin, Susanne; Barnum, Timothy; Zhou, Yan; Coy, Steven; Field, Robert
2016-05-01
Millimeter wave (mm-wave) superradiance has been directly detected on a shot-by-shot basis in a neon buffer gas cooled beam of barium atoms. Rydberg-Rydberg transitions are well suited for the study of superradiance due to both the large transition dipole moments and long wavelengths associated with Δn = 1 transitions. We trigger the superradiant evolution of an initially 100% inverted system of Rydberg atoms (n = 30) with a weak mm-wave trigger pulse that is well-characterized in both spatial intensity distribution and phase. The resultant mm-wave emission is recorded in a heterodyne detection scheme with high resolution in both the time (20 ps) and frequency (250 kHz) domains. We observe that the width and emission delay of the time-domain intensity can be well described by a mean-field theory, but that the frequency-domain effects are not even qualitatively reproduced. In particular, a density-dependent broadening, frequency chirp, and line shift are observed. Comparisons to a two-atom master equation theoretical model will be discussed.
Electrostatic trapping and in situ detection of Rydberg atoms above chip-based transmission lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lancuba, P.; Hogan, S. D.
2016-04-01
Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number n = 48 and electric dipole moments of 4600 D have been decelerated from a mean initial longitudinal speed of 2000 m s-1 to zero velocity in the laboratory-fixed frame-of-reference in the continuously moving electric traps of a transmission-line decelerator. In this process accelerations up to -1.3× {10}7 m s-2 were applied, and changes in kinetic energy of {{Δ }}{E}{kin}=1.3× {10}-20 J ({{Δ }}{E}{kin}/e=83 meV) per atom were achieved. Guided and decelerated atoms, and those confined in stationary electrostatic traps, were detected in situ by pulsed electric field ionisation. The results of numerical calculations of particle trajectories within the decelerator have been used to characterise the observed deceleration efficiencies, and aid in the interpretation of the experimental data.
A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu
2014-05-01
The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Wells, W. C.; Zipf, E. C.
1975-01-01
Production of hydrogen and carbon atoms in metastable and high-lying Rydberg states by electron-impact dissociation of methane and deuterated methane is investigated for incident electron energies ranging from threshold values to 300 eV. Threshold energies for five different processes resulting in metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms are determined in the energy range from 20 to 70 eV, and it is shown that metastable hydrogen atoms are produced in four of these collisional processes while metastable carbon atoms are produced in the other. The nature of each collisional process is described, differential cross sections are derived for the dissociative excitation of both types of atoms to metastable and high-Rydberg states at 100 eV, and the onset energy for UV photon production is measured. Much of the data is interpreted in terms of the ion core model suggested by Kupriyanov (1968) and developed by Freund (1971).
Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.
Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine
2016-06-30
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.
Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas
Han Jianing
2010-11-15
Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.
Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold Rb85 Rydberg gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jianing
2010-11-01
Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233201 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.183002 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.011403 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.
Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine
2016-06-01
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.
Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.
Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine
2016-06-30
Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism. PMID:27281203
Relaxation of antihydrogen from Rydberg to ground state
Bass, Eric M.; Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2006-10-18
Atoms formed in highly-magnetized, cryogenic Penning trap plasmas, such as those used in the Athena and ATRAP antihydrogen experiments, form in the guiding-center atom regime. In this regime, the positron orbit is well described by classical guiding-center drift dynamics. Electromagnetic radiation from such atoms is minimal, and energy loss is accomplished primarily through collisions between the atom and free positrons. With Fokker-Planck theory and Monte-Carlo simulation, we calculate the mean energy change an ensemble of such atoms experiences after the atom has been formed. Using this result, we show that the bulk of atoms formed in antihydrogen experiments do not relax out of the guiding-center regime to binding energies where radiation can become important.
Asymptotic Energies and QED Shifts for Rydberg States of Helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drake, G.W.F.
2007-01-01
This paper reviews progress that has been made in obtaining essentially exact solutions to the nonrelativistic three-body problem for helium by a combination of variational and asymptotic expansion methods. The calculation of relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections by perturbation theory is discussed, and in particular, methods for the accurate calculation of the Bethe logarithm part of the electron self energy are presented. As an example, the results are applied to the calculation of isotope shifts for the short-lived 'halo' nucleus He-6 relative to He-4 in order to determine the nuclear charge radius of He-6 from high precision spectroscopic measurements carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory. The results demonstrate that the high precision that is now available from atomic theory is creating new opportunities to create novel measurement tools, and helium, along with hydrogen, can be regarded as a fundamental atomic system whose spectrum is well understood for all practical purposes.
Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonelli, C.; Valado, M. M.; Masella, G.; Asteria, L.; Arimondo, E.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.
2016-08-01
We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical models and numerical simulations of the excitation avalanches that agree well with our experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naubereit, P.; Marín-Sáez, J.; Schneider, F.; Hakimi, A.; Franzmann, M.; Kron, T.; Richter, S.; Wendt, K.
2016-05-01
The generation of tunable laser light in the green to orange spectral range has generally been a deficiency of solid-state lasers. Hence, the formalisms of difference frequency generation (DFG) and optical parametric processes are well known, but the DFG of pulsed solid-state lasers was rarely efficient enough for its use in resonance ionization spectroscopy. Difference frequency generation of high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire lasers was demonstrated for resonance ionization of sodium by efficiently exciting the well-known D1 and D2 lines in the orange spectral range (both ≈589 nm). In order to prove the applicability of the laser system for its use at resonance ionization laser ion sources of radioactive ion beam facilities, the first ionization potential of Na was remeasured by three-step resonance ionization into Rydberg levels and investigating Rydberg convergences. A result of EIP=41449.455 (6) stat(7) syscm-1 was obtained, which is in perfect agreement with the literature value of EIPlit =41449.451(2)cm-1 . A total of 41 level positions for the odd-parity Rydberg series n f 2F5/2,7/2o for principal quantum numbers of 10 ≤n ≤60 were determined experimentally.
Dynamics of the Rydberg electron in H*+D2-->D*+HD reactive collisions.
Hayes, Michael Y; Skodje, Rex T
2007-03-14
Experimental crossed-beam studies carried out previously have indicated that the dynamics of the Rydberg-atom-molecule reaction H*+D2-->D*+HD are very similar to those of the corresponding ion-molecule reaction H++D2-->D++HD. The equivalence of the cross sections for these related systems would open up a new approach to the experimental study of ion-molecule reactions. However, a recent experimental and theoretical study has brought to light some important qualitative differences between the Rydberg-atom reaction and the ion-molecule reaction; in particular, the experimental cross section for the Rydberg-atom reaction exhibits a higher degree of forward-backward scattering asymmetry than predicted by a quasiclassical trajectory study of the ion-molecule reaction. In this paper, the authors consider the dynamics of the Rydberg-electron over the course of a reactive collision and the implications of these dynamics for the Rydberg-atom-molecule crossed-beam experiment. Using an approach based on perturbation theory, they estimate the attenuation of the experimental signal due to the Rydberg-electron dynamics as a function of the scattering angle. They show that at least part of the experimental asymmetry can be ascribed to this angle dependent attenuation. Their results offer general insight into the practical aspects of the experimental study of ion-molecule reactions by means of their Rydberg-atom counterparts. PMID:17362067
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Emile A. D.; Schregel, Christian-Georg; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2016-10-01
In this paper, we discuss the experimental results presented in Schregel et al (2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054003) on a high pressure micro-discharge operated in helium and driven by nanosecond voltage pulses. A simple global plasma chemistry model is developed to describe the ions, excited atomic and molecular species dynamics in the ignition and early afterglow regimes. The existing experimental data on high pressure helium kinetics is reviewed and critically discussed. It is highlighted that several inconsistencies in the branching ratio of neutral assisted associative and dissociative processes currently exist in the literature and need further clarification. The model allows to pinpoint the mechanisms responsible for the large amounts of Rydberg molecules produced in the discharge and for the helium triplet metastable state in the afterglow. The main losses of electrons are also identified. The fast quenching of excited He (n > 3) states appears to be a significant source of Rydberg molecules which has been previously neglected. The plasma model finally draws a simplified, but still accurate description of high pressure helium discharges based on available experimental data for ion and neutral helium species.
Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN
2014-07-21
Focused research project that brings together experts from each of the disciplines to give the nuclear community a better understanding of the range of the set of specific conflicts that 3S integration could help resolve.
Handshake electron transfer from hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a series of metallic thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibbard, J. A.; Softley, T. P.
2016-06-01
Thin metallic films have a 1D quantum well along the surface normal direction, which yields particle-in-a-box style electronic quantum states. However the quantum well is not infinitely deep and the wavefunctions of these states penetrate outside the surface where the electron is bound by its own image-charge attraction. Therefore a series of discrete, vacant states reach out from the thin film into the vacuum increasing the probability of electron transfer from an external atom or molecule to the thin film, especially for the resonant case where the quantum well energy matches that of the atom. We show that "handshake" electron transfer from a highly excited Rydberg atom to these thin-film states is experimentally measurable. Thicker films have a wider 1D box, changing the energetic distribution and image-state contribution to the thin film wavefunctions, resulting in more resonances. Calculations successfully predict the number of resonances and the nature of the thin-film wavefunctions for a given film thickness.
Handshake electron transfer from hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a series of metallic thin films.
Gibbard, J A; Softley, T P
2016-06-21
Thin metallic films have a 1D quantum well along the surface normal direction, which yields particle-in-a-box style electronic quantum states. However the quantum well is not infinitely deep and the wavefunctions of these states penetrate outside the surface where the electron is bound by its own image-charge attraction. Therefore a series of discrete, vacant states reach out from the thin film into the vacuum increasing the probability of electron transfer from an external atom or molecule to the thin film, especially for the resonant case where the quantum well energy matches that of the atom. We show that "handshake" electron transfer from a highly excited Rydberg atom to these thin-film states is experimentally measurable. Thicker films have a wider 1D box, changing the energetic distribution and image-state contribution to the thin film wavefunctions, resulting in more resonances. Calculations successfully predict the number of resonances and the nature of the thin-film wavefunctions for a given film thickness. PMID:27334186
Handshake electron transfer from hydrogen Rydberg atoms incident at a series of metallic thin films.
Gibbard, J A; Softley, T P
2016-06-21
Thin metallic films have a 1D quantum well along the surface normal direction, which yields particle-in-a-box style electronic quantum states. However the quantum well is not infinitely deep and the wavefunctions of these states penetrate outside the surface where the electron is bound by its own image-charge attraction. Therefore a series of discrete, vacant states reach out from the thin film into the vacuum increasing the probability of electron transfer from an external atom or molecule to the thin film, especially for the resonant case where the quantum well energy matches that of the atom. We show that "handshake" electron transfer from a highly excited Rydberg atom to these thin-film states is experimentally measurable. Thicker films have a wider 1D box, changing the energetic distribution and image-state contribution to the thin film wavefunctions, resulting in more resonances. Calculations successfully predict the number of resonances and the nature of the thin-film wavefunctions for a given film thickness.
Microwaves Probe Dipole Blockade and van der Waals Forces in a Cold Rydberg Gas.
Teixeira, R Celistrino; Hermann-Avigliano, C; Nguyen, T L; Cantat-Moltrecht, T; Raimond, J M; Haroche, S; Gleyzes, S; Brune, M
2015-07-01
We show that microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped on a superconducting atom chip in the dipole blockade regime reveals directly the dipole-dipole many-body interaction energy spectrum. We use this method to investigate the expansion of the Rydberg cloud under the effect of repulsive van der Waals forces and the breakdown of the frozen gas approximation. This study opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms.
Microwaves Probe Dipole Blockade and van der Waals Forces in a Cold Rydberg Gas.
Teixeira, R Celistrino; Hermann-Avigliano, C; Nguyen, T L; Cantat-Moltrecht, T; Raimond, J M; Haroche, S; Gleyzes, S; Brune, M
2015-07-01
We show that microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped on a superconducting atom chip in the dipole blockade regime reveals directly the dipole-dipole many-body interaction energy spectrum. We use this method to investigate the expansion of the Rydberg cloud under the effect of repulsive van der Waals forces and the breakdown of the frozen gas approximation. This study opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms. PMID:26182093
Microwaves Probe Dipole Blockade and van der Waals Forces in a Cold Rydberg Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira, R. Celistrino; Hermann-Avigliano, C.; Nguyen, T. L.; Cantat-Moltrecht, T.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.; Gleyzes, S.; Brune, M.
2015-07-01
We show that microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped on a superconducting atom chip in the dipole blockade regime reveals directly the dipole-dipole many-body interaction energy spectrum. We use this method to investigate the expansion of the Rydberg cloud under the effect of repulsive van der Waals forces and the breakdown of the frozen gas approximation. This study opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms.
Measuring Microwaves via Absorption and Dispersion in Rydberg Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stack, Daniel; Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Solmeyer, Neal
2016-05-01
Weak microwave frequency electromagnetic fields can be difficult to detect and fully characterize with traditional methods. However it is possible to transduce the measurement of these fields from the microwave domain to the optical domain via resonant transitions between Rydberg levels in atomic vapors using electromagnetically-induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for sensitive measurements of the microwave field amplitude, polarization, and spatial waveform (via the position of the probe and coupling laser beams) as compared to measurements performed with dipole antennas. We are able to obtain these quantities by monitoring the properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a rubidium vapor cell. Previous experiments using Rydberg spectroscopy have typically relied on measuring the absorption of the probe laser as it passed through the atomic system. We report on progress to use the polarization rotation of the probe as it passes through the atoms in a static magnetic field, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility of the atomic medium, for measuring the characteristics of a microwave frequency signal. This effect is known as Nonlinear Magneto Optical Rotation (NMOR) and has been used for sensitive magnetometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenliang; Wu, Jizhou; Ma, Jie; Li, Peng; Sovkov, Vladimir B.; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2016-09-01
We report photoassociation (PA) of ultracold Na and Cs atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap. Trap loss spectroscopy of the ultracold polar NaCs molecules formed by PA, which carries information about relative PA transition strengths, has been experimentally obtained by using highly sensitive modulation spectroscopy technique. The fine and hyperfine effects at near-dissociation levels of NaCs molecular c +3Σ state are observed and modeled. The interaction Hamiltonian is described in terms of the Hund's case (a ) coupling scheme. The molecular hyperfine structure of near-dissociation levels is simulated within a simplified model of four interacting vibrational levels belonging to different initially unperturbed electronic states. The results of the simulation infer that the interaction parameters of the observed near-dissociation levels are close to the asymptotic parameters of the pair of atoms. The coupling of the electronic states is essential for forming the hyperfine structure.
Sprecher, D; Beyer, M; Merkt, F
2013-01-01
Recent experiments are reviewed which have led to the determination of the ionization and dissociation energies of molecular hydrogen with a precision of 0.0007 cm(-)1 (8 mJ/mol or 20 MHz) using a procedure based on high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of high Rydberg states and the extrapolation of the Rydberg series to the ionization thresholds. Molecular hydrogen, with only two protons and two electrons, is the simplest molecule with which all aspects of a chemical bond, including electron correlation effects, can be studied. Highly precise values of its ionization and dissociation energies provide stringent tests of the precision of molecular quantum mechanics and of quantum-electrodynamics calculations in molecules. The comparison of experimental and theoretical values for these quantities enable one to quantify the contributions to a chemical bond that are neglected when making the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, i.e. adiabatic, nonadiabatic, relativistic, and radiative corrections. Ionization energies of a broad range of molecules can now be determined experimentally with high accuracy (i.e. about 0.01 cm(-1)). Calculations at similar accuracies are extremely challenging for systems containing more than two electrons. The combination of precision measurements of molecular ionization energies with highly accurateab initio calculations has the potential to provide, in future, fully reliable sets of thermochemical quantities for gas-phase reactions. PMID:23967701
Radio-frequency Electrometry Using Rydberg Atoms in Vapor Cells: Towards the Shot Noise Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Jahangiri, Akbar; Kuebler, Harald; Shaffer, James P.; 5. Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, Germany Collaboration
2016-05-01
Rydberg atoms are a promising candidate for radio frequency (RF) electric field sensing. Our method uses electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms in vapor cells to read out the effect that the RF electric field has on the Rydberg atoms. The method has the potential for high sensitivity (pV cm-1 Hz- 1 / 2) and can be self-calibrated. Some of the main factors limiting the sensitivity of RF electric field sensing from reaching the shot noise limit are the residual Doppler effect and the sensitivity of the optical read-out using the probe laser. We present progress on overcoming the residual Doppler effect by using a new multi-photon scheme and reaching the shot noise detection limit using frequency modulated spectroscopy. Our experiments also show promise for studying quantum optical effects such as superradiance in vapor cells using Rydberg atoms. This work is supported by DARPA, ARO, and NRO.
Optical Measurements of Strong Microwave Fields with Rydberg Atoms in a Vapor Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, D. A.; Miller, S. A.; Raithel, G.; Gordon, J. A.; Butler, M. L.; Holloway, C. L.
2016-03-01
We present a spectral analysis of Rydberg atoms in strong microwave fields using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) as an all-optical readout. The measured spectroscopic response enables optical, atom-based electric-field measurements of high-power microwaves. In our experiments, microwaves are irradiated into a room-temperature rubidium vapor cell. The microwaves are tuned near the two-photon 65 D -66 D Rydberg transition and reach an electric-field strength of 230 V /m , about 20% of the microwave-ionization threshold of these atoms. A Floquet treatment is used to model the Rydberg-level energies and their excitation rates. We arrive at an empirical model for the field-strength distribution inside the spectroscopic cell that yields excellent overall agreement between the measured and calculated Rydberg EIT-Floquet spectra. Using spectral features in the Floquet maps, we achieve an absolute strong-field measurement precision of 6%.
High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous fields.
Wang, Zhe; He, Lixin; Luo, Jianghua; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2014-10-20
We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Rydberg atoms considering the spatial inhomogeneity of the driving field. It is found that in the inhomogeneous field, the effect of the cutoff extension in the harmonic spectrum from Rydberg atoms can be extended to multi-cycle regime, while in the homogeneous field case, the extension of the harmonic cutoff is limited to the few-cycle regime (less than two optical cycles). The underlying physics of the cutoff extension from Rydberg atoms in the inhomogeneous field is analyzed based on the classical and quantum-mechanical models. Furthermore, by optimizing the field inhomogeneity, the electron dynamics can be well controlled to generate a smooth supercontinuum in the extended spectral region. This can support the efficient generation of isolated attosecond pulses in Rydberg atoms from multi-cycle laser fields.
Rydberg-Atom Quantum Simulation and Chern Number Characterization of a Topological Mott Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauphin, Alexandre; Mueller, Markus; Martin-Delgado, Miguel-Angel
2013-03-01
In this talk we consider a system of spinless fermions with nearest and next-to-nearest neighbor repulsive Hubbard interactions on a honeycomb lattice within the mean-field treatment, and propose and analyze a realistic scheme for analog quantum simulation of this model with cold atoms in a two-dimensional hexagonal optical lattice. Besides a semi-metallic and a charge-density-wave ordered phase, the system exhibits a quantum anomalous Hall phase, which is generated dynamically, i.e. purely as a result of the repulsive fermionic interactions and in the absence of any external gauge fields. We establish the topological nature of this dynamically created Mott insulating phase by the numerical calculation of a Chern number, and study the possibility of coexistence of this phase with the other phases characterized by local order parameters. Based on the knowledge of the mean-field phase diagram, we then discuss in detail how the interacting Hamiltonian can be engineered effective ly by state-of-the-art experimental techniques for laser-dressing of cold fermionic ground-state atoms with electronically excited Rydberg states that exhibit strong dipolar interactions.
Probing a scattering resonance with Rydberg molecules inside a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Rios, J.; Schlagmüller, M.; Liebisch, T. C.; Nguyen, H.; Lochead, G.; Engel, F.; Böottcher, F.; Westphal, K. M.; Kleinbach, K. S.; Löw, R.; Hofferberth, S.; Pfau, T.; Greene, C. H.
2016-05-01
The spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom within a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied, and as a result a line shape dependence on the principal Rydberg quantum number n is observed, apart from the expected density shift due to the large number of neutrals inside the Rydberg orbit. The observed line broadening depends on the Rydberg electron-neutral interaction, in particular, it manifests the influence of the e-Rb(5S) p-wave scattering shape resonance, which dramatically affects the potential energy landscape for the neutrals embedded within the Rydberg orbit. The observed spectroscopic line shapes are reproduced with an overall good agreement by means of a microscopic model, in which the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit are treated as zero-velocity point-like particles, with binding energies associated with the ion-neutral distance. We acknowledge support from Deutsche Forschungsge5 meinschaft (DFG) within the SFB/TRR21 and the project PF 381/13-1. This work has been supported by NSF under Grand Number PHY-130690.
Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaëtan, A.
2010-12-01
Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robin, Jörg; Vogelsang, Jan; Nagy, Benedek J.; Gross, Petra; Lienau, Christoph
2015-09-01
Image potential states are well established surface states of metallic films [1]. For a single metallic nanostructure these surface states can be localized in the near-field arising from illumination by a strong laser field. Thus single metallic nanostructures offer the unique possibility to study quantum systems with both high spatial and ultrafast temporal resolution. Here, we investigate the dynamics of Rydberg states localized to a sharp metallic nanotaper. For this purpose we realized a laser system delivering few-cycle pulses tunable over a wide wavelength range [2]. Pulses from a regenerative titanium:sapphire amplifier generate a white light continuum, from which both a proportion in the visible and in the infrared are amplified in two non-collinear optical parametric amplification (NOPA) stages. Difference frequency generation (DFG) of both stages provides pulses in the near-infrared. With a precisely delayed sequence of few-cycle pulses centered around 600 nm (NOPA#1 output) and 1600 nm (DFG output) we illuminate the apex of a sharply etched gold tip. Varying the delay we observe an exponential decay of photoemitted electrons with a distinctly asymmetric decay length on both sides, indicating the population of different states. Superimposed on the decay is a clearly discernible quantum beat pattern with a period of <50 fs, which arises from the motion of Rydberg photoelectrons bound within their own image potential. These results therefore constitute a step towards controlling single electron wavepackets released from a gold tip opening up fascinating perspectives for applications in ultrafast electron microscopy [3]. [1] Hofer, U. et al. Science 277, 1480 (1997) [2] Vogelsang, J., Robin J. et al. Opt. Express 22, 25295 (2014) [3] Petek, H. et al. ACS Nano 8, 5 (2014)
Threshold photoelectron spectrum of the Argon 3s satellites
Medhurst, L.J.; Von Wittenau, A.S.; van Zee, R.D.; Zhang, J.S.; Liu, S.H.; Shirley, D.A.; Lindle, D.W.
1989-07-01
Lately a variety of techniques have studied the electron correlation satellites with binding energies between the Argon 3s binding energy (29.24 eV) and the 2p/sup /minus/2/ ionization potential (43.38 eV). One of these techniques, Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopy, with /approximately/90 meV FWHM resolution, revealed at least 25 individual electronic states. All of these could contribute to any other satellite spectrum, and this helped explain some discrepancies between previous measurements. This technique has been applied to the same region with higher resolution (<60 meV at the Ar 3s/sup /minus/1/peak). In this higher resolution spectrum at least 29 individual electronic states are present. In some cases the multiplet splitting is observed. 12 refs., 2 figs.
A photoionization study of OH and OD from 680A to 950A: An analysis of the Rydberg series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutler, J. N.; He, Z. X.; Samson, J. A. R.
1994-01-01
The photoionization spectra of OH(+) and OD(+) have been reported from 680 to 950 A (18.23 to 13.05 eV) at a wavelength resolution of 0.07 A. Through interpretation of both spectra, the Rydberg series and their higher vibrational members have been reported for three of the excited ionic states, a(sup 1)Delta, A(sup 3)Pi(i), and b(sup 1) Sigma(sup +). A vibrational progression has also been observed in both OH(+) and OD(+) which is apparently related to a fourth excited ionic state, c(sup 1)Pi. Finally, the dissociative ionization limits, corrected to 0 K,for H2O AND D2O have been measured to be 18.11+/-0.01 and 18.21+/-0.01 eV, respectively, and shown to be in good agreement with previously reported results.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM CHANGING TRANSITIONS IN PROTON-RYDBERG HYDROGEN ATOM COLLISIONS
Vrinceanu, D.; Onofrio, R.; Sadeghpour, H. R. E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com
2012-03-01
Collisions between electrically charged particles and neutral atoms are central for understanding the dynamics of neutral gases and plasmas in a variety of physical situations of terrestrial and astronomical interest. Specifically, redistribution of angular momentum states within the degenerate shell of highly excited Rydberg atoms occurs efficiently in distant collisions with ions. This process is crucial in establishing the validity of the local thermal equilibrium assumption and may also play a role in determining a precise ionization fraction in primordial recombination. We provide an accurate expression for the non-perturbative rate coefficient of collisions between protons and H(nl) ending in a final state H(nl'), with n being the principal quantum number and l, l' the initial and final angular momentum quantum numbers, respectively. The validity of this result is confirmed by results of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations. Previous results, obtained by Pengelly and Seaton only for dipole-allowed transitions l {yields} l {+-} 1, overestimate the l-changing collisional rate coefficients approximately by a factor of six, and the physical origin of this overestimation is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldmaier, Matthias; Main, Jörg; Schweiner, Frank; Cartarius, Holger; Wunner, Günter
2016-07-01
Exceptional points are special parameter points in spectra of open quantum systems, at which resonance energies become degenerate and the associated eigenvectors coalesce. Typical examples are Rydberg systems in parallel electric and magnetic fields, for which we solve the Schrödinger equation in a complete basis to calculate the resonances and eigenvectors. Starting from an avoided crossing within the parameter-dependent spectra and using a two-dimensional matrix model, we develop an iterative algorithm to calculate the field strengths and resonance energies of exceptional points and to verify their basic properties. Additionally, we are able to visualise the wave functions of the degenerate states. We report the existence of various exceptional points. For the hydrogen atom these points are in an experimentally inaccessible regime of field strengths. However, excitons in cuprous oxide in parallel electric and magnetic fields, i.e., the corresponding hydrogen analogue in a solid state body, provide a suitable system, where the high-field regime can be reached at much smaller external fields and for which we propose an experiment to detect exceptional points.
MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control
Not Available
1980-10-01
The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.
Quantum state control of ultracold plasma fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.
2016-03-01
Double-resonant transitions excite nitric oxide in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, yielding a state-selected Rydberg gas that evolves to form an ultracold plasma. This plasma propagates in z with the molecular beam over a variable distance as great as 600 mm to strike an imaging detector, which records the charge distribution in the dimensions, x and y. The laser-crossed molecular beam excitation geometry convolutes an axial Gaussian distribution of NO about z with the Gaussian intensity distribution of the laser beam about x to create an ellipsoidal volume of Rydberg gas. Plasma images provide evidence for the relaxation of this Rydberg gas volume in an electron impact avalanche that breaks the ellipsoidal symmetry in x to form repelling plasma volumes. We find that the energy deposited in the recoil velocity of mass transport, V x depends systematically on the initially selected Rydberg gas principal quantum number, n 0, and the initial density of the Rydberg gas, ρ 0. These quantities combine to determine ρ e, the initial density of electrons formed by the prompt Penning ionization of closely spaced pairs of Rydberg molecules. Above a threshold density of Penning electrons, we find that V x depends linearly on ρ e. We argue that this bifurcation occurs as a consequence of the initial geometry of the Rydberg gas. Ambipolar electron expansion accelerates initially formed core ions. Resonant charge transfer redistributes this ion energy to the column of Rydberg molecules on the long axis of the ellipsoid. The equalized velocities in each direction give rise to a ±x streaming motion that concentrates density in opposing plasma volumes, causing the symmetric gas volume to split like a rotating liquid drop. Significantly, these dynamics reduce electron temperature with little decrease in the ion density or increase in the ion temperature. This appears to facilitate the formation of a strongly coupled plasma.
Safety assessment of [3S, 3'S]-astaxanthin--Subchronic toxicity study in rats.
Buesen, R; Schulte, S; Strauss, V; Treumann, S; Becker, M; Gröters, S; Carvalho, S; van Ravenzwaay, B
2015-07-01
Astaxanthin, a naturally occurring xanthophyll, is commercially used as a coloring agent in salmon feed, but also marketed as a dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to investigate the subchronic toxicity of synthetic [3S, 3'S]-Astaxanthin in rats. A powder formulation containing approximately 20% [3S, 3'S]-Astaxanthin was administered via the diet to groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats at concentrations of 5000, 15,000 and 50,000 ppm for a period of 13 weeks. A formulation of comparable composition but without [3S, 3'S]-Astaxanthin served as a placebo control. There were no effects observed on survival, clinical examinations, clinical pathology, estrous cycle as well as on sperm parameters. At terminal necropsy, a macroscopically visible brown-blue discoloration of the gastrointestinal contents was noted which was considered to be secondary to the violet-brown color of the test material. No other significant or dose-related abnormalities were found in the tissues collected at termination. Our observations support that ingestion of [3S, 3'S]-Astaxanthin of up to 700-920 mg/kg bw/day in rats in a gelatin/carbohydrate formulation is without adverse effects. PMID:25910834
International Summer Student Seminar (3S), from Idea to Realization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpik, A. P.; Peled, A.; Musikhin, L. A.; Deren, L.; Seredovich, V. A.
2012-08-01
The article gives a spotlight on a three universities (Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Siberian State Academy of Geodesy, Wuhan University) and ISPRS' cooperation in organizing and holding summer student seminars for undergraduate, master, and PhD students of the universities specializing in photogrammetry, remote sensing, GIS, aerial and space cartography. Principles of topics of the seminar selection, lecture courses delivering and practical training as well as international joint team work on projects and their defence are described. The description of the basic stages of 3S implementation, and the goals of this sort of the international event is given.
Adsorbate dynamics on a silica-coated gold surface measured by Rydberg Stark spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naber, J.; Machluf, S.; Torralbo-Campo, L.; Soudijn, M. L.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.
2016-05-01
Trapping a Rydberg atom close to a surface is an important step towards the realisation of many proposals for quantum information processing or hybrid quantum systems. One of the challenges in these experiments is posed by the electric field emanating from contaminations on the surface. Here we report on measurements of an electric field created by 87Rb atoms adsorbed on a 25 nm thick layer of SiO2, covering a 90 nm layer of Au. The electric field is measured using a two-photon transition to the 23{D}5/2 and 25{S}1/2 states. The electric field value that we measure is higher than typical values measured above metal surfaces, but is consistent with a recent measurement above a SiO2 surface. In addition, we measure the temporal behaviour of the field and observe that we can reduce it in a single experimental cycle, using ultraviolet light or by mildly locally heating the surface with one of the excitation lasers, whereas the buildup of the field takes thousands of cycles. We explain these results by a change in the adatom distribution on the surface. These results indicate that, while the stray electric field can be reduced, achieving field-free conditions above a silica-coated gold chip remains challenging.
Many-body localization and symmetry protected topology with ultracold Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potirniche, Ionut-Dragos; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Yao, Norman
The interplay between quantum entanglement and symmetry-protected topological order has led to the classification of gapped, interacting, one dimensional quantum phases. A consequence of this classification is the existence of a diverse set of exactly solvable models, which serve as paradigmatic examples of various SPT orders. The experimental realization of such models has been hampered by the challenge of implementing tunable multi-body interactions. Recently, an alternate strategy has arisen: periodic driving. Indeed, it has been shown that the dynamics of a simple Floquet transverse-field Ising model can mirror that of the celebrated Haldane chain. However, as SPT order is expected only in the ground state while a driven system is expected to heat to infinite temperature, the ability to observe such ``Floquet'' SPT phases remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that strong disorder, leading to many-body localization, stabilizes SPT order at finite energy densities while also preventing arbitrary heating of the system. Moreover, we propose a natural experimental implementation in a 1D optical lattice of ultracold Rydberg atoms.
Luppi, Eleonora; Head-Gordon, Martin
2013-10-28
We study the role of Rydberg bound-states and continuum levels in the field-induced electronic dynamics associated with the High-Harmonic Generation (HHG) spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom. Time-dependent configuration-interaction (TD-CI) is used with very large atomic orbital (AO) expansions (up to L= 4 with sextuple augmentation and off-center functions) to describe the bound Rydberg levels, and some continuum levels. To address the lack of ionization losses in TD-CI with finite AO basis sets, we employed a heuristic lifetime for energy levels above the ionization potential. The heuristic lifetime model is compared against the conventional atomic orbital treatment (infinite lifetimes), and a third approximation which is TD-CI using only the bound levels (continuum lifetimes go to zero). The results suggest that spectra calculated using conventional TD-CI do not converge with increasing AO basis set size, while the zero lifetime and heuristic lifetime models converge to qualitatively similar spectra, with implications for how best to apply bound state electronic structure methods to simulate HHG. The origin of HHG spectral features including the cutoff and extent of interference between peaks is uncovered by separating field-induced coupling between different types of levels (ground state, bound Rydberg levels, and continuum) in the simulated electronic dynamics. Thus the origin of deviations between the predictions of the semi-classical three step model and the full simulation can be associated with particular physical contributions, which helps to explain both the successes and the limitations of the three step model.
MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: seventh periodic summary report, 1983. [MAP3S Network
Rothert, J.E.; Dana, M.T.
1984-11-01
This summary report, the seventh in the series, contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1983. Sections cover QA/QC of the MAP3S/PCN; network history, network site information and a MAP3S/PCN bibliography; and a brief statistical look at the laboratory operations for 1983. There is also a brief statistical summary for 1982 to 1983. Included under the Quality Control section are the QA audits for site performance, laboratory comparisons, field blank and pH test results, and sample shipping and analysis results. Included is a listing of cooperating organizations and personnel for the MAP3S/PCN. 10 references, 10 figures, 32 tables.
Andreev, S.V.; Mishin, V.I.; Letokhov, V.S.
1988-10-01
A highly sensitive method of detecting atoms in samples has been used for spectral investigations of the rare radioactive element Fr. The method is based on laser-resonance photoionization of Fr atoms in a hot quasi-enclosed cavity. The investigations have been carried out with samples in which short-lived radioactive /sup 221/Fr atoms formed at a rate of approximately 10/sup 3/ atoms/sec. The data obtained, to our knowledge for the first time, on the energies of the high-lying Rydberg levels of the /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/ and /sup 2/D series have made it possible to determine the electron binding energy of the 7p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ state and to establish the ionization potential of Fr accurately.
Two-photon microwave transitions and strong-field effects in a room-temperature Rydberg-atom gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, D. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Miller, S. A.; Thaicharoen, N.; Raithel, G.; Gordon, J. A.; Holloway, C. L.
2014-10-01
We investigate two-photon Autler-Townes splitting and strong-field effects of 85Rb Rydberg atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. To observe the level structure we employ electromagnetically induced transparency. We first study the two-photon 62 S1 /2-63 S1 /2 microwave transition using an electric-field reference measurement obtained with the one-photon 62 S1 /2-62 P3 /2 transition. We then study the 61 D5 /2-62 D5 /2 transition where the microwave electric-field range is extended up to ˜40 V /m . A Floquet analysis is used to model field-induced level shifts and state-mixing effects present in the strongly driven quantum systems under consideration. Calculations are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.
Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.
2013-05-15
The spectra of the three-photon laser excitation 5S{sub 1/2} {yields} 5P{sub 3/2} {yields} 6S{sub 1/2}nP of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in an operating magneto-optical trap based on continuous single-frequency lasers at each stage are studied. These spectra contain two partly overlapping peaks of different amplitudes, which correspond to coherent three-photon excitation and incoherent three-step excitation due to the presence of two different ways of excitation through the dressed states of intermediate levels. A four-level theoretical model based on optical Bloch equations is developed to analyze these spectra. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated data is achieved by introducing additional decay of optical coherence induced by a finite laser line width and other broadening sources (stray electromagnetic fields, residual Doppler broadening, interatomic interactions) into the model.
Quantized Redshifts of Galaxies: Stimulated Raman Scattering in Cold Intergalactic Rydberg Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmlid, Leif
2004-05-01
That the redshifts for galaxies in the local supercluster are quantizedwas recently confirmedby Guthrie and Napier(A&A310 (1996) 353). These redshifts are here proposed to be due to stimulatedStokes Raman processes in intergalactic matter in the form of Rydberg Matter (RM). Rydberg Matteris an electronically excited material, as demonstrated by its use as laser medium in a thermally excitedultra-broadband tunable IR laser (Chem. Phys. Lett. 376 (2003) 812). Its existence in interstellar andintergalactic space is demonstrated by several observational results, notably the unidentified IR bands,that agree well with the emission from Rydberg Matter. A stimulated Raman process will allow theH I 21 cm radiation to proceed without deflection, in agreement with observation. Such redshiftswill be additive during the passage through space. The process in Rydberg Matter here proposed togive rise to the Stokes Raman process is excitation of electronic translational modes in the planarclusters forming the matter. The specific cluster sizes found in laboratory experiments give rise toa few differently sized redshift quanta, which is in good agreement with the observed quanta. Anexcitation level (principal quantum number) of Rydberg Matter in intergalactic space between 175and 200 gives the correct size of the redshift quanta.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Thanh Long; Celistrino Teixeira, Raul; Hermann Avigliano, Carla; Cantat Moltrecht, Tigrane; Raimond, Jean Michel; Haroche, Serge; Gleyzes, Sebastiens; Brune, Michel
2016-05-01
Dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms are a flourishing tool for quantum information processing and for quantum simulation of complex many-body problems. Microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped close to a superconducting atom chip in the strong dipole blockade regime reveals directly the many-body atomic interaction spectrum. We present here a direct measurement of the interaction energy distribution in the strong dipole blockade regime, based on microwave spectroscopy. We first apply this method to the observation of the excitation dynamics of the Rydberg gas, conditioned by dipole-dipole interactions, in either the strong blockade regime or the so-called facilitation regime. We also observe with this method the atomic cloud expansion driven by the repulsive Van der Waals interaction after excitation. This measurement, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the excitation process and of the cloud dynamics, reveals the limits of the frozen gas approximation. This method can help investigate self-organization and dynamical phase transitions in Rydberg-atom based quantum simulators. This study thus opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atom.
Searches for Exotic Decays of the Upsilon(3S) at BaBar
Hooberman, Benjamin; /LBL, Berkeley /Heidelberg U.
2011-12-01
In this paper we present two searches for new physics in {Upsilon}(3S) decays collected by the BABAR detector. We search for charged lepton-flavour violating decays of the {Upsilon}(3S), which are unobservable in the Standard Model but are predicted to occur in several beyond-the-Standard Model scenarios. We also search for production of a light Higgs or Higgs-like state produced in radiative decays of the {Upsilon}(3S) and decaying to muon pairs.
Rydberg Spectroscopy of Zeeman-Decelerated Beams of Metastable Helium Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansen, Paul; Motsch, Michael; Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frederic
2014-06-01
Having three and four electrons, respectively, He_2^+ and He_2 represent systems for which highly accurate ab-initio calculations might become feasible in the near future. With the goal of performing accurate measurements of the rovibrational energy-level structure of He_2^+ by Rydberg spectroscopy of He_2 and multichannel quantum-defect theory extrapolation techniques, we have produced samples of helium molecules in the a ^3Σu^+ state in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The molecules are formed at an initial velocity of 500 m/s by striking a discharge in the pulsed expansion of helium gas from a reservoir kept at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K. Using rotationally-resolved PFI-ZEKE (pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy) photoelectron spectroscopy, we have probed the rotational-state distribution of the molecules produced in the discharge and found vibrational levels up to ν" = 2 and rotational levels up to N"=21 to be populated. The molecular beam is coupled to a multistage Zeeman decelerator that employs pulsed inhomogeneous magnetic fields to further reduce the beam velocity. By measuring the quantum-state distribution of the decelerated sample using photoelectron and photoionization spectroscopy we observed no rotational or vibrational state-selectivity of the deceleration process, but found that one of the three spin-rotation components of the He_2 a ^3Σu^+ rotational levels is eliminated. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M. Motsch, P. Jansen, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, arXiv:1401.7774. N. Vanhaecke, U. Meier, M. Andrist, B. H. Meier, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 75, 031402(R) (2007).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiao, R. Y.; Minter, S. J.; Wegter-McNelly, K.; Martinez, L. A.
2012-01-01
Freely falling point-like objects converge toward the center of the Earth. Hence the gravitational field of the Earth is inhomogeneous, and possesses a tidal component. The free fall of an extended quantum mechanical object such as a hydrogen atom prepared in a high principal-quantum-number state, i.e. a circular Rydberg atom, is predicted to fall more slowly than a classical point-like object, when both objects are dropped from the same height above the Earth's surface. This indicates that, apart from transitions between quantum states, the atom exhibits a kind of quantum mechanical incompressibility during free fall in inhomogeneous, tidal gravitational fields like those of the Earth. A superconducting ring-like system with a persistent current circulating around it behaves like the circular Rydberg atom during free fall. Like the electronic wavefunction of the freely falling atom, the Cooper-pair wavefunction is quantum mechanically incompressible. The ions in the lattice of the superconductor, however, are not incompressible, since they do not possess a globally coherent quantum phase. The resulting difference during free fall in the response of the nonlocalizable Cooper pairs of electrons and the localizable ions to inhomogeneous gravitational fields is predicted to lead to a charge separation effect, which in turn leads to a large Coulomb force that opposes the convergence caused by the tidal gravitational force on the superconducting system. A "Cavendish-like" experiment is proposed for observing the charge separation effect induced by inhomogeneous gravitational fields in a superconducting circuit. The charge separation effect is determined to be limited by a pair-breaking process that occurs when low frequency gravitational perturbations are present.
Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Rui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ou, Ting; Zhai, Hua-Jin
2016-08-21
Boron clusters can serve as inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We present herein, based upon global searches and electronic structural calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels, the global-minimum structures of two boron-sulfur hydride clusters: C2v B3S2H3(-) (1, (2)B1) and C2v B3S2H3 (2, (1)A1). Both species are perfectly planar and feature a five-membered B3S2 ring as the structural core, with three H atoms attached terminally to the B sites. Chemical bonding analysis shows that C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) has a delocalized 5π system within a heteroatomic B3S2 ring, analogous to the π bonding in cyclopentadiene, D5h C5H5. The corresponding closed-shell C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3, (1)A1) dianion is only a local minimum. At the single-point CCSD(T) level, it is 5.7 kcal mol(-1) above the chain-like C1 ((1)A) open structure. This situation is in contrast to the cyclopentadienyl anion, C5H5(-), a prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon with a π sextet. The C2v B3S2H3 (2) neutral cluster is readily obtained upon removal of one π electron from C2v B3S2H3(-) (1). The anion photoelectron spectrum of C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) and the infrared absorption spectrum of C2v B3S2H3 (2) are predicted. The C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) species can be stabilized in sandwich-type C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe](2-) and salt C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe]Li2 complexes. An intriguing difference is observed between the pattern of π sextet in C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3) dianion and that in cyclopentadienyl anion. The present work also sheds light on the mechanism of structural evolution in the B3S2H3(0/-/2-) series with charge states. PMID:27424889
Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Rui; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ou, Ting; Zhai, Hua-Jin
2016-08-21
Boron clusters can serve as inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We present herein, based upon global searches and electronic structural calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels, the global-minimum structures of two boron-sulfur hydride clusters: C2v B3S2H3(-) (1, (2)B1) and C2v B3S2H3 (2, (1)A1). Both species are perfectly planar and feature a five-membered B3S2 ring as the structural core, with three H atoms attached terminally to the B sites. Chemical bonding analysis shows that C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) has a delocalized 5π system within a heteroatomic B3S2 ring, analogous to the π bonding in cyclopentadiene, D5h C5H5. The corresponding closed-shell C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3, (1)A1) dianion is only a local minimum. At the single-point CCSD(T) level, it is 5.7 kcal mol(-1) above the chain-like C1 ((1)A) open structure. This situation is in contrast to the cyclopentadienyl anion, C5H5(-), a prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon with a π sextet. The C2v B3S2H3 (2) neutral cluster is readily obtained upon removal of one π electron from C2v B3S2H3(-) (1). The anion photoelectron spectrum of C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) and the infrared absorption spectrum of C2v B3S2H3 (2) are predicted. The C2v B3S2H3(-) (1) species can be stabilized in sandwich-type C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe](2-) and salt C2h [(B3S2H3)2Fe]Li2 complexes. An intriguing difference is observed between the pattern of π sextet in C2v B3S2H3(2-) (3) dianion and that in cyclopentadienyl anion. The present work also sheds light on the mechanism of structural evolution in the B3S2H3(0/-/2-) series with charge states.
Coherent dipole transport in a small grid of Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Hui; Robicheaux, F.
2016-02-01
We calculated the motion of one or two excitons through a small grid of Rydberg atoms. Both one- and two-dimensional grids were studied with the number of sites in a direction between 4 and 10. To mimic the possibility of nonperfect filling, calculations were performed with atoms randomly missing from sites. Results are presented for four qualitatively different situations. (1) The corners and edges, with the randomness of nonperfect filling, strongly affects the exciton motion and can pin the exciton. (2) For the case where a single exciton is simultaneously generated at two sites, the direction in which the exciton moves can be controlled by imprinting a phase difference on the two adjacent sites. (3) For the case where two excitons are generated at adjacent sites, calculations where a pair of excitons move through the grid are compared to the one exciton case to see whether exciton-exciton correlations are measurable. (4) The grid version of an exciton current can be defined by analogy to a continuity equation in one dimension and by using the analogy to a velocity operator in one, two, or three dimensions; for one dimension, the two definitions give similar results which means the direct measurement of the current in one dimension is possible.
Non-Hydrogenic Rydberg Atroms in Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Jans, W.; Schweizer, W.
The classical and quantal dynamics of non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms in magnetic fields are investigated. Previous attempts to infer classical behaviour from quantum properties produced conflicting results: at low scaled energies (ɛ = -0.5) the nearest-neighbour statistics (NNS) were found to be at the chaotic (Wigner) limit while quantum phase-space distributions suggested a high degree of regularity. Here the classical limit is investigated directly by solving the equations of motion of the Diamagnetic Kepler problem (DKP) with an additional non-Coulombic model potential. It is found that typically trajectories are, over a long time-scale, ergodic. However over a shorter time-scale--in between collisions with the core--classical trajectories remain confined on the tori of the DKP. The origin of a well-known resonance in the NNS of hydrogen at ɛ = -0.316 is clarified by the comparison with the non-hydrogenic behaviour. However, the classical model only partially explains the quantum behaviour. The difficulties of quantizing such a system are discussed.
Some recent applications of XTRAN3S
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, D. A.; Bennett, R. M.; Ricketts, R. H.
1983-01-01
A time marching finite difference code, XTRAN3S that solves the three dimensional transonic small perturbation equation for flow over isolated wings was developed. During initial applications of the program, problems were encountered in the prediction of unsteady forces. The use of a revised grid and force calculation scheme improved those predictions. Comparisons are made between predicted and experimental pressure data for a rectangular supercritical wing. Comparisons of steady and unsteady data at M sub infinity = 0.700 show good agreement between calculated and experimental values. A comparison of steady data at M sub infinity 0.825 shows poor agreement between calculations and experiment. Program difficulties were encountered with swept and tapered configurations.
Strong Coupling of Rydberg Atoms and Surface Phonon Polaritons on Piezoelectric Superlattices.
Sheng, Jiteng; Chao, Yuanxi; Shaffer, James P
2016-09-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so that it is resonant with a Rydberg transition by engineering the piezoelectric superlattice. We describe a way to observe the Rabi splitting associated with the strong coupling regime under realistic experimental conditions. The system can be viewed as a new type of optomechanical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amrani, D.
2014-07-01
This paper investigates the use of two different methods, the optical and the computer-aided diffraction-grating spectrometer, to measure the wavelength of visible lines of Balmer series from the hydrogen atomic spectrum and estimate the value of Rydberg's constant. Analysis and interpretation of data showed that both methods, despite their difference in terms of the type of equipment used, displayed good performance in terms of precision of measurements of wavelengths of spectral lines. A comparison was carried out between the experimental value of Rydberg's constant obtained with both methods and the accepted value. The results of Rydberg's constant obtained with both the optical and computer-aided spectrometers were 1.099 28 × 10-7 m-1 and 1.095 13 × 10-7 m-1 with an error difference of 0.17% and 0.20% compared to the accepted value 1.097 373 × 10-7 m-1, respectively.
Strong Coupling of Rydberg Atoms and Surface Phonon Polaritons on Piezoelectric Superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Jiteng; Chao, Yuanxi; Shaffer, James P.
2016-09-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so that it is resonant with a Rydberg transition by engineering the piezoelectric superlattice. We describe a way to observe the Rabi splitting associated with the strong coupling regime under realistic experimental conditions. The system can be viewed as a new type of optomechanical system.
Strong Coupling of Rydberg Atoms and Surface Phonon Polaritons on Piezoelectric Superlattices.
Sheng, Jiteng; Chao, Yuanxi; Shaffer, James P
2016-09-01
We propose a hybrid quantum system where the strong coupling regime can be achieved between a Rydberg atomic ensemble and propagating surface phonon polaritons on a piezoelectric superlattice. By exploiting the large electric dipole moment and long lifetime of Rydberg atoms as well as tightly confined surface phonon polariton modes, it is possible to achieve a coupling constant far exceeding the relevant decay rates. The frequency of the surface mode can be selected so that it is resonant with a Rydberg transition by engineering the piezoelectric superlattice. We describe a way to observe the Rabi splitting associated with the strong coupling regime under realistic experimental conditions. The system can be viewed as a new type of optomechanical system. PMID:27636473
Retardation (Casimir) energy shifts for Rydberg helium-like low-Z ions: An exploratory study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James F.; Habs, Dietrich; Spruch, Larry; Wolf, Andreas
1992-09-01
The development of storage rings and electromagnetic traps for heavy charged particles is opening up new regimes of atomic physics, including, in particular, spectroscopic studies of Rydberg helium-like ions — with nuclear charge Z, one electron in the 1 s state, and one electron in a near-hydrogenic state of high n and l < n, with n and l the principal and orbital quantum numbers, respectively. We consider the possibility of detecting energy shifts due to retardation, Δ E ret ( n, l), Casimir-like effects. These are quantum electrodynamic (QED) retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. (As opposed to basically kinematic and dynamic QED effects for small quantum numbers n and l, the appropriate expansion parameter for n and l large for retardation QED corrections is not Z( e 2/ħ c) but [( Z - 1)/ n 2 Z 2](ħ c/e 2).) We wish to provide some orientation to those planning experiments in the area, with regard to the choices of n, l, and Z most likely to be able to generate a high-precision confirmation of a retarded interaction. To do so, we provide extensive tables of estimates, for 1 s, nl states, of Δ E ret( n, l), of radiative widths, and of E, the spin-independent (“electric” fine structure) energy in the absence of retardation shifts, for (nuclear spin zero) ions with Z=2, 6, 8, 16 and 20. These ions might be experimentally accessible in storage rings, and the Z's are low enough that virtual pair production effects may not yet be significant. There is also a brief survey of possible experimental techniques.
Further development of XTRAN3S computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borland, C. J.
1984-01-01
This report describes modifications and enhancements to XTRAN3S, a computer program for aerodynamic, static aeroelastic, and dynamic aeroelastic analysis of three-dimensional wings in the transonic speed regime. Modifications to the program include incorporation of a viscous boundary layer, modified coefficient and generalized force integration, direct input of airfoil surface coordinates and slopes, variable dimensions of computational arrays and a modified grid mapping transformation to improve computational stability for highly swept and tapered planforms. Results obtained with the modified program are included. Modifications discussed but not incorporated include a state matrix integration method, enhanced vectorization, and use of a cartesian physical mesh.
Survival of Rydberg atoms in intense laser fields and the role of nondipole effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiber, Michael; Dimitrovski, Darko
2015-02-01
We consider the interaction of Rydberg atoms with strong infrared laser pulses using an approach based on the Magnus expansion of the time evolution operator. First-order corrections beyond the electric dipole approximation are also included in the theory. We illustrate the dynamics of the interaction at the parameters of the experiment [Eichmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 203002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.203002]. It emerges that the depletion of Rydberg atoms in this regime comes predominantly from the nondipole effects.
Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: progress and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saffman, M.
2016-10-01
We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options and approaches to preparing large qubit arrays we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. Quantum simulation and Rydberg dressing are alternatives to circuit based quantum computing for exploring many body quantum dynamics. We review the properties of the dressing interaction and provide a quantitative figure of merit for the complexity of the coherent dynamics that can be accessed with dressing. We conclude with a summary of the current status and an outlook for future progress.
Integrated 3S Technology Used in Urban Grid Management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, W.; Wang, C.
2014-11-01
Sustainable development requires monitoring the state and changes of the city and providing the appropriate information to users anytime and anywhere. This paper takes Ningbo City as the research area, by utilizing two temporal (March 25, 2012 and November 25, 2013) ZY-3 satellite remote sensing data. 3S technology is used for urban grid management. The remote sensing information extraction of Ningbo City includes: extraction of building change information, extraction of green space change information, extraction of water information and analysis of eutrophication correspondingly. When extracting change information, we take "change information" as a special kind of "geographic information" to study the characteristics of different bands in multi-temporal data, and follow the first law of geography, namely adjacent similar principle. The extracted raster information is further converted into GIS vector format data as a basis for dynamic monitoring of Ningbo Urban Management systems: on the one hand, it can meet the demands of multi-source spatial data analysis (such as: overlay analysis, buffer analysis, etc.); on the other hand, it could meet the requirements of daily urban management. Dynamic monitoring system of Ningbo city management adopts the urban grid management mode. Based on GIS and GPS, grid management can satisfy the urban management mode -someone bear responsibility within the grid, somebody do the task under the supervision of the lattice, and at the same time play the role of remote sensing field surveying. To some extent, integrated 3S technology and urban grid management is a practical alternative of minimizing the uncertainty of remote sensing data and information extraction. With multi-scale and multi-dimensional remote sensing data, 3S integration and the urban grid management can monitor the urban state and its spatial-temporal changes. It's helpful for discovery and analysis of urban problems about resources, environment, ecology and disaster
Organizational Culture, 3S, and Safeguards by Design
Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.
2012-01-31
While Safety and Security Culture are well socialized among nuclear facility designers, the concept of safeguards culture is less well defined. One area where safeguards culture may play a helpful role is in the area of Safeguards by Design. This paper will include a theoretical discussion of organizational culture, leading with safety culture and security culture that are well known, and positing that there may be room to think about safeguards culture along with the others. It will also examine the utility of the 3S concept and how this concept has been used in training for newcomer states. These will lead into a discussion of how the addition of safeguards to the mix of safety by design and security by design can be valuable, particularly as it is socialized to newcomer states.
Probing an Electron Scattering Resonance using Rydberg Molecules within a Dense and Ultracold Gas.
Schlagmüller, Michael; Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Nguyen, Huan; Lochead, Graham; Engel, Felix; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2016-02-01
We present spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom excited within a Bose-Einstein condensate. We not only observe the density shift as discovered by Amaldi and Segrè in 1934, but a line shape that changes with the principal quantum number n. The line broadening depends precisely on the interaction potential energy curves of the Rydberg electron with the neutral atom perturbers. In particular, we show the relevance of the triplet p-wave shape resonance in the e^{-}-Rb(5S) scattering, which significantly modifies the interaction potential. With a peak density of 5.5×10^{14} cm^{-3}, and therefore an interparticle spacing of 1300 a_{0} within a Bose-Einstein condensate, the potential energy curves can be probed at these Rydberg ion-neutral atom separations. We present a simple microscopic model for the spectroscopic line shape by treating the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit as zero-velocity, uncorrelated, pointlike particles, with binding energies associated with their ion-neutral separation, and good agreement is found. PMID:26894707
Probing an Electron Scattering Resonance using Rydberg Molecules within a Dense and Ultracold Gas.
Schlagmüller, Michael; Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Nguyen, Huan; Lochead, Graham; Engel, Felix; Böttcher, Fabian; Westphal, Karl M; Kleinbach, Kathrin S; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H
2016-02-01
We present spectroscopy of a single Rydberg atom excited within a Bose-Einstein condensate. We not only observe the density shift as discovered by Amaldi and Segrè in 1934, but a line shape that changes with the principal quantum number n. The line broadening depends precisely on the interaction potential energy curves of the Rydberg electron with the neutral atom perturbers. In particular, we show the relevance of the triplet p-wave shape resonance in the e^{-}-Rb(5S) scattering, which significantly modifies the interaction potential. With a peak density of 5.5×10^{14} cm^{-3}, and therefore an interparticle spacing of 1300 a_{0} within a Bose-Einstein condensate, the potential energy curves can be probed at these Rydberg ion-neutral atom separations. We present a simple microscopic model for the spectroscopic line shape by treating the atoms overlapped with the Rydberg orbit as zero-velocity, uncorrelated, pointlike particles, with binding energies associated with their ion-neutral separation, and good agreement is found.
FUSE Measurements of Rydberg Bands of Interstellar CO between 925 and 1150 Å
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheffer, Y.; Federman, S. R.; Andersson, B.-G.
2003-11-01
We report the detection of 11 Rydberg bands of CO in FUSE spectra of the sight line toward HD 203374A. Eight of these electronic bands are seen in the interstellar medium for the first time. Our simultaneous fit of five non-Rydberg A-X bands together with the strongest Rydberg band of CO, C-X (0-0), yields a four-component cloud structure toward the stellar target. With this model we synthesize the other Rydberg bands in order to derive their oscillator strengths. We find that the strength of some bands was underestimated in previously published results from laboratory measurements. The implication is important for theoretical calculations of the abundance of interstellar CO, because its dissociation and self-shielding depend on oscillator strengths for these bands. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), which is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kivimäki, A.; Sankari, A.; Kettunen, J. A.; Strâhlman, C.; Álvarez Ruiz, J.; Richter, R.
2015-09-01
We have studied the production of neutral high-Rydberg (HR) fragments from the CH4 molecule at the C 1s → 3p excitation and at the C 1s ionization threshold. Neutral fragments in HR states were ionized using a pulsed electric field and the resulting ions were mass-analyzed using an ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The atomic fragments C(HR) and H(HR) dominated the spectra, but molecular fragments CHx(HR), x = 1-3, and H2(HR) were also observed. The production of HR fragments is attributed to dissociation of CH4+ and CH42+ ions in HR states. Just above the C 1s ionization threshold, such molecular ionic states are created when the C 1s photoelectron is recaptured after single or double Auger decay. Similar HR states may be reached directly following resonant Auger decay at the C 1s → 3p resonance. The energies and geometries of the parent and fragment ions have been calculated in order to gain insight into relevant dissociation pathways.
Kivimäki, A.; Sankari, A.; Kettunen, J. A.; Stråhlman, C.; Álvarez Ruiz, J.; Richter, R.
2015-09-21
We have studied the production of neutral high-Rydberg (HR) fragments from the CH{sub 4} molecule at the C 1s → 3p excitation and at the C 1s ionization threshold. Neutral fragments in HR states were ionized using a pulsed electric field and the resulting ions were mass-analyzed using an ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The atomic fragments C(HR) and H(HR) dominated the spectra, but molecular fragments CH{sub x}(HR), x = 1-3, and H{sub 2}(HR) were also observed. The production of HR fragments is attributed to dissociation of CH{sub 4}{sup +} and CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} ions in HR states. Just above the C 1s ionization threshold, such molecular ionic states are created when the C 1s photoelectron is recaptured after single or double Auger decay. Similar HR states may be reached directly following resonant Auger decay at the C 1s → 3p resonance. The energies and geometries of the parent and fragment ions have been calculated in order to gain insight into relevant dissociation pathways.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through the modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct International System of Unit traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two measurements of the same E-field strength, providing a relative comparison of the dipole moments of the two atomic species. This gives two measurements that help rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength, and is a necessary step for this method to be accepted as a standard calibration technique. We use this approach to measure E-fields at 9.2 GHz, 11.6 GHz, and 13.4 GHz, which correspond to three different atomic states (different principal atomic numbers and angular momentums) for the two atom species.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen
2016-05-01
The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.
Calculation of 3s photoemission spectra of vanadium on graphite
Krueger, P.; Taguchi, M.; Parlebas, J.C.; Kotani, A.
1997-06-01
A few years ago, a satellite structure in the vanadium 3s x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum of V clusters upon graphite was observed and attributed to the presence of magnetic moments on the V surface. Here, we present calculations of these spectra using a cluster model that takes into account intra-atomic d-d and d{endash}core electron correlation and hybridization between V d and graphite {pi} states. When the V-graphite distance is increased from 1.5 to 2.0 {Angstrom} the system undergoes a low-to-high spin transition, which is clearly evidenced in the evolution of the XPS line shape. Although direct comparison with experiment is difficult, our study suggests that the observed satellite is due to core hole screening rather than a magnetic moment on the V atom. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Koga, Nobuaki
2014-07-28
The optical properties of an isolated firefly luciferin anion are investigated by using first-principles calculations, employing the many-body perturbation theory to take into account the excitonic effect. The calculated photoabsorption spectra are compared with the results obtained using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the localized atomic orbital (AO) basis sets and a recent experiment in vacuum. The present method well reproduces the line shape at the photon energy corresponding to the Rydberg and resonance excitations but overestimates the peak positions by about 0.5 eV. However, the TDDFT-calculated positions of some peaks are closer to those of the experiment. We also investigate the basis set dependency in describing the free electron states above vacuum level and the excitons involving the transitions to the free electron states and conclude that AO-only basis sets are inaccurate for free electron states and the use of a plane wave basis set is required. PMID:25084912
Noguchi, Yoshifumi Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Koga, Nobuaki
2014-07-28
The optical properties of an isolated firefly luciferin anion are investigated by using first-principles calculations, employing the many-body perturbation theory to take into account the excitonic effect. The calculated photoabsorption spectra are compared with the results obtained using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the localized atomic orbital (AO) basis sets and a recent experiment in vacuum. The present method well reproduces the line shape at the photon energy corresponding to the Rydberg and resonance excitations but overestimates the peak positions by about 0.5 eV. However, the TDDFT-calculated positions of some peaks are closer to those of the experiment. We also investigate the basis set dependency in describing the free electron states above vacuum level and the excitons involving the transitions to the free electron states and conclude that AO-only basis sets are inaccurate for free electron states and the use of a plane wave basis set is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Koga, Nobuaki
2014-07-01
The optical properties of an isolated firefly luciferin anion are investigated by using first-principles calculations, employing the many-body perturbation theory to take into account the excitonic effect. The calculated photoabsorption spectra are compared with the results obtained using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the localized atomic orbital (AO) basis sets and a recent experiment in vacuum. The present method well reproduces the line shape at the photon energy corresponding to the Rydberg and resonance excitations but overestimates the peak positions by about 0.5 eV. However, the TDDFT-calculated positions of some peaks are closer to those of the experiment. We also investigate the basis set dependency in describing the free electron states above vacuum level and the excitons involving the transitions to the free electron states and conclude that AO-only basis sets are inaccurate for free electron states and the use of a plane wave basis set is required.
Magnetic field effects on the dynamics of a Rydberg electron: The residence time near the core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kono, Hirohiko; Tazaki, Takayuki; Kawata, Isao; Fujimura, Yuichi
1999-12-01
Using symplectic integrator schemes, we calculate the classical trajectory of a Rydberg electron in external electric and magnetic fields. We also solve the equation of motion obtained by taking the mean values over one revolution of the electron in the undisturbed motion. The resulting secular motion is periodic. When only an electric field F is applied, as long as the modulation period in the orbital angular momentum l is longer than the revolution period, the motion agrees with the secular one and the duration for which l is much larger than its low initial value is stretched. The residence time (RT), namely, the probability of finding the electron at the distance r, is hence smaller than that at F=0. In crossed electric and magnetic fields, the secular motion predicts that an additional time stretching due to a magnetic field occurs up to the critical value of magnetic field strength, Bc=3√3 nF (n is the principal action). In the actual simulations, the RT near the core is smaller than that at B=0 even beyond Bc, regardless of the magnitude of the non-Coulombic interaction C2/r2. Slow modulations in l are generated by transitions to secular motions that maintain high l, in addition to the fast modulation originating from the secular motion. When the magnetic field is so strong as to induce chaotic motion (˜4000 G for the energy of -5 cm-1), the RT is one order of magnitude as large as those in weak field cases around 40 G. In the intermediate region (> a few hundred Gauss), without a non-Coulombic interaction, the RT monotonically increases as B increases. In the presence of C2/r2, transitions from low l states to high l states occur: the RT decreases. The motions in high l states can be explained by the well-known model in which an electron bound to the core by a harmonic force moves in a magnetic field.
Staples, Christopher R.; Dhawan, Ish K.; Finnegan, Michael G.; Dwinell, Derek A.; Zhou, Zhi Hao; Huang, Heshu; Verhagen, Marc F. J. M.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Johnson, Michael K.
1997-12-01
The ground- and excited-state properties of heterometallic [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) cubane clusters assembled in Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin have been investigated by the combination of EPR and variable-temperature/variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies. The results indicate Cd(2+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](0,-) cluster fragments to yield S = 2 [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = (5)/(2) [CdFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters and Cu(+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](+,0) cluster fragments to yield S = (1)/(2) [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = 2 [CuFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters. This is the first report of the preparation of cubane type [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters, and the combination of EPR and MCD results indicates S = 0 and S = (3)/(2) ground states for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively. Midpoint potentials for the [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) couples, E(m) = -470 +/- 15, -440 +/- 10, and +190 +/- 10 mV (vs NHE), respectively, were determined by EPR-monitored redox titrations or direct electrochemistry at a glassy carbon electrode. The trends in redox potential, ground-state spin, and electron delocalization of [MFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters in P. furiosus ferredoxin are discussed as a function of heterometal (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Tl).