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Sample records for 3sigma upper limit

  1. Determination of volatile compounds in wine by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: comparison between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3sigma approach and Hubaux-Vos calculation of detection limits using ordinary and bivariate least squares.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosario; Scordino, Monica; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    A capillary GC-flame ionization detection (FID) method to determine volatile compounds (ethyl acetate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, methyl alcohol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol) in wine was investigated in terms of calculation of detection limits and calibration method. The main objectives were: (1) calculation of regression coefficient parameters by ordinary least-squares (OLS) and bivariate least-squares (BLS) regression models, taking into account errors in both axes; (2) estimation of linear dynamic range (LDR) according to International Conference on Harmonization recommendations; (3) performance evaluation of a method by using three different internal standards (ISs) such as acetonitrile, acetone, and 1-pentanol; (4) evaluation of LODs according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3sigma approach and the Hubaux-Vos (H-V) method; (5) application of H-V theory to a gas chromatographic analytical method and to a food matrix; and (6) accuracy assessment of the method relative to methyl alcohol content through a Unione Italiana Vini (UIV) interlaboratory proficiency test. Calibration curves calculated via BLS and OLS show similar slopes, while intercepts are closer to zero in the first case, independent of the chosen IS. The studied ISs show a substantially equivalent behavior, even though the IS closer to the analyte retention time seems to be more appropriate in terms of LDR and LOD. Results indicate an underestimation of LODs using the EPA 3sigma approach instead of the more realistic H-V method, both with OLS and BLS regression models. Methanol contents compared with UIV average values indicate recovery between 90 and 110%. PMID:22649934

  2. AMI 15 GHz upper limits for the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2016coj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, K. P.; Fender, R. P.; Cantwell, T.; Titterington, D.; Saunders, R.; Carey, S.; Hickish, J.; Perrott, Y. C.; Razavi-Ghods, N.; Scott, P.; Grainge, K.; Scaife, A.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the type Ia supernova SN 2016coj in NGC 4125 (Zheng et al., ATel #9095; d=19Mpc; discovery date 2016 May 28.18) with the AMI Large Array at 15 GHz. We detected a fading source (later found to be a chance coincidence; see below) at the location of the supernova on 2016 Jun 03.86, Jun 05.89 and Jun 09.76 UT, following which we triggered the Jansky VLA. The VLA observations, carried out between 2-18 GHz on Jun 11.07 UT, gave 3sigma upper limits of ~60 uJy at S, C, X and Ku bands.

  3. A K3 sigma model with : symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Taormina, Anne; Volpato, Roberto; Wendland, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    The K3 sigma model based on the -orbifold of the D 4-torus theory is studied. It is shown that it has an equivalent description in terms of twelve free Majorana fermions, or as a rational conformal field theory based on the affine algebra . By combining these different viewpoints we show that the = (4 , 4) preserving symmetries of this theory are described by the discrete symmetry group : . This model therefore accounts for one of the largest maximal symmetry groups of K3 sigma models. The symmetry group involves also generators that, from the orbifold point of view, map untwisted and twisted sector states into one another.

  4. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  5. HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Γ = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 μ G.

  6. Upper Limit of Weights in TAI Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Azoubib, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The international reference time scale International Atomic Time (TAI) computed by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) relies on a weighted average of data from a large number of atomic clocks. In it, the weight attributed to a given clock depends on its long-term stability. In this paper the TAI algorithm is used as the basis for a discussion of how to implement an upper limit of weight for clocks contributing to the ensemble time. This problem is approached through the comparison of two different techniques. In one case, a maximum relative weight is fixed: no individual clock can contribute more than a given fraction to the resulting time scale. The weight of each clock is then adjusted according to the qualities of the whole set of contributing elements. In the other case, a parameter characteristic of frequency stability is chosen: no individual clock can appear more stable than the stated limit. This is equivalent to choosing an absolute limit of weight and attributing this to to the most stable clocks independently of the other elements of the ensemble. The first technique is more robust than the second and automatically optimizes the stability of the resulting time scale, but leads to a more complicated computatio. The second technique has been used in the TAI algorithm since the very beginning. Careful analysis of tests on real clock data shows that improvement of the stability of the time scale requires revision from time to time of the fixed value chosen for the upper limit of absolute weight. In particular, we present results which confirm the decision of the CCDS Working Group on TAI to increase the absolute upper limit by a factor of 2.5. We also show that the use of an upper relative contribution further helps to improve the stability and may be a useful step towards better use of the massive ensemble of HP 507IA clocks now contributing to TAI.

  7. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, D. F.; Hall, D. T.; Zhu, X.; Summers, M. E.

    1993-06-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  8. Upper limit on Titan's atmospheric argon abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Hall, Doyle T.; Zhu, Xun; Summers, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is conducted on the Voyager 1 UV Spectrometer solar-occultation data and a Titan flyby spectrum of the north polar region dayglow, in order to infer the tropopausal Ar mixing ratio's upper limit as a function of the CH4 mixing ratio, f(CH4). The mole-fraction upper limit of tropopausal Ar mixing ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 at f(CH4) of 0.026 to as low as 0.08 at f(CH4) of 0.05. Since the best fits to the solar occultation data require f(CH4) of more than 0.26, the Ar mixing ratio must be lower than 0.1.

  9. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  10. Low upper limits on the O2 abundance from the Odin satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Bergman, P.; Bernath, P.; Black, J. H.; Booth, R. S.; Buat, V.; Crovisier, J.; Curry, C. L.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Falgarone, E.; Feldman, P. A.; Fich, M.; Floren, H. G.; Frisk, U.; Gerin, M.; Gregersen, E. M.; Harju, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Kwok, S.; Larsson, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Liljeström, T.; Lindqvist, M.; Liseau, R.; Mattila, K.; Mitchell, G. F.; Nordh, L. H.; Olberg, M.; Olofsson, G.; Ristorcelli, I.; Sandqvist, Aa.; von Scheele, F.; Serra, G.; Tothill, N. F.; Volk, K.; Wiklind, T.; Wilson, C. D.

    2003-05-01

    For the first time, a search has been conducted in our Galaxy for the 119 GHz transition connecting to the ground state of O2, using the Odin satellite. Equipped with a sensitive 3 mm receiver (Tsys(SSB) = 600 K), Odin has reached unprecedented upper limits on the abundance of O2, especially in cold dark clouds where the excited state levels involved in the 487 GHz transition are not expected to be significantly populated. Here we report upper limits for a dozen sources. In cold dark clouds we improve upon the published SWAS upper limits by more than an order of magnitude, reaching N(O2)/N(H2) <= 10-7 in half of the sources. While standard chemical models are definitively ruled out by these new limits, our results are compatible with several recent studies that derive lower O2 abundances. Goldsmith et al. (\\cite{SWAS2002}) recently reported a SWAS tentative detection of the 487 GHz transition of O2 in an outflow wing towards rho Oph A in a combination of 7 beams covering approximately 10arcmin x 14arcmin . In a brief (1.3 hour integration time) and partial covering of the SWAS region (~65% if we exclude their central position), we did not detect the corresponding 119 GHz line. Our 3 sigma upper limit on the O2 column density is 7.3x 1015 cm-2. We presently cannot exclude the possibility that the SWAS signal lies mostly outside of the 9\\arcmin Odin beam and has escaped our sensitive detector. Based on observations with Odin, a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes) and Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). The Swedish Space Corporation was the industrial prime contractor and is operating Odin.

  11. Upper limits on spacecraft-induced ultraviolet emissions from the Space Shuttle (STS-61C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Henry, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for band emission of N2, OH, O2, and NO in nightglow spectra obtained in January 1986 with the Johns Hopkins UV background experiment (UVX) flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) at an altitude of 330 km. The experiment consisted of two Ebert monochromators spanning the spectral range from 1200 to 1700 A at 17-A resolution and from 1600 to 3200 A at 29-A resolution. UV shuttle glow emission was not detected at a 330-km altitude with 3-sigma upper limits based on counting statistics on N2 LBH, O2 Herzberg, and NO delta, gamma, and beta of 5.3, 4.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 3.5 R of total band emission, respectively. The upper limit on the OH (A 2Sigma-u(+) - X2Pi)(0,0) and (1,0) band emission is 0.1 R. The branching ratio of the NO C2Pi state to the A2Sigma(+) state was determined from the UVX experiment by measuring the ratio of the total emission rate from the delta-band system to that of the gamma-band system. The branching ratio for the C2Pi state to the A2Sigma(+) state is 0.37 +/-0.03.

  12. Upper Limits on the O2 Abundance from the Odin Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Odin Team

    Odin is a Swedish mm and submm heterodyne 1.1m radiotelescope mounted on a spacecraft launched on 20 February 2001. It has been developed in cooperation with Canada, Finland and France. It is equipped with a 119 GHz HEMT amplifier and with 4 Schottky submm receivers in the range 486-580 GHz. All the front-end is mechanically cooled to 150 K. The antenna beam size is 9 arcmin at 119 GHz, the receiver tuning for the ground state transition of O2. Its high sensitivity (SSB system temperature = 600 K) allows us to reach unprecedented upper limits on O2, especially in cold dark clouds where the 487 GHz line is not favorable to search for this species. We report here upper limits for a dozen sources. In cold dark clouds we improve the published SWAS upper limits by an order of magnitude and reach O2/H2 <˜10-7 in several sources. Goldsmith et al. (ApJ, in press) recently reported a SWAS tentative detection of 487 GHz O2 towards ρ Oph A in a combination of 7 beams covering approximately 10 times 14 arcmin. In a brief (1.3 hour integration time) and partial coverage of the SWAS region (≅ 50% if we exclude the central position) we did not detect the corresponding 119 GHz line. Our 3 sigma upper limit on the O2 column density is 7.3 1015 cm-2. We presently cannot exclude the possibility that the SWAS signal lies mostly outside of our beam and escaped our sensitive detector. A better covering of the SWAS mapped region and deeper integration towards this source are planned to settle this question. Odin ) is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes) and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES, France). Swedish Space Corporation was prime contractor for the development and launch of Odin and is responsible for the operation of the satellite.

  13. Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; de La Jordana, L. Sancho; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2007-08-01

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO 600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximize sensitivity. For the first time, pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is 2.6×10-25 for PSR J1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSR J2124 3358 is less than 10-6. Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only 2.2 times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

  14. Upper limit map of a background of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We searched for an anisotropic background of gravitational waves using data from the LIGO S4 science run and a method that is optimized for point sources. This is appropriate if, for example, the gravitational wave background is dominated by a small number of distinct astrophysical sources. No signal was seen. Upper limit maps were produced assuming two different power laws for the source strain power spectrum. For an f-3 power law and using the 50 Hz to 1.8 kHz band the upper limits on the source strain power spectrum vary between 1.2×10-48Hz-1 (100Hz/f)3 and 1.2×10-47Hz-1 (100Hz/f)3, depending on the position in the sky. Similarly, in the case of constant strain power spectrum, the upper limits vary between 8.5×10-49Hz-1 and 6.1×10-48Hz-1. As a side product a limit on an isotropic background of gravitational waves was also obtained. All limits are at the 90% confidence level. Finally, as an application, we focused on the direction of Sco-X1, the brightest low-mass x-ray binary. We compare the upper limit on strain amplitude obtained by this method to expectations based on the x-ray flux from Sco-X1.

  15. DETERMINATION OF AN UPPER LIMIT FOR THE WATER OUTGASSING RATE OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, L.; Teyssier, D.; Kueppers, M.; Snodgrass, C.; De Val-Borro, M.; Hartogh, P.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Hsieh, H.; Micheli, M.; Fernandez, Y.

    2013-09-01

    A new Main-Belt Comet (MBC) P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) was discovered on 2012 October 6, approximately one month after its perihelion, by the Pan-STARRS1 survey based in Hawaii. It displayed cometary activity upon its discovery with one hypothesis being that the activity was driven by sublimation of ices; as a result, we searched for emission assumed to be driven by the sublimation of subsurface ices. Our search was of the H{sub 2}O 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} ground state rotational line at 557 GHz from P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory on 2013 January 16, when the object was at a heliocentric distance of 2.504 AU and a geocentric distance of 2.064 AU. Perihelion was in early 2012 September at a distance of 2.411 AU. While no H{sub 2}O line emission was detected in our observations, we were able to derive sensitive 3{sigma} upper limits for the water production rate and column density of <7.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} molecules s{sup -1} and of <1.61 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, respectively. An observation taken on 2013 January 15 using the Very Large Telescope found the MBC to be active during the Herschel observation, suggesting that any ongoing sublimation due to subsurface ice was lower than our upper limit.

  16. Mass loss upper limits for A and F dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Judge, P.; Bookbinder, J.; Hubeny, I.

    1990-01-01

    The upper limits of the ionized mass losses of A- and F-type main sequence stars are obtained with the VLA to investigate the theory that pulsationally driven winds contribute to substantial mass loss in the stars. The upper limits are found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the mass-loss loci proposed by Willson et al. (1987). Because any wind flowing from the stars should be detectable, the notion that A dwarfs are evolving into G dwarfs cannot be supported by the amount of mass that A and F dwarfs are shown to be losing.

  17. The upper limit of concentration under extended sources of radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minano, J. C.; Luque, A.

    A review of the theoretical analysis of the limits of concentration under extended sources of arbitrary distribution of radiance based solely on the Fermat principle and its derivation (the theorem of the conservation of the etendue) and not on the specific shape of the concentrators, is presented. It is concluded that for casting increasingly high values of energy on the collector, which in photovoltaic cases would be a bifacial solar cell, it is necessary to collect a lower portion of the total sky energy. This theory is applied to several static concentrators, indicating the extent of which their performance approaches the established limits. Some of them are far from the limit of concentration due to their linear structure. It is concluded that concentrators of linear structure have a particular upper limit of concentration lower than the general one, and that cylindrical CPCs almost reach this particular upper limit.

  18. The upper limits of pain and suffering in animal research.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Morton, David B

    2015-10-01

    The control of risk and harm in human research often calls for the establishment of upper limits of risk of pain, suffering, and distress that investigators must not exceed. Such upper limits are uncommon in animal research, in which limits of acceptability are usually left to the discretion of individual investigators, institutions, national inspectors, or ethics review committees. We here assess the merits of the European Directive 2010/63/EU on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes and its accompanying instruments, such as guides and examples. These documents present a body of legislation governing animal research in the European Union. We argue that the directive supplies a promising approach, but one in need of revision. We interpret the directive's general conception of upper limits and show its promise for the establishment of high-quality policies. We provide a moral rationale for such policies, address the problem of justified exceptions to established upper limits, and show when causing harm is and is not wrongful. We conclude that if the standards we propose for improving the directive are not realized in the review of research protocols, loose and prejudicial risk-benefit assessments may continue to be deemed sufficient to justify morally questionable research. However, a revised EU directive and accompanying instruments could have a substantial influence on the ethics of animal research worldwide, especially in the development of morally sound legal frameworks. PMID:26364778

  19. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional...

  20. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional...

  1. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional...

  2. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional...

  3. 42 CFR 447.304 - Adherence to upper limits; FFP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adherence to upper limits; FFP. 447.304 Section 447.304 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional...

  4. An upper limit for the proton lifetime in SO(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Miele, G.; Rosa, L.; Santorelli, P.; Tuzi, T.

    1989-12-01

    We find in a rather general class of SO(10) unified models the upper limit for the proton lifetime: τP⩽1.6×10 +33±3 yr, where the large error is due to the uncertainties on sin 2θw( MW) and α3( MW).

  5. An observed upper limit on stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Zafra, R. L.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J.; Solomon, P.

    1985-01-01

    Observations collected by a ground-based heterodyne receiver of an emission from the 7(0.7)-6(1.5) rotational torsional transition of H2O2 at 270.610 GHz are studied. An integrated spectrometer output of the data obtained at Mauna Kea, Hawaii in late May and early June of 1983 is presented. The removal of the ozone line background profile from the data is described. With no signal detected in the output of a 256-channel filter spectrometer the calculation of an upper limit on stratospheric H2O2 is possible. The utilization of the mixing ratio profile of Sze and Ko (1984) to compute the limit of H2O2 is examined. An upper limit for H2O2 of approximately 1 x 10 to the 14th/cu cm between 30-50 km is established.

  6. Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.; Peck, Lloyd S.

    2011-01-01

    Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour−1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41–52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37–41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2–3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

  7. New upper limits for atmospheric constituents on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of Io from 0.86 to 2.7 microns with a resolution of 3.36 per cm and a signal to rms noise ratio of 120 is presented. No absorptions due to any atmospheric constituents on Io could be found in the spectrum. Upper limits of 0.12 cm-atm for NH3, 0.12 cm-atm for CH4, 0.4 cm-atm for N2O, and 24 cm-atm for H2S were determined. Laboratory spectra of ammonia frosts as a function of temperature were compared with the spectrum of Io and showed this frost not to be present at the surface of Io. A search for possible resonance lines of carbon, silicon, and sulfur, as well as the 1.08-micron line of helium, proved negative. Upper emission limits of 60, 18, 27, and 60 kilorayleighs, respectively, were established for these lines.

  8. Upper thermal tolerance and oxygen limitation in terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Klok, C Jaco; Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2004-06-01

    The hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance proposes that critical temperatures are set by a transition to anaerobic metabolism, and that upper and lower tolerances are therefore coupled. Moreover, this hypothesis has been dubbed a unifying general principle and extended from marine to terrestrial ectotherms. By contrast, in insects the upper and lower limits are decoupled, suggesting that the oxygen limitation hypothesis might not be as general as proposed. However, no direct tests of this hypothesis or its predictions have been undertaken in terrestrial species. We use a terrestrial isopod (Armadillidium vulgare) and a tenebrionid beetle (Gonocephalum simplex) to test the prediction that thermal tolerance should vary with oxygen partial pressure. Whilst in the isopod critical thermal maximum declined with declining oxygen concentration, this was not the case in the beetle. Efficient oxygen delivery via a tracheal system makes oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, at a whole organism level, unlikely in insects. By contrast, oxygen limitation of thermal tolerances is expected to apply to species, like the isopod, in which the circulatory system contributes significantly to oxygen delivery. Because insects dominate terrestrial systems, oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance cannot be considered pervasive in this habitat, although it is a characteristic of marine species. PMID:15159440

  9. An upper limit on the neutrino rest mass.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsik, R.; Mcclelland, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of the deceleration parameter by Sandage (1972) implies an upper limit of a few tens of electron volts on the sum of the masses of all the possible light, stable particles that interact only weakly. In the discussion of the problem, it is assumed that the universe is expanding from an initially hot and condensed state as envisaged in the 'big-bang' theories.

  10. Upper limit of magnetic effect on α/β ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, G.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being integrated into radiotherapy delivery for MRI-guided radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to investigate theoretically the upper limit of any potential magnetic effect on the α/β ratio, an important radiobiological parameter in radiation therapy. Based on the theory of dual radiation action, the α/β ratio can be expressed by an integral of the product of two microdosimetry quantities γ (x) and t(x) , where γ (x) is the probability that two energy transfers, a distance x apart, results in a lesion, and t(x) is the proximity function, which is the energy-weighted point-pair distribution of distances between energy transfer points in a track. The quantity t(x) depends on the applied magnetic field. An analytical approach has been used to derive a formula that can be used to calculate the α/β ratio in an extremely strong magnetic field, which gives the upper limit of the potential changes of the α/β ratio due to the presence of a magnetic field. For V79 Chinese hamster cells the upper limit of the increase of the α/β ratio with a magnetic field has been found to be 2.90 times for Pd-103, 2.97 times for I-125 and 2.3 times for Co-60 sources.

  11. Upper limit for sea level projections by 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.; Moore, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    We construct the probability density function of global sea level at 2100, estimating that sea level rises larger than 180 cm are less than 5% probable. An upper limit for global sea level rise of 190 cm is assembled by summing the highest estimates of individual sea level rise components simulated by process based models with the RCP8.5 scenario. The agreement between the methods may suggest more confidence than is warranted since large uncertainties remain due to the lack of scenario-dependent projections from ice sheet dynamical models, particularly for mass loss from marine-based fast flowing outlet glaciers in Antarctica. This leads to an intrinsically hard to quantify fat tail in the probability distribution for global mean sea level rise. Thus our low probability upper limit of sea level projections cannot be considered definitive. Nevertheless, our upper limit of 180 cm for sea level rise by 2100 is based on both expert opinion and process studies and hence indicates that other lines of evidence are needed to justify a larger sea level rise this century.

  12. Upper limits to the annihilation radiation luminosity of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.; Dirouchoux, P.; Hameury, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A high resolution observation of the active nucleus galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) was made by the GSFC low energy gamma-ray spectrometer (LEGS) during a balloon flight on 1981 November 19. The measured spectrum between 70 and 500 keV is well represented by a power law of the form 1.05 x 10 (-4) (E/100 keV) (-1.59) ph/sq cm/s with no breaks or line features observed. The 98 percent confidence (2 sigma) flux upper limit for a narrow (3 keV) 511-keV positron annihilation line is 9.9 x 10 (-4) ph/sq cm/s. Using this upper limit, the ratio of the narrow-line annihilation radiation luminosity to the integral or = 511 keV luminosity is estimated to be 0.09 (2 sigma upper limit). This is compared with the measured value for our Galactic center in the Fall of 1979 of 0.10 to 0.13, indicating a difference in the emission regions in the nuclei of the two galaxies.

  13. Determination of an upper limit for the water outgassing rate of main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Laurence; Snodgrass, Colin; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Hsieh, Henry; Teyssier, David; Fernandez, Yan; Küppers, Michael; Micheli, Marco; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A new Main-Belt Comet (MBC) P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) was discovered on 2012 October 6, approximately one month after its perihelion, by the Pan-STARRS1 survey based in Hawaii (Wainscoat et al. 2012). It displayed cometary activity upon its discovery with one hypothesis being that the activity was driven by sublimation of ices; as a result, we searched for emission assumed to be driven by the sublimation of subsurface ices. Our search was of the H2O 110--101 ground state rotational line at 557 GHz from P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI; de Graauw et al. 2010) on board the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al, 2010) on 2013 January 16, when the object was at a heliocentric distance of 2.504 AU and a distance from Herschel of 2.059 AU. Perihelion was in early 2012 September at a heliocentric distance of 2.411 AU. To analyse the data we used a molecular excitation model equivalent to that utilized to analyze both Herschel and ground-based cometary observations (Hartogh et al. 2010, 2011; de Val-Borro et al. 2010, 2012a, 2012b). While no H2O line emission was detected in our observations, we were able to derive sensitive 3sigma upper limits for the water production rate and column density of

  14. A new upper limit to the local population II density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1972-01-01

    An upper limit to the local population II density is derived, in terms of the mass-luminosity ratio, on the basis of U, B, and V photometric observations of several thousand stars with V magnitudes between 12 and 18 in a region near the North Galactic Pole. The photographic and photoelectric photometry and the reduction procedures are discussed. Models of the density distribution and luminosity function of the population II stars are used to predict their distribution in color and apparent magnitude. The derived local density of population II is found to be significantly lower than previous estimates. Possible causes for this discrepancy are considered.

  15. Low Upper Limit to Methane Abundance on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Flesch, Gregory J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Soler, Javier Martín; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2013-10-01

    By analogy with Earth, methane in the Martian atmosphere is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity. During the past decade, Earth-based telescopic observations reported “plumes” of methane of tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and those from Mars orbit showed localized patches, prompting speculation of sources from subsurface bacteria or nonbiological sources. From in situ measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on Curiosity using a distinctive spectral pattern specific to methane, we report no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18 ± 0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence level), which reduces the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars and limits the recent contribution from extraplanetary and geologic sources.

  16. 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits from PAPER-64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Pober, Jonathan; Team PAPER

    2016-01-01

    We present power spectrum results from the 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER-64). We find an upper limit of Δ2≤(22.4 mK)2 over the range 0.15limits on the spin temperature at a redshift of 8.4. We find that the spin temperature is at least 10K for a neutral fraction between 15% and 80%. This further suggests that there was heating in the early universe through various sources such as x-ray binaries.

  17. Low upper limit to methane abundance on Mars.

    PubMed

    Webster, Christopher R; Mahaffy, Paul R; Atreya, Sushil K; Flesch, Gregory J; Farley, Kenneth A

    2013-10-18

    By analogy with Earth, methane in the Martian atmosphere is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity. During the past decade, Earth-based telescopic observations reported "plumes" of methane of tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and those from Mars orbit showed localized patches, prompting speculation of sources from subsurface bacteria or nonbiological sources. From in situ measurements made with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) on Curiosity using a distinctive spectral pattern specific to methane, we report no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18 ± 0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence level), which reduces the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars and limits the recent contribution from extraplanetary and geologic sources. PMID:24051245

  18. Upper Limit for Sea Level Projections by 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2015-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. We construct the probability density function of global sea level at 2100, estimating that sea level rises larger than 180 cm are less than 5% probable. An upper limit for global sea level rise of 190 cm is assembled by summing the highest estimates of individual sea level rise components simulated by process based models with the RCP8.5 scenario. The agreement between the methods may suggest more confidence than is warranted since large uncertainties remain due to the lack of scenario-dependent projections from ice sheet dynamical models, particularly for mass loss from marine-based fast flowing outlet glaciers in Antarctica.

  19. Geologic constraints on the upper limits of reserve growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.

    2001-01-01

    For many oil and gas fields, estimates of ultimate recovery (the sum of cumulative production plus estimated reserves) tend to increase from one year to the next, and the gain is called reserve growth. Forecasts of reserve growth by the U.S. Geological Survey rely on statistical analyses of historical records of oil and gas production and estimated reserves. The preproposal in this Open-File Report suggests that this traditional petroleum–engineering approach to reserve growth might be supplemented, or at least better understood, by using geological data from individual oil and gas fields, 3–D modeling software, and standard volumetric techniques to estimate in–place volumes of oil and gas. Such estimates, in turn, can be used to constrain the upper limits of reserve growth and ultimate recovery from those fields.

  20. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  1. MAGIC upper limits on the GRB 090102 afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Fidalgo, D. Carreto; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Mendez, C. Delgado; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. Garrido; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Munoz, A. González; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. La; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López-Coto, R.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Bouvier, A.; Hayashida, M.; Tajima, H.; Longo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Indications of a GeV component in the emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known since the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope observations during the 1990s and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy (VHE) photons (E > 30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z = 1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blastwave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. The results we obtained are compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the VHE range.

  2. Dipole moments and transition probabilities of the a 3Sigma(+)g - b 3Sigma(+)u system of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, S.; Dalgarno, A.; Posen, A.; Kwok, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Multiconfiguration variational calculations of the electronic wave functions of the a 3Sigma(+)g and b 3Sigma(+)u states of molecular hydrogen are presented, and the electric dipole transition moment between them (of interest in connection with stellar atmospheres and the UV spectrum of the Jovian planets) is obtained. The dipole moment is used to calculate the probabilities of radiative transitions from the discrete vibrational levels of the a 3Sigma(+)g state to the vibrational continuum of the repulsive b 3Sigma(+)u state as functions of the wavelength of the emitted photons. The total transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of the levels v prime = 0-20 are presented.

  3. Upper limits to the nightside ionosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. L.; Brannon, J. F.; Porter, H. S.

    1993-07-01

    The nightside ionosphere of Mars could be produced by electron precipitation or by plasma transport from the dayside, by analogy to the Venus, but few measurements are available. We report here model calculations of upper limits to the nightside ion densities on Mars that would be produced by both mechanisms. For the auroral model, we have adopted the downward traveling portions of the electron spectra measured by the HARP instrument on the Soviet Phobos spacecraft in the Martian plasma sheet and in the magnetotail lobes. For the plasma transport case, we have imposed on a model of the nightside thermosphere, downward fluxes of O(+), C(+), N(+), NO(+) and O2(+) that are near the maximum upward fluxes that can be sustained by the dayside ionosphere. The computed electron density peaks are in the range (1.3 - 1.9) x 10 exp 4/cu cm at altitudes of 159 to 179 kin. The major ion for all the models is O2(+), but significant differences in the composition of the minor ions are found for the ionospheres produced by auroral precipitation and by plasma transport. The calculations reported here provide a guide to the data that should be acquired during a future aeronomy mission to Mars, in order to determine the sources of the nightside ionosphere.

  4. Upper limits to the nightside ionosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.; Brannon, J. F.; Porter, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    The nightside ionosphere of Mars could be produced by electron precipitation or by plasma transport from the dayside, by analogy to the Venus, but few measurements are available. We report here model calculations of upper limits to the nightside ion densities on Mars that would be produced by both mechanisms. For the auroral model, we have adopted the downward traveling portions of the electron spectra measured by the HARP instrument on the Soviet Phobos spacecraft in the Martian plasma sheet and in the magnetotail lobes. For the plasma transport case, we have imposed on a model of the nightside thermosphere, downward fluxes of O(+), C(+), N(+), NO(+) and O2(+) that are near the maximum upward fluxes that can be sustained by the dayside ionosphere. The computed electron density peaks are in the range (1.3 - 1.9) x 10 exp 4/cu cm at altitudes of 159 to 179 kin. The major ion for all the models is O2(+), but significant differences in the composition of the minor ions are found for the ionospheres produced by auroral precipitation and by plasma transport. The calculations reported here provide a guide to the data that should be acquired during a future aeronomy mission to Mars, in order to determine the sources of the nightside ionosphere.

  5. Upper limits of dielectric permittivity modulation in bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acebal, P.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Fimia, A.

    2005-07-01

    A theoretical study of light-induced modulation of the dielectric permittivity in bacteriorhodopsin films has been done (including B→M and B→Q transitions). Analysis of dielectric permittivity modulation enables us to determine the fundamental limits of BR to be used in a holographic data storage system, together with the optimum experimental and material conditions. In order to carry out this analysis, the macroscopic dielectric permittivity was related to the microscopic polarizability of the three states of BR considered ( B , M and Q ). This parameter was calculated using a modelization procedure that includes the effect of ASP85, TRP86, and TYR185 aminoacid residues (the B3LYP/6-31+G* method was used for the calculations). Good concordance between theoretical calculations and experimental data was found for the linear optical properties (absorption wavelength, transition dipole moment, and dielectric permittivity modulation). The theoretical upper limits of Δγ at 750nm (far from the resonance of the molecule) in a randomly oriented material are about 0.01 and 0.012 for B→M and B→Q transitions, respectively. The values of Δγ obtained were used to simulate diffraction efficiencies (η) of a volume phase hologram recorded in a BR film. The high absorptive losses at low wavelengths (about 625nm ) cause an interesting behavior, since the highest Δγ do not produce the greatest η . The highest η is produced for a hologram thickness in the range of 900-1000μm and working wavelength of 700-750nm .

  6. Comparative reproducibility of defibrillation threshold and upper limit of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, C D; Davie, S; Ahern, T; Chen, P S

    1996-12-01

    The upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) is the strength at or above which VF is not induced when a stimulus is delivered during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the ULV and the defibrillation threshold (DFT) in groups of patients. However, the correlation between ULV and DFT may not be close in individual patients. This imperfect correlation may be due to physiological factors or to limitations of the measurement methods. The reproducibility of either DFT or ULV has not been studied critically. The purpose of this study was to compare the reproducibility of clinically applicable methods for determination of DFT and ULV. We prospectively studied 25 patients with a transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (Medtronic 7219D) at postoperative electrophysiological study. DFT was defined as the lowest energy that defibrillated after 10 seconds of VF. The ULV was defined as the lowest energy that did not induce VF with three shocks at 0, 20, and 40 ms before the peak of the T wave in ventricular paced rhythm at a cycle length of 500 ms. Both the DFT and the ULV were determined twice for biphasic pulses using a three-step, midpoint protocol. There was no significant difference between the two determinations of DFT (10.1 +/- 5.9 J vs 10.4 +/- 5.8 J), the two determinations of ULV (13.4 +/- 6.8 J vs 13.8 +/- 6.6) or the DFT-ULV Pearson correlation coefficients for each determination (0.84, P < 0.001 vs 0.75, P < 0.001). To analyze reproducibility, Lin concordance coefficients for second determination versus first determination were constructed for both ULV and DFT. This coefficient is similar to the Pearson correlation coefficient, but measures closeness to the line of identity rather than the line of regression. The Lin concordance coefficient for ULV was higher than that for DFT (0.93, 95% CI 0.85-0.97 vs 0.64, 95% CI 0.33-0.82; P < 0.01). For paired comparison of

  7. Product branching ratios of the NH({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO and NH({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO{sub 2} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quandt, R.W.; Hershberger, J.F.

    1995-11-16

    The title reactions were studied at 298 K using time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. For the NH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO reaction, N{sub 2}O + H were found to be the primary products, with a branching ratio of 0.77 {+-} 0.08, in good agreement with other recent measurements. For the NH ({sup 3} {Sigma}{sup -}) + NO{sub 2} reaction, the measured branching ratio was 0.41 {+-} 0.15 into the N{sub 2}O + OH channel and 0.59 {+-} 0.15 into the NO + HNO channel. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, R.C.; De Souza, V.; Supanitsky, A.D. E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) E > 10{sup 18} eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV--TeV gamma-rays is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity of individual sources. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV--TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.

  9. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified... of brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific... an electronic alternative means approved by the Secretary) that a specific brand is...

  10. An upper limit to the product of NO and O densities from 105 to 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    From the Ogo 6 horizon-scanning-photometer data a useful upper limit can be set to the radiance of nightglow in the O-NO afterglow continuum above 105 km. The upper limit is a factor of about 5 less than the product of observed NO densities and Jacchia (1971) O model densities.

  11. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified... of brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific... an electronic alternative means approved by the Secretary) that a specific brand is...

  12. 42 CFR 447.512 - Drugs: Aggregate upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Aggregate upper limits of payment. (a) Multiple source drugs. Except for brand name drugs that are certified... applies. (b) Other drugs. The agency payments for brand name drugs certified in accordance with paragraph... brand name drugs. (1) The upper limit for payment for multiple source drugs for which a specific...

  13. 42 CFR 447.362 - Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Prepaid Capitation Plans § 447.362 Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Upper limits of payment: Nonrisk contract....

  14. A retrieved upper limit of CS in Neptune's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Hirota, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present our new result of CS(J=7-6), CO(J=3-2) observations of Neptune's atmosphere carried out with 10-m ASTE sub-mm waveband telescope on August 2010. As a result, while CS line was not detected with 6.4 mK 1-sigma r.m.s. noise level, CO line was detected as 282 mK with 9.7 mK noise level in antenna temperature scale. All of the observations were carried out with 512 MHz bandwidth and 500 kHz resolution, the total integration time for CS and CO were 23 m 40 s and 11 m 00 s, respectively. Abundances have been obtained from the comparison between the intensity and the synthesis spectra modeled by plane parallel 1-D radiative transfer code assuming various mixing ratio of each gas. The retrieved upper limit of CS mixing ratio was 0.03 ppb throughout tropopause to stratosphere. CO mixing ratio have been retrieved 1.0 ppm with errors +0.3 and -0.2 ppm, and the result was consistent with previous observation [1]. The origin of abundant CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been long discussed since its mixing ratio is 30 - 500 times higher than the value of other gas giants [2][3][4]. Assuming that all of CO is produced by thermochemical equilibrium process in deep interior of Neptune, required O/H value in interior is 440 times higher than the solar value [5]. For this reason, it is claimed that the external CO supply source, such as the impact of comet or asteroid, is also the possible candidates of the origin of CO along with the internal supply source [6]. In this observation, we searched the remnant gas of cometary impact in Neptune's atmosphere. Along with CO and HCN, CS could be one of the possible candidate of the remnant gas of cometary impact since CS was largely produced after the impact of comet SL/9 on Jupiter while many other major sulfur compounds have not been detected. Actually, derived < 0.00003 [CS]/[CO] value from our observations is 1000 times more smaller than the value of Jupiter of 0.037 [7]. Our observation result shows the depletion of CS in

  15. Upper limit power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Weimin; Hu Zhidan; Chen Liming; Li Yutong; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Zeng Ming; Liu Yue; Kawata, Shigeo; Zheng Chunyang; Mori, Warren B.

    2012-10-29

    It is shown that there is an upper-limit laser power for self-focusing of a laser pulse in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect. This upper limit is caused by the transverse ponderomotive force of the laser, which tends to expel plasma electrons from the laser propagating area. Furthermore, there is a lower-limit plasma density for a given laser spot size, below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power. Both the lower-limit density and the upper-limit power are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is also found that plasma channels may be unfavorable for stable guiding of lasers above the upper-limit power.

  16. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits. 447.321 Section 447.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment...

  17. Predissociation of oxygen in the B3Sigma(u)(-) state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, S. S.-L.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Finch, M.; Jamieson, M. J.; Yoshino, K.; Dalgarno, A.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    The predissociation linewidths and level shifts of vibrational levels of three oxygen isotopic molecules (O2)-16, (O-16)(O-18), and (O2)-18 arising from the interactions of the B3Sigma(u)(-) state with the four repulsive states 5Pi(u), 3Sigma(u)(+), 3Pi(u), and 1Pi(u) have been calculated. A set of parameters characterizing these interactions has been determined. Good agreement between calculated and experimental predissociation widths and shifts has been obtained for all the three isotopic molecules.

  18. Positron attachment to the H{sub 2}(A {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u}) state

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.; Zhang, J. Y.

    2011-06-15

    The stochastic variational method is used to compute the binding energy for positrons attached to the repulsive H{sub 2}(A {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u}) state. Attachment occurs for internuclear separations between 1.616 a{sub 0} and 1.818 a{sub 0}. At these distances the vertical ionization potential for the H{sub 2}(A {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u}) state is close to the positronium binding energy of 0.250 a.u. The maximum attachment energy occurs at 1.67 a{sub 0} and is 0.003532 a.u.

  19. Probability of Future Observations Exceeding One-Sided, Normal, Upper Tolerance Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Timothy S.

    2014-10-29

    Normal tolerance limits are frequently used in dynamic environments specifications of aerospace systems as a method to account for aleatory variability in the environments. Upper tolerance limits, when used in this way, are computed from records of the environment and used to enforce conservatism in the specification by describing upper extreme values the environment may take in the future. Components and systems are designed to withstand these extreme loads to ensure they do not fail under normal use conditions. The degree of conservatism in the upper tolerance limits is controlled by specifying the coverage and confidence level (usually written in “coverage/confidence” form). Moreover, in high-consequence systems it is common to specify tolerance limits at 95% or 99% coverage and confidence at the 50% or 90% level. Despite the ubiquity of upper tolerance limits in the aerospace community, analysts and decision-makers frequently misinterpret their meaning. The misinterpretation extends into the standards that govern much of the acceptance and qualification of commercial and government aerospace systems. As a result, the risk of a future observation of the environment exceeding the upper tolerance limit is sometimes significantly underestimated by decision makers. This note explains the meaning of upper tolerance limits and a related measure, the upper prediction limit. So, the objective of this work is to clarify the probability of exceeding these limits in flight so that decision-makers can better understand the risk associated with exceeding design and test levels during flight and balance the cost of design and development with that of mission failure.

  20. Probability of Future Observations Exceeding One-Sided, Normal, Upper Tolerance Limits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Edwards, Timothy S.

    2014-10-29

    Normal tolerance limits are frequently used in dynamic environments specifications of aerospace systems as a method to account for aleatory variability in the environments. Upper tolerance limits, when used in this way, are computed from records of the environment and used to enforce conservatism in the specification by describing upper extreme values the environment may take in the future. Components and systems are designed to withstand these extreme loads to ensure they do not fail under normal use conditions. The degree of conservatism in the upper tolerance limits is controlled by specifying the coverage and confidence level (usually written inmore » “coverage/confidence” form). Moreover, in high-consequence systems it is common to specify tolerance limits at 95% or 99% coverage and confidence at the 50% or 90% level. Despite the ubiquity of upper tolerance limits in the aerospace community, analysts and decision-makers frequently misinterpret their meaning. The misinterpretation extends into the standards that govern much of the acceptance and qualification of commercial and government aerospace systems. As a result, the risk of a future observation of the environment exceeding the upper tolerance limit is sometimes significantly underestimated by decision makers. This note explains the meaning of upper tolerance limits and a related measure, the upper prediction limit. So, the objective of this work is to clarify the probability of exceeding these limits in flight so that decision-makers can better understand the risk associated with exceeding design and test levels during flight and balance the cost of design and development with that of mission failure.« less

  1. Upper limit on the photon fraction in highest-energy cosmic rays from AGASA data.

    PubMed

    Risse, M; Homola, P; Engel, R; Góra, D; Heck, D; Pekala, J; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H

    2005-10-21

    A new method to derive an upper limit on photon primaries from small data sets of air showers is developed which accounts for shower properties varying with the primary energy and arrival direction. Applying this method to the highest-energy showers recorded by the AGASA experiment, an upper limit on the photon fraction of 51% (67%) at a confidence level of 90% (95%) for primary energies above 1.25 x 10(20) eV is set. This new limit on the photon fraction above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff energy constrains the -burst model of the origin of highest-energy cosmic rays. PMID:16383814

  2. A new upper limit for an atmosphere of CO2, CO on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Poppen, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    High-resolution infrared spectra of Mercury (1.9-2.7 microns, resolution limit 0.134 wavelength/cm) obtained with the original 'Connes' interferometer at the Steward Observatory 90-inch telescope have provided a very sensitive test for the possible presence of a CO2, CO atmosphere. An improved upper limit of 0.12 cm-atm has been set for CO2, and a new upper limit of 0.05 cm-atm has been set for CO. Upper limits of similar magnitude can be established for CH4 and NH3. From the separation of the Mercury signal into reflected sunlight and thermal emission, we determine that the reflectivity decreases toward longer wavelengths and has a value of about 0.06 at 2.25 microns. Implications for the possible evolution of an atmosphere on Mercury are discussed.

  3. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  4. The relationship between the Eddington limit, the observed upper luminosity limit for massive stars, and the luminous blue variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The observed upper luminosity limits in the Galaxy and the LMC are compared with the Eddington limit as estimated for plane-parallel LTE model atmospheres which include the full effects of metal line opacities in the ultraviolet. It is shown that the Humphreys-Davidson (HD) limit corresponds to the locus of extremely low effective gravities. This result suggests that stars approaching the HD limit will suffer high mass-loss rates because of the reduction of the effective gravity due to radiation pressure. These high mass-loss rates ultimtely lead to the core mass fraction reaching its critical value and the reversal of the stellar evolution tracks. It is shown that radiation pressure, as an agent for producing enhanced mass loss near the HD limit, can in a natural way explain the kink in the HD limit near T(eff) roughly 10,000 K and the upper luminosity limit for yellow and red supergiants. The high mass-loss rates of the luminous blue variables, their location in the HR diagram, and their evolutionary stage are also discussed.

  5. Upper limits on phiphi production in 350-GeV/c proton-beryllium collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanouchi, T.; Brown, B.C.; Brown, C.N.; Dixon, R.L.; Ito, A.S.; Jostlein, H.; Lederman, L.M.; Ueno, K.; Coutrakon, G.B.; Finley, D.A.; McCarthy, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    We have established a sensitive upper limit on phiphi resonance production by 350-GeV/c protons incident on a beryllium target. The 90%-confidence-level upper limit varies from 1.5 x 10/sup -30/ cm/sup 2//nucleon at M/sub phiphi/=2.8 GeV/c/sup 2/ to 6.0 x 10/sup -32/ cm/sup 2//nucleon at M/sub phiphi/=3.4 GeV/c/sup 2/. We observe no evidence of the eta/sub c/.

  6. Upper limits for X-ray emission from Jupiter as measured from the Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Culhane, J. L.; Hawkins, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray telescopic observations are made by the Copernicus satellite for detecting X-ray emission from Jupiter analogous to X-rays from terrestrial aurorae. Values of X-ray fluxes recorded by three Copernicus detectors covering the 0.6 to 7.5 keV energy range are reported. The detectors employed are described and the times at which the observations were made are given. Resulting upper-limit spectra are compared with previous X-ray observations of Jupiter. The upper-limit X-ray fluxes are discussed in terms of magnetospheric activity on Jupiter.

  7. New experimental upper limit of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oellers, D.; Weidemann, C.; Lenisa, P.; Meyer, H. O.; Rathmann, F.; Trusov, S.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Bertelli, S.; Carassiti, V.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Goslawski, P.; Grigoriev, K.; Guidoboni, G.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Kulikov, A.; Kleines, H.; Langenberg, G.; Lehrach, A.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Macharashvili, G.; Maier, R.; Marianski, B.; Martin, S.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Mikirtychiants, S.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N.; Nioradze, M.; Papenbrock, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Sarkadi, J.; Schleichert, R.; Smirnov, A.; Seyfarth, H.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Stein, H. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Stro¨her, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Tho¨rngren Engblom, P.; Trzcinski, A.; Valdau, Y.; Vasiliev, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zupranski, P.

    2014-09-01

    In a previous publication, measurements of the depolarization of a stored proton beam by interaction with a co-propagating unpolarized electron beam at low relative energy have been presented and an upper limit of about 3 ×107 b for the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section was determined. A refined analysis presented in this paper reduces the previous upper limit by a factor of three by the introduction of a new procedure that also makes use of non-identified particles.

  8. Upper limits on extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby main sequence and subgiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    Flux upper limits for 44-800 A radiation were measured in a sample of nearby main sequence stars and one subgiant star with the aid of the Apollo-Soyuz grazing incidence telescope. Comparisons of emission measure upper limits with three different methods for predicting coronal properties cannot yet determine which, if any, are valid. Data for Alpha Centauri A and B are consistent with recent HEAO-1 soft X-ray measurements which suggest that the surface flux of coronal emission from the Alpha Cen system is comparable to that of the 'normal' sun.

  9. Theoretical Study of the B(sup 3) Sigma(sup -, sub u) - X(sup3)Sigma(sub g, sup -) and B"(sup 3)Pi(sub u) - X(sup 3)Sigma(sub g, sup -) Band Systems of S(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Atul D.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions and potential energy curves have been calculated for the X(sup 3)Sigma(sub g,sup -), B(sup 3)Sigma(sub u, Sup -) and B"(sup 3)Pi((sub u) states of S(sub 2) using correlation consistent Gaussian basis sets. These wavefunctions are utilized to compute the the transition dipole moments of the B(sup 3)Sigma(sub g, sup -) - X(sup 3) Sigma(sub g, sup -) and B"(sup 3)Pi(sub u) - X(sup 3)Sigma(sub g, sup -) systems. Oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and radiative lifetimes are computed for the X-B system and comparison is made with experimental data.

  10. 42 CFR 447.271 - Upper limits based on customary charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Upper limits based on customary charges. 447.271 Section 447.271 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services...

  11. 42 CFR 447.325 - Other inpatient and outpatient facility services: Upper limits of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Upper limits of payment. 447.325 Section 447.325 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Other Inpatient and Outpatient...

  12. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  13. An upper limit to ground state energy fluctuations in nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Jorge G.; Frank, Alejandro; Barea, Jose; Velazquez, Victor; Isacker, Piet van; Zuker, Andres P.

    2007-02-12

    Shell model calculations are employed to estimate un upper limit of statistical fluctuations in the nuclear ground state energies. In order to mimic the presence of quantum chaos associated with neutron resonances at energies between 6 to 10 MeV, calculations include random interactions in the upper shells. The upper bound for the energy fluctuations at mid-shell is shown to have the form {sigma}(A) {approx_equal} 20A-1.34 MeV. This estimate is consistent with the mass errors found in large shell model calculations along the N=126 line, and with local mass error estimated using the Garvey-Kelson relations, all being smaller than 100 keV.

  14. An improved upper limit to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales

    SciTech Connect

    Mainini, R.; Minelli, D.; Gervasi, M.; Boella, G.; Sironi, G.; Baú, A.; Banfi, S.; Passerini, A.; Lucia, A. De; Cavaliere, F. E-mail: daniele.minelli@gmail.com E-mail: giuliano.boella@unimib.it E-mail: bau@mib.infn.it E-mail: andrea.passerini@mib.infn.it E-mail: francesco.cavaliere@fisica.unimi.it

    2013-08-01

    Circular polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) offers the possibility of detecting rotations of the universe and magnetic fields in the primeval universe or in distant clusters of galaxies. We used the Milano Polarimeter (MIPOL) installed at the Testa Grigia Observatory, on the italian Alps, to improve the existing upper limits to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales. We obtain 95% confidence level upper limits to the degree of the CMB circular polarization ranging between 5.0⋅10{sup −4} and 0.7⋅10{sup −4} at angular scales between 8° and 24°, improving by one order of magnitude preexisting upper limits at large angular scales. Our results are still far from the nK region where today expectations place the amplitude of the V Stokes parameter used to characterize circular polarization of the CMB but improve the preexisting limit at similar angular scales. Our observations offered also the opportunity of characterizing the atmospheric emission at 33 GHz at the Testa Grigia Observatory.

  15. An improved upper limit to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainini, R.; Minelli, D.; Gervasi, M.; Boella, G.; Sironi, G.; Baú, A.; Banfi, S.; Passerini, A.; De Lucia, A.; Cavaliere, F.

    2013-08-01

    Circular polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) offers the possibility of detecting rotations of the universe and magnetic fields in the primeval universe or in distant clusters of galaxies. We used the Milano Polarimeter (MIPOL) installed at the Testa Grigia Observatory, on the italian Alps, to improve the existing upper limits to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales. We obtain 95% confidence level upper limits to the degree of the CMB circular polarization ranging between 5.0ṡ10-4 and 0.7ṡ10-4 at angular scales between 8° and 24°, improving by one order of magnitude preexisting upper limits at large angular scales. Our results are still far from the nK region where today expectations place the amplitude of the V Stokes parameter used to characterize circular polarization of the CMB but improve the preexisting limit at similar angular scales. Our observations offered also the opportunity of characterizing the atmospheric emission at 33 GHz at the Testa Grigia Observatory.

  16. Upper limit on spontaneous supercurrents in Sr2RuO4

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Suk Bum

    2010-04-05

    It is widely believed that the perovskite Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is an unconventional superconductor with broken time reversal symmetry. It has been predicted that superconductors with broken time reversal symmetry should have spontaneously generated supercurrents at edges and domain walls. We have done careful imaging of the magnetic fields above Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} single crystals using scanning Hall bar and SQUID microscopies, and see no evidence for such spontaneously generated supercurrents. We use the results from our magnetic imaging to place upper limits on the spontaneously generated supercurrents at edges and domain walls as a function of domain size. For a single domain, this upper limit is below the predicted signal by two orders of magnitude. We speculate on the causes and implications of the lack of large spontaneous supercurrents in this very interesting superconducting system.

  17. The cosmic-ray antiproton flux - An upper limit near that predicted for secondary production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cleghorn, T.; Golden, R. L.; Lacy, J. L.; Zipse, J. E.; Daniel, R. R.; Stephens, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Data gathered from a balloon flight of a superconducting-magnet spectrometer have been examined for the presence of cosmic-ray antiprotons. The ratio of antiprotons to protons, p(-)/p, in cosmic rays was found to be (0.03 + or - 3.3) ten-thousandths in the rigidity interval from 4.2 to 12.5 GV. The 95%-confidence-level upper limit for p(-)/p is thus 0.00066. This upper limit is in strong contradiction to the prediction of the closed-galaxy model of Rasmussen and Peters (1975), but is not inconsistent with the prediction of the modified closed-galaxy model of Peters and Westergaard (1977). It is nearly equal to the predictions of conventional propagation models. This result provides an independent confirmation of the absence of primary antimatter in the cosmic rays at a level of approximately a few ten-thousandths.

  18. Upper thermal limits of the hearts of Arctic cod Boreogadus saida: adults compared with larvae.

    PubMed

    Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Randall, F; Kent, D; Carmack, E C; Farrell, A P

    2016-02-01

    Wild adult and reared larval Boreogadus saida were acclimated to 3·5° C before testing their cardiac response to acute warming. Heart rate transition temperatures during warming were similar for adult and larval hearts, except that the maximum temperature for heart rate was 3° C warmer for adults. Thus, in a rapidly warming Arctic Ocean, the upper temperature limit for larval rather than adult B. saida appears more likely to dictate the southern range of the species. PMID:26608719

  19. Measurement of upper limits for {upsilon}{yields}{gamma}+R decays

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a study of exclusive radiative decays {upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}+R (n=1, 2, 3), with R a narrow resonant hadronic state decaying into four or more charged particles (plus possible neutrals). Using data collected from the CLEO III detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we present upper limits of order 10{sup -4} for such bottomonium two-body decays as a function of the mass M{sub R} recoiling opposite the photon.

  20. Upper limits on the luminosity of the progenitor of Type Ia supernova SN 2014J

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Bogdán, Á.; Woods, T. E.; Nelemans, G.

    2014-08-01

    We analysed archival data of Chandra pre-explosion observations of the position of SN 2014J in M82. No X-ray source at this position was detected in the data, and we calculated upper limits on the luminosities of the progenitor. These upper limits allow us to firmly rule out an unobscured supersoft X-ray source progenitor with a photospheric radius comparable to the radius of white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass (˜1.38 M⊙) and mass accretion rate in the interval where stable nuclear burning can occur. However, due to a relatively large hydrogen column density implied by optical observations of the supernova, we cannot exclude a supersoft source with lower temperatures, kT ≲ 70 eV. We find that the supernova is located in the centre of a large structure of soft diffuse emission, about 200 pc across. The mass, ˜3 × 104 M⊙ and short cooling time of the gas, τcool ˜ 8 Myr, suggest that it is a supernova-inflated superbubble, associated with the region of recent star formation. If SN 2014J is indeed located inside the bubble, it likely belongs to the prompt population of Type Ia supernovae, with a delay time as short as ˜50 Myr. Finally, we analysed the one existing post-supernova Chandra observation and placed upper limit of ˜(1-2) × 1037 erg s-1 on the X-ray luminosity of the supernova itself.

  1. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii. PMID:24954386

  2. Higgs Mass Constraints on a Fourth Family: Upper and Lower Limits on CKM Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2010-06-25

    Theoretical and experimental limits on the Higgs boson mass restrict CKM mixing of a possible fourth family beyond the constraints previously obtained from precision electroweak data alone. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds on m{sub H} already significantly restrict the allowed parameter space. Zero CKM mixing is excluded and mixing of order {theta}{sub Cabbibo} is allowed. Upper and lower limits on 3-4 CKM mixing are exhibited as a function of m{sub H}. We use the default inputs of the Electroweak Working Group and also explore the sensitivity of both the three and four family fits to alternative inputs.

  3. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ying; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  4. Adherence to balance tolerance limits at the Upper Mississippi Science Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, C.T.; Kennedy, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Verification of balance accuracy entails applying a series of standard masses to a balance prior to use and recording the measured values. The recorded values for each standard should have lower and upper weight limits or tolerances that are accepted as verification of balance accuracy under normal operating conditions. Balance logbooks for seven analytical balances at the Upper Mississippi Science Center were checked over a 3.5-year period to determine if the recorded weights were within the established tolerance limits. A total of 9435 measurements were checked. There were 14 instances in which the balance malfunctioned and operators recorded a rationale in the balance logbook. Sixty-three recording errors were found. Twenty-eight operators were responsible for two types of recording errors: Measurements of weights were recorded outside of the tolerance limit but not acknowledged as an error by the operator (n = 40); and measurements were recorded with the wrong number of decimal places (n = 23). The adherence rate for following tolerance limits was 99.3%. To ensure the continued adherence to tolerance limits, the quality-assurance unit revised standard operating procedures to require more frequent review of balance logbooks.

  5. Cold collisions of PH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) with helium in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Eryin; Yu, Chunhua; Sun, Chunyan; Shao, Xi; Huang, Wuying

    2011-12-15

    A theoretical investigation of the He-PH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) complex is presented. We perform ab initio calculations of the interaction potential energy surface and discuss its error bounds with relevance to cold collisions, and we carry out accurate calculations of bound energy levels of the complex including the molecular fine structure and magnetic-field effect. We find the potential has two shallow minima and supports ten and 13 bound levels in complex with {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, respectively. Based on the potential the quantum scattering calculations are then implemented for elastic and inelastic cross sections of the magnetically trappable low-field-seeking state of PH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) in collision with {sup 3}He atom. The cold-collision properties and the influence of the external magnetic field as well as the effect of the uncertainty of interaction potential on the collisionally induced Zeeman relaxation are explored and discussed in detail. The ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections is large over a wide range of collision energy, magnetic field, and scaling factor of the potential, so that helium buffer-gas loading and evaporative cooling of PH is a good prospect.

  6. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartin, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. From the latter observational fact, this paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighbourhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programmes, and they can travel over large distances, then the upper bound on the likelihood of such a species arising per habitable world is of the order of 10-3 on the other hand, if civilizations are not prone to colonize their neighbours, or do not travel very far, then the upper limiting probability is much larger, even of order one.

  7. Upper-bound limit analysis based on the natural element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Tao; Liu, Ying-Hua

    2012-10-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is a newly-developed numerical method based on Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation of scattered points, which adopts natural neighbour interpolation to construct trial functions in the framework of Galerkin method. Owing to its distinctive advantages, the NEM is used widely in many problems of computational mechanics. Utilizing the NEM, this paper deals with numerical limit analysis of structures made up of perfectly rigid-plastic material. According to kinematic theorem of plastic limit analysis, a mathematical programming natural element formulation is established for determining the upper bound multiplier of plane problems, and a direct iteration algorithm is proposed accordingly to solve it. In this algorithm, the plastic incompressibility condition is handled by two different treatments, and the nonlinearity and nonsmoothness of the goal function are overcome by distinguishing the rigid zones from the plastic zones at each iteration. The procedure implementation of iterative process is quite simple and effective because each iteration is equivalent to solving an associated elastic problem. The obtained limit load multiplier is proved to monotonically converge to the upper bound of true solution. Several benchmark examples are investigated to validate the significant performance of the NEM in the application field of limit analysis.

  8. Upper limits to the interstellar radiation field between 775 and 1050 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.; Bowyer, S.

    1976-01-01

    A 40-A resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectrometer, sensitive to radiation in the 775-1050 A band, was flown on a Black Brant VC rocket to measure the night sky brightness in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. A weak signal above background was recorded in most channels as the spectrometer's field of view scanned the sky in the vicinity of the galactic plane from Monoceros to Andromeda. Because the earth's upper atmosphere may produce some radiation in this wavelength region, the possibility cannot be excluded that some or all of the observed signal is terrestrial in origin. However, observational upper limits can be established at the 95-per cent confidence level for the intensity of an extraterrestrial extreme ultraviolet background which ranges from 6 millionths erg/sq cm/s/sr/A at 1050 A to 4 ten-millionths erg/sq cm/s/sr/A at 775 A. These results are consistent with existing theoretical predictions.

  9. A Ground-Based Albedo Upper Limit for HD 189733b from Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Nofi, Larissa; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Kopparla, Pushkar; Laughlin, Gregory P.; Hermis, Ninos; Yung, Yuk; Swain, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We present 50 nights of polarimetric observations of HD 189733 in B band using the POLISH2 aperture-integrated polarimeter at the Lick Observatory Shane 3-m telescope. This instrument, commissioned in 2011, is designed to search for Rayleigh scattering from short-period exoplanets due to the polarized nature of scattered light. Since these planets are spatially unresolvable from their host stars, the relative contribution of the planet-to-total system polarization is expected to vary with an amplitude of order 10 parts per million (ppm) over the course of the orbit. Non-zero and also variable at the 10 ppm level, the inherent polarization of the Lick 3-m telescope limits the accuracy of our measurements and currently inhibits conclusive detection of scattered light from this exoplanet. However, the amplitude of observed variability conservatively sets a 99.7% confidence upper limit to the planet-induced polarization of the system of 58 ppm in B band, which is consistent with a previous upper limit from the POLISH instrument at the Palomar Observatory 5-m telescope (Wiktorowicz 2009). A physically-motivated Rayleigh scattering model, which includes the depolarizing effects of multiple scattering, is used to conservatively set a 99.7% confidence upper limit to the geometric albedo of HD 189733b of Ag < 0.36. This value is consistent with the value Ag = 0.226 ± 0.091 derived from occultation observations with HST STIS (Evans et al. 2013), but it is inconsistent with the large Ag = 0.61 ± 0.12 albedo reported by Berdyugina et al. (2011).

  10. An upper bound to time-averaged space-charge limited diode currents

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, M. E.; Fisch, N. J.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2010-11-15

    The Child-Langmuir law limits the steady-state current density across a one-dimensional planar diode. While it is known that the peak current density can surpass this limit when the boundary conditions vary in time, it remains an open question of whether the average current can violate the Child-Langmuir limit under time-dependent conditions. For the case where the applied voltage is constant but the electric field at the cathode is allowed to vary in time, one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations suggest that such a violation is impossible. Although a formal proof is not given, an upper bound on the time-averaged current density is offered.

  11. Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational radiation background from pulsar timing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellings, R. W.; Downs, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsar and the earth may be thought of as end masses of a free-mass gravitational wave antenna in which the relative motion of the masses is monitored by observing the Doppler shift of the pulse arrival times. Using timing residuals from PSR 1133 + 16, 1237 + 25, 1604-00, and 2045-16, an upper limit to the spectrum of the isotropic gravitational radiation background has been derived in the frequency band 4 x 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -7th Hz. This limit is found to be S(E) = 10 to the 21st f-cubed ergs/cu cm Hz, where S(E) is the energy density spectrum and f is the frequency in Hz. This would limit the energy density at frequencies below 10 to the -8th Hz to be 0.00014 times the critical density.

  12. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. I - Univariate distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1985-01-01

    The statistical treatment of univariate censored data is discussed. A heuristic derivation of the Kaplan-Meier maximum-likelihood estimator from first principles is presented which results in an expression amenable to analytic error analysis. Methods for comparing two or more censored samples are given along with simple computational examples, stressing the fact that most astronomical problems involve upper limits while the standard mathematical methods require lower limits. The application of univariate survival analysis to six data sets in the recent astrophysical literature is described, and various aspects of the use of survival analysis in astronomy, such as the limitations of various two-sample tests and the role of parametric modelling, are discussed.

  13. 14-3-3sigma is a cruciform DNA binding protein and associates in vivo with origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Novac, Olivia; Callejo, Mario; Ruiz, Marcia T; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A human cruciform binding protein (CBP) was previously shown to bind to cruciform DNA in a structure-specific manner and be a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. CBP had been found to contain the 14-3-3 isoforms beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. Here, we show by Western blot analysis that the CBP-cruciform DNA complex eluted from band-shift polyacrylamide gels also contains the 14-3-3sigma isoform, which is present in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. An antibody specific for the 14-3-3sigma isoform was able to interfere with the formation of the CBP-cruciform DNA complex. The effect of the same anti-14-3-3sigma antibody in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of the monkey origin ors8, was also analyzed. Pre-incubation of total HeLa cell extracts with this antibody decreased p186 in vitro replication to approximately 30% of control levels, while non-specific antibodies had no effect. 14-3-3sigma was found to associate in vivo with the monkey origins of DNA replication ors8 and ors12 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay that involved formaldehyde cross-linking, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-14-3-3sigma antibody and quantitative PCR. The association of 14-3-3sigma with the replication origins was maximal at the G(1)/S phase. The results indicate that 14-3-3sigma is an origin binding protein involved in the regulation of DNA replication via cruciform DNA binding. PMID:12244572

  14. An upper limit on the sizes of shepherding satellites at Saturn's ring G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Allen, James A.

    1987-01-01

    An accurate analytical theory of the absorption of energetic magnetospheric particles by an inert satellite is developed for the case in which the radius b of the satellite is much less than the equatorial gyroradius r(g) of the particles and in which r(g) is in turn much less than the radius r of the satellite's orbit. In previous interpretations of Pioneer 11 observations, an estimate of the lifetime against absorption of energetic protons at Saturn's ring G has been made. This lifetime is used in the framework of the absorption theory to establish an upper limit on the sizes of shepherding satellites associated with the ring. The resulting upper limit, ignoring the absorption of the optically observed particulate matter, is given for an assemblage of N satellites of various radii. It is noted that ring G lies outside the Roche limit. No shepherding satellites at ring G were detected optically by Voyagers 1 and 2, and the searches were not comprehensive in longitudinal coverage.

  15. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Diehl, R.; Hanlon, L.; von Kienlin, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Roques, J. P.; Ubertini, P.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2016-04-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO triggers. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from {F}γ =2× {10}-8 erg cm-2 to {F}γ ={10}-6 erg cm-2 in the 75 keV-2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E{}γ /E{}{GW}\\lt {10}-6. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits for the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission.

  16. INTEGRAL upper limits on gamma-ray emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Volodymyr; Ferrigno, Carlo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Bazzano, Angela; Bozzo, Enrico; Courvoisier, Thierry J.-L.; Brandt, Soren; Hanlon, Lorraine; Kuulkers, Erik; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Ubertini, Pietro; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from Fγ=2x10-8 erg cm-2 to Fγ=10-6 erg cm-2 in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW<10-6. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission.

  17. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The only species that have been continued in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar, and He. Models for the production and loss of lunar regolith-derived exospheric species from source processes including micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering. and, for Na and K, photon-stimulated desorption, predict a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere. Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape and recycling to the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to published upper limits from the Moon and to detected abundances from Mercury. Only for Ca do the available measurements show a clear deficiency compared to the model estimates. This result suggests the importance of loss processes not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phase condensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides, and underlines the need for improved spectroscopic measurements of the lunar exosphere. Simulations of the neutral mass (NMS) and visible/ultraviolet spectrometry (UVS) investigations planned by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft are presented. Our calculations indicate that LADEE measurements promise to make definitive observations or set stringent upper limits for all regolith-driven exospheric species. Our models, along with LADEE observations, will constrain assumed model parameters for the Moon, such as sticking coefficients, source processes. and velocity distributions.

  18. INTEGRAL upper limits on gamma-ray emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-06-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from F_{γ}=2 × 10^{-8} erg cm^{-2} to F_{γ}=10^{-6} erg cm^{-2} in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E_γ/E_{GW}<10^{-6}. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission. This work has been possible thanks to a Memorandum of Understanding with the LIGO-Virgo scientific collaboration and is presented on behalf of a larger collaboration.

  19. Searching for the Upper Mass Limit in NGC 3603, the Nearest Giant H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    2009-07-01

    What is the mass of the highest mass star? 100Mo? 150Mo? 200Mo? Or higher? Theory gives us little guidance as to what physics sets the upper mass limit, presuming one exists. Is it due to limitations in the highest masses that can coalesce? Or is it due to stability issues in such a behemoth? Observationally, the upper mass limit is poorly constrained at present, with the strongest evidence coming from the K-band luminosity function of the Arches cluster near the Galactic Center. Here we propose to investigate this question by determining the Initial Mass Function of NGC 3603, the nearest giant H II region. This cluster is known to contain a wealth of O3 and hydrogen-rich Wolf-Rayets, the most luminous and massive of stars. By constructing an accurate H-R diagram for the cluster, we will construct a present day mass function using newly computed high mass evolutionary tracks, and convert this to an initial mass function using the inferred ages. This will allow us to see whether or not there is a true deficit of high mass stars, evidence of an upper mass cutoff. At the same time we are likely to establish good masses for the highest mass stars ever determined. We have laid the groundwork for this project using the Magellan 6.5-m telescope and the excellent seeing found on Las Campanas, plus analysis of archival ACS/HRS frames, but we now need to obtain spectra of the stars unobservable from the ground. This can only be done with HST and a reburbished STIS.

  20. A stringent upper limit to SO2 in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Atreya, S. K.

    2011-06-01

    Surfur-bearing molecules have been found at the surface of Mars by the Viking lander, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, and the OMEGA infrared spectrometer aboard Mars Express. However, no gaseous sulfur-bearing species have ever been detected in the Martian atmosphere. We search for SO2 signatures in the thermal spectrum of Mars at 7.4 μm using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Data were obtained on Oct. 12, 2009 (Ls = 353°), in the 1350-1360 cm-1 range, with a spatial resolution of 1 arcsec (after convolution over three pixels along the N-S axis and two steps along the E-W axis) and a resolving power of 80 000. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we co-added the Martian spectrum around the positions of nine selected SO2 transitions with a high S/N and no telluric contamination. From a mean spectrum, averaged over 35 pixels in the region of maximum continuum, we infer a 2σ upper limit of 0.3 ppb to the SO2 mixing ratio, assuming that our instrumental errors are combined according to Gaussian statistics. Our upper limit is three times lower than the upper limit derived by Krasnopolsky (2005, Icarus, 178, 487), who used the same technique on previous TEXES data. In addition, we derive an upper limit of 2 ppb at each spatial pixel of the region observed by TEXES, which covers the longitude ranges 50 E-170 E for latitudes above 30 N, 100 E-170 E for latitudes between 0 and 30 N, and 110 E-170 E for latitudes between 15 S and 0. The non-detection of localized SO2 sources in the observed area is consistent with a homogeneous distribution being expected around equinox for non-condensible species with a lifetime longer than the global mixing time. In view of the typically large SO2/CH4 ratio observed in terrestrial volcanoes, and assuming a comparable volcanic composition for Mars and the Earth, our result reaffirms that a volcanic origin is unlikely for any methane in the Martian atmosphere.

  1. MAGIC upper limits on the Very High Energy emission from GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Bastieri, D.; Gaug, M.; Galante, N.; Garczarczyk, M.; Mizobuchi, S.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.; Stamerra, A.

    2007-07-12

    Since the beginning of its operation in April 2005, the MAGIC telescope was able to observe ten different GRB events since their early beginning, even while the prompt emission was still ongoing. Observations, with energy thresholds spanning between 80 and 300 GeV, did not reveal any {gamma}-ray emission. We present a direct determination of the MAGIC sensitivity in GRB mode and the upper limits for the ten follow-up observations. At energies around 100 GeV, MAGIC is currently the fastest and most sensitive operational GRB detector in the world.

  2. Upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves from PSR J1939+2134

    SciTech Connect

    B. Allen et al.

    2003-12-11

    The first science run of the LIGO and GEO gravitational wave detectors presented the opportunity to test methods of searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars. Here we present new direct upper limits on the strength of waves from the pulsar PSR J1939+2134 using two independent analysis methods, one in the frequency domain using frequentist statistics and one in the time domain using Bayesian inference. Both methods show that the strain amplitude at Earth from this pulsar is less than a few times 10{sup -22}.

  3. Upper limit to the 1-20 MeV solar neutron flux.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Ifedili, S. O.; Jenkins, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The upper limit on the quiet time solar neutron flux from 1 to 20 MeV has been measured to be less than .002 neutrons at the 95% confidence level. This result is deduced from the OGO-6 neutron detector measurements of the 'day-night' effect near the equator at low altitudes for the period from June 7 to Dec. 23, 1969. The OGO-6 detector had very low (less than 4%) counting rate contributions from locally produced neutrons in the detecting system and the spacecraft and from charged-particle interactions in the neutron sensor.

  4. Upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves from PSR J1939+2134

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, B.; Woan, G.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barker-Patton, C.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bland-Weaver, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Brozek, S.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, R.; Daw, E.; DeBra, D.; Delker, T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandar, S.; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dupuis, R. J.; Ebeling, C.; Edlund, J.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Flanagan, É.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ingley, R.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Kloevekorn, P.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNamara, P.; Mendell, G.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Naundorf, H.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Papa, M. A.; Parameswariah, C.; Parameswariah, V.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Pratt, M.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schofield, R.; Schrempel, M.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Skeldon, K.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P.; Spero, R.; Stapfer, G.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.; Taylor, I.; Taylor, R.; Thorne, K. S.; Tibbits, M.; Tilav, S.; Tinto, M.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traeger, S.; Traylor, G.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Vallisneri, M.; van Putten, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Vorvick, C.; Wallace, L.; Walther, H.; Ward, H.; Ware, B.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weiland, U.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Welling, H.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, P. R.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Wilson, A.; Winjum, B. J.; Winkler, W.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.

    2004-03-01

    The first science run of the LIGO and GEO gravitational wave detectors presented the opportunity to test methods of searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars. Here we present new direct upper limits on the strength of waves from the pulsar PSR J1939+2134 using two independent analysis methods, one in the frequency domain using frequentist statistics and one in the time domain using Bayesian inference. Both methods show that the strain amplitude at Earth from this pulsar is less than a few times 10-22.

  5. Upper limit to the 11.4 m flux of Saturn using VLBI.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Clark, T. A.; Cronyn, W. M.; Basart, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Summary of a series of interferometric observations of Saturn using large phased dipole arrays at 11.4 m wavelength (26.3 MHz). The observations were made in August 1971 using a VLBI system operated over two baselines. The results obtained are interpreted as negative for both decametric continuum and noise storm emission from source regions much less than the planetary disk size. This leads to an upper limit value of approximately 14 flux units from a source less than 1 arc sec in diameter located in a region plus or minus 40 min in right ascension and 3.5 deg in declination about Saturn's optical position.

  6. Upper limit on the cross section for nuclear charge pickup by relativistic uranium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Price, P.B.; Snowden-Ifft, D.P. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1992-05-01

    We have searched for examples of nuclear charge pickup by relativistic uranium ions in targets of both uranium and phosphate glass. We find none, which allows us to set an upper limit of 7.7 mb per target atom at the 90% confidence level on the cross section for this process. An extrapolation of the approximately quadratic dependence on projectile charge of the cross section for charge pickup predicts a cross section which would be {similar to}10 times larger. This breakdown in the scaling can be understood by the propensity of the actinides to fission upon the deposition of sufficient excitation energy.

  7. Estimating the Upper Limit of Lifetime Probability Distribution, Based on Data of Japanese Centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hanayama, Nobutane; Sibuya, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    In modern biology, theories of aging fall mainly into two groups: damage theories and programed theories. If programed theories are true, the probability that human beings live beyond a specific age will be zero. In contrast, if damage theories are true, such an age does not exist, and a longevity record will be eventually destroyed. In this article, for examining real state, a special type of binomial model based on the generalized Pareto distribution has been applied to data of Japanese centenarians. From the results, it is concluded that the upper limit of lifetime probability distribution in the Japanese population has been estimated 123 years. PMID:26362439

  8. Microwave spectroscopy of the PBr radical in the X (3)Sigma(-) state.

    PubMed

    Okabayashi, Toshiaki; Kawajiri, Hideaki; Umeyama, Michiaki; Ide, Chihiro; Oe, Sumio; Tanimoto, Mitsutoshi

    2008-09-28

    The microwave spectrum of the PBr radical in the X (3)Sigma(-) ground electronic state has been observed by a source modulated spectrometer. The PBr radical was generated in a free space cell by an acdc glow discharge in a mixture of PBr(3) with He andor H(2). A spectrum with three spin components for each of the two isotopomers, P(79)Br and P(81)Br, was observed. The spectrum showed hyperfine splitting caused by interactions due to both bromine and phosphorus nuclei. The molecular constants including the magnetic hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole hyperfine interaction constants were determined by analyzing the observed spectrum. The spin density of the unpaired electrons was estimated from the observed hyperfine coupling constants to be 85.4% and 16.3% on the phosphorus and bromine atoms, respectively. PMID:19045017

  9. The rotational spectrum of the NiS radical in the X3Sigma- state.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Tanimoto, Mitsutoshi; Okabayashi, Toshiaki

    2007-07-28

    The rotational spectrum of the NiS radical in the X(3)Sigma(-) state was observed by employing a source-modulation microwave spectrometer. The NiS radical was generated in a free space cell by a dc glow discharge in H(2)S diluted with Ar. The nickel atoms were supplied by the sputtering reaction from a nickel cathode. Rotational transitions with J = 11-10 to 25-24 were measured in the region between 135 and 314 GHz. Rotational, centrifugal distortion and several fine-structure constants were determined by a least-squares analysis. Other spectroscopic parameters such as dissociation energy, vibrational wavenumber and equilibrium bond length were also derived from the determined molecular constants. Excitation energies of the lowest (3)Pi and (1)Sigma(+) states were estimated from the fine-structure constants, lambda and gamma. PMID:17622409

  10. Ab initio calculation of the NH(3sigma-)-NH(3sigma-) interaction potentials in the quintet, triplet, and singlet states.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Guillaume S F; van Lenthe, Joop H; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad

    2005-11-01

    We present the ab initio potential-energy surfaces of the NH-NH complex that correlate with two NH molecules in their 3sigma- electronic ground state. Three distinct potential-energy surfaces, split by exchange interactions, correspond to the coupling of the S(A) = 1 and S(B) = 1 electronic spins of the monomers to dimer states with S = 0, 1, and 2. Exploratory calculations on the quintet (S = 2), triplet (S = 1), and singlet (S = 0) states and their exchange splittings were performed with the valence bond self-consistent-field method that explicitly accounts for the nonorthogonality of the orbitals on different monomers. The potential surface of the quintet state, which can be described by a single Slater determinant reference function, was calculated at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations and noniterative treatment of the triples. The triplet and singlet states require multiconfiguration reference wave functions and the exchange splittings between the three potential surfaces were calculated with the complete active space self-consistent-field method supplemented with perturbative configuration interaction calculations of second and third orders. Full potential-energy surfaces were computed as a function of the four intermolecular Jacobi coordinates, with an aug-cc-pVTZ basis on the N and H atoms and bond functions at the midpoint of the intermolecular vector R. An analytical representation of these potentials was given by expanding their dependence on the molecular orientations in coupled spherical harmonics, and representing the dependence of the expansion coefficients on the intermolecular distance R by the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The quintet surface has a van der Waals minimum of depth D(e) = 675 cm(-1) at R(e) = 6.6a0 for a linear geometry with the two NH electric dipoles aligned. The singlet and triplet surfaces show similar, slightly deeper, van der Waals wells, but when R is decreased the weakly bound NH dimer

  11. Auto-ignition and upper explosion limit of rich propane-air mixtures at elevated pressures.

    PubMed

    Norman, F; Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-09-21

    The auto-ignition limits of propane-air mixtures at elevated pressures up to 15 bar and for concentrations from 10 mol% up to 70 mol% are investigated. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with a volume of 8 dm3. The auto-ignition temperatures decrease from 300 degrees C to 250 degrees C when increasing the pressure from 1 bar to 14.5 bar. It is shown that the fuel concentration most sensitive to auto-ignition depends on initial pressure. A second series of experiments investigates the upper flammability limit of propane-air mixtures at initial temperatures up to 250 degrees C and pressures up to 30 bar near the auto-ignition area. Finally the propane auto-oxidation is modelled using several detailed kinetic reaction mechanisms and these numerical calculations are compared with the experimental results. PMID:16716499

  12. Revised experimental upper limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendlebury, J. M.; Afach, S.; Ayres, N. J.; Baker, C. A.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Burghoff, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Green, K.; Griffith, W. C.; van der Grinten, M.; Grujić, Z. D.; Harris, P. G.; Hélaine, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kasprzak, M.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kirch, K.; Koch, H.-C.; Komposch, S.; Kozela, A.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Lemière, Y.; May, D. J. R.; Musgrave, M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Piegsa, F. M.; Pignol, G.; Prashanth, P. N.; Quéméner, G.; Rawlik, M.; Rebreyend, D.; Richardson, J. D.; Ries, D.; Roccia, S.; Rozpedzik, D.; Schnabel, A.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Severijns, N.; Shiers, D.; Thorne, J. A.; Weis, A.; Winston, O. J.; Wursten, E.; Zejma, J.; Zsigmond, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present for the first time a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the experimental results that set the current world sensitivity limit on the magnitude of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron. We have extended and enhanced our earlier analysis to include recent developments in the understanding of the effects of gravity in depolarizing ultracold neutrons; an improved calculation of the spectrum of the neutrons; and conservative estimates of other possible systematic errors, which are also shown to be consistent with more recent measurements undertaken with the apparatus. We obtain a net result of dn=-0.21 ±1.82 ×1 0-26 e cm , which may be interpreted as a slightly revised upper limit on the magnitude of the EDM of 3.0 ×1 0-26 e cm (90% C.L.) or 3.6 ×1 0-26 e cm (95% C.L.).

  13. Bias, variance and computational properties of Kijko's estimators of the upper limit of magnitude distribution, Mmax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasocki, Stanisław; Urban, Paweł

    2011-08-01

    It is often assumed in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis that the magnitude distribution has an upper limit M max, which indicates a limitation on event size in specific seismogeneic conditions. Accurate estimation of M max from an earthquake catalog is a matter of utmost importance. We compare bias, dispersion and computational properties of four popular M max estimators, introduced by Kijko and others (e.g., Kijko and Sellevoll 1989, Kijko and Graham 1998, Kijko 2004) and we recommend the ones which can be the most fruitful in practical applications. We provide nomograms for evaluation of bias and standard deviation of the recommended estimators for combinations of sample sizes and distribution parameters. We suggest to use the bias nomograms to correct the M max estimates. The nomograms of standard deviation can be used to determine minimum sample size for a required accuracy of M max.

  14. HARD X-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS OF CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Erdeve, I.; Kalemci, E.; Alpar, M. A.

    2009-05-10

    We searched for hard X-ray (20-300 keV) emission from nine central compact objects (CCOs) 1E 1207.4-5209, 1WGA J1713-3949, J082157.5-430017, J085201.4-461753, J160103.1-513353, J1613483-5055, J181852.0-150213, J185238.6+004020, and J232327.9+584843 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory. We applied spectral imaging analysis and did not detect any of the sources with luminosity upper limits in the range of 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} in the 20-75 keV band. For nearby CCOs (less than 4 kpc), the upper-limit luminosities are an order of magnitude lower than the measured persistent hard X-ray luminosities of anomalous X-ray pulsars. This may indicate that the CCOs are low magnetic field systems with fallback disks around them.

  15. Upper limits on gravitational wave bursts in LIGO's second science run

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-09-15

    We perform a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors, using a method based on a wavelet time-frequency decomposition. This search is sensitive to bursts of duration much less than a second and with frequency content in the 100-1100 Hz range. It features significant improvements in the instrument sensitivity and in the analysis pipeline with respect to the burst search previously reported by LIGO. Improvements in the search method allow exploring weaker signals, relative to the detector noise floor, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, O(0.1) {mu}Hz. The sensitivity in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude lies in the range of h{sub rss}{approx}10{sup -20}-10{sup -19} Hz{sup -1/2}. No gravitational wave signals were detected in 9.98 days of analyzed data. We interpret the search result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 0.26 events per day at 90% confidence level. We combine this limit with measurements of the detection efficiency for selected waveform morphologies in order to yield rate versus strength exclusion curves as well as to establish order-of-magnitude distance sensitivity to certain modeled astrophysical sources. Both the rate upper limit and its applicability to signal strengths improve our previously reported limits and reflect the most sensitive broad-band search for untriggered and unmodeled gravitational wave bursts to date.

  16. Upper limits on gravitational wave bursts in LIGO's second science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Agresti, J.; Allen, B.; Allen, J.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Bland, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Credico, A. Di; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dupuis, R. J.; Edlund, J. A.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Findley, T.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Luna, M.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Noel, J. S.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Ajith, P.; Parameswariah, C.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Seader, S. E.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P. H.; Spero, R.; Spjeld, O.; Stapfer, G.; Steussy, D.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.

    2005-09-01

    We perform a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors, using a method based on a wavelet time-frequency decomposition. This search is sensitive to bursts of duration much less than a second and with frequency content in the 100-1100 Hz range. It features significant improvements in the instrument sensitivity and in the analysis pipeline with respect to the burst search previously reported by LIGO. Improvements in the search method allow exploring weaker signals, relative to the detector noise floor, while maintaining a low false alarm rate, O(0.1) μHz. The sensitivity in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude lies in the range of hrss˜10-20-10-19Hz-1/2. No gravitational wave signals were detected in 9.98 days of analyzed data. We interpret the search result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 0.26 events per day at 90% confidence level. We combine this limit with measurements of the detection efficiency for selected waveform morphologies in order to yield rate versus strength exclusion curves as well as to establish order-of-magnitude distance sensitivity to certain modeled astrophysical sources. Both the rate upper limit and its applicability to signal strengths improve our previously reported limits and reflect the most sensitive broad-band search for untriggered and unmodeled gravitational wave bursts to date.

  17. Small Satellites and Dust in the Pluto System: Upper Limits and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, John R.; Showalter, Mark R.; Stern, S. Alan; Brozovic, Marina; Buie, Marc W.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jacobson, Robert A.; Kaufmann, David E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Parker, Alex H.; Porter, Simon B.; Throop, Henry B.; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.

    2015-11-01

    To help ensure safe passage of the New Horizons (NH) spacecraft as it flew through the Pluto system, we took a series of deep images with the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) to search for previously undetected satellites or rings. We obtained a total of 1100 10-second exposures, spread over 20 epochs between May 11 and July 1 2015. HST observations had previously set an upper limit to the brightness of undetected moons of about half Styx's brightness (i.e., a diameter of ~5 km for an a Charon-like albedo of 0.38). The final NH observations in early July could have detected objects down to ~1.5 km in diameter in the Charon - Hydra region, and ~2 km between Charon's orbit and ~5000 km above Pluto's surface. Despite the sensitivity of the searches, no additional moons were found. The lower limit on the brightness ratio between Styx and any undiscovered fainter satellites, ~20, is comparable to the brightness ratio between Nix and Kerberos (~16), and a power-law satellite size distribution, analogous to that seen in the Saturn system, cannot be ruled out. Implications of the satellite size distribution for the origin of the satellite system will be discussed. The data also place an upper limit of ~1 x 10-7 on the I/F of any dust rings in the vicinity of the known small satellites, a factor of several improvement over previous HST limits. This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  18. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height) are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  19. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  20. A sensitive upper limit to the circular polarization of the Crab nebula at λ3 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesemeyer, H.; Thum, C.; Morris, D.; Aumont, J.; Rosset, C.

    2011-04-01

    A new observation of the distribution of the circular polarization over the Crab Nebula supernova remnant yields an upper limit of <0.2% at a radio frequency of 89.2 GHz. This limit is set by the uncertainty in correcting for the instrumental polarization. The raw data were dominated by the conversion of the strong linear polarization to circular in the crosspolarized sidelobes of the 30 m telescope. They were modeled as due to a differential phase gradient between the orthogonally linearly polarized far-field radiation patterns of the two receivers. As the source is tracked these rotate with respect to the radio source distribution on the sky since the telescope has an alt-azimuth mount and a Nasmyth focus. This allows the model to be fit to the raw data and a correction can be made. Our limit of <0.2% is to be compared with <0.03% derived at 610 MHz (Wilson & Weiler 1997, ApJ, 475, 661) and <6% measured at 23 GHz (Wright & Forster 1980, ApJ, 239, 873). These limits are consistent with the polarization expected from an optically thin synchrotron source with the known physical properties of the Crab Nebula. This non-detection does not allow an estimate to be made of the relative contribution to the radio emission from electrons and positrons.

  1. Compact Binary Merger Rates: Comparison with LIGO/Virgo Upper Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Repetto, Serena; Holz, Daniel E.; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Bulik, Tomasz; Berti, Emanuele; Fryer, Christopher; Dominik, Michal

    2016-03-01

    We compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH-BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of ˜2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH-BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z ≃ 2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (\\lt 150 {M}⊙ ) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to {M}{{tot,z}}≃ 400 {M}⊙ . (iv) High black hole (BH) natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH-BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense cluster evolution), and thus would eliminate detection of these systems even at full advanced LIGO/Virgo sensitivity. We find that low and high BH natal kicks are allowed by current observational electromagnetic constraints. (v) The majority of our models yield detections of all types of mergers (NS-NS, BH-NS, BH-BH) with advanced detectors. Numerous massive BH-BH merger detections will indicate small (if any) natal kicks for massive BHs.

  2. Compact binary merger rates: Comparison with LIGO/Virgo upper limits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Repetto, Serena; Holz, Daniel E.; O'Shaugnessy, Richard; Bulik, Tomasz; Berti, Emanuele; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Dominik, Michal

    2016-03-03

    Here, we compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH–BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of ~2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH–BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z sime 2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (more » $$\\lt 150\\;{M}_{\\odot }$$) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to $${M}_{{\\rm{tot,z}}}\\simeq 400\\;{M}_{\\odot }$$. (iv) High black hole (BH) natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH–BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense cluster evolution), and thus would eliminate detection of these systems even at full advanced LIGO/Virgo sensitivity. We find that low and high BH natal kicks are allowed by current observational electromagnetic constraints. (v) The majority of our models yield detections of all types of mergers (NS–NS, BH–NS, BH–BH) with advanced detectors. Numerous massive BH–BH merger detections will indicate small (if any) natal kicks for massive BHs.« less

  3. Direct Measurements of Upper Limits for Transient Density Fluctuations in the Zodiacal Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, B.

    1997-12-01

    Questions regarding the density of the local zodiacal clouds have recently become important in many areas. Several planned searches for extrasolar system planets require a better knowledge of the behavior of zodiacal clouds, the solar system zodiacal cloud has been suggested as a driving force for glaciations, and it is becoming clear that discussions regarding prebiotic chemistry must include the flux of interplanetary particles onto Earth. No certain upper limits can today be set for transient density variations in the local zodiacal cloud, nor for fluctuations in the particle-flux onto Earth. Some new results have, however, created a possibility to measure this in the geological record. An interdisciplinary project is described. The goal for the project is to set upper limits for the zodiacal dust-flux onto Earth during passages through IRAS dust-bands during the last 2.5 million years, and use these limits to calculate the maximum density of the bands. We estimate the predicted flux of zodiacal particles onto Earth through orbital modeling., where it is assumed that the source for the IRAS dust-bands are a few Hirayama asteroid families. The orbits of the asteroids and the produced dust are integrated to find the times when Earth revolved within a dust-band. This forms the basis for a geochemical analysis of oceanic sediments, lake sediments, ice-cores and loess-deposits, with the goal to find the signal from a passage through a dust-band. Apart from providing an excellent stratigraphic dating tool, the identification and characterization of such a signal would give important information about the behavior of the zodiacal cloud over shorter times (1-2 My). Some astronomical results are presented and compared with sedimentological observations.

  4. Dawn Mission’s Search for satellites at Ceres: Upper limits on size of orbital objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Skillman, David R.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Carsenty, Uri; Schroeder, Stefan E.; Li, Jian-Yang Y.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2015-11-01

    Hundreds of asteroids have small secondary satellites or are double, or even multiple body systems; yet dwarf planet Ceres doesn’t and isn’t. Ground-based and space-based telescopic searches have placed upper limits on the size of any secondary bodies gravitationally bound to Ceres of 1-2 km (Gehrels et al 1987, Bieryla et al. 2011). The Dawn project’s satellite working group designed and conducted a search during approach to Ceres and during high orbit concentrating its search close to Ceres’ limb where previous searches could not reach. Over 2000 images for both science and optical navigation were searched. In addition, a dedicated satellite search was conducted during two commanded off-nadir pointings. The acquired images extend 5.5° x 5.5° on either side of Ceres, at a range of ~ 145,000 km and solar phase angle at Ceres of 18°. No moving objects associated with Ceres were detected. The search extended down to Ceres’ limb (previous searches went to 500 km above the limb) and extended the upper limit for the non-detection to 30 +/- 6 and 45 +/-9 meter radius for effective exposure times of 114s and 19s respectively. An additional small search was conducted using the spacecraft's star tracker from which no objects were found. The Dawn mission’s search reduced the previous detection limit from Hubble Space Telescope images by two orders of magnitude. Why some asteroids have satellites and others don’t is a matter for dynamical speculation.

  5. Seesaw model in SO(10) with an upper limit on right-handed neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, M.; Buccella, F.; Falcone, D.; Oliver, L.

    2012-08-01

    In the framework of SO(10) gauge unification and the seesaw mechanism, we show that the upper bound on the mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino MR3<3×1011GeV, given by the Pati-Salam intermediate scale of B-L spontaneous symmetry breaking, constrains the observables related to the left-handed light neutrino mass matrix. We assume such an upper limit on the masses of right-handed neutrinos and, as a first approximation, a Cabibbo form for the matrix VL that diagonalizes the Dirac neutrino matrix mD. Using the inverse seesaw formula, we show that our hypotheses imply a triangular relation in the complex plane of the light neutrino masses with the Majorana phases. We obtain normal hierarchy with an absolute scale for the light neutrino spectrum. Two regions are allowed for the lightest neutrino mass m1 and for the Majorana phases, implying predictions for the neutrino mass measured in Tritium decay and for the double beta decay effective mass |⟨mee⟩|.

  6. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Phi--(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanes Egiyan

    2012-01-01

    We searched for the {Phi}{sup --}(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} decay channel using CLAS. The invariant mass spectrum of the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M = 1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of {Phi}{sup --}(1860) with a consecutive decay into {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} in the photon energy range 4.5 GeV < E{sub {gamma}} < 5.5 GeV.

  7. Upper limits to the magnetic field in central stars of planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Leone, F.

    2014-06-01

    More than about 20 central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs) have been observed spectropolarimetrically, yet no clear, unambiguous signal of the presence of a magnetic field in these objects has been found. We perform a statistical (Bayesian) analysis of all the available spectropolarimetric observations of CSPN to constrain the magnetic fields in these objects. Assuming that the stellar field is dipolar and that the dipole axis of the objects is oriented randomly (isotropically), we find that the dipole magnetic field strength is smaller than 400 G with 95% probability using all available observations. The analysis introduced allows integration of future observations to further constrain the parameters of the distribution, and it is general, so that it can be easily applied to other classes of magnetic objects. We propose several ways to improve the upper limits found here.

  8. Upper Temperature Limit of Environmental Barrier Coatings for Enabling Propulsion Materials Established

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Fox, Dennis S.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2001-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics, such as SiC/SiC composites and Si3N4, are the prime candidates for hot section structural components of next-generation gas turbines. A key barrier to such an application is the rapid recession of silicon-based ceramics in combustion environments because of the volatilization of silica scale by water vapor (refs. 1 and 2). Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) were developed to prevent recession in the High Speed Research--Enabling Propulsion Materials (HSR-EPM) Program (refs. 3 and 4). An investigation under the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to establish the upper temperature limit of the EPM EBC.

  9. Upper limit of the electrocaloric peak in lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goupil, Florian; Alford, Neil McN.

    2016-06-01

    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of two compositions (x = 0.06 and 0.07) of (1 - x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-xKNbO3 in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is studied by direct measurements. ΔTmax = 1.5 K is measured at 125 °C under 70 kV/cm for NBT-6KN while ΔTmax = 0.8 K is measured at 75 °C under 55 kV/cm for NBT-7KN. We show that the "shoulder," TS, in the dielectric permittivity, marks the upper limit of the ECE peak under high applied electric fields. These results imply that the range of temperature with high ECE can be quickly identified for a given composition, which will significantly speed up the process of materials selection for ECE cooling.

  10. New upper limit on the total neutrino mass from the 2 degree field galaxy redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Elgarøy, Ø; Lahav, O; Percival, W J; Peacock, J A; Madgwick, D S; Bridle, S L; Baugh, C M; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, R S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2002-08-01

    We constrain f(nu) identical with Omega(nu)/Omega(m), the fractional contribution of neutrinos to the total mass density in the Universe, by comparing the power spectrum of fluctuations derived from the 2 Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey with power spectra for models with four components: baryons, cold dark matter, massive neutrinos, and a cosmological constant. Adding constraints from independent cosmological probes we find f(nu)<0.13 (at 95% confidence) for a prior of 0.1upper limit on the total neutrino mass m(nu,tot)<1.8 eV for "concordance" values of Omega(m) and the Hubble constant. PMID:12190573

  11. Swift X-Ray Upper Limits on Type Ia Supernova Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. R.; Immler, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have considered 53 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope. None of the SNe Ia are individually detected at any time or in stacked images. Using these data and assuming that the SNe Ia are a homogeneous class of objects, we have calculated upper limits to the X-ray luminosity (0.2-10 keV) and mass-loss rate of L(sub 0.2-10) < 1.7 X 10(exp 38) erg/s and M(dot) < l.l X 10(exp -6) solar M/ yr x (V(sub w))/(10 km/s), respectively. The results exclude massive or evolved stars as the companion objects in SN Ia progenitor systems, but allow the possibility of main sequence or small stars, along with double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, consistent with results obtained at other wavelengths (e.g., UV, radio) in other studies.

  12. Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, Connor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Kleiner, I.; Dehayem-kamadjeu, A.; Brown, Linda R.; Sams, Robert L.; Bezard, Bruno; Coustenis, Athena; Ansty, Todd M.; Mamoutkine, Andrei; Vinatier, Sandrine; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Jennings, Donald E.; Romani, Paul N.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we describe a first quantitative search for several molecules in Titans stratosphere ni Cassini CIRS infrared spectra. These are: ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (H2CO), and acetonitrile (CH3CN), all of which are predicted by photochemical models but only the last of which observed, and not in the infrared,. We find non-detections in all cases, but derive upper limits on the abundances from low-noise observations at 25 degreesS and 75 degreesN. Comparing these constraints to model predictions, we conclude that CIRS is highly unlikely to see NH3 or CH3OH emissions. However, CH3CN and H2CO are closer to CIRS detectability, and we suggest ways in which the sensitivity threshold may be lowered towards this goal.

  13. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-12-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  14. Statistical methods for astronomical data with upper limits. II - Correlation and regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical methods for calculating correlations and regressions in bivariate censored data where the dependent variable can have upper or lower limits are presented. Cox's regression and the generalization of Kendall's rank correlation coefficient provide significant levels of correlations, and the EM algorithm, under the assumption of normally distributed errors, and its nonparametric analog using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, give estimates for the slope of a regression line. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that survival analysis is reliable in determining correlations between luminosities at different bands. Survival analysis is applied to CO emission in infrared galaxies, X-ray emission in radio galaxies, H-alpha emission in cooling cluster cores, and radio emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  15. Upper limit on periodicity in the three-dimensional large-scale distribution of matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Sandoval, John; Fan, Xiao-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A search for large-scale periodicity in the 3D distribution of 268 Mg II QSO absorption systems which are distributed over 60 percent of the sky, at redshifts 0.1-2.0 is presented. The scalar 3D comoving separations of all pairs of absorption systems are calculated, and peaks in the power spectrum of the distribution of those separations are searched for. The present 95-percent confidence upper limit on the amplitude of a possible periodic fluctuation in the density of galaxies is between one-fourth and three-fourths of the amplitude implied by the data of Broadhurst et al. (1990), depending on the extent to which the wavelength varies and the phase of the signal drifts down lines of sight. A description is presented of how QSO absorption systems sample the 3D population of absorbers and how 3D positions can be represented by their scalar separations.

  16. A new upper limit to the field-aligned potential near Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew J.; Wellbrock, Anne; Waite, J. Hunter; Jones, Geraint H.

    2015-06-01

    Neutral particles dominate regions of the Saturn magnetosphere and locations near several of Saturn's moons. Sunlight ionizes neutrals, producing photoelectrons with characteristic energy spectra. The Cassini plasma spectrometer electron spectrometer has detected photoelectrons throughout these regions, where photoelectrons may be used as tracers of magnetic field morphology. They also enhance plasma escape by setting up an ambipolar electric field, since the relatively energetic electrons move easily along the magnetic field. A similar mechanism is seen in the Earth's polar wind and at Mars and Venus. Here we present a new analysis of Titan photoelectron data, comparing spectra measured in the sunlit ionosphere at ~1.4 Titan radii (RT) and at up to 6.8 RT away. This results in an upper limit on the potential of 2.95 V along magnetic field lines associated with Titan at up to 6.8 RT, which is comparable to some similar estimates for photoelectrons seen in Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. The diazocarbene (CNN) molecule: characterization of the X 3Sigma- and A 3Pi electronic states.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F

    2004-05-22

    The ground (X (3)Sigma(-)) and first excited triplet (A (3)Pi) electronic states of diazocarbene (CNN) have been investigated systematically starting from the self-consistent-field theory and proceeding to the coupled cluster with single, double, and full triple excitations (CCSDT) method with a wide range of basis sets. While the linear X (3)Sigma(-) ground state of CNN has a real degenerate bending vibrational frequency, the A (3)Pi state of CNN is subject to the Renner-Teller effect and presents two distinct real vibrational frequencies along the bending coordinate. The bending vibrational frequencies of the A (3)Pi state were evaluated via the equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) techniques. The significant sensitivity to level of theory in predicting the ground-state geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and associated infrared intensities has been attributed to the fact that the reference wave function is strongly perturbed by the excitations of 1pi-->3pi followed by a spin flip. At the highest level of theory with the largest basis set, correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta (cc-pVQZ) CCSDT, the classical X-A splitting (T(e) value) was predicted to be 68.5 kcal/mol (2.97 eV, 24 000 cm(-1)) and the quantum mechanical splitting (T(0) value) to be 69.7 kcal/mol (3.02 eV, 24 400 cm(-1)), which are in excellent agreement with the experimental T(0) values, 67.5-68.2 kcal/mol (2.93-2.96 eV, 23 600-23 900 cm(-1)). With the EOM-CCSD method the Renner parameter (epsilon) and averaged bending vibrational frequency (omega(2)) for the A (3)Pi state were evaluated to be epsilon=-0.118 and omega(2)=615 cm(-1), respectively. They are in fair agreement with the experimental values of epsilon=-0.07 and nu(2)=525 cm(-1). PMID:15267965

  18. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003–2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009–2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable. PMID:27143226

  19. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable. PMID:27143226

  20. Upper Limits of Predictability in Long-Range Climate/Hydrologic Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M. J.; Heiser, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accurate forecasting of el nino or la nina conditions in the tropical Pacific can potentially lead to valuable predictions of hydrological anomalies over land at seasonal to interannual timescales. Even with highly accurate earth system models, though, our ability to generate these continental forecasts will always be limited by the chaotic nature of the atmospheric circulation. The nature of this fundamental limitation is explored through the use of 16-member ensembles of multi-decade GCM simulations. In each simulation of the first ensemble, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are given the same realistic interannual variations over a 45-year period, and land surface state is allowed to evolve with that of the atmosphere. Analysis of the results shows that the SSTs control the temporal organization of continental precipitation anomalies to a significant extent in the tropics and to a much smaller extent in midlatitudes. In each simulation of the second ensemble, we prescribe SSTs as before, but we also prescribe interannual variations in the low frequency component of evaporation efficiency over land. Thus, in the second ensemble, we effectively make the extreme assumption that surface boundary conditions across the globe are perfectly predictable, and we quantify the consistency with which the atmosphere (particularly precipitation) responds to these boundary conditions. The resulting "absolute upper limit" on the predictability of precipitation is found to be quite high in the tropics yet only moderate in many midlatitude regions.

  1. Upper mass limits for known radial velocity planets from Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, Sabine

    2003-10-01

    For all 104 extrasolar planetary candidates known today, we calculate the expected peak-to-peak astrometric signatures, using the spectroscopic elements, primary star masses and the Hipparcos parallaxes. For those eight stars with expected astrometric signatures larger than 1 mas, we fit an orbital model to the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data, using again the spectroscopic elements; the only two free parameters in the fit are thus the inclination and the ascending node. In no case the astrometric signature of the companion is detected in the Hipparcos Data. However, the non-detection of these astrometric signatures places stringent constraints on the upper mass limits of the companions; in all eight investigated cases the substellar nature of the companion could be established. The derived 3 upper mass limits are: 15MJ for υ And d, 16MJ for 14 Her, 44MJ for HD 38529 c, 20MJ for HD 33636, 2.5MJ for ɛ Eri, 43MJ for HD 168443 c, 31MJ for HD 39091, and 6.3MJ for 55 Cnc d. Three of those systems have been investigated before by Zucker & Mazeh (2001), and our results for υ And d and 14 Her are in excellent agreement. The results for ɛ Eri differ by about an order of magnitude. Zucker & Mazeh (2001) used somewhat different orbital elements for ɛ Eri, but the effect is too large to be caused by differences in the orbital elements. We caution however that our results for ɛ Eri and especially 55 Cnc d are less reliable because their orbital periods exceed the time baseline covered by the Hipparcos measurements.

  2. Q kink of the nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Loginov, A. Yu.

    2011-05-15

    The (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear O(3) {sigma} model involving an explicitly broken symmetry is considered. Sphalerons are known to exist in this model. These sphalerons are of a topological origin and are embedded kinks of the sine-Gordon model. In the case of a compact spatial manifold S{sup 1}, sine-Gordon multikinks exist in the model. It is shown that the model admits a nonstatic generalization of the sine-Gordon kink/multikink, Q kink/multikink. Explicit expressions are obtained for the dependence of the Q kink energy and charge on the phase frequency of rotation. The Q kink is studied for stability, and expressions are obtained for the eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of the operator of quadratic fluctuations. It is shown that the Q kink is unstable over the entire admissible frequency range {omega} Element-Of [-1, 1]. The one-loop quantum correction to the static-kink mass is calculated, and the Q-kink zero mode is quantized. It is shown that, in a general static case, the field equations of the model are integrable in quadratures.

  3. Measuring Image Navigation and Registration Performance at the 3-Sigma Level Using Platinum Quality Landmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, James L.; Madai, Houria

    2007-01-01

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Image Navigation and Registration (INR) performance is specified at the 3- level, meaning that 99.7% of a collection of individual measurements must comply with specification thresholds. Landmarks are measured by the Replacement Product Monitor (RPM), part of the operational GOES ground system, to assess INR performance and to close the INR loop. The RPM automatically discriminates between valid and invalid measurements enabling it to run without human supervision. In general, this screening is reliable, but a small population of invalid measurements will be falsely identified as valid. Even a small population of invalid measurements can create problems when assessing performance at the 3-sigma level. This paper describes an additional layer of quality control whereby landmarks of the highest quality ("platinum") are identified by their self-consistency. The platinum screening criteria are not simple statistical outlier tests against sigma values in populations of INR errors. In-orbit INR performance metrics for GOES-12 and GOES-13 are presented using the platinum landmark methodology.

  4. Relationships between upper-limb functional limitation and self-reported disability 3 months after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dromerick, Alexander W; Lang, Catherine E; Birkenmeier, Rebecca; Hahn, Michele G; Sahrmann, Shirley A; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2006-01-01

    This study explored relationships between upper-limb (UL) functional limitations and self-reported disability in stroke patients with relatively pure motor hemiparesis who were enrolled in an acute rehabilitation treatment trial. All participants were enrolled in the VECTORS (Very Early Constraint Treatment for Recovery from Stroke) study. VECTORS is a single-center pilot clinical trial of early application of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). All 39 subjects who completed 90 days of VECTORS were included in this analysis. Trained study personnel who were blinded to the treatment type performed all evaluations. Data in this article examine relationships between assessments performed 90 days after stroke. Functional limitation measures included the Action Research Arm (ARA) test and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and self-reported disability measures included the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Motor Activity Log (MAL) (by telephone). Mean plus or minus standard deviation time from stroke onset to randomization was 9.4 plus or minus 4.3 days, and median time to follow-up was 99 days (range 68-178). Subjects with perfect or near-perfect scores on the ARA test or WMFT reported residual disability on the FIM and MAL. Quality of movement on the WMFT (functional ability score) was not strongly associated with self-reported frequency, and speed of movement on the WMFT (timed score) was not associated with self-reported frequency (MAL amount of use). In this early UL intervention trial, we found that perceived disability measures captured information that was not assessed by functional limitation and impairment scales. Our results indicate that excellent motor recovery as measured by functional limitation and impairment scales did not equal restoration of everyday productive UL use and speed of task completion did not translate to actual use. Our results confirm the need for a measurement strategy that is sensitive to change, assesses a broad

  5. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed. PMID:3013844

  6. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  7. Revised upper limit to energy extraction from a Kerr black hole.

    PubMed

    Schnittman, Jeremy D

    2014-12-31

    We present a new upper limit on the energy that may be extracted from a Kerr black hole by means of particle collisions in the ergosphere (i.e., the "collisional Penrose process"). Earlier work on this subject has focused largely on particles with critical values of angular momentum falling into an extremal Kerr black hole from infinity and colliding just outside the horizon. While these collisions are able to reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies, it is very difficult for the reaction products to escape back to infinity, effectively limiting the peak efficiency of such a process to roughly 130%. When we allow one of the initial particles to have impact parameter b>2M, and thus not get captured by the horizon, it is able to collide along outgoing trajectories, greatly increasing the chance that the products can escape. For equal-mass particles annihilating to photons, we find a greatly increased peak energy of Eout≈6×Ein. For Compton scattering, the efficiency can go even higher, with Eout≈14×Ein, and for repeated scattering events, photons can both be produced and escape to infinity with Planck-scale energies. PMID:25615298

  8. Metallic Species, Oxygen and Silicon in the Lunar Exosphere: Upper Limits and Prospects for LADEE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary Margaret; Glenar, David A.; Benna, Mehdi; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The only species that have been so far detected in the lunar exosphere are Na, K, Ar,and He. However, models for the production and loss of species derived from the lunarregolith through micrometeoroid impact vaporization, sputtering, and photon-stimulateddesorption, predict that a host of other species should exist in the lunar exosphere.Assuming that loss processes are limited to ballistic escape, photoionization, and recyclingto the surface, we have computed column abundances and compared them to publishedupper limits for the Moon. Only for Ca do modeled abundances clearly exceed theavailable measurements. This result suggests the relevance of some loss processes thatwere not included in the model, such as the possibility of gas-to-solid phasecondensation during micrometeoroid impacts or the formation of stable metallic oxides.Our simulations and the recalculation of efficiencies for resonant light scattering showthat models for other species studied are not well constrained by existingmeasurements. This fact underlines the need for improved remote and in situmeasurements of the lunar exosphere such as those planned by the Lunar Atmosphereand Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. Our simulations of the LADEEneutral mass spectrometer and visibleultraviolet spectrometer indicate that LADEE measurements promise to provide definitive observations or set stringent upper limitsfor all regolith-driven exospheric species. We predict that observations by LADEE willconstrain assumed model parameters for the exosphere of the Moon.

  9. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy. PMID:26406816

  10. AN UPPER LIMIT ON THE MASS OF THE BLACK HOLE IN URSA MINOR DWARF GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, V.; Sanchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Raga, A. C.; Esquivel, A. E-mail: jsanchez@astroscu.unam.mx E-mail: esquivel@nucleares.unam.mx

    2009-07-10

    The well-established correlations between the mass of massive black holes (BHs) in the nuclei of most studied galaxies and various global properties of their hosting galaxy lend support to the idea that dwarf galaxies and globular clusters could also host a BH in their centers. Direct kinematic detection of BHs in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is seriously hindered by the small number of stars inside the gravitational influence region of the BH. The aim of this Letter is to establish an upper dynamical limit on the mass of the putative BH in the Ursa Minor (UMi) dSph galaxy. We present direct N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of the dynamical fossil observed in UMi, with and without a massive BH. We find that the observed substructure is incompatible with the presence of a massive BH of (2-3) x 10{sup 4} M {sub sun} within the core of UMi. These limits are consistent with the extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-{sigma} relation to the M {sub BH} < 10{sup 6} M {sub sun} regime. We also show that the BH may be off-center with respect to the center of symmetry of the whole galaxy.

  11. Upper limits for absorption by water vapor in the near-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eoin M.; Wenger, John C.; Venables, Dean S.

    2016-02-01

    There are few experimental measurements of absorption by water vapor in the near-UV. Here we report the results of spectral measurements of water vapor absorption at ambient temperature and pressure from 325 nm to 420 nm, covering most tropospherically relevant short wavelengths. Spectra were recorded using a broadband optical cavity in the chemically controlled environment of an atmospheric simulation chamber. No absorption attributable to the water monomer (or the dimer) was observed at the 0.5 nm resolution of our system. Our results are consistent with calculated spectra and recent DOAS field observations, but contradict a report of significant water absorption in the near-UV. Based on the detection limit of our instrument, we report upper limits for the water absorption cross section of less than 5×10-26 cm2 molecule-1 at our instrument resolution. For a typical, indicative slant column density of 4×1023 cm2, we calculate a maximum optical depth of 0.02 arising from absorption of water vapor in the atmosphere at wavelengths between 340 nm and 420 nm, with slightly higher maximum optical depths below 340 nm. The results of this work, together with recent atmospheric observations and computational results, suggest that water vapor absorption across most of the near-UV is small compared to visible and infrared wavelengths.

  12. Combined upper limit on Standard Model Higgs boson production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, Buzatu; /McGill U.

    2012-02-01

    The Higgs boson is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model (SM) that has neither been confirmed nor refuted. The CDF collaboration has performed SM Higgs searches in many channels using p{bar p} collisions at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We present the latest combined Higgs boson search at CDF. Since the previous year's combination, the sensitivity is increased through the addition of new channels, the improvement of existing channels and the addition of new data samples. We also use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when modelling the signal event yields. Using integrated luminosities of up to 8.2 fb{sup -1}, we observe a good agreement between data and the background prediction. Since we do not see a Higgs boson excess, we set 95% CL upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section in the range between 100 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}, with 5 GeV/c{sup 2} increments. The observed (expected) limits for a 115 and a 165 GeV/c{sup 2} Higgs boson are 1.55 (1.49) and 0.75 (0.79) x SM, respectively. Since last year, the Higgs boson excluded range by CDF is extended to 156.5 - 173.7 and 100 - 104.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. A new expected upper limit on the rare decay B(s) ---> mu+ mu- with the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; /Strasbourg, IPHC

    2009-01-01

    We present a new expected upper limit of the rare decay branching ratio B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} using about 5 fb{sup -1} of Run II data collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron. When setting limits on the branching ratio, selected events are normalized to reconstructed B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup {+-}} events in order to decrease the systematic uncertainty. The resulting expected upper limit is {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) = 4.3(5.3) x 10{sup -8} at the 90% (95%) C.L.

  14. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 1019 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang Quang, T.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-03-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 1019 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  15. Upper limit on a stochastic background of gravitational waves from seismic measurements in the range 0.05-1 Hz.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-03-14

    In this Letter, we present an upper limit of ΩGW<1.2×108 on an isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background integrated over a year in the frequency range 0.05-1 Hz, which improves current upper limits from high-precision laboratory experiments by about 9 orders of magnitude. The limit is obtained using the response of Earth itself to GWs via a free-surface effect described more than 40 years ago by Dyson. The response was measured by a global network of broadband seismometers selected to maximize the sensitivity. PMID:24679277

  16. An upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources from gamma-ray observations

    SciTech Connect

    Supanitsky, A.D.; Souza, V. de E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2013-12-01

    Different types of extragalactic objects are known to produce TeV gamma-rays. Some of these objects are the most probable candidates to accelerate cosmic rays up to 10{sup 20} eV. It is very well known that gamma-rays can be produced as a result of the cosmic ray propagation through the intergalactic medium. These gamma-rays contribute to the total flux observed in the direction of the source. In this paper we propose a new method to derive an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of an individual source based on the measured upper limit on the integral flux of GeV-TeV gamma-rays. We show how it is possible to calculate an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of a particular source and we explore the parameter space in which the current GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements can offer a useful determination. We study in detail two particular sources, Pictor A and NGC 7469, and we calculate the upper limit on the proton luminosity of each source based on the upper limit on the integral gamma-ray flux measured by the H.E.S.S. telescopes.

  17. Observation of DCl and upper limit to NH3 on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

    2012-05-01

    To search for DCl in the Venus atmosphere, a spectrum near the D35Cl (1-0) R4 line at 2141.54 cm-1 was observed using the CSHELL spectrograph at NASA IRTF. Least square fitting to the spectrum by a synthetic spectrum results in a DCl mixing ratio of 17.8 ± 6.8 ppb. Comparing to the HCl abundance of 400 ± 30 ppb (Krasnopolsky [2010a] Icarus, 208, 314-322), the DCl/HCl ratio is equal to 280 ± 110 times the terrestrial D/H = 1.56 × 10-4. This ratio is similar to that of HDO/H2O = 240 ± 25 times the terrestrial HDO/H2O from the VEX/SOIR occultations at 70-110 km. Photochemistry in the Venus mesosphere converts H from HCl to that in H2O with a rate of 1.9 × 109 cm-2 s-1 (Krasnopolsky [2012] Icarus, 218, 230-246). The conversion involves photolysis of HCl; therefore, the photochemistry tends to enrich D/H in HCl and deplete in H2O. Formation of the sulfuric acid clouds may affect HDO/H2O as well. The enriched HCl moves down by mixing to the lower atmosphere where thermodynamic equilibriums for H2 and HCl near the surface correspond to D/H = 0.71 and 0.74 times that in H2O, respectively. Time to establish these equilibriums is estimated at ˜3 years and comparable to the mixing time in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, the enriched HCl from the mesosphere gives D back to H2O near the surface. Comparison of chemical and mixing times favors a constant HDO/H2O up to ˜100 km and DCl/HCl equal to D/H in H2O times 0.74. Ammonia is an abundant form of nitrogen in the reducing environments. Thermodynamic equilibriums with N2 and NO near the surface of Venus give its mixing ratio of 10-14 and 6 × 10-7, respectively. A spectrum of Venus near the NH3 line at 4481.11 cm-1 was observed at NASA IRTF and resulted in a two-sigma upper limit of 6 ppb for NH3 above the Venus clouds. This is an improvement of the previous upper limit by a factor of 5. If ammonia exists at the ppb level or less in the lower atmosphere, it quickly dissociates in the mesosphere and weakly affects its

  18. Transcutaneous CO(2) plateau as set-point for respiratory drive during upper airway flow-limitation.

    PubMed

    Rimpilä, Ville; Saaresranta, Tarja; Huhtala, Heini; Virkki, Arho; Salminen, Aaro V; Polo, Olli

    2014-01-15

    Upper airway flow-limitation is often but not always associated with prolonged gradually increasing respiratory effort. We investigated the changes in transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcCO(2)) during episodes of upper airway flow limitation during sleep with or without respiratory effort response. Seventy-seven episodes of progressive flow-limitation were analyzed in 36 patients with sleep-disordered breathing. TcCO(2) and arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) were measured during steady breathing and during episodes of flow-limitation with and without effort response. After lights-off tcCO(2) increased and leveled-off at plateau, when breathing stabilized. During flow-limitation tcCO(2) increased at rate of 4.0kPa/h. Flow-limitation with increasing respiratory effort associated with tcCO(2) increase above the plateau (terminating at 105.2%, p<0.001), whereas flow-limitation without effort response associated with tcCO(2) increase starting below the plateau (95.8%, p<0.001). We conclude that the nocturnal tcCO(2) plateau indicates the level above which the increasing respiratory effort is triggered as response to upper airway flow-limitation. We propose that flow-limitation below the tcCO(2) plateau is an event related to stabilization of sleep and breathing. PMID:24200642

  19. Estimation of the upper limit of carbon concentration in boron carbide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2010-08-01

    The existence of a boron carbide phase with ˜25 at % carbon was proven experimentally. To evaluate the maximum possible concentration of C atoms in boron carbide (B12 - x C x )(BC2) crystals, we performed quantum-chemical calculations of (B12 - x C x )(BH2)6(CH3)6 model compounds ( x = 0-4; the goal of calculations was to determine the upper limiting number of C atoms in the B12 - x C x icosahedron) by the density functional theory method (B3LYP, 6-31G** basis set, full geometry optimization). A comparison of the experimental and calculated data showed that the calculations of the model compounds reproduced the experimental dependences of the structural parameters of the icosahedron (mean bond length and volume) on the number of C atoms in it. The icosahedra were found to be stable at x ≤ 3. According to the results of the quantum-chemical calculations, the maximum carbon concentration in boron carbide was 33 at %, which corresponded to the composition B10C5 and the structural formula (B9C3)(BC2).

  20. "The upper limits of vegetation on Mauna Loa, Hawaii": a 50th-anniversary reassessment.

    PubMed

    Juvik, James O; Rodomsky, Brett T; Price, Jonathan P; Hansen, Eric W; Kueffer, Christoph

    2011-02-01

    In January 1958, a survey of alpine flora was conducted along a recently constructed access road across the upper volcanic slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (2525-3397 m). Only five native Hawaiian species were encountered on sparsely vegetated historic and prehistoric lava flows adjacent to the roadway. A resurvey of roadside flora in 2008 yielded a more than fourfold increase to 22 species, including nine native species not previously recorded. Eight new alien species have now invaded this alpine environment, although exclusively limited to a few individuals in ruderal habitat along the roadway. Alternative explanations for species invasion and altitudinal change over the past 50 years are evaluated: (1) changes related to continuing primary succession on ameliorating (weathering) young lava substrates; (2) local climate change; and (3) road improvements and increased vehicular access which promote enhanced car-borne dispersal of alien species derived from the expanding pool of potential colonizers naturalized on the island in recent decades. Unlike alpine environments in temperate latitudes, the energy component (warming) in climate change on Mauna Loa does not appear to be the unequivocal driver of plant invasion and range extension. Warming may be offset by other climate change factors including rainfall and evapotranspiration. PMID:21618930

  1. The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-01-16

    The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane-air, propane-air, n-butane-air, ethylene-air and propylene-air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30 bar and temperatures up to 250 degrees C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200 mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by electric current. Flame propagation is said to have taken place if there is a pressure rise of at least 1% of the initial pressure after ignition of the mixture. In the pressure-temperature range investigated, a linear dependence of UEL on temperature and a bilinear dependence on pressure are found except in the vicinity of the auto-ignition range. A comparison of the UEL data of the lower alkanes shows that the UEL expressed as equivalence ratio (the actual fuel/air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) increases with increasing carbon number in the homologous series of alkanes. PMID:16154265

  2. An Upper Limit on the Electron-Neutrino Flux from the HiRes Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Amann, J. F.; Archbold, G.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Ben Zvi, S. Y.; Bergman, D. R.; Biesiadecka, A.; Blake, S. A.; Boyer, J. H.; Brusova, O. A.; Burt, G. W.; Cannon, C.; Cao, Z.; Deng, W.; Fedorova, Y.; Findlay, J.; Finley, C. B.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. F.; Hoffman, C. M.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hughes, G.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Ivanov, D.; Jones, B. F.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kim, K.; Kirn, M. A.; Knapp, B. C.; Loh, E. C.; Maestas, M. M.; Manago, N.; Mannel, E. J.; Marek, L. J.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthews, J. N.; Moore, S. A.; O'Neill, A.; Painter, C. A.; Perera, L.; Reil, K.; Riehle, R.; Roberts, M. D.; Rodriguez, D.; Sasaki, M.; Schnetzer, S. R.; Scott, L. M.; Seman, M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, J. D.; Snow, R.; Sokolsky, P.; Song, C.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Thomas, J. R.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tupa, D.; Wiencke, L. R.; Zech, A.; Zhang, X.

    2008-09-01

    Air-fluorescence detectors such as the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) detector are very sensitive to upward-going, Earth-skimming ultra-high-energy electron-neutrino-induced showers. This is due to the relatively large interaction cross sections of these high-energy neutrinos and to the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. The LPM effect causes a significant decrease in the cross sections for bremsstrahlung and pair production, allowing charged-current electron-neutrino-induced showers occurring deep in the Earth's crust to be detectable as they exit the Earth into the atmosphere. A search for upward-going neutrino-induced showers in the HiRes-II monocular data set has yielded a null result. From an LPM calculation of the energy spectrum of charged particles as a function of primary energy and depth for electron-induced showers in rock, we calculate the shape of the resulting profile of these showers in air. We describe a full detector Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detector response to upward-going electron-neutrino-induced cascades and present an upper limit on the flux of electron neutrinos.

  3. Upper Limits for Power Yield in Thermal, Chemical, and Electrochemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    We consider modeling and power optimization of energy converters, such as thermal, solar and chemical engines and fuel cells. Thermodynamic principles lead to expressions for converter's efficiency and generated power. Efficiency equations serve to solve the problems of upgrading or downgrading a resource. Power yield is a cumulative effect in a system consisting of a resource, engines, and an infinite bath. While optimization of steady state systems requires using the differential calculus and Lagrange multipliers, dynamic optimization involves variational calculus and dynamic programming. The primary result of static optimization is the upper limit of power, whereas that of dynamic optimization is a finite-rate counterpart of classical reversible work (exergy). The latter quantity depends on the end state coordinates and a dissipation index, h, which is the Hamiltonian of the problem of minimum entropy production. In reacting systems, an active part of chemical affinity constitutes a major component of the overall efficiency. The theory is also applied to fuel cells regarded as electrochemical flow engines. Enhanced bounds on power yield follow, which are stronger than those predicted by the reversible work potential.

  4. IRAS-based whole-sky upper limit on Dyson Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical construct of a star purposely cloaked by a thick swarm of broken-up planetary material to better utilize all of the stellar energy. A clean Dyson Sphere identification would give a significant signature for intelligence at work. A search for Dyson Spheres has been carried out using the 250,000 source database of the IRAS infrared satellite which covered 96% of the sky. The search has used the Calgary data collection of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) to look for fits to blackbody spectra. Searches have been conducted for both pure (fully cloaked) and partial Dyson Spheres in the blackbody temperature region 100 {le} T {le} 600 K. Other stellar signatures that resemble a Dyson Sphere are reviewed. When these signatures are used to eliminate sources that mimic Dyson Spheres very few candidates remain and even these are ambiguous. Upper limits are presented for both pure and partial Dyson Spheres. The sensitivity of the LRS was enough to find solar-sized Dyson Spheres out to 300 pc, a reach that encompasses a million solar-type stars.

  5. Upper limits from the LIGO and TAMA detectors on the rate of gravitational-wave bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, J.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Bland, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Credico, A.; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dupuis, R. J.; Edlund, J. A.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Findley, T.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Luna, M.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Noel, J. S.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Seader, S. E.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P. H.; Spero, R.; Spjeld, O.; Stapfer, G.; Steussy, D.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.

    2005-12-01

    We report on the first joint search for gravitational waves by the TAMA and LIGO collaborations. We looked for millisecond-duration unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in 473 hr of coincident data collected during early 2003. No candidate signals were found. We set an upper limit of 0.12 events per day on the rate of detectable gravitational-wave bursts, at 90% confidence level. From software simulations, we estimate that our detector network was sensitive to bursts with root-sum-square strain amplitude above approximately 1-3×10-19Hz-1/2 in the frequency band 700-2000 Hz. We describe the details of this collaborative search, with particular emphasis on its advantages and disadvantages compared to searches by LIGO and TAMA separately using the same data. Benefits include a lower background and longer observation time, at some cost in sensitivity and bandwidth. We also demonstrate techniques for performing coincidence searches with a heterogeneous network of detectors with different noise spectra and orientations. These techniques include using coordinated software signal injections to estimate the network sensitivity, and tuning the analysis to maximize the sensitivity and the livetime, subject to constraints on the background.

  6. A new upper limit to the field‐aligned potential near Titan

    PubMed Central

    Wellbrock, Anne; Waite, J. Hunter; Jones, Geraint H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neutral particles dominate regions of the Saturn magnetosphere and locations near several of Saturn's moons. Sunlight ionizes neutrals, producing photoelectrons with characteristic energy spectra. The Cassini plasma spectrometer electron spectrometer has detected photoelectrons throughout these regions, where photoelectrons may be used as tracers of magnetic field morphology. They also enhance plasma escape by setting up an ambipolar electric field, since the relatively energetic electrons move easily along the magnetic field. A similar mechanism is seen in the Earth's polar wind and at Mars and Venus. Here we present a new analysis of Titan photoelectron data, comparing spectra measured in the sunlit ionosphere at ~1.4 Titan radii (R T) and at up to 6.8 R T away. This results in an upper limit on the potential of 2.95 V along magnetic field lines associated with Titan at up to 6.8 R T, which is comparable to some similar estimates for photoelectrons seen in Earth's magnetosphere.

  7. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; the VERITAS collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  8. Is there really an upper limit to river water temperatures in a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    In recent efforts to model river temperatures in a changing climate, investigators have frequently applied an s-shaped logistic equation to relate water temperatures to air temperatures. This s-shaped model has been justified by the presence of the freezing point at low temperatures and supposed enhanced evapotranspiration (ET) at high temperatures. Looking at large river systems (> 5000 km2) where mean air and water temperatures are in relative equilibrium, we analyze the 5-day mean air/water temperature relationship of 12 river systems located in different climatological regions of the US to reassess whether there is actually an upper limit to maximum river temperatures. For all 12 systems, a logistic regression model performs better than a linear regression model in relating river water temperatures to air temperature. However, direct examination of the air/water relationship indicates that the improvement in fit often originates only at low temperatures. Of the five systems where an improvement occurs at high temperatures, they are either located in arid regions, have mountain snowmelt extending into the early summer, or exhibit strong hysteresis. An assessment of hourly energy balance data for varying geographic regions suggests that arid regions are the only locales where energy losses at high temperatures due to ET may exceed energy inputs, thus leading to a plateau in water temperatures. This research suggests that logistic regression equations should be applied only after carefully considering the processes that may control temperature in a changing climate on the river of interest.

  9. Estimation of upper limit of pore pressure by fault stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zijian; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-06-01

    Generally, the pore pressure for a pre-drill well is predicted using empirical parameters, which are regressed from the drilled well's data. However, for areas with large geological differences, empirical parameters which are obtained using traditional methods may fail because intense tectonic movement would result in huge differences between the pre-drill well and drilled well. Firstly, in order to overcome this problem, the method of fault stability analysis is introduced. Analysis indicates that when abnormal overpressure exceeds a certain value, the fault ruptures and the overpressured fluid escapes, so that there is an upper limit of pore pressure (ULPP) for the stable fault. Secondly, the influences of fault angle, formation Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity on the ULPP are discussed further. The results show that the ULPP of a fault with angle of 65.2° is the minimum, and the critical angle increases with the increase of internal friction coefficient. For reverse faults and strike faults, the influences of Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity are small, but for normal faults these are significant. Finally, three kinds of ULPP for these different faults are proposed, respectively. The application of this method in the Xihu Sag in the East China Sea has proved that reference to ULPP can verify and correct regressed empirical parameters, so as to improve pore pressure prediction accuracy.

  10. Experimental upper limit on the estimated thermal noise at low frequencies in a gravitational wave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Di Virgilio, A.; Bigotta, S.; Barsotti, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Del Prete, M.; Fiori, I.; Frasconi, F.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Passuello, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Dattilo, V.; La Penna, P.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Passaquieti, R.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.

    2007-12-15

    The mirror relative motion of a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity is studied in the frequency range 3-100 Hz. The experimental measurements presented in this paper have been performed at the Low Frequency Facility, a high finesse optical cavity 1 cm long suspended to a mechanical seismic isolation system like the one of the VIRGO gravitational wave antenna. Because of the radiation pressure between the two mirrors of the cavity, the dynamic behavior of the system is characterized by the optical spring stiffness. In the frequency region above 3 Hz, where seismic noise contamination is negligible, the mirror displacement noise is stationary and its statistical distribution is Gaussian. Using a simplified mechanical model of the suspended system and applying the fluctuation dissipation theorem, we show that the measured power spectrum is reproduced in the frequency region 3-90 Hz. Since the contribution coming from different sources of the system to the total noise budget turns out to be negligible, we conclude that the relative displacement power spectrum of this opto-mechanical system is compatible with a system at thermal equilibrium within its environment. In the region 3-10 Hz this measurement gives so far the best upper limit for the thermal noise of the suspension for a gravitational wave interferometer.

  11. Upper and lower limits of the charge translocation stoichiometry of mitochondrial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D

    1987-05-01

    The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry (n) of electric charge translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport have been determined for the oxidation of succinate and beta-hydroxybutyrate using a recently described method (Beavis, A. D., and Lehninger, A. L. (1986) Eur. J. Biochem. 158, 307-314). This method requires no assumptions regarding the magnitude of proton leakage or pump slippage, but it takes advantage of the ability to predict the direction of change as the coupled fluxes are modulated by specific means. In this study, the rates of K+ uptake (JK) and O2 consumption (JO) were determined from simultaneous electrode measurements in the presence of various concentrations of valinomycin or inhibitors of electron flow. When valinomycin is varied, the rate of proton leakage or pump slippage should decrease as JO increases, with the result that the slope dJK/dJO will be greater than n. On the other hand, when an inhibitor of electron flow is varied, the rate of proton leakage or pump slippage should increase as JO increases, with the result that the slope dJK/dJO should be less than n. The data obtained using this approach indicate that n lies between 6.7 and 7.3 for succinate oxidation and between 10.2 and 11.7 for beta-hydroxybutyrate (or NADH) oxidation. It is concluded that the mechanistic stoichiometry of charge separation coupled to electron flow is 7 q+/O in the span from succinate to oxygen and 11 q+/O in the span from NADH to oxygen. These conclusions are fully consistent with the limits of the mechanistic ATP/O ratios previously determined for these spans (Beavis, A. D., and Lehninger, A. L. (1986) Eur. J. Biochem. 158, 315-322). PMID:3571252

  12. Growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-06-01

    The seagrass Zostera japonica occurs mainly in the intertidal zone and is thus exposed to widely varying environmental conditions affecting its growth and distribution compared to subtidal seagrasses. The growth dynamics of Z. japonica at its upper and lower distributional limits in the intertidal zone were investigated in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea to examine the environmental stresses and limiting factors on the growth of intertidal seagrasses. The shoot density and morphology, biomass, and leaf productivity of Z. japonica were measured in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors at its upper and lower distributional limits and in an intermediate zone of the intertidal area. The mean exposure time to the atmosphere during low tide in the upper intertidal zone was approximately 1.5- and 1.9-fold longer than that in the intermediate and lower intertidal zones, respectively. Shoot density and biomass were significantly higher in the intermediate zone than at the upper and lower distributional limits. Longer emersion leading to a various of environmental stresses appeared to reduce Z. japonica growth in the upper intertidal zone, whereas interspecific competitive interactions related to irradiance seemed to affect Z. japonica growth in the lower intertidal zone. Shoot size, density, biomass, and leaf productivity were lower in the upper than in the lower zone, implying that emersion-associated stresses in the upper zone had a greater detrimental effect on Z. japonica growth than did stresses occurring in the lower zone. The productivity of Z. japonica showed strong positive correlations with air and water temperature, suggesting enhancement of Z. japonica production at higher temperatures. Thus, the predicted increases in air and water temperature associated with global climate change might have positive effects on the growth and extension in distributional range of this species.

  13. Upper limits on φφ production in 350-GeV/c proton-beryllium collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, T.; Brown, B. C.; Brown, C. N.; Dixon, R. L.; Ito, A. S.; Jostlein, H.; Lederman, L. M.; Ueno, K.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Finley, D. A.; McCarthy, R. L.

    1981-04-01

    We have established a sensitive upper limit on φφ resonance production by 350-GeV/c protons incident on a beryllium target. The 90%-confidence-level upper limit varies from 1.5×10-30 cm2/nucleon at Mφφ=2.8 GeV/c2 to 6.0×10-32 cm2/nucleon at Mφφ=3.4 GeV/c2. We observe no evidence of the ηc.

  14. Final Report - Inspection Limit Confirmation for Upper Head Penetration Nozzle Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Rudland, David L.; Zhang, Tao; Wilkowski, Gery M.

    2008-08-22

    The ASME Code Case N-729-1 defines alternative examination requirements for the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) upper head penetration nozzle welds. The basis for these examination requirements was developed as part of an Industry program conducted by the Materials Reliability Program (MRP) through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The results of this program were published in MRP-95 Rev. 1 and document a set of finite element weld residual stress analyses conducted on a variety of upper head penetration nozzles. The inspection zone selected by the industry was based on the stress where it was assumed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) would not initiate. As explained in MRP-95 Rev. 1, it has been illustrated that PWSCC does not occur in the Alloy 600 tube when the stresses are below the yield strength of that tube. Typical yield strengths at operating conditions for Alloy 600 range from 35 ksi to 65 ksi. A stress less than 20-ksi tension was chosen as a conservative range where PWSCC would not initiate. Over the last several years, Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2) has conducted welding residual stress analyses on upper head penetration J-welds made from Alloy 182 weld metal for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. These efforts were performed as a confirmatory evaluation of the industry’s analyses conducted as part of their MRP-95 Rev. 1 effort. To this point, the analyses conducted by Emc2 have not been compared to the MRP-95 Rev. 1 results or the examination zones defined in the Code Case. Therefore, this report summarizes the past Emc2 CRDM welding analyses and investigates the regions where the welding stresses may be sufficiently high to promote stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In all, 90 welding residual stress analyses were conducted by Emc2 and the largest distance below the weld where the stress drops below 20 ksi was 5 inches for the uphill weld of the 53-degree nozzle case. For the

  15. An Upper Limit for the Deuterium Abundance in the Halo Star HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Galloway, Robert P.; Kurucz, R. L.; Smith, Verne V.

    1994-12-01

    Because of the possible enhanced deuterium abundance of D/H = 2.5 10(-4) (the ISM D/H = 1.65x10(-5) ) recently reported in quasar absorption spectra, we searched for the D_alpha line at 6561 A in the metal-poor halo star HD 140283 (G2IV, [Fe/H] = -2.6; Teff= 5700K). We observed HD 140283 using the .9m KPNO coude feed and the 2.7m McDonald Observatory telescopes with echelle spectrographs having a resolution Delta lambda = .05 A/pixel with S/N= 200 and Delta lambda = .11 A/pixel with S/N = 600 respectively. We did not detect the D_alpha line and compared our results to model atmosphere calculations for this star. We estimate an upper limit of D/H < 1x10(-5) which is smaller than the primordial or and Early Galactic D/H = 8x10(-5) . Since D is destroyed via reactions with protons at T > 5x10(5) K, the atmospheric deuterium has probably been destroyed during the pre-main sequence convection phase. Because (7) Li, (9) Be, and (11) B have all been detected in this star (Li/H=1.5x10(-10) and B/H=2.9x10(-12) ) and Li is destroyed at T > 2.5x10(6) K, the temperature at the bottom of the pre-main sequence convection zone is 1x10(6) K < T < 2.5x10(6) .K

  16. Upper limits for a lunar dust exosphere from far-ultraviolet spectroscopy by LRO/LAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Glenar, David A.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Randall Gladstone, G.; Miles, Paul F.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Kaufmann, David E.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Alan Stern, S.

    2014-05-01

    Since early 2012, the Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) far-ultraviolet spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft has carried out a series of limb observations from within lunar shadow to search for the presence of a high altitude dust exosphere via forward-scattering of sunlight from dust grains. Bright “horizon-glow” was observed from orbit during several Apollo missions and interpreted in terms of dust at altitudes of several km and higher. However, no confirmation of such an exosphere has been made since that time. This raises basic questions about the source(s) of excess brightness in the early measurements and also the conditions for producing observable dust concentrations at km altitudes and higher. Far-ultraviolet measurements between 170 and 190 nm, near the LAMP long wavelength cutoff, are especially sensitive to scattering by small (0.1-0.2 μm radius) dust grains, since the scattering cross-section is near-maximum, and the solar flux is rising rapidly with wavelength. An additional advantage of ultraviolet measurements is the lack of interference by background zodiacal light which must be taken into account at longer wavelengths. As of July 2013, LAMP has completed several limb-observing sequences dedicated to the search for horizon glow, but no clear evidence of dust scattering has yet been obtained. Upper limits for vertical dust column abundance have been estimated at less than 10 grains cm-2 (0.1 μm grain radius), by comparing the measured noise-equivalent brightness with the results of Mie scattering simulations for the same observing geometries. These results indicate that Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) UVS lunar dust observations will be considerably more challenging than planned.

  17. Upper and lower limits of the charge translocation stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D

    1987-05-01

    The mechanistic stoichiometry of charge separation coupled to the flow of electrons through cytochrome c oxidase has remained a center of controversy since it was first demonstrated that cytochrome oxidase is an H+ pump. Currently the major dispute is whether the q+/O ratio for this segment is 4 or 6. One cause of the controversy is incomplete coupling between electron flow, electrogenic H+ ejection, and electrophoretic cation uptake, which is usually attributed to finite rates of H+ leakage and/or slippage of the H+ pumps. To minimize the uncertainty which incomplete coupling introduces into estimates of the mechanistic stoichiometry, a new approach (Beavis, A. D., and Lehninger, A. L. (1986) Eur. J. Biochem. 158, 307-314) has been used to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic q+/O translocation stoichiometry of cytochrome oxidase. In this approach, the relationship between the rate of valinomycin-dependent K+ uptake, JK, and rate of O2 consumption, JO, is determined as the rates are modulated by two distinct means. When the rates are modulated by the rate of electron flow (i.e. rate of energy supply) the slope of JK versus JO must at all points be less than the mechanistic K+/O ratio. On the other hand, when the rates are modulated by varying the concentration of valinomycin (i.e. the rate of energy utilization) the slope of JK versus JO must at all points be greater than the mechanistic K+/O ratio. The results indicate that the q+/O ratio lies between 4.3 and 5.5. These data are inconsistent with both currently favored stoichiometries, and it is suggested that the true mechanistic stoichiometry of charge separation coupled to electron flow through cytochrome oxidase may be 5 q+/O. PMID:3032957

  18. Age-related upper limits of normal for maximum upright exercise pulmonary haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Agarwal, Manyoo; Tracy, Julie A; Karin, Abbey L; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Waxman, Aaron B; Systrom, David M

    2016-04-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension was eliminated from the pulmonary hypertension guidelines in part due to uncertainty of the upper limits of normal (ULNs) for exercise haemodynamics in subjects >50 years old.The present study, therefore, evaluated the pulmonary haemodynamic responses to maximum upright incremental cycling exercise in consecutive subjects who underwent an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing for unexplained exertional intolerance, deemed normal based on preserved exercise capacity and normal resting supine haemodynamics. Subjects aged >50 years old (n=41) were compared with subjects ≤50 years old (n=25). ULNs were calculated as mean+2sdPeak exercise mean pulmonary arterial pressure was not different for subjects >50 and ≤50 years old (23±5versus22±4 mmHg, p=0.22), with ULN of 33 and 30 mmHg, respectively. Peak cardiac output was lower in older subjects (median (interquartile range): 12.1 (9.4-14.2)versus16.2 (13.8-19.2) L·min(-1), p<0.001). Peak pulmonary vascular resistance was higher in older subjects compared with younger subjects (mean±sd: 1.20±0.45versus0.82±0.26 Wood units, p<0.001), with ULN of 2.10 and 1.34 Wood units, respectively.We observed that subjects >50 and ≤50 years old have different pulmonary vascular responses to exercise. Older subjects have higher pulmonary vascular resistance at peak exercise, resulting in different exercise haemodynamics ULNs compared with the younger population. PMID:26677941

  19. Interfacially polymerized layers for oxygen enrichment: a method to overcome Robeson's upper-bound limit.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Wei; Tsai, Chieh; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2013-06-26

    Interfacial polymerization of four aqueous phase monomers, diethylenetriamine (DETA), m-phenylenediamine (mPD), melamine (Mela), and piperazine (PIP), and two organic phase monomers, trimethyl chloride (TMC) and cyanuric chloride (CC), produce a thin-film composite membrane of polymerized polyamide layer capable of O2/N2 separation. To achieve maximum efficiency in gas permeance and O2/N2 permselectivity, the concentrations of monomers, time of interfacial polymerization, number of reactive groups in monomers, and the structure of monomers need to be optimized. By controlling the aqueous/organic monomer ratio between 1.9 and 2.7, we were able to obtain a uniformly interfacial polymerized layer. To achieve a highly cross-linked layer, three reactive groups in both the aqueous and organic phase monomers are required; however, if the monomers were arranged in a planar structure, the likelihood of structural defects also increased. On the contrary, linear polymers are less likely to result in structural defects, and can also produce polymer layers with moderate O2/N2 selectivity. To minimize structural defects while maximizing O2/N2 selectivity, the planar monomer, TMC, containing 3 reactive groups, was reacted with the semirigid monomer, PIP, containing 2 reactive groups to produce a membrane with an adequate gas permeance of 7.72 × 10(-6) cm(3) (STP) s(-1) cm(-2) cm Hg(-1) and a high O2/N2 selectivity of 10.43, allowing us to exceed the upper-bound limit of conventional thin-film composite membranes. PMID:23731366

  20. Upper limit to antiproton flux in cosmic radiation above 100 GeV using muon charge ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Upper limits to the fraction of antiprotons in cosmic radiation have been estimated from the observed charge ratio of muons at sea-level. Using these values, it is shown that constraints can be set on the extragalactic hypothesis of the observed antiprotons in the framework of energy-dependent confinement of cosmic rays in the galaxy.

  1. The Role of Oxygen in Determining Upper Thermal Limits in Lottia digitalis under Air Exposure and Submersion.

    PubMed

    Bjelde, Brittany E; Miller, Nathan A; Stillman, Jonathon H; Todgham, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen limitation of aerobic metabolism is hypothesized to drive organismal thermal tolerance limits. Differences in oxygen availability in air and water may underlie observed differences in upper thermal tolerance of intertidal limpets if oxygen is limiting in submerged environments. We explored how cardiac performance (heart rate, breakpoint temperature [BPT], flat-line temperature [FLT], and temperature sensitivity) was affected by hyperoxia and hypoxia in the finger limpet, Lottia digitalis, under air exposure and submersion. Upper thermal tolerance limits were unchanged by increasing availability of oxygen, although air-exposed limpets were able to maintain cardiac function to higher temperatures than submerged limpets. Maximum heart rate did not increase with greater partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), suggesting that tissue Po2 levels are likely maximized during normoxia. Hypoxia reduced breakpoint BPTs and FLTs in air-exposed and submerged limpets and accentuated the difference in BPTs between the two groups through greater reductions in BPT in submerged limpets. Differences in respiratory structures and the degree to which thermal limits are already maximized may play significant roles in determining how oxygen availability influences upper temperature tolerance. PMID:26658246

  2. Detection of Nitric Oxide in the Lower Atmosphere of Venus and Upper Limit for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    2006-05-01

    of the low temperature in the martian atmosphere, and we do not see any explanation of a possible emission of NO at 5.3 μm. Therefore the data are treated as the lack of absorption with a 2 sigma upper limit of 1.7 ppb to the NO abundance in the lower atmosphere of Mars. This limit is above the predictions of photochemical models by a factor of 3.

  3. Sample Size Limits for Estimating Upper Level Mediation Models Using Multilevel SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2013-01-01

    This simulation study investigated use of the multilevel structural equation model (MLSEM) for handling measurement error in both mediator and outcome variables ("M" and "Y") in an upper level multilevel mediation model. Mediation and outcome variable indicators were generated with measurement error. Parameter and standard…

  4. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services... SERVICES Payment Methods for Other Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Outpatient Hospital and Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment...

  5. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.

    2005-11-15

    We perform a wide parameter-space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semicoherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-400 Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational-wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is 4.43x10{sup -23}.

  6. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  7. First all-sky upper limits from LIGO on the strength of periodic gravitational waves using the Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Agresti, J.; Allen, B.; Allen, J.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Bland, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Credico, A. Di; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dupuis, R. J.; Edlund, J. A.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Findley, T.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Luna, M.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Noel, J. S.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswaran, A.; Parameswariah, C.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Seader, S. E.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P. H.; Spero, R.; Spjeld, O.; Stapfer, G.; Steussy, D.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.

    2005-11-01

    We perform a wide parameter-space search for continuous gravitational waves over the whole sky and over a large range of values of the frequency and the first spin-down parameter. Our search method is based on the Hough transform, which is a semicoherent, computationally efficient, and robust pattern recognition technique. We apply this technique to data from the second science run of the LIGO detectors and our final results are all-sky upper limits on the strength of gravitational waves emitted by unknown isolated spinning neutron stars on a set of narrow frequency bands in the range 200-400Hz. The best upper limit on the gravitational-wave strain amplitude that we obtain in this frequency range is 4.43×10-23.

  8. A doping concentration-dependent upper limit of the breakdown voltage cutoff frequency product in Si bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieh, Jae-Sung; Jagannathan, Basanth; Greenberg, David; Freeman, Greg; Subbanna, Seshadri

    2004-02-01

    Recent high-speed Si-based bipolar transistors apparently exceed the Johnson Limit in terms of breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency product, and this paper addresses the relevant issues. First, BV CES rather than BV CEO is shown to be the representative breakdown voltage in describing the breakdown-speed trade-off in collector design, since BV CEO is modulated by the current gain which is irrelevant of the collector design and also practical bipolar circuits are rarely operated with open-base condition for which BV CEO is defined. In the same context, it is suggested BV CES be employed in representing the upper limit of breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency product. Second, a collector doping concentration-dependent upper limit of BV CES· fT product is proposed incorporating the doping concentration-dependent critical electric field and accurate values for related device parameters. With this new approach, it is shown that the limit is far larger than the Johnson Limit and the limit is still yet to be reached.

  9. ON THE METHOD TO INFER AN ATMOSPHERE ON A TIDALLY LOCKED SUPER EARTH EXOPLANET AND UPPER LIMITS TO GJ 876d

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, S.; Deming, D.

    2009-10-01

    We develop a method to infer or rule out the presence of an atmosphere on a tidally locked hot super Earth. The question of atmosphere retention is a fundamental one, especially for planets orbiting M stars due to the star's long-duration active phase and corresponding potential for stellar-induced planetary atmospheric escape and erosion. Tidally locked planets with no atmosphere are expected to show a Lambertian-like thermal phase curve, causing the combined light of the planet-star system to vary with planet orbital phase. We report Spitzer 8 {mu}m IRAC observations of GJ 876 taken over 32 continuous hours and reaching a relative photometric precision of 3.9 x 10{sup -4} per point for 25.6 s time sampling. This translates to a 3sigma limit of 5.13 x 10{sup -5} on a planet thermal phase curve amplitude. Despite the almost photon-noise-limited data, we are unable to conclusively infer the presence of an atmosphere or rule one out on the non-transiting short-period super Earth GJ 876d. The limiting factor in our observations was the miniscule, monotonic photometric variation of the slightly active host M star, because the partial sine wave due to the planet has a component in common with the stellar linear trend. The proposed method is nevertheless very promising for transiting hot super Earths with the James Webb Space Telescope and is critical for establishing observational constraints for atmospheric escape.

  10. Flux upper limits for 47 AGN observed with H.E.S.S. in 2004-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. About 40% of the observation time of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is dedicated to studying active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the aim of increasing the sample of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sources and constraining the physical processes at play in potential emitters. Aims: H.E.S.S. observations of AGN, spanning a period from April 2004 to December 2011, are investigated to constrain their γ-ray fluxes. Only the 47 sources without significant excess detected at the position of the targets are presented. Methods: Upper limits on VHE fluxes of the targets were computed and a search for variability was performed on the nightly time scale. Results: For 41 objects, the flux upper limits we derived are the most constraining reported to date. These constraints at VHE are compared with the flux level expected from extrapolations of Fermi-LAT measurements in the two-year catalog of AGN. The H.E.S.S. upper limits are at least a factor of two lower than the extrapolated Fermi-LAT fluxes for 11 objects. Taking into account the attenuation by the extragalactic background light reduces the tension for all but two of them, suggesting intrinsic curvature in the high-energy spectra of these two AGN. Conclusions: Compilation efforts led by current VHE instruments are of critical importance for target-selection strategies before the advent of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  11. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Jan W. A.; Schreurs, Wendy M. J.; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Vogel, Wouter V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. Methods FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. Results The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly. PMID:27556809

  12. Increases in the evolutionary potential of upper thermal limits under warmer temperatures in two rainforest Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, Belinda; Malmberg, Michelle; Sgrò, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Tropical and subtropical species represent the majority of biodiversity. These species are predicted to lack the capacity to evolve higher thermal limits in response to selection imposed by climatic change. However, these assessments have relied on indirect estimates of adaptive capacity, using conditions that do not reflect environmental changes projected under climate change. Using a paternal half-sib full-sib breeding design, we estimated the additive genetic variance and narrow-sense heritability for adult upper thermal limits in two rainforest-restricted species of Drosophila reared under two thermal regimes, reflecting increases in seasonal temperature projected for the Wet Tropics of Australia and under standard laboratory conditions (constant 25°C). Estimates of additive genetic variation and narrow-sense heritability for adult heat tolerance were significantly different from zero in both species under projected summer, but not winter or constant, thermal regimes. In contrast, significant broad-sense genetic variation was apparent in all thermal regimes for egg-to-adult viability. Environment-dependent changes in the expression of genetic variation for adult upper thermal limits suggest that predicting adaptive responses to climate change will be difficult. Estimating adaptive capacity under conditions that do not reflect future environmental conditions may provide limited insight into evolutionary responses to climate change. PMID:26703976

  13. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  14. New upper limits of a braneworld model with recent Solar System tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xue-Mei; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    As an extension of previous works on classical tests of a braneworld model which is called as the Dadhich, Maartens, Papadopoulos and Rezania (DMPR) solution, and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this model, we investigate its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System by modeling new observable effects and adopting new datasets. First, we investigate gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction (IC) caused by the braneworld model, which was not considered in previous works, because these measurements are not affected by the solar corona noise. Second, the Cassini superior conjunction (SC) experiment is, for the first time, used to test the DMPR model. Third, compared to previous works, we refine the model, which confronts the perihelion shift induced by the braneworld model with modern Solar System ephemerides INPOP10a (IMCCE, France) and EPM2011 (IAA RAS, Russia). The correction of DMPR solution to Einstein’s general relativity (GR) in the four-dimensional spacetime can be characterized by a constant bulk “tidal charge” parameter Q, which is confined in the present work. We find that time delay experiment at IC is independent of Q and not suitable for testing the braneworld model. However, the Cassini SC experiment and modern Solar System ephemerides can give better upper bounds on Q: (1) |Q|≤ 1.2 × 107m2 by Cassini, and (2) |Q|≤ 61m2 based on the supplementary advances of the perihelia provided by INPOP10a and |Q|≤ 3.0 × 102m2 based on the ones of EPM2011. The latter upper bounds are improved to be tighter than the ones of previous works by at least two orders of magnitude. Besides, the stronger constraints on the brane tension are given by the modern ephemerides, which are λ ≥ 3.1 × 105MeV4 for INPOP10a and λ ≥ 6.2 × 104MeV4 for EPM2011. These improved upper bounds mean that the Solar System tests can serve as a good testbed for high dimensional theories.

  15. Upper-limit mutation rate estimation for a plant RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Elena, Santiago F.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that mutation rates of RNA viruses are inherently high due to the lack of proofreading mechanisms. However, direct estimates of mutation rate are surprisingly scarce, in particular for plant viruses. Here, based on the analysis of in vivo mutation frequencies in tobacco etch virus, we calculate an upper-bound mutation rate estimation of 3×10−5 per site and per round of replication; a value which turns out to be undistinguishable from the methodological error. Nonetheless, the value is barely on the lower side of the range accepted for RNA viruses, although in good agreement with the only direct estimate obtained for other plant viruses. These observations suggest that, perhaps, differences in the selective pressures operating during plant virus evolution may have driven their mutation rates towards values lower than those characteristic of other RNA viruses infecting bacteria or animals. PMID:19324646

  16. Upper limits on neutron bursts emitted from Ti pressurized D sub 2 gas cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rugari, S.L.; France, R.H. III; Gai, M.; Lund, B.J.; Smolen, S.D.; Zhao, Z. . Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.); Jones, S.E. ); Hack, J.E.; Zilm, K.W. . Dept. of Chemistry); Lynn, K.G. )

    1989-10-27

    In a search for bursts of neutrons from Ti in pressurized D{sub 2} gas cells, no statistically significant deviations from the background were observed for events where five or more neutrons are detected over a ten day experiment, including 103 hours of counting with cells on, and 28 hours counting of various backgrounds. Up to four cells were used including some 60 grams of 662-Ti fillings in a pressurized cylinder with 40-60 atmosphere of D{sub 2} gas. Other Ti samples were used too. The samples were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature and placed in front of the neutron detector while warming up to room temperature. Seven cooling cycles were used, for each sample. The neutron detector system included 12 liquid scintillator neutron detectors, arranged in a close packed geometry, with six detectors in the upper hemisphere and six in the lower hemisphere. A central detector placed 2 cm from the cells was used, in each hemisphere, as a scatterer for a time of flight coincidence measurement, yielding the total coincidence efficiency of {epsilon}=2{plus minus}1%. The system was also used in singles mode to allow for counting with large efficiency. A neutron event is characterized by measuring its pulse heights, pulse shapes, and in some cases its time of flight. Special attention was given to reducing the background by using massive shielding, cosmic ray veto counters and geometrical arrangement that allowed to distinguish between a background event and expected data events. The so obtained background rate is 100 cph in the singles mode'' and in the upper hemisphere 0.4 cph in the coincidence mode.'' We are currently continuing our data analysis in search for random emission and a detailed study of background effects that may reveal the origin of conflicting results reported on neutron emission from cold fusion.'' 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Superheavy elements - An early solar system upper limit for elements 107 to 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Boynton, W. V.

    1981-01-01

    The abundance of samarium-152 in the Santa Clara iron meteorite is found to be 108 x 10 to the 7th atoms per gram. This quantity, if attributed to fission of a superheavy element with atomic number 107 to 109, limits the amount of superheavy elements in the early solar system to 0.000017 times the abundance of uranium-238. For element 110, the limit is 0.000034.

  18. Increasing the Upper Temperature Oxidation Limit of Alumina Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Unocic, Kinga A; Lance, Michael J; Santella, Michael L; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Walker, Larry R

    2011-01-01

    A family of alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels is under development for use in aggressive oxidizing conditions from {approx}600-900 C. These alloys exhibit promising mechanical properties but oxidation resistance in air with water vapor environments is currently limited to {approx}800 C due to a transition from external protective alumina scale formation to internal oxidation of aluminum with increasing temperature. The oxidation behavior of a series of AFA alloys was systematically studied as a function of Cr, Si, Al, C, and B additions in an effort to provide a basis to increase the upper-temperature oxidation limit. Oxidation exposures were conducted in air with 10% water vapor environments from 800-1000 C, with post oxidation characterization of the 900 C exposed samples by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSLS). Increased levels of Al, C, and B additions were found to increase the upper-temperature oxidation limit in air with water vapor to between 950 and 1000 C. These findings are discussed in terms of alloy microstructure and possible gettering of hydrogen from water vapor at second phase carbide and boride precipitates.

  19. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  20. Photoionization of HOCO revisited : a new upper limit to the adiabatic ionization energy and lower limit to the enthalpy of formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscic, B.; Litorja, M.; Chemistry

    2000-01-07

    A new upper limit to the adiabatic ionization energy of trans-hydroxyoxomethyl, EI(t-HOCO){<=}8.195{+-}0.022 eV, is provided, producing a lower limit to the enthalpy of formation, {Delta}H{sub f 0}{sup o}(t-HOCO){>=}-45.8{+-}0.7 kcal/mol ({>=}-46.5{+-}0.7 kcal/mol at 298 K). The spectrum shows progressions in C{double_bond}O and C-O stretches of HOCO{sup +} and provides evidence for the excitation of OCO bend. In addition, the data tentatively suggest an ionization onset as low as 8.06{+-}0.03 eV. While it is not clear whether the latter corresponds to cis or trans isomer, it may indicate that {Delta}H{sub f 0}{sup o}(HOCO) is even higher.

  1. An upper limit on the anomalous magnetic moment of the lepton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S. F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S. D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Burgard, C.; Bürgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R. L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davis, R.; de Jong, S.; del Pozo, L. A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M. S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H. G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A. A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H. M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D. G.; Foucher, M.; Fürtjes, A.; Futyan, D. I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Geddes, N. I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Hobson, P. R.; Hocker, A.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Hossain, K. R.; Howard, R.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C. R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P. I.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W. P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S. R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J. G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A. M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; MacPherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D. R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W. M.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Sieberg, R. P. B.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S. D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; van Kooten, R.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E. H.; Voss, H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; White, J. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-07-01

    Using radiative events collected with the OPAL detector at LEP at during 1990-95, a direct study of the electromagnetic current at the vertex has been performed in terms of the anomalous magnetic form factor of the lepton. The analysis is based on a data sample of 1429 events which are examined for a deviation from the expectation with . From the non-observation of anomalous production a limit ofis obtained. This can also be interpreted as a limit on the electric dipole form factor asThe above ranges are valid at the confidence level.

  2. The atmosphere of Mars near the surface - Isotope ratios and upper limits on noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biemann, K.; Lafleur, A. L.; Owen, T.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Several analyses of the Martian atmosphere have been carried out with the mass spectrometer in the molecular-analysis experiment. The ratios of abundant isotopes of carbon and oxygen are within 10 per cent of terrestrial values, whereas nitrogen-15 is considerably enriched on Mars. Argon-38 has been detected, and new limits on abundances of krypton and xenon have been set. The limit on krypton is sufficiently low to suggest that the inventories of volatile substances on Mars and on earth may be distinctly different.

  3. Upper limits to pulsed gamma ray emission from PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Pulsed gamma ray emission from three pulsars (PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04) have been sought on a balloon flight of the University of New Hampshire Large Gamma Ray Telescope, which incorporates a shielded sodium iodide scintillator array, and was launched from Alice Springs, Australia. Over the energy range 0.1 - 10 MeV, no evidence is found for pulsed gamma rays, and upper limits are set for Vela which are comparable to, or below, the extrapolation to lower energies of the pulsed emission reported by SAS-2 and COS-B.

  4. Upper limits for the rate constant for the reaction Br + H2O2 yields HB2 + HO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Upper limits for the rate constant for the reaction Br + H2O2 yields HBr + HO2 have been measured over the temperature range 298 to 417 K in a discharge flow system using a mass spectrometer as a detector. Results are k sub 1 less than 1.5 x 10 to the -15th power cu cm/s at 298 K and k sub 1 less than 3.0 x 10 to the -15th power cu cm/s at 417 K, respectively. The implication to stratospheric chemistry is discussed.

  5. Upper limits to pulsed gamma ray emission from PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.

    Pulsed gamma ray emission from three pulsars (PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04) have been sought on a balloon flight of the University of New Hampshire Large Gamma Ray Telescope, which incorporates a shielded sodium iodide scintillator array, and was launched from Alice Springs, Australia. Over the energy range 0.1 - 10 MeV, no evidence is found for pulsed gamma rays, and upper limits are set for Vela which are comparable to, or below, the extrapolation to lower energies of the pulsed emission reported by SAS-2 and COS-B.

  6. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Lehner, M. J.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Bianco, F. B.; Alcock, C.; Chen, W.-P.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Coehlo, N. K.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in light curves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey. We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar light curves obtained by our survey between 2005 February 7 and 2006 December 31 with a total of ~4.5 × 109 three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  7. Upper Limits on the Number of Small Bodies in Sedna-Like Orbits by the TAOS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Lehner, M J; Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Alcock, C; Chen, W; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Coehlo, N K; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, L; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2009-11-13

    We present the results of a search for occultation events by objects at distances between 100 and 1000 AU in lightcurves from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS). We searched for consecutive, shallow flux reductions in the stellar lightcurves obtained by our survey between 7 February 2005 and 31 December 2006 with a total of {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup 9} three-telescope simultaneous photometric measurements. No events were detected, allowing us to set upper limits on the number density as a function of size and distance of objects in Sedna-like orbits, using simple models.

  8. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron C.; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C.; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence. PMID:27453947

  9. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron C; Schunker, Hannah; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube; it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence. PMID:27453947

  10. An upper limit to coronal X-rays from single, magnetic white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavallo, Rob; Arnaud, Keith A.; Trimble, Virginia

    1993-01-01

    Pointed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) exposures of 9277 and 6992 sec, directed toward the nearby, single, cool, magnetic white dwarfs GR 290 and EG 250 yielded no counts significantly above the expected background rate. The corresponding flux limits (for an assumed source temperature of 1 keV) are 1.0 and 1.7 x 10(exp -14) erg/sq cm/s, within the 0.1-2.5 keV bandpass of the instrument (99% confidence limits). This is more than an order of magnitude below the tentative detection level (for GR 290) and limits (for four other similar stars) obtained from archival Einstein data in 1991. The corresponding limits on coronal electron density are comparable with those implied if cyclotron emission is not responsible for any of the features observed in the optical spectra of magnetic white dwarfs. X-ray data currently provide no evidence for the existence of coronae around these stars. A final long observation (25,000 sec of GD 356) is scheduled for later this year on ROSAT, along with coordinated Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) observations.

  11. Application of the Schwinger multichannel formulation to electron-impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+) state of CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherford, Charles A.; Huo, Winifred M.

    1990-01-01

    The Chi 1Sigma - b 3Sigma(+) transition of CO is described using the Schwinger multichannel method in the two-state approximation, in an energy range from threshold to 20 eV. The resonance structure is analyzed by performing a partial-wave decomposition and the resonance positions are established based on the typical discontinuous behavior in the K-matrix elements as well as the pi radian change in the partial-wave eigenphases. The resonance behavior is related to the concept of core-excited resonances and the 'grandparent' model of resonances. The results are related to the formation of the negative ion by carrying out bound-state calculations on the (5 sigma)(3 s sigma)-squared core-excited Rydberg state of CO(-), and the position is found to agree well with the low-energy resonance positions.

  12. Upper Limits on a Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background Using LIGO and Virgo Interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Blackburn, L.; Cannizzo, J.

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of omega(sub GW)(f) = omega(sub 3) (f/900Hz)3, of omega(sub 3) < 0.33, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h(sub 100) = 0.72. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  13. Upper limits on D sup + and B sup + decays to two leptons plus. pi. sup + or K sup +

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, A.J.; Klein, S.R.; Abrams, G.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Akerlof, C.; Alexander, J.P.; Alvarez, M.; Amidei, D.; Baden, A.R.; Ballam, J.; Barish, B.C.; Barklow, T.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartelt, J.; Blockus, D.; Bonvicini, G.; Boyarski, A.; Boyer, J.; Brabson, B.; Breakstone, A.; Brom, J.M.; Bulos, F.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Butler, F.; Calvino, F.; Cence, R.J.; Chapman, J.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; DeStaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, D.E.; Dorfan, J.M.; Drell, P.S.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandez, E.; Field, R.C.; Ford, W.T.; Fordham, C.; Frey, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Gidal, G.; Gladney, L.; Glanzman, T.; Gold, M.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Green, A.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Haggerty, J.; Hanson, G.; Harr, R.; Harris, F.A.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hayes, K.; Herrup, D.; Heusch, C.A.; Himel, T.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Hutchinson, D.; Hylen, J.; Innes, W.R.; Jaffre, M.; Jaros, J.A.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Karlen, D.; Kent, J.; Koska, W.; Kozanecki, W.; Lankford, A.J.; Larsen, R.R.; LeClaire, B.W.; Levi, M.E.; Litke, A.M.; Lockye

    1990-03-01

    Data taken by the Mark II detector at the SLAC {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} storage ring PEP was used to search for exclusive decays of {ital D}{sup {plus minus}} and {ital B}{sup {plus minus}} mesons into two charged leptons plus a charged pion or kaon. All possible charge and lepton combinations consistent with charge conservation were considered and no evidence for any signals was found. We obtain upper limits for the various branching ratios ranging from 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}3} to 9.2{times}10{sup {minus}3}, at a 90% confidence level. Some of these limits can be used to constrain leptoquark masses in various models.

  14. Upper limits on a stochastic gravitational-wave background using LIGO and Virgo interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C..; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kelley, D.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Keresztes, Z.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y. M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kranz, O.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lindquist, P. E.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marandi, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mosca, S.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow–Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Necula, V.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Pöld, J.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Redwine, K.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sainathan, P.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Santostasi, G.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Soto, J.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stefszky, M.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tseng, K.; Ugolini, D.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zadroźny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2012-06-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of ΩGW(f)=Ω3(f/900Hz)3, of Ω3<0.32, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of h100=0.71. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  15. Upper limits to surface-force disturbances on LISA proof masses and the possibility of observing galactic binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Ludovico; Ciani, Giacomo; Dolesi, Rita; Hueller, Mauro; Tombolato, David; Vitale, Stefano; Weber, William Joseph; Cavalleri, Antonella

    2007-02-15

    We have measured surface-force noise on a hollow replica of a LISA proof mass surrounded by its capacitive motion sensor. Forces are detected through the torque exerted on the proof mass by means of a torsion pendulum in the 0.1-30 mHz range. The sensor and electronics have the same design as for the flight hardware, including 4 mm gaps around the proof mass. The measured upper limit for forces would allow detection of a number of galactic binaries signals with signal-to-noise ratio up to {approx_equal}40 for 1 yr integration. We also discuss how LISA Pathfinder will substantially improve this limit, approaching the LISA performance.

  16. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiró, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; H˙Ague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Mueller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcaǧu, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-07-01

    From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1EeV≡1018eV), respectively. These are the first experimental limits on ultra-high energy photons at energies below 10 EeV. The results complement previous constraints on top-down models from array data and they reduce systematic uncertainties in the interpretation of shower data in terms of primary flux, nuclear composition and proton-air cross-section.

  17. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  18. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Canton, T. Dal; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Luijten, E.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Milde, S.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moesta, P.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Kumar, D. Nanda; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S. S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yang, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO; Virgo Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of ΩGW(f )=Ωα(f/fref ) α , we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α =0 , we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be ΩGW(f )<5.6 ×1 0-6 . For the 600-1000 Hz band, ΩGW(f )<0.14 (f /900 Hz )3 , a factor of 2.5 lower than the best previously reported upper limits. We find ΩGW(f )<1.8 ×1 0-4 using a spectral index of zero for 170-600 Hz and ΩGW(f )<1.0 (f /1300 Hz )3 for 1000-1726 Hz, bands in which no previous direct limits have been placed. The limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stochastic background. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the recent claim by the BICEP2 experiment of the possible evidence for inflationary gravitational waves.

  19. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport. PMID:3015612

  20. Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data.

    PubMed

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endrőczi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C-H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Le Roux, A; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Saracco, E; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Sperandio, L; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Stops, D; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Susmithan, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, R; Ter Braack, A P M; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Ω_{GW}(f)=Ω_{α}(f/f_{ref})^{α}, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Ω_{GW}(f)<5.6×10^{-6}. For the 600-1000 Hz band, Ω_{GW}(f)<0.14(f/900  Hz)^{3}, a factor of 2.5 lower than the best previously reported upper limits. We find Ω_{GW}(f)<1.8×10^{-4} using a spectral index of zero for 170-600 Hz and Ω_{GW}(f)<1.0(f/1300  Hz)^{3} for 1000-1726 Hz, bands in which no previous direct limits have been placed. The limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stochastic background. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the recent claim by the BICEP2 experiment of the possible evidence for inflationary gravitational waves. PMID:25526109

  1. Moisture status during a strong El Niño explains a tropical montane cloud forest's upper limit.

    PubMed

    Crausbay, Shelley D; Frazier, Abby G; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Longman, Ryan J; Hotchkiss, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests short-duration climate events may drive community structure and composition more directly than long-term climate means, particularly at ecotones where taxa are close to their physiological limits. Here we use an empirical habitat model to evaluate the role of microclimate during a strong El Niño in structuring a tropical montane cloud forest's upper limit and composition in Hawai'i. We interpolate climate surfaces, derived from a high-density network of climate stations, to permanent vegetation plots. Climatic predictor variables include (1) total rainfall, (2) mean relative humidity, and (3) mean temperature representing non-El Niño periods and a strong El Niño drought. Habitat models explained species composition within the cloud forest with non-El Niño rainfall; however, the ecotone at the cloud forest's upper limit was modeled with relative humidity during a strong El Niño drought and secondarily with non-El Niño rainfall. This forest ecotone may be particularly responsive to strong, short-duration climate variability because taxa here, particularly the isohydric dominant Metrosideros polymorpha, are near their physiological limits. Overall, this study demonstrates moisture's overarching influence on a tropical montane ecosystem, and suggests that short-term climate events affecting moisture status are particularly relevant at tropical ecotones. This study further suggests that predicting the consequences of climate change here, and perhaps in other tropical montane settings, will rely on the skill and certainty around future climate models of regional rainfall, relative humidity, and El Niño. PMID:24477832

  2. Upper limits on production rate of NO per ion pair. [during solar proton event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, C. H.; Frederick, J. E.; Porter, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum production rate of NO per ion pair during a solar proton event has been calculated using an approach described by Porter et al. (1976). For altitudes between 80 and 120 km the calculation yields a limit of 2.68 NO per ion pair for 10 keV electrons, a value which is consistent with the rates implied by the measurements of Arnold (1978) as quoted by Fabian et al. (1979). For altitudes below 80 km the maximum rate of NO production is calculated to be 1.46 to 1.53 NO per ion pair.

  3. An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Acernese, F; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Alshourbagy, M; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Arun, K G; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Beker, M; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bigotta, S; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birindelli, S; Biswas, R; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Boccara, C; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brand, J F J van den; Brau, J E; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Van Den Broeck, C; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campagna, E; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Carbognani, F; Cardenas, L; Caride, S; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Chung, C T Y; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Corda, C; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Coward, D; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Culter, R M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; De Rosa, R; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Del Prete, M; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Dueck, J; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J G; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Franzen, A; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Galdi, V; Gammaitoni, L; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gobler, S; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Granata, V; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Guidi, G; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D R; Isogai, T; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; La Penna, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Laval, M; Lazzarini, A; Lei, H; Lei, M; Leindecker, N; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Longo, M; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mackowski, J-M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D J A; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melatos, A; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Menéndez, D F; Menzinger, F; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyer, M S; Michel, C; Milano, L; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Minenkov, Y; Mino, Y; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moreau, J; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Morioka, T; Mors, K; Mosca, S; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mühlen, H Zur; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Neri, I; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Nocera, F; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G H; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pagliaroli, G; Palomba, C; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pardi, S; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Poggiani, R; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Punken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Putten, S van der; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raics, Z; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Reed, C M; Reed, T; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ricci, F; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Roberts, P; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Rocchi, A; Roddy, S; Rolland, L; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Röver, C; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Salemi, F; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaría, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Satterthwaite, M; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schulz, B; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; van der Sluys, M V; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, A; Stein, L C; Steplewski, S; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strigin, S; Stroeer, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szokoly, G P; Talukder, D; Tang, L; Tanner, D B; Tarabrin, S P; Taylor, J R; Taylor, R; Terenzi, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Trummer, J; Ugolini, D; Ulmen, J; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Vallisneri, M; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vavoulidis, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; van Veggel, A A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Veltkamp, C; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Villar, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weidner, A; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2009-08-20

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be <6.9 x 10(-6) at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension that are favoured in some string theory models. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background at 100 Hz. PMID:19693079

  4. Upper limits for the existence of long-lived isotopes of roentgenium in natural gold

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, F.; Kutschera, W.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Winkler, G.

    2011-01-15

    A sensitive search for isotopes of a superheavy element (SHE) in natural gold materials has been performed with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, which is based on a 3-MV tandem accelerator. Because the most likely SHE in gold is roentgenium (Rg, Z = 111), the search concentrated on Rg isotopes. Two different mass regions were explored: (i) For the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 261}Rg and {sup 265}Rg, abundance limits in gold of 3x10{sup -16} were reached (no events observed). This is in stark contrast to the findings of Marinov et al.[Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 18, 621 (2009)], who reported positive identification of these isotopes with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry in the (1-10)x10{sup -10} abundance range. (ii) Theoretical models of SHEs predict a region of increased stability around the proton and neutron shell closures of Z = 114 and N = 184. We therefore investigated eight heavy Rg isotopes, {sup A}Rg, A = 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, and 296. For six isotopes no events were observed, setting limits also in the 10{sup -16} abundance range. For {sup 291}Rg and {sup 294}Rg we observed two and nine events, respectively, which results in an abundance in the 10{sup -15} range. However, pileup of a particularly strong background in these cases makes a positive identification as Rg isotopes--even after pileup correction--unlikely.

  5. Stabilization of He2(A(sup 3)Sigma(sub u)(+)) molecules in liquid helium by optical pumping for vacuum UV laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique is disclosed for achieving large populations of metastable spin-aligned He2(a 3 Sigma u +) molecules in superfluid helium to obtain lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength regime around 0.0800 micron m by electronically exciting liquid (superfluid) helium with a comparatively low-current electron beam and spin aligning the metastable molecules by means of optical pumping with a modestly-powered (100mW) circularly-polarized continuous wave laser operating at, for example, 0.9096 or 0.4650 micron m. Once a high concentration of spin-aligned He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) is achieved with lifetimes of a few milliseconds, a strong microwave signal destroys the spin alignment and induces a quick collisional transition of He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) molecules to the a 1 Sigma u + state and thereby a lasing transition to the X 1 Sigma g + state.

  6. An evaluation of the rate of absorption of solar radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.

    1993-07-01

    The rate at which molecular oxygen absorbs radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition is calculated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. This rate is critical to the determination of the population of the O2(b1Sigma-g) state required for studies of the O2(b1Sigma-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, the O2(a1Delta-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, and possibly the rates of oxidation of H2 and N2O. Previous evaluations of this rate (which is sometimes called the g-factor) have significantly overestimated its value. The rate is tabulated as a function of altitude, pressure, and solar zenith angle.

  7. An evaluation of the rate of absorption of solar radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which molecular oxygen absorbs radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition is calculated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. This rate is critical to the determination of the population of the O2(b1Sigma-g) state required for studies of the O2(b1Sigma-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, the O2(a1Delta-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, and possibly the rates of oxidation of H2 and N2O. Previous evaluations of this rate (which is sometimes called the g-factor) have significantly overestimated its value. The rate is tabulated as a function of altitude, pressure, and solar zenith angle.

  8. Probing the Upper Limit of Nonclassical Rotational Inertia in Solid Helium 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Ann Sophie C.; Reppy, John D.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effect of confinement on solid He4’s nonclassical rotational inertia fraction (NCRIF) in a torsional oscillator by constraining it to narrow annular cells of various widths. The NCRIF exhibits an observed maximum value of 20% for annuli of ˜100μm width. Samples constrained to porous media or to larger geometries both have smaller NCRIF, mostly below ˜1%. In addition, we extend the blocked-annulus experiment of Kim and Chan to solid samples with large supersolid fractions. Blocking the annulus suppresses the nonclassical decoupling from 17.1% to below the limit of our detection of 0.8%. This result demonstrates the nonlocal nature of the supersolid phenomena. At 20 mK, NCRIF depends on velocity history showing a closed hysteresis loop in different thin annular cells.

  9. Setting an observational upper limit to the number density of interstellar objects with Pan-STARRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, T.; Vereš, P.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Beshore, E.

    2014-07-01

    Since the theory of a spherical reservoir of comets far beyond the planetary orbits (Oort, 1950) and subsequent work on origin and evolution of planets and small bodies (Charnoz and Morbidelli, 2003) it has been suggested that countless comets have left the Solar System shortly after its formation. Hence, it is likely that the other planetary systems ejected comets into interstellar space as well. However, the interstellar object (ISO) on a hyperbolic orbit with respect to the Sun has not been observed yet. In our work we derive the number density of ISO based on observational data from the Catalina Sky Survey (2005-2012) and Pan-STARRS1 survey (2010-2013). In the simulation we created 10,000,000 synthetic ISO based on velocity distribution by Grav et al. (2011) and used synthetics in the simulated survey study by using MOPS (Denneau et al., 2013). The number density of ISO was elaborated through the Poisson statistics of a non-detection with the 90 % confidence limit (C.L.) and detection efficiency of observed fields with known limiting magnitudes and survey characteristics. The number density was derived as a function of the absolute magnitude H and size-frequency distribution slope α by taking the cometary activity of long-period comets into account. We found that at 90 % C.L. the density of inert ISO population is 5.4×10^{-2} au^{-3} and 1.6×10^{-3} au^{-3} for the active population for objects larger than H>19 and with α=0.5.

  10. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed. PMID:26058000

  11. Plasticity of protective mechanisms only partially explains interactive effects of temperature and UVR on upper thermal limits.

    PubMed

    Kern, Pippa; Cramp, Rebecca L; Seebacher, Frank; Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Ensiyeh; Franklin, Craig E

    2015-12-01

    Temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are key environmental drivers that are linked in their effects on cellular damage. Exposure to both high temperatures and UVR can cause cellular damage that result in the up-regulation of common protective mechanisms, such as the induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and antioxidants. As such, the interactive effects of these stressors at the cellular level may determine physiological limits, such as thermal tolerance. Furthermore, antioxidant activity is often thermally sensitive, which may lead to temperature dependent effects of UVR exposure. Here we examined the interactive effects of temperature and UVR on upper thermal limits, Hsp70 abundance, oxidative damage and antioxidant (catalase) activity. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to one of three temperature treatments (constant 18°C, constant 28°C and daily fluctuations between 18 and 28°C) in the presence or absence of UVR. Tadpoles were tested for upper thermal limits (CTmax), induction of Hsp70, oxidative damage and catalase activity. Our results show that CTmax was influenced by an interactive effect between temperature and UVR treatment. For tadpoles kept in cold temperatures, exposure to UVR led to cross-tolerance to high temperatures, increasing CTmax. Plasticity in this trait was not fully explained by changes in the lower level mechanistic traits examined. These results highlight the difficulty in predicting the mechanistic basis for the interactive effects of multiple stressors on whole animal traits. Multifactorial studies may therefore be required to understand how complex mechanistic processes shape physiological tolerances, and determine responses to environmental variation. PMID:26408107

  12. Upper Temperature Limit of Environmental Barrier Coatings Based on Mullite and BSAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Fox, Dennis S.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.; Robinson, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) for Si-based ceramics consist of three layers: a silicon bond coat, an intermediate mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) or mullite + BSAS (1-xBaO-xSrO-Al2O3-2SiO2) layer, and a BSAS top coat. Areas of concern for long-term durability are environmental durability, chemical compatibility, silica volatility, phase stability, and thermal conductivity. Variants of this family of EBCs were applied to monolithic SiC and melt infiltrated SiC/SiC composites. Reaction between BSAS and silica results in low melting (approx. 1300 C) glasses at T > 1400 C, which can cause the spallation of the EBC. At temperatures greater than 1400 C, the BSAS top coat also degrades by formation of a porous structure, and it suffers significant recession via silica volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres. All of these degradation mechanisms can be EBC life-limiting factors. BSAS undergoes a very sluggish phase transformation (hexagonal celsian to monoclinic celsian), the implications of which are not fully understood at this point. There was evidence of rapid sintering at temperatures as low as 1300 C, as inferred from the sharp increase in thermal conductivity.

  13. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    PubMed

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate. PMID:20164924

  14. Voice-Activated Lightweight Reacher to Assist with Upper Extremity Movement Limitations: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Umer; Conti, Gerry E; Erlandson, Robert F; Ellis, Richard D; Brown, Vince; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research was to design a functional and user-friendly reacher for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Engineering advancements have taken assistive robotics to new dimensions. Technologies such as wheelchair robotics and myo-electronically controlled systems have opened up a wide range of new applications to assist people with physical disabilities. Similarly, exo-skeletal limbs and body suits have provided new foundations from which technologies can aid function. Unfortunately, these devices have issues of usability, weight, and discomfort with donning. The Smart Assistive Reacher Arm (SARA) system, developed in this research, is a voice-activated, lightweight, mobile device that can be used when needed. SARA was built to help overcome daily reach challenges faced by individuals with limited arm and hand movement capability, such as people with cervical level 5-6 (C5-6) SCI. This article shows that a functional reacher arm with voice control can be beneficial for this population. Comparison study with healthy participants and an SCI participant shows that, when using SARA, a person with SCI can perform simple reach and grasp tasks independently, without someone else's help. This suggests that the interface is intuitive and can be easily used to a high level of proficiency by a SCI individual. PMID:26132355

  15. An upper limit to the interstellar C5 abundance in translucent clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G.; Pětlewski, A.; Musaev, F.; Moutou, C.; Lo Curto, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2002-11-01

    We have analyzed high resolution spectra of several slightly to moderately reddened stars collected at two observatories: ESO (La Silla) and Terskol (Northern Caucasia), to estimate the abundance of the C5 molecule in the interstellar medium. We confirm the presence of a feature near 4975 Å which appears to be a weak DIB rather than the predicted C5 band since the origin band near 5109 Å remains invisible even in spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio ( ~ 2500) and spectral resolution (R ~ 220 000). This confirms that the C5 abundance in translucent interstellar clouds is very low. We estimate its limit as low as 1011 cm-2 in the scale E(B-V)=0.35 for ``zeta" type objects that is two times lower than that of Maier et al. (2002). Based on data collected at the ESO 3.6 m telescope operated on La Silla Observatory, Chile and 2-m telescope of the Terskol Observatory, Russia.

  16. Upper airway collapsibility and patterns of flow limitation at constant end-expiratory lung volume.

    PubMed

    Owens, Robert L; Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Butler, James P; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    The passive pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) is measured using a series of pressure drops. However, pressure drops also lower end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), which independently affects Pcrit. We describe a technique to measure Pcrit at a constant EELV. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and controls were instrumented with an epiglottic catheter, magnetometers (to measure change in EELV), and nasal mask/pneumotachograph and slept supine on nasal CPAP. Pcrit was measured in standard fashion and using our novel "biphasic technique" in which expiratory pressure only was lowered for 1 min before the inspiratory pressure was dropped; this allowed EELV to decrease to the drop level before performing the pressure drop. Seven OSA and three controls were studied. The biphasic technique successfully lowered EELV before the inspiratory pressure drop. Pcrit was similar between the standard and biphasic techniques (-0.4 ± 2.6 vs. -0.6 ± 2.3 cmH(2)O, respectively, P = 0.84). Interestingly, we noted three different patterns of flow limitation: 1) classic Starling resistor type: flow fixed and independent of downstream pressure; 2) negative effort dependence within breaths: substantial decrease in flow, sometimes with complete collapse, as downstream pressure decreased; and 3) and negative effort dependence across breaths: progressive reductions in peak flow as respiratory effort on successive breaths increased. Overall, EELV changes do not influence standard passive Pcrit measurements if breaths 3-5 of pressure drops are used. These results also highlight the importance of inspiratory collapse in OSA pathogenesis. The cause of negative effort dependence within and across breaths is not known and requires further study. PMID:22628372

  17. Discovery of a Doppler-limited CO line in the upper mesosphere of Venus - A new dynamical probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, David; Chin, Gordon; Goldstein, Jeffrey J.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of CO in the upper atmosphere of Venus is a consequence of the photochemistry of CO2, the dominant atmospheric constituent. In December 1989 the J = 1-2 transition of CO was observed at 230 GHz. In addition to the broad absorption line first reported by Kakar et al. (1976), a narrow absorption feature at the center of the line due to upper mesospheric CO, where the temperature profile starts to exhibit diurnal variation with altitude. The narrow feature is approximately 600 kHz wide and is predominantly Doppler-broadened. The Doppler core provides a new means of measuring wind velocities at these altitudes in the atmosphere of Venus. Detection of small Doppler shifts in the line core can in principle be used to measure winds with an accuracy of 10 m/s. Results are presently limited by the 17 kHz uncertainty in the measured rest frequency, corresponding to a systematic error in wind velocity up to 22 m/s, and the absence of laboratory measurements of the pressure shift in CO by CO2.

  18. Electric Mars: The first direct measurement of an upper limit for the Martian "polar wind" electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, Glyn; Mitchell, David; Glocer, Alex; Grebowsky, Joseph; Peterson, W. K.; Connerney, Jack; Andersson, Laila; Espley, Jared; Mazelle, Christian; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Fedorov, Andrei; Ma, Yingjuan; Bougher, Steven; Lillis, Robert; Ergun, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    An important mechanism in the generation of polar wind outflow is the ambipolar electric potential which assists ions in overcoming gravity and is a key mechanism for Terrestrial ionospheric escape. At Mars, open field lines are not confined to the poles, and outflow of ionospheric electrons is observed far into the tail. It has thus been hypothesized that a similar electric potential may be present at Mars, contributing to global ionospheric loss. However, no direct measurements of this potential have been made. In this pilot study, we examine photoelectron spectra measured by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer instrument on the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mars Scout to put an initial upper bound on the total potential drop in the ionosphere of Mars of Φ♂ ≾⊥ 2V , with the possibility of a further ≾4.5 V potential drop above this in the magnetotail. If the total potential drop was close to the upper limit, then strong outflows of major ionospheric species (H+, O+, and O2+) would be expected. However, if most of the potential drop is confined below the spacecraft, as expected by current theory, then such a potential would not be sufficient on its own to accelerate O2+ to escape velocities, but would be sufficient for lighter ions. However, any potential would contribute to atmospheric loss through the enhancement of Jeans escape.

  19. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; et al

    2012-01-30

    We searched for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ⁻π⁻-decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ⁻π⁻ system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ⁻⁻(1860) with a consecutive decay intoΞ⁻π⁻ in the photon-energy range 4.5GeVγ<5.5GeV.

  20. Upper limits for the ethyl-cyanide abundances in TMC-1 and L134N - Chemical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar ethyl-cyanide has been sought via its 2(02)-1(01) transition towards two cold, dark clouds, and upper limits of the total column densities of 3 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm and 2 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm for TMC-1 and L134N, respectively. The 2(02)-1(01) transition of vynil cyanide, previously identified in TMC-1 by Matthews and Sears (1983b), was also observed. The detection of vinyl cyanide and the nondetection of ethyl cyanide in TMC-1 are consistent with gas phase ion-molecule chemical models, and there is thus no necessity of invoking grain surface synthesis for vinyl cyanide in cold clouds.

  1. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Zhao, Z. W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Contalbrigo, M.; D’Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niculescu, G.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-01-30

    We searched for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ⁻π⁻-decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ⁻π⁻ system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ⁻⁻(1860) with a consecutive decay intoΞ⁻π⁻ in the photon-energy range 4.5GeVγ<5.5GeV.

  2. An upper limit to the energy of gamma-ray bursts indicates that GRBs/SNe are powered by magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzali, P. A.; McFadyen, A. I.; Woosley, S. E.; Pian, E.; Tanaka, M.

    2014-09-01

    The kinetic energy of supernovae (SNe) accompanied by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) tends to cluster near 1052 erg, with 2 × 1052 erg an upper limit to which no compelling exceptions are found (assuming a certain degree of asphericity), and it is always significantly larger than the intrinsic energy of the GRB themselves (corrected for jet collimation). This energy is strikingly similar to the maximum rotational energy of a neutron star rotating with period 1 ms. It is therefore proposed that all GRBs associated with luminous SNe are produced by magnetars. GRBs that result from black hole formation (collapsars) may not produce luminous SNe. X-ray flashes, which are associated with less energetic SNe, are produced by neutron stars with weaker magnetic field or lower spin.

  3. Upper limits to the quiet-time solar neutron flux from 10 to 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The UCR large area solid-angle double scatter neutron telescope was flown to search for solar neutrons on 3 balloon flights on September 26, 1971, May 14, 1972 and September 19, 1972. The first two flights were launched from Palestine, Texas and the third from Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The float altitude on each flight was at about 5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV were measured. No solar flares occurred during the flights. Upper limits to the quiet time solar neutron fluxes at the 95% confidence level are .00028, .00046, .00096 and .00090 neutrons/sq cm-sec in the energy intervals of 10-30, 30-50, 50-100 and 10-100 MeV, respectively.

  4. Upper-limit charge exchange cross sections for mercury (plus) on molybdenum and cesium (plus) on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. V., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Upper-limit charge exchange cross sections are calculated for Hg(+) on Mo and Cs(+) on Al. The cross sections are calculated from the polarization interaction at low ion energies (1 to 500 eV) and by assuming favorable curve crossings with a hard-core reaction radius at higher energies (500 eV to 10 keV). The cross sections for Hg(+) on Mo becomes greater than corresponding Hg Hg(+) resonance values at ion energies below 2 eV, whereas the Cs(+) Al values remain considerably lower than the Cs(+)Cs resonance value at all ion energies. It is also shown that charge exchange of slow Hg(+) with Mo may be important for spacecraft with electron bombardment thrusters.

  5. An Upper Limit on the Ratio Between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the Bolometric Luminosities of Stars Hosting Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-06-01

    A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types have already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in the near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high, then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape alongwith hydrogen, an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them is presented here. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-type of stars should not have habitable planets around them.

  6. WARM JUPITERS NEED CLOSE ''FRIENDS'' FOR HIGH-ECCENTRICITY MIGRATION—A STRINGENT UPPER LIMIT ON THE PERTURBER'S SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle

    2014-01-20

    We propose a stringent observational test on the formation of warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 10 days ≲ P ≲ 100 days) by high-eccentricity (high-e) migration mechanisms. Unlike hot Jupiters, the majority of observed warm Jupiters have pericenter distances too large to allow efficient tidal dissipation to induce migration. To access the close pericenter required for migration during a Kozai-Lidov cycle, they must be accompanied by a strong enough perturber to overcome the precession caused by general relativity, placing a strong upper limit on the perturber's separation. For a warm Jupiter at a ∼ 0.2 AU, a Jupiter-mass (solar-mass) perturber is required to be ≲ 3 AU (≲ 30 AU) and can be identified observationally. Among warm Jupiters detected by radial velocities (RVs), ≳ 50% (5 out of 9) with large eccentricities (e ≳ 0.4) have known Jovian companions satisfying this necessary condition for high-e migration. In contrast, ≲ 20% (3 out of 17) of the low-e (e ≲ 0.2) warm Jupiters have detected additional Jovian companions, suggesting that high-e migration with planetary perturbers may not be the dominant formation channel. Complete, long-term RV follow-ups of the warm-Jupiter population will allow a firm upper limit to be put on the fraction of these planets formed by high-e migration. Transiting warm Jupiters showing spin-orbit misalignments will be interesting to apply our test. If the misalignments are solely due to high-e migration as commonly suggested, we expect that the majority of warm Jupiters with low-e (e ≲ 0.2) are not misaligned, in contrast with low-e hot Jupiters.

  7. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  8. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells. PMID:20082218

  9. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  10. Increasing the upper-limit intensity and temperature range for thermal self-focusing of a laser beam by using plasma density ramp-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.

    2014-03-01

    This work is devoted to improving relativistic and ponderomotive thermal self-focusing of the intense laser beam in an underdense plasma. It is shown that the ponderomotive nonlinearity induces a saturation mechanism for thermal self-focusing. Therefore, in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical intensity, there is an upper-limit intensity for thermal self-focusing above which the laser beam starts to experience ponderomotive defocusing. It is indicated that the upper-limit intensity value is dependent on plasma and laser parameters such as the plasma electron temperature, plasma density, and laser spot size. Furthermore, the effect of the upward plasma density ramp profile on the thermal self-focusing is studied. Results show that by using the plasma density ramp-up, the upper-limit intensity increases and the self-focusing temperature range expands.

  11. Increasing the upper-limit intensity and temperature range for thermal self-focusing of a laser beam by using plasma density ramp-up

    SciTech Connect

    Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.

    2014-03-15

    This work is devoted to improving relativistic and ponderomotive thermal self-focusing of the intense laser beam in an underdense plasma. It is shown that the ponderomotive nonlinearity induces a saturation mechanism for thermal self-focusing. Therefore, in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical intensity, there is an upper-limit intensity for thermal self-focusing above which the laser beam starts to experience ponderomotive defocusing. It is indicated that the upper-limit intensity value is dependent on plasma and laser parameters such as the plasma electron temperature, plasma density, and laser spot size. Furthermore, the effect of the upward plasma density ramp profile on the thermal self-focusing is studied. Results show that by using the plasma density ramp-up, the upper-limit intensity increases and the self-focusing temperature range expands.

  12. Upper limit for the D2H+ ortho-to-para ratio in the prestellar core 16293E (CHESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, C.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Lis, D. C.; Caux, E.; Codella, C.; Beckwith, J. A.; Ridley, T.

    2012-11-01

    The H_3^+ ion plays a key role in the chemistry of dense interstellar gas clouds where stars and planets are forming. The low temperatures and high extinctions of such clouds make direct observations of H_3^+ impossible, but lead to large abundances of H2D+ and D2H+, which are very useful probes of the early stages of star and planet formation. The ground-state rotational ortho-D2H+ 11,1-00,0 transition at 1476.6 GHz in the prestellar core 16293E has been searched for with the Herschel HIFI instrument, within the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) Key Program. The line has not been detected at the 21 mK km s-1 level (3σ integrated line intensity). We used the ortho-H2D+ 11,0-11,1 transition and para-D2H+ 11,0-10,1 transition detected in this source to determine an upper limit on the ortho-to-para D2H+ ratio as well as the para-D2H+/ortho-H2D+ ratio from a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. The comparison between our chemical modeling and the observations suggests that the CO depletion must be high (larger than 100), with a density between 5 × 105 and 106 cm-3. Also the upper limit on the ortho-D2H+ line is consistent with a low gas temperature (~11 K) with a ortho-to-para ratio of 6 to 9, i.e. 2 to 3 times higher than the value estimated from the chemical modeling, making it impossible to detect this high frequency transition with the present state of the art receivers. The chemical network is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A33Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. An analysis of the kinetics for the N{sub 2}(A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}, v{sup {prime}}) + CO(X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, v{sup {prime}{prime}}=O) energy-transfer reaction and an upper limit for the rate constants of the reactions CO({alpha} {sup 3}II, v{sup {prime}}=O and 1) + CF{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Stark, G.; Katayama, D.H.

    1992-10-15

    The vibrational level distribution of the CO(a {sup 3}II) produced in the title reaction was measured in a rapidly pumped discharge-flow reactor at a total pressure of {approximately}2 Torr and {approximately}297 K. The emission from the CO(a {sup 3}II,v{sup {prime}}{r_arrow}X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, v{sup {prime}{prime}}) Cameron bands, observed from the product CO(a) formed in the title reaction, was collected with a 2.2-m vacuum-ultraviolet spectrograph-monochromator utilizing both photographic and photoelectric techniques. For N{sub 2}(A,v{sup {prime}}{le}4) + CO(X,v{sup {prime}{prime}}=O) the authors obtain a CO(a,v{sup {prime}}) population ratio of 1.00:0.85 for v{sup {prime}} = 0 and 1, respectively. This branching ratio differs from previous results for N{sub 2}(A,v{sup {prime}}{ge}0) which did not correct for competing removal processes of the CO(a) state. In order to obtain these results it was necessary to measure the room temperature biomolecular rate constants, k{sub v}{sup {prime}}`s, for the CO(a,v{sup {prime}}=0 and 1) + CF{sub 4} reactions which were determined to be {le}5 x 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAIO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Singh, S.; Zhernenkov, M.; Bruno, F. Y.; Santamaria, J.; Brinkman, A.; Huijben, M.; Molegraaf, H.; de la Venta, J.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2012-02-27

    In 2004 Ohtomo and Hwang reported unusually high conductivity in LaAl03 and SrTi03 bilayer samples. Since then, metallic conduction, superconductivity, magnetism, and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism have been attributed to LaAl03/SrTi03 interfaces. Very recently, two studies have reported large magnetic moments attributed to interfaces from measurement techniques that are unable to distinguish between interfacial and bulk magnetism. Consequently, it is imperative to perform magnetic measurements that by being intrinsically sensitive to interface magnetism are impervious to experimental artifacts suffered by bulk measurements. Using polarized neutron reflectometry we measured the neutron spin dependent reflectivity from four LaAl03/SrTi03 superlattices. Our results indicate the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G. SQUID magnetometry of the neutron superlattice samples sporadically finds an enhanced moment (consistent with past reports), possibly due to experimental artifacts. These observations set important restrictions on theories which imply a strongly enhanced magnetism at the interface between LaAI03 and SrTi03.

  15. The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus lives close to the upper thermal limit for early development in a tropical lagoon.

    PubMed

    Collin, Rachel; Chan, Kit Yu Karen

    2016-08-01

    Thermal tolerance shapes organisms' physiological performance and limits their biogeographic ranges. Tropical terrestrial organisms are thought to live very near their upper thermal tolerance limits, and such small thermal safety factors put them at risk from global warming. However, little is known about the thermal tolerances of tropical marine invertebrates, how they vary across different life stages, and how these limits relate to environmental conditions. We tested the tolerance to acute heat stress of five life stages of the tropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus collected in the Bahía Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama. We also investigated the impact of chronic heat stress on larval development. Fertilization, cleavage, morula development, and 4-armed larvae tolerated 2-h exposures to elevated temperatures between 28-32°C. Average critical temperatures (LT 50) were lower for initiation of cleavage (33.5°C) and development to morula (32.5°C) than they were for fertilization (34.4°C) or for 4-armed larvae (34.1°C). LT 50 was even higher (34.8°C) for adults exposed to similar acute thermal stress, suggesting that thermal limits measured for adults may not be directly applied to the whole life history. During chronic exposure, larvae had significantly lower survival and reduced growth when reared at temperatures above 30.5°C and did not survive chronic exposures at or above 32.3°C. Environmental monitoring at and near our collection site shows that L. variegatus may already experience temperatures at which larval growth and survival are reduced during the warmest months of the year. A published local climate model further suggests that such damaging warm temperatures will be reached throughout the Bahía Almirante by 2084. Our results highlight that tropical marine invertebrates likely have small thermal safety factors during some stages in their life cycles, and that shallow-water populations are at particular risk of near future warming. PMID

  16. The upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Stoichiometry of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    Determination of the intrinsic or mechanistic P/O ratio of oxidative phosphorylation is difficult because of the unknown magnitude of leak fluxes. Applying a new approach developed to overcome this problem (see our preceding paper in this journal), the relationships between the rate of O2 uptake [( Jo)3], the net rate of phosphorylation (Jp), the P/O ratio, and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) have been determined in rat liver mitochondria when the rate of phosphorylation was systematically varied by three specific means. (a) When phosphorylation is titrated with carboxyatractyloside, linear relationships are observed between Jp and (Jo)3. These data indicate that the upper limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.80 for succinate and 2.90 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (b) Titration with malonate or antimycin yields linear relationships between Jp and (Jo)3. These data give the lower limit of the mechanistic P/O ratio of 1.63 for succinate and 2.66 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. (c) Titration with a protonophore yields linear relationships between Jp, (Jo)3, and (Jo)4 and between P/O and 1/RCR. Extrapolation of the P/O ratio to 1/RCR = 0 yields P/O ratios of 1.75 for succinate and 2.73 for 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation which must be equal to or greater than the mechanistic stoichiometry. When published values for the H+/O and H+/ATP ejection ratios are taken into consideration, these measurements suggest that the mechanistic P/O ratio is 1.75 for succinate oxidation and 2.75 for NADH oxidation. PMID:3015613

  17. Estimation of molecular upper remission limit for monitoring minimal residual disease in peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukemia patients by WT1 expression

    PubMed Central

    POLÁK, JAROSLAV; HÁJKOVÁ, HANA; MAALAUFOVÁ-SOUKUPOVÁ, JACQUELINE; MARKOVÁ, JANA; ŠÁLEK, CYRIL; SCHWARZ, JIŘÍ; HAŠKOVEC, CEDRIK

    2012-01-01

    To date, approximately one half of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients do not have a suitable specific molecular marker for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). The Wilm’s tumour gene (WT1) has been suggested as a possible molecular marker of MRD in AML. The expression of WT1 in peripheral blood (PB) was measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in peripheral leukocytes from 151 patients with AML at diagnosis. WT1 expression was significantly elevated, i.e. up to 3 orders of magnitude in the majority (80%) of AML patients at diagnosis compared to the PB of healthy donors. Sequence samples of the long-term followed-up AML patients treated with chemotherapy and/or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation were analysed for WT1 expression. The results revealed that the hematological relapses were preceded (median, 1.8 months) by an increase in WT1 gene expression. For the practical utility of this gene as a molecular marker of relapse, it was necessary to determine an upper remission limit, crossing which would signal hematological relapse. The upper remission limit was determined in our set of patients to be 0.02 WT1/ABL. The AML patients who consequently relapsed crossed this upper remission limit; however, those in permanent remission did not. Therefore, this upper remission limit could be taken as the border of molecular relapse of AML patients. Moreover, insufficient decline of WT1 expression under the upper remission limit following induction and/or consolidation therapy was associated with markedly high risk of relapse. The results show that our upper remission limit can be taken as the border of molecular relapse of AML patients and WT1 levels following initial therapy as a beneficial prognostic marker. PMID:22969857

  18. Pauli-limiting effects in the upper critical fields of a clean LiFeAs single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, Seunghyun; Lee, Bumsung; Kim, Jae Wook; Choi, Eun Sang; Stewart, G. R.; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the upper critical field Hc2(T ) in a LiFeAs single crystal by direct measurements of resistivity under static magnetic fields up to 36 T. We find in the case of a magnetic field H along the ab plane that Hc2ab(0) = 30 T is clearly lower than the orbital limiting field Hc2orb,ab(0) = 39.6 T estimated by the |dHc2ab/dT |Tc, suggesting the presence of both Pauli- and orbital-limiting effects in the pair breaking process. The best fit of Hc2ab(T ) to the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg formula results in the Maki parameter α = 0.9 and negligible spin-orbit scattering constant (λso = 0.0). On the other hand, for H along the c axis, Hc2c(T ) increases linearly down to our lowest temperature of 0.8 K, which can be explained by the multiband effects. The anisotropy ratio Hc2ab(T )/Hc2c(T ) is 3 near Tc and systematically decreases upon lowering temperature to become 1.3 at zero temperature. A comparative overview of the behavior of Hc2ab(T ) in various Fe-based superconductors shows that, similar to LiFeAs, the calculated Hc2orb,ab(0) is generally much larger than the measured Hc2ab(0) and thus finite α values ranging from ˜0.4 to 3 are necessary to describe the low temperature Hc2ab(T ) behaviors. Moreover, LiFeAs is found to have the smallest |dHc2ab/dT |Tc values, indicating that LiFeAs is one of the cleanest Fe-based superconductors with a finite Maki parameter. We also discuss the implications of multiband effects and spin-orbit scattering based on the finding that the estimated Pauli-limiting field is generally much larger than the BCS prediction in the Fe-based superconductors.

  19. Dipole moments and transition probabilities of the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u systems of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Dalgarno, A.

    1992-01-01

    Bonn-Oppenheimer-based ab initio calculations of dipole moments from the i 3Pi sub g-b 3Sigma(+) sub u, c 3Pi sub u-a 3Sigma(+) sub g, and i 3Pi sub g-c 3Pi sub u transitions of H2 have been conducted, to yield a tabulation of the dipole transition probabilities and Franck-Condon factors. These factors are given for transitions originating in the lowest vibrational level of the ground X 1Sigma(+) sub g state.

  20. Upper limit on the central density of dark matter in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, Ramil; Potapov, Alexander A.; Filippov, Alexander I.; Ghosh, Mithun; Nandi, Kamal K.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the stability of circular material orbits in the analytic galactic metric recently derived by Harko et al., Mod. Phys. Lett. A29, 1450049 (2014). It turns out that stability depends more strongly on the dark matter central density ρ0 than on other parameters of the solution. This property then yields an upper limit on ρ0 for each individual galaxy, which we call here ρ 0 upper, such that stable circular orbits are possible only when the constraint ρ 0<= ρ 0 upper is satisfied. This is our new result. To approximately quantify the upper limit, we consider as a familiar example our Milky Way galaxy that has a projected dark matter radius RDM 180 kpc and find that ρ 0 upper ˜ 2.37× 1011 M⊙ kpc-3. This limit turns out to be about four orders of magnitude larger than the latest data on central density ρ0 arising from the fit to the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Burkert density profiles. Such consistency indicates that the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) solution could qualify as yet another viable alternative model for dark matter.

  1. Some aspects of stratospheric chemical response to solar particle precipitations. I - Potential roles of N2/A3Sigma/ and ion-chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    Large amounts of long lived N2(A3Sigma) are created by the energy degradation of precipitating solar particles. Laboratory data suggest that in the stratosphere N2(A3Sigma) are efficiently converted into N2O. Through reactions with O(1D), N2O may gradually release NO and thereby influence the long term aspects of stratospheric chemical response. During the daytime, negative ions may transform an active NO(x) into an inactive HNO3. At night both negative and positive ion chemistry generate HO(x). Omission of ionic chemistry results in considerable underestimation of O3 depletion during the initial phases of solar particle events, and thereby introduces significant error in the estimation of the nature of the prompt response.

  2. SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL THEORY METHODS TO MODEL MISSPECIFICATION IN THE CALCULATION OF UPPER CONFIDENCE LIMITS ON THE RISK FUNCTION FOR CONTINUOUS RESPONSES. (R825385)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal theory procedures for calculating upper confidence limits (UCL) on the risk function for continuous responses work well when the data come from a normal distribution. However, if the data come from an alternative distribution, the application of the normal theory procedure...

  3. 228Ra-derived nutrient budgets in the upper equatorial Pacific and the role of "new" silicate in limiting productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Teh-Lung; Luo, Shangde; Kusakabe, Masashi; Bishop, James K. B.

    228Ra activities in the upper ocean (surface to ˜850 m) of the equatorial Pacific between 9°N and 12°S along ˜140†W were measured at five stations during the JGOFS EqPac 1992 Survey I cruise, when El Niño conditions prevailed in the area. The vertical profile of 228Ra at each station consists of measurements made on 2 to 3 m 3 of water collected using submersible filtration systems in situ from 10-11 depths. 228Ra activities in the surface mixed layer range from ˜5 dpm M -3 at northern stations to ˜1.5 dpm m -3 near the equator. They decrease markedly between about 100 and 300 m, to concentration levels of 0.1-0.4 dpm M -3. The distributions manifest the occurrence of upwelling near the equator and downwelling between ˜3°N and 10°N. On the basis of the 228Ra and nitrate distributions, estimations of upward vertical fluxes of nitrate at various depth horizons at each of the stations have been made. Maximum fluxes of ˜2.0 to 3.5 mmol N m -2 day -1, averaging 2.6 mmol N m -2 day -1, occur near the base of the euphotic zone, about 100 m below sea surface. The average nitrate flux translates to a potential new production of about 17 mmol C m -2 day -1. While close to the result of the 15N tracer experiments, this new production estimate is significantly higher than the reported particulate organic carbon fluxes derived from the Th isotope and floating trap measurements. This implies that a significant fraction of the export production may have occurred in the form of dissolved organic carbon. The 228Ra-derived new production of 0.8 × 10 15 g C year -1 for the equatorial Pacific region east of the dateline is approximately one-half of the value obtained by Chavez and Barber (1987) for a non-El Niño period. The recycled fluxes of silicate, nitrate and phosphate to the euphotic layer bear molar ratios Si:N:P = 0.8:1:0.06. It is proposed that in upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific, surface productivity is limited by the availability of "new" silicate

  4. Factors affecting the f × Q product of 3C-SiC microstrings: What is the upper limit for sensitivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermany, Atieh R.; Bennett, James S.; Brawley, George A.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Iacopi, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    The fn × Q (Hz) is a crucial sensitivity parameter for micro-electro-mechanical sensing. We have recently shown a fn × Q product of ˜1012 Hz for microstrings made of cubic silicon carbide on silicon, establishing a new state-of-the-art and opening new frontiers for mass sensing applications. In this work, we analyse the main parameters influencing the frequency and quality factor of silicon carbide microstrings (material properties, microstring geometry, clamping condition, and environmental pressure) and investigate the potential for approaching the theoretical upper limit. We indicate that our previous result is only about a factor 2 lower than the thermoelastic dissipation limit. For fully reaching this upper limit, a substantial reduction of the defects in the silicon carbide thin film would be required, while maintaining a high residual tensile stress in the perfect-clamped strings.

  5. Sediment Microbial Enzyme Activity as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) of microbial assemblages in river sediments at 447 sites along the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers with sediment and water chemistry, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfate, and catchment land uses. The sites re...

  6. An upper limit of muon flux of energies above 100 TeV determined from horizontal air showers observed at Akeno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, M.; Yoshii, H.; Hara, T.; Kamata, K.; Kawaguchi, S.; Kifune, T.

    1985-01-01

    Muon energy spectrum above 100 TeV was determined by observing the extensive air showers (EAS) from the horizontal direction (HAS). No definite muon originated shower of sizes above 100,000 and zenith angles above 60 deg was observed. The upper limits of HAS intensity is 5x10/12 m/2 s/1 sn/1 above 100,000. It is indicated that the upper limit of muon flux above 100 TeV is about 1.3x10/8 m/2 s/1 sr/1 and is in agreement with that expected from the primary spectrum with a knee assuming scaling in the fragmentation region and 40% protons in the primary beam. The critical energy at which muon flux from prompt processes take over that from the conventional process is higher than 100 Tev at horizontal direction.

  7. An upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reaction of NH2 radicals with O2 using FTIR product analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.; Nickerson, Karen E.; Cantrell, C. A.; Calvert, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrometry has been used to study the products of the photooxidation of ammonia in the presence of oxygen at 296 K. The data have been used to derive an upper limit of 6 x 10 exp -21/cu cm molecule s for the reaction of NH2 radicals with O2 to produce NO(x) at 296 K. This upper limit, which is three orders of magnitude lower than previous estimates based on the kinetics of NH2 loss, rules out the importance of this reaction in the atmosphere and suggests that NH2 will be oxidized by O3 or NO2. The effect on the NO(x) and N2O budgets depends critically on the products of the NH2 + O3 reaction. Simulations of the experimental product yields also allow an evaluation of possible product channels for the reaction of NH2 with HO2.

  8. Ab initio studies of low-lying 3Sigma(-), 3Pi, and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. I - Potential curves and dipole moment functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfield, Evelyn M.; Kirby, Kate P.

    1987-01-01

    Configuration interaction wave functions, potential energy curves, and dipole moment functions have been calculated for the four lowest 3Sigma(-) and the three lowest 3Pi states and 5Sigma(-) states of NH. The electronic wave functions were constructed to give a balanced description of valence-Rydberg interactions. Two repulsive states have been identified as important photodissociation pathways. Spectroscopic constants are presented for the bound states, and results are compared to other theoretical and experimental work. The possible predissociation of the A 3Pi state by the 1 5Sigma(-) state is discussed.

  9. Reactions of N/sub 2/(A/sup 3/SIGMA/sub u//sup +/) and candidates for short wavelength lasers, March 1, 1984-February 28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Setser, D.W.

    1987-12-07

    There are several potential schemes for efficiently generating high concentrations of the first electronically excited state of nitrogen, N/sub 2/(A/sup 3/..sigma../sub u//sup +/, 6.2 eV) by either chemical or electrical pumping. The goal of this proposal is to study ways of utilizing the energy of the N/sub 2/(A) molecules for developing efficient, short wavelength gas lasers. Such lasers are of potential interest for laser fusion. The authors report both excitation-transfer and dissociative excitation-transfer reactions of N/sub 2/(A) that yield electronically-excited diatomic molecules as products. 25 refs.

  10. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  11. Sediment Microbial Enzyme Activity as an Indicator of Nutrient Limitation in the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three conclusions are evident from our comparison of approaches for estimating nutrient limitation in these large floodplain rivers: 1) water chemistry and enzymes indicate that P-limitation is more prevalent than N-limitation; 2) the Ohio River reaches are more extensively P-lim...

  12. Setting upper limits on the strength of periodic gravitational waves from PSR J1939+2134 using the first science data from the GEO 600 and LIGO detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barker-Patton, C.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bland-Weaver, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Brozek, S.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, R.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W.; Dupuis, R. J.; Ebeling, C.; Edlund, J.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Flanagan, É.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ingley, R.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Kloevekorn, P.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNamara, P.; Mendell, G.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Naundorf, H.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Papa, M. A.; Parameswariah, C.; Parameswariah, V.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Pratt, M.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schofield, R.; Schrempel, M.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Skeldon, K.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P.; Spero, R.; Stapfer, G.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.; Taylor, I.; Taylor, R.; Thorne, K. S.; Tibbits, M.; Tilav, S.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traeger, S.; Traylor, G.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Vallisneri, M.; van Putten, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wallace, L.; Walther, H.; Ward, H.; Ware, B.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weiland, U.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Welling, H.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, P. R.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Wilson, A.; Winjum, B. J.; Winkler, W.

    2004-04-01

    Data collected by the GEO 600 and LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors during their first observational science run were searched for continuous gravitational waves from the pulsar J1939+2134 at twice its rotation frequency. Two independent analysis methods were used and are demonstrated in this paper: a frequency domain method and a time domain method. Both achieve consistent null results, placing new upper limits on the strength of the pulsar’s gravitational wave emission. A model emission mechanism is used to interpret the limits as a constraint on the pulsar’s equatorial ellipticity.

  13. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  14. The Theoretical Transition Probabilities Between the B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) and the A(sup 3)Sigma(Sup +, sub u), W(sup 3)Delta(sub u), B'(sup 3)Sigma(sup -, sub u) States of N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuemmel, Helmar T.; Partridge, Harry; Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The electronic transition moment functions between the B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) and the A(sup 3)Sigma(sup +, sub u), W(sup 3)Delta(sub u), B'(sup 3)Sigma(sup -, sub u) states of N2 are studied using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (ICMRCI) method based upon complete active space SCF (CASSCF) reference wave-functions. The dependence of the moments on both the one and n-particle basis sets has been investigated in detail. The calculated radiative lifetimes for the vibrational levels of B(sup 3)Pi(sub g) are in excellent agreement with the most recent measurement of Euler and Pipkin (1983)

  15. Comparison of Synchrotron MicroXANES Determination of Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe with Moessbauer Values for Clean Mineral Separates of Pyroxene from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Dyar, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation state of Fe in Martian meteorites is a parameter of great interest and the ability to determine this value in micrometer scale samples is important. Intense, tunable x-ray sources at large synchrotron storage rings are being exploited to examine the Fe K-absorption edge with energy resolution of approx. 1-1.5eV in spots of 10x15 microns on thin sections of a wide variety of materials including several Martian meteorites. Synchrotron microXANES (SmX) spectroscopy is the technique that provides the most flexible capability for investigating Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe. Variation of Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe is manifested as a function of the energy of the pre-edge to the Fe absorption edge produced by the sample. SmX is at present the only technique that can be used with conventional polished thin sections. Data for a broad spectrum of minerals have been produced and indicate that SmX can be used with a large variety of samples types.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Collisional Removal of O2(A(sup 3)Sigma(sup +)(sub u), upsilon=9 ) with O2 and N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Eunsook S.; Copeland, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the collisional removal of O2 molecules in the upsilon = 9 level of the A(sup 3)Sigma(sup +)(sub u) electronic state has been studied for the colliders O2 and N2, over the temperature range 150 to 300 K. In a cooled flow cell, the output of a pulsed dye laser excites the O2 to the upsilon = 9 level of the A(sup 3)Sigma(sup +)(sub u) state, and the output of a time-delayed second laser monitors the temporal evolution of this level via a resonance-enhanced ionization. We find the u thermally averaged removal cross section for O2 collisions is constant (approx. 10 A(sup 2)) between room temperature and 200 K, then increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, doubling by 150 K. In contrast, the N2 cross section at 225 K is approx. 8% smaller and gradually increases to a value at 150 K that is approx. 60% larger than the room temperature value. The difference between the temperature dependence of the O2 and N2 collision cross section implies that the removal by oxygen becomes more important at the lower temperatures found in the mesosphere, but removal by N2 still dominates.

  17. Characterization of silicon-carbon clusters by infrared laser spectroscopy: the nu 3(sigma u) band of linear Si2C3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Orden, A.; Giesen, T. F.; Provencal, R. A.; Hwang, H. J.; Saykally, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The nu 3(sigma u) fundamental vibration of 1 sigma g+ Si2C3 has been observed using a laser vaporization-supersonic cluster beam-diode laser spectrometer. Forty rovibrational transitions were measured in the range of 1965.8 to 1970.9 cm-1 with a rotational temperature of 10-15 K. A least-squares fit of these transitions yielded the following molecular constants: nu 3(sigma u)=1968.188 31(18) cm-1, B"=0.031 575 1(60) cm-1, and B'=0.031 437 4(57) cm-1. These results are in excellent agreement with recent Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of Si2C3 trapped in a solid Ar matrix [J. Chem. Phys. 100, 181(1994)] and with ab initio calculations [J. Chem. Phys. 100, 175 (1994)] which suggest cumulenic-like bonding for Si2C3, analogous to the isovalent C5 carbon cluster.

  18. The limited effectiveness of legislation against female genital mutilation and the role of community beliefs in Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ako, Matilda Aberese; Akweongo, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) has long been practised in many communities in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Although the Ghanaian state has a long tradition of supporting women's rights, it has not been successful in eradicating FGM, despite a law against the practice in an amendment to the Criminal Code in 1994 and the Domestic Violence Act 2003. This qualitative study in the Upper East Region examined the role of the state in stopping the practice of FGM through legal means, and why FGM continues to be practised in the community. In-depth interviews were conducted with six state officials, a circumciser, the president of a women's advocacy organisation, and semi-structured interviews with 32 community members. Although FGM has been criminalised, political support to ensure that the law is effectively implemented has been lacking. FGM education and eradication must be given more priority and significant funding by the Ghanaian state. For interventions to be effective, legal measures need to be combined with social measures. Communities practising FGM must be involved in the planning and implementation of anti-FGM interventions. Successful eradication of the practice is possible if education and dialogue between state institutions, gender and human rights groups and practising communities is strengthened. PMID:19962637

  19. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling and Fe limitation in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongin, Mathieu; Nelson, David M.; Pondaven, Philippe; Tréguer, Paul

    2006-03-01

    We previously reported the application of an upper-ocean biogeochemical model in which the elemental composition of the phytoplankton is flexible and responds to changes in light and nutrient availability [Mongin, M., Nelson, D., Pondaven, P., Brzezinski, M., Tréguer, P., 2003. Simulation of upper-ocean biogeochemistry with a flexible-composition phytoplankton model: C, N and Si cycling in the western Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research I 50, 1445-1480]. That model, applied in the western Sargasso Sea, considered the cycles of C, N and Si in the upper 400 m and limitation of phytoplankton growth by N, Si and light. We now report a new version of this model that includes Fe cycling and Fe limitation and its application in the Southern Ocean. The model includes two phytoplankton groups, diatoms and non-siliceous forms. Uptake of NO 3- by phytoplankton is light dependent, but NH 4+, Si(OH) 4 and Fe uptake are not and can therefore continue through the night. The model tracks the resulting C/N and Fe/C ratios of both groups and Si/N ratio of diatoms, and permits uptake of C, N, Fe and Si to proceed independently when those ratios are close to those of nutrient-replete phytoplankton. When they indicate a deficiency cellular C, N, Fe or Si, uptake of the non-limiting elements is controlled by the content of the limiting element in accordance with the cell-quota formulation of [Droop, M., 1974. The nutrient status of algal cell in continuous culture. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 54, 825-855]. The model thus identifies the growth-limiting element and quantifies the degree of limitation from the elemental composition of the phytoplankton. We applied this model at the French KERFIX site in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, using meteorological forcing for that site from 1991 to 1995. As in the Sargasso Sea application, the flexible-composition structure provides simulations that are consistent with field data with only minimal

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the reactions NH(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+D({sup 2}S){yields}ND(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+H({sup 2}S) and NH(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+D({sup 2}S){yields}N({sup 4}S)+HD(X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +})

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Z.-W.; Zhu, H.; Schinke, R.; Adam, L.; Hack, W.

    2005-05-22

    The rate coefficient of the reaction NH(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+D({sup 2}S){yields}{sup k{sub 1}}products (1) is determined in a quasistatic laser-flash photolysis, laser-induced fluorescence system at low pressures. The NH(X) radicals are produced by quenching of NH(a {sup 1}{delta}) (obtained in the photolysis of HN{sub 3}) with Xe and the D atoms are generated in a D{sub 2}/He microwave discharge. The NH(X) concentration profile is measured in the presence of a large excess of D atoms. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be k{sub 1}=(3.9{+-}1.5)x10{sup 13} cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The rate coefficient k{sub 1} is the sum of the two rate coefficients, k{sub 1a} and k{sub 1b}, which correspond to the reactions NH(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+D({sup 2}S){yields}{sup k{sub 1a}}ND(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+H({sup 2}S) (1a) and NH(X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -})+D({sup 2}S){yields}{sup k{sub 1b}}N({sup 4}S)+HD(X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) (1b), respectively. The first reaction proceeds via the {sup 2}A{sup ''} ground state of NH{sub 2} whereas the second one proceeds in the {sup 4}A{sup ''} state. A global potential energy surface is constructed for the {sup 2}A{sup ''} state using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method and the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence quadrupte zeta atomic basis. This potential energy surface is used in classical trajectory calculations to determine k{sub 1a}. Similar trajectory calculations are performed for reaction (1b) employing a previously calculated potential for the {sup 4}A{sup ''} state. The calculated room-temperature rate coefficient is k{sub 1}=4.1x10{sup 13} cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} with k{sub 1a}=4.0x10{sup 13} cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} and k{sub 1b}=9.1x10{sup 11} cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The theoretically determined k{sub 1} shows a very weak positive temperature dependence in the range 250{<=}T/K{<=}1000. Despite the deep potential

  1. A simple temperature-based model predicts the upper latitudinal limit of the temperate coral Astrangia poculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimond, J. L.; Kerwin, A. H.; Rotjan, R.; Sharp, K.; Stewart, F. J.; Thornhill, D. J.

    2013-06-01

    A few hardy ahermatypic scleractinian corals occur in shallow waters well outside of the tropics, but little is known concerning their distribution limits at high latitudes. Using field data on the growth of Astrangia poculata over an annual period near its northern range limit in Rhode Island, USA, we tested the hypothesis that the distribution of this coral is limited by low temperature. A simple model based on satellite sea surface temperature and field growth data at monthly temporal resolution was used to estimate annual net coral growth north and south of the known range limit of A. poculata. Annual net coral growth was the result of new polyp budding above ~10 °C minus polyp loss below ~10 °C, which is caused by a state of torpor that leads to overgrowth by encroaching and settling organisms. The model accurately predicted A. poculata's range limit around Cape Cod, Massachusetts, predicting no net growth northward as a result of corals' inability to counteract polyp loss during winter with sufficient polyp budding during summer. The model also indicated that the range limit of A. poculata coincides with a decline in the benefit of associating with symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium B2/ S. psygmophilum), suggesting that symbiosis may become a liability under colder temperatures. While we cannot exclude the potential role of other coral life history traits or environmental factors in setting A. poculata's northern range limit, our analysis suggests that low temperature constrains the growth and persistence of adult corals and would preclude coral growth northward of Cape Cod.

  2. New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team

    2015-01-01

    Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.

  3. Upper limits for stereoselective photodissociation of free amino acids in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C 1s edge

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemper, Georg; Viefhaus, Jens; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Rolles, Daniel; Gessner, Oliver; Lischke, Toralf; Hentges, Rainer; Wienberg, Christian; Mahler, Willy; Becker, Uwe; Langer, Burkhard; Prosperi, Tommaso; Zema, Nicola; Turchini, Stefano; Zada, Birgitt; Senf, Fred

    2004-06-01

    We measured the total and partial ion yields of the two chiral amino acids alanine and serine in the gas phase both in the vacuum ultraviolet region and at the C(1s) edge using circularly polarized light. We did not detect any circular dichroism asymmetry larger than 1x10{sup -3}. A similar measurement of fixed-in-space amino acids yielded an upper limit of 1x10{sup -2} for the stereoselective effect of circularly polarized light. The results obtained are relevant for quantitative models of stereoselective photodecomposition of amino acids that try to explain the homochirality of life.

  4. Measurement of the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio and an upper limit on B - → τ -ν-τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Kim, H.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wildish, T.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Using 1.45 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio is measured to be 2.75 ± 0.30 ± 0.37%. In addition an upper limit of 1.8 × 10 -3 at 90% confidence level is placed upon the exclusive branching ratio of B- → τ -ν-τ. These measurements are consistent with SM expectations, and put the constraint tan {β}/{M h ±} < 0.52 GeV -1 at 90% confidence level on all Type II two Higgs doublet models (such as the MSSM).

  5. Changing Land Use to Offset CO2 Emissions: Limited Potential for the Upper Midwest of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissore, C.; Espelata, J. F.; Nater, E. A.; Hobbie, S. E.; Reich, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    Efforts to mitigate increasing carbon (C) emissions are needed, and increasingly more policies point at terrestrial ecosystems as places to sequester atmospheric CO2. Whether terrestrial C sequestration can offset significant CO2 emissions is questionable, particularly in light of (1) increasing pressures on land use from an array of competing sectors including food and biofuel production and urbanization, and (2) a growing concern among scientists that previously published rates of C sequestration attributed to the conversion from conventional tillage to no-till or conservation tillage were overly optimistic. We analyzed the potential to promote terrestrial C sequestration through changes in land use and land cover in the Upper Midwest of the U.S. over a 50-year timeframe based on available data. Although some land use and cover changes, such as restoring forests, grasslands and wetlands, cause substantial carbon storage for a given area of land, conversion of even 10% of the regions agricultural land would offset only a few percent of its carbon emissions. Conversion to no-till agricultural, although popular among policymakers, results in variable and, on average, negligible C sequestration (sequestration rates range from -0.2 to 0.8 Mg C ha-1 y-1). Despite the unquestionable ecological benefits of some of the proposed land use changes, land use change realistically can be only a modest part of a more comprehensive strategy to achieve significant emissions reductions.

  6. Cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2 - An application of the Schwinger multichannel variational method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lima, M. A. P.; Gibson, T. L.; Mckoy, V.; Huo, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    In this and the two accompanying letters, the results of calculations of the cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2, for collision energies from near threshold to 30 eV, are presented. These results are obtained using a multichannel extension of the Schwinger variational principle at the two-state level. The quantitative agreement between the integral cross sections of these three studies is very good. Inclusion of correlation terms in the scattering wavefunctions, which relax the orthogonality between bound and continuum orbitals, is seen to affect the cross sections substantially. Although a comparison of these calculated cross sections with available experimental data is encouraging, some seious discrepancies exist.

  7. Hyperfine, rotational, and Zeeman structure of the lowest vibrational levels of the {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} (1) {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} state

    SciTech Connect

    Takekoshi, T.; Lang, F.; Strauss, C.; Denschlag, J. Hecker; Lysebo, Marius; Veseth, Leif

    2011-06-15

    We present the results of an experimental and theoretical study of the electronically excited (1){sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} state of {sup 87}Rb{sub 2} molecules. The vibrational energies are measured for deeply bound states from the bottom up to v{sup '}=15 using laser spectroscopy of ultracold Rb{sub 2} Feshbach molecules. The spectrum of each vibrational state is dominated by a 47-GHz splitting into 0{sub g}{sup -} and 1{sub g} components caused mainly by a strong second-order spin-orbit interaction. Our spectroscopy fully resolves the rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman structure of the spectrum. We are able to describe this structure to the first order using a simplified effective Hamiltonian.

  8. The case for re-evaluating the upper limit value for selenium in drinking water in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barron, E; Migeot, V; Rabouan, S; Potin-Gautier, M; Séby, F; Hartemann, P; Lévi, Y; Legube, B

    2009-12-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for life, which can be toxic for humans when intakes reach a certain amount. Therefore, since the margin between healthy intake and toxic intake is narrow, the selenium concentration of tap water is a parameter that must be monitored because of its potential for increased intake. The present work gives an overview of the different approaches used to calculate safe limits for selenium. As recommended by WHO, the guidelines for drinking water form the basis of national legislated standards for drinking water. Before setting a maximum acceptable level in drinking water, it is necessary to take into account the total intake of selenium in both food and beverage. The limit value of 10 microg l(-1) for drinking water laid down in the European regulations for all countries should be adapted depending on geographic area, as previously recommended by WHO. PMID:19590130

  9. Pursuing the Planet-Debris Disk Connection: Analysis of Upper Limits from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Marshall, Jonathan P.

    2015-02-01

    Solid material in protoplanetary disks will suffer one of two fates after the epoch of planet formation; either being bound up into planetary bodies, or remaining in smaller planetesimals to be ground into dust. These end states are identified through detection of sub-stellar companions by periodic radial velocity (or transit) variations of the star, and excess emission at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. Since the material that goes into producing the observable outcomes of planet formation is the same, we might expect these components to be related both to each other and their host star. Heretofore, our knowledge of planetary systems around other stars has been strongly limited by instrumental sensitivity. In this work, we combine observations at far-infrared wavelengths by IRAS, Spitzer, and Herschel with limits on planetary companions derived from non-detections in the 16 year Anglo-Australian Planet Search to clarify the architectures of these (potential) planetary systems and search for evidence of correlations between their constituent parts. We find no convincing evidence of such correlations, possibly owing to the dynamical history of the disk systems, or the greater distance of the planet-search targets. Our results place robust limits on the presence of Jupiter analogs which, in concert with the debris disk observations, provides insights on the small-body dynamics of these nearby systems.

  10. Pursuing the planet-debris disk connection: Analysis of upper limits from the Anglo-Australian planet search

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Marshall, Jonathan P.

    2015-02-01

    Solid material in protoplanetary disks will suffer one of two fates after the epoch of planet formation; either being bound up into planetary bodies, or remaining in smaller planetesimals to be ground into dust. These end states are identified through detection of sub-stellar companions by periodic radial velocity (or transit) variations of the star, and excess emission at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. Since the material that goes into producing the observable outcomes of planet formation is the same, we might expect these components to be related both to each other and their host star. Heretofore, our knowledge of planetary systems around other stars has been strongly limited by instrumental sensitivity. In this work, we combine observations at far-infrared wavelengths by IRAS, Spitzer, and Herschel with limits on planetary companions derived from non-detections in the 16 year Anglo-Australian Planet Search to clarify the architectures of these (potential) planetary systems and search for evidence of correlations between their constituent parts. We find no convincing evidence of such correlations, possibly owing to the dynamical history of the disk systems, or the greater distance of the planet-search targets. Our results place robust limits on the presence of Jupiter analogs which, in concert with the debris disk observations, provides insights on the small-body dynamics of these nearby systems.

  11. Middle Pleistocene Climate Change Recorded in Fossil Mammal Teeth from Tarija, Bolivia, and Upper Limit of the Ensenadan Land-Mammal Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2000-07-01

    Fossiliferous middle Pleistocene sediments of the Tarija basin of southern Bolivia contain a classic Ensenadan land-mammal fauna. New carbon isotopic data reported here for 50 specimens of the grazing mammals Equus (horse) and Cuvieronius (mastodon), documented from eight stratigraphic levels at Tarija, vary significantly in the δ13C values of their teeth. The pattern of variation appears to reflect the proportion of C3 and C4 grasses eaten during colder (more C3) and warmer (more C4) times. Within age limits set by associated magnetostratigraphy, the cold periods can be correlated with particular even-numbered stages in the marine oxygen-isotope record, and the warm periods can be correlated with odd-numbered stages. The oldest fossil teeth analyzed from the Tarija section can thereby be assigned to stage 29, and the youngest to stages 17 or 15, that is; the teeth range in age from about 1.1 myr to as young as 0.7 myr. Based on correlation of the upper part of the Tarija beds to the isotopic stages, the upper limit of the Ensenadan land-mammal age is between 0.7 and 0.6 myr, which is younger than stated in most previous studies.

  12. The Duck Redux: An Improved Proper-Motion Upper Limit for the Pulsar B1757-24 near the Supernova Remnant G5.4-1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, J. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Chatterjee, S.; van der Swaluw, E.; Camilo, F.; Stappers, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    ``The Duck'' is a complicated nonthermal radio system, consisting of the energetic radio pulsar B1757-24, its surrounding pulsar wind nebula G5.27-0.90, and the adjacent supernova remnant (SNR) G5.4-1.2. PSR B1757-24 was originally claimed to be a young (~15,000 yr) and extreme-velocity (>~1500 km s-1) pulsar, which had penetrated and emerged from the shell of the associated SNR G5.4-1.2 but recent upper limits on the pulsar's motion have raised serious difficulties with this interpretation. We here present 8.5 GHz interferometric observations of the nebula G5.27-0.90 over a 12 yr baseline, doubling the time span of previous measurements. These data correspondingly allow us to halve the previous upper limit on the nebula's westward motion to 14 mas yr-1 (5 σ), allowing a substantive reevaluation of this puzzling object. We rule out the possibility that the pulsar and SNR were formed from a common supernova explosion ~15,000 yr ago, as implied by the pulsar's characteristic age, but conclude that an old (>~70,000 yr) pulsar/SNR association, or a situation in which the pulsar and SNR are physically unrelated, are both still viable explanations.

  13. Upper limit on the cross section for elastic neutralino-nucleon scattering in a neutrino experiment at the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, O. V. Boliev, M. M. Demidov, S. V. Mikheyev, S. P.

    2013-11-15

    The results of a neutrino experiment that involved 24.12 yr of live time of observation of muons from the lower Earth's hemisphere with the aid of the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope are presented. In the problem of searches for a signal from the annihilation of dark matter in the Sun, an upper limit on the cross section for the elastic scattering of a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) on a nucleon was obtained at a 90% confidence level from an analysis of data accumulated within 21.15 yr of live time of observation. A neutralino in a nonminimal supersymmetric theory was considered for a WIMP. The best limit at the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope on the cross section for spin-dependent neutralino interactionwith a proton corresponds to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} pb for the neutralino mass of 210 GeV/c{sup 2}. This limit is three orders of magnitude more stringent than similar limits obtained in experiments that detected directly WIMP scattering on target nuclei.

  14. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.6 fb-1 of Data

    SciTech Connect

    CDF, The; Collaborations, D0; Phenomena, the Tevatron New; Group, Higgs Working

    2011-07-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs boson search combination more data have been added, additional channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the MSTW08 parton distribution functions and the latest theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 8.2 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF and up to 8.6 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. our upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.17, 1.71, and 0.48 times the values of the SM cross section for Higgs bosons of mass m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2}, 140 GeV/c{sup 2}, and 165 GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding median upper limits expected in the absence of Higgs boson production are 1.16, 1.16, and 0.57. There is a small ({approx} 1{sigma}) excess of data events with respect to the background estimation in searches for the Higgs boson in the mass range 125 < m{sub H} < 155 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude, at the 95% C.L., a new and larger region at high mass between 156 < m{sub H} < 177 GeV/c{sup 2}, with an expected exclusion region of 148 < m{sub H} < 180 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. Diagnosis-specific serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) upper limits for treatment with menotropins using a 125I direct E2 assay.

    PubMed

    Haning, R V; Boehnlein, L M; Carlson, I H; Kuzma, D L; Zweibel, W J

    1984-12-01

    Statistical evaluation of 133 cycles of induction of ovulation using generalized linear models demonstrated that the occurrence and severity of ovarian hyperstimulation was influenced by the serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) concentration (P less than 0.001), conception (P less than 0.001), and the endocrinologic diagnosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) or hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) (P less than 0.01). When menotropins were administered between 5:00 P.M. and 8:00 P.M. and blood was drawn at 8:00 A.M., an upper limit for serum E2 in patients with HA of 2417 pg/ml or an upper limit for patients with PCO of 3778 pg/ml gave an approximate 5% risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation in conception cycles and a 1.3% risk of severe hyperstimulation in nonconception cycles. Comparison of our E2 radioimmunoassay involving extraction and chromatography to the Pantex immunodirect Estradiol 125I kit (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA) demonstrated no detectable systematic error, allowing the use of these limits with either assay. The ovulating injection of human chorionic gonadotropin was given at 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 P.M. on the evening of blood drawing as soon as the first follicle reached an average diameter of 14 mm or greater. The ultrasound parameters allow the chance of pregnancy to be optimized and the chance of multiple gestation to be minimized. Serum E2 monitoring indicates when the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation is too great for human chorionic gonadotropin to be given. PMID:6437878

  16. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Davila, Alfonso; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Marinova, Margarita M; Greer, Charles W; DiRuggiero, Jocelyn; McKay, Christopher P; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-07-01

    Some of the coldest and driest permafrost soils on Earth are located in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) of Antarctica, but little is known about the permafrost microbial communities other than that microorganisms are present in these valleys. Here, we describe the microbiology and habitable conditions of highly unique dry and ice-cemented permafrost in University Valley, one of the coldest and driest regions in the MDVs (1700 m above sea level; mean temperature -23 °C; no degree days above freezing), where the ice in permafrost originates from vapour deposition rather than liquid water. We found that culturable and total microbial biomass in University Valley was extremely low, and microbial activity under ambient conditions was undetectable. Our results contrast with reports from the lower-elevation Dry Valleys and Arctic permafrost soils where active microbial populations are found, suggesting that the combination of severe cold, aridity, oligotrophy of University Valley permafrost soils severely limit microbial activity and survival. PMID:27323892

  17. Nearing the cold-arid limits of microbial life in permafrost of an upper dry valley, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Davila, Alfonso; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne; Marinova, Margarita M; Greer, Charles W; DiRuggiero, Jocelyn; McKay, Christopher P; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-01-01

    Some of the coldest and driest permafrost soils on Earth are located in the high-elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) of Antarctica, but little is known about the permafrost microbial communities other than that microorganisms are present in these valleys. Here, we describe the microbiology and habitable conditions of highly unique dry and ice-cemented permafrost in University Valley, one of the coldest and driest regions in the MDVs (1700 m above sea level; mean temperature −23 °C; no degree days above freezing), where the ice in permafrost originates from vapour deposition rather than liquid water. We found that culturable and total microbial biomass in University Valley was extremely low, and microbial activity under ambient conditions was undetectable. Our results contrast with reports from the lower-elevation Dry Valleys and Arctic permafrost soils where active microbial populations are found, suggesting that the combination of severe cold, aridity, oligotrophy of University Valley permafrost soils severely limit microbial activity and survival. PMID:27323892

  18. SU-F-BRE-01: A Rapid Method to Determine An Upper Limit On a Radiation Detector's Correction Factor During the QA of IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, Y; Bouchard, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Discrepancies in the verification of the absorbed dose to water from an IMRT plan using a radiation dosimeter can be wither caused by 1) detector specific nonstandard field correction factors as described by the formalism of Alfonso et al. 2) inaccurate delivery of the DQA plan. The aim of this work is to develop a simple/fast method to determine an upper limit on the contribution of composite field correction factors to these discrepancies. Methods: Indices that characterize the non-flatness of the symmetrised collapsed delivery (VSC) of IMRT fields over detector-specific regions of interest were shown to be correlated with IMRT field correction factors. The indices introduced are the uniformity index (UI) and the mean fluctuation index (MF). Each one of these correlation plots have 10 000 fields generated with a stochastic model. A total of eight radiation detectors were investigated in the radial orientation. An upper bound on the correction factors was evaluated by fitting values of high correction factors for a given index value. Results: These fitted curves can be used to compare the performance of radiation dosimeters in composite IMRT fields. Highly water-equivalent dosimeters like the scintillating detector (Exradin W1) and a generic alanine detector have been found to have corrections under 1% over a broad range of field modulations (0 – 0.12 for MF and 0 – 0.5 for UI). Other detectors have been shown to have corrections of a few percent over this range. Finally, a full Monte Carlo simulations of 18 clinical and nonclinical IMRT field showed good agreement with the fitted curve for the A12 ionization chamber. Conclusion: This work proposes a rapid method to evaluate an upper bound on the contribution of correction factors to discrepancies found in the verification of DQA plans.

  19. Core functional traits of bacterial communities in the Upper Mississippi River show limited variation in response to land cover

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J.; Wang, Ping; Phillips, Jane; Cotner, James B.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic characterization of environmental microbial communities via high-throughput DNA sequencing has revealed that patterns in microbial biogeography affect community structure. However, shifts in functional diversity related to variation in taxonomic composition are poorly understood. To overcome limitations due to the prohibitive cost of high-depth metagenomic sequencing, tools to infer functional diversity based on phylogenetic distributions of functional traits have been developed. In this study we characterized functional microbial diversity at 11 sites along the Mississippi River in Minnesota using both metagenomic sequencing and functional-inference-based (PICRUSt) approaches. This allowed us to determine how distance and variation in land cover throughout the river influenced the distribution of functional traits, as well as to validate PICRUSt inferences. The distribution and abundance of functional traits, by metagenomic analysis, were similar among sites, with a median standard deviation of 0.0002% among tier 3 functions in KEGG. Overall inferred functional variation was significantly different (P ≤ 0.035) between two water basins surrounded by agricultural vs. developed land cover, and abundances of bacterial orders that correlated with functional traits by metagenomic analysis were greater where abundances of the trait were inferred to be higher. PICRUSt inferences were significantly correlated (r = 0.147, P = 1.80 × 10−30) with metagenomic annotations. Discrepancies between metagenomic and PICRUSt taxonomic-functional relationships, however, suggested potential functional redundancy among abundant and rare taxa that impeded the ability to accurately assess unique functional traits among rare taxa at this sequencing depth. Results of this study suggest that a suite of “core functional traits” is conserved throughout the river and distributions of functional traits, rather than specific taxa, may shift in response to environmental

  20. Integral cross sections for the direct excitation of the A 3 (sigma) u +, B 3 (pi) g, W 3 (delta) u, B' 3 (sigma) u -, a' 1 (sigma) u -, a 1 (pi) g, w 1 (delta) u, and C 3 (pi) u electronic states in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Malone, C. P.; Kanik, I.

    2005-01-01

    Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation out of the ground state (X 1(sigma)g +) to the A 3(sigma)u +, B 3(pi)g, W 3(delta)u, B' 3(sigma)u -, a' 1(sigma)u -, a 1(pi)g, w 1(delta)u, and states in N2 are reported at incident energies ranging between 10 and 100 eV. These data have been derived by integrating differential cross sections previously reported by this group. New differential cross section measurements for the a 1(pi)g state at 200 eV are also presented to extend the range of the reported integral cross sections for this state, which is responsible for the emissions of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system (a 1(pi)g (rightwards arrow) X 1(sigma)g +). The present results are compared and critically evaluated against existing cross sec In general, the present cross sections are smaller than previous results at low impact energies from threshold through the excitation function peak regions. These lower cross sections have potentially significant implications on our understanding of UV emissions in the atmospheres of Earth and Titan.

  1. Towards Determining the Upper Temperature Limits to Life on Earth: An In-situ Sulfide-Microbial Incubator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D.; Baross, J.; Delaney, J.; Girguis, P.; Schrenk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Determining the maximum conditions under which life thrives, survives, and expires is critical to understanding how and where life might have evolved on our planet and for investigation of life in extraterrestrial environments. Submarine black smoker systems are optimal sites to study such questions because thermal gradients are extreme and accessible within the chimney walls under high-pressure conditions. Intact cells containing DNA and ribosomes have been observed even within the most extreme environments of sulfide structure walls bounded by 300\\deg C fluids. Membrane lipids from archaea have been detected in sulfide flanges and chimneys where temperatures are believed to be 200-300\\deg C. However, a balanced inquiry into the limits of life must focus on characterization of the actual conditions in a given system that favor reactions necessary to initiate and/or sustain life. At present, in-situ instrumentation of sulfide deposits is the only effective way to gain direct access to these natural high-temperature environments for documentation and experimentation. With this goal in mind, three prototype microbial incubators were developed with funding from the NSF, University of Washington, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. The incubators were deployed in 2003 in the walls of active black smoker chimneys in the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. All instruments were successfully recovered in 2004, and one was redeployed for a short time-series experiment. Each 53-cm-long titanium assembly houses 27 temperature sensors that record temperatures from 0 to 500\\deg C within three discrete incubation chambers. Data are logged in a separate housing and inductively coupled links provide access to the data loggers without removal of the instruments. During the initial deployment, data were collected from 189 to 245 days, with up to ˜478° K temperature measurements completed for an individual instrument. Temperatures within the chimney

  2. Upper limit on CP violation in the B{sub s}{sup 0}-B{sub s}{sup 0} system

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Ch.; Sehgal, L. M.

    2011-02-01

    In a previous publication we noted that the time dependence of an incoherent B{sup 0}-B{sup 0} mixture undergoes a qualitative change when the magnitude of CP violation {delta} exceeds a critical value. Requiring, on physical grounds, that the system evolve from an initial incoherent state to a final pure state in a monotonic way yields a new upper limit for {delta}. The recent measurement of the wrong charge semileptonic asymmetry of B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons presented by the D0 collaboration is outside this bound by 1 standard deviation. If this result is confirmed it implies the existence of a new quantum mechanical oscillation phenomenon.

  3. Setting an Upper Limit on the Myoglobin Iron(IV)Hydroxide pKa: Insight into Axial Ligand Tuning in Heme Protein Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To provide insight into the iron(IV)hydroxide pKa of histidine ligated heme proteins, we have probed the active site of myoglobin compound II over the pH range of 3.9–9.5, using EXAFS, Mössbauer, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. We find no indication of ferryl protonation over this pH range, allowing us to set an upper limit of 2.7 on the iron(IV)hydroxide pKa in myoglobin. Together with the recent determination of an iron(IV)hydroxide pKa ∼ 12 in the thiolate-ligated heme enzyme cytochrome P450, this result provides insight into Nature’s ability to tune catalytic function through its choice of axial ligand. PMID:24875119

  4. Radial transport of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion disks. I. Steady solutions and an upper limit on the vertical field strength

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Taku; Muto, Takayuki

    2014-04-20

    Large-scale magnetic fields are key ingredients of magnetically driven disk accretion. We study how large-scale poloidal fields evolve in accretion disks, with the primary aim of quantifying the viability of magnetic accretion mechanisms in protoplanetary disks. We employ a kinematic mean-field model for poloidal field transport and focus on steady states where inward advection of a field balances with outward diffusion due to effective resistivities. We analytically derive the steady-state radial distribution of poloidal fields in highly conducting accretion disks. The analytic solution reveals an upper limit on the strength of large-scale vertical fields attainable in steady states. Any excess poloidal field will diffuse away within a finite time, and we demonstrate this with time-dependent numerical calculations of the mean-field equations. We apply this upper limit to large-scale vertical fields threading protoplanetary disks. We find that the maximum attainable strength is about 0.1 G at 1 AU, and about 1 mG at 10 AU from the central star. When combined with recent magnetic accretion models, the maximum field strength translates into the maximum steady-state accretion rate of ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, in agreement with observations. We also find that the maximum field strength is ∼1 kG at the surface of the central star provided that the disk extends down to the stellar surface. This implies that any excess stellar poloidal field of strength ≳ kG can be transported to the surrounding disk. This might in part resolve the magnetic flux problem in star formation.

  5. The usefulness of S100P, mesothelin, fascin, prostate stem cell antigen, and 14-3-3 sigma in diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma in cytological specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Dim, Daniel C; Jiang, Feng; Qiu, Qi; Li, Ting; Darwin, Peter; Rodgers, William H; Peng, Hong Qi

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas is an efficient and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of some limitations of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of well-differentiated or early stage cancers, the purpose of this study is to assess the added benefit of immunohistochemistry. We studied five proteins overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, namely, prostate stem cell antigen, fascin, 14-3-3 sigma, mesothelin and S100P utilizing immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections from cellblocks obtained by EUS-FNA. Sixty-two cases of EUS-FNA of the pancreas that had follow-up histological and/or clinical diagnosis and sufficient material in cell blocks were included. Using histological diagnosis and/or clinical outcome as the reference standard, EUS-FNA shows the highest sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) and is superior to any marker in this study. Among five antibodies, S100P reveals the best diagnostic characters showing 90% of sensitivity and 67% of specificity. Fascin shows high specificity (92%) but low sensitivity (38%). Mesothelin has a moderate sensitivity (74%) and low specificity (33%), PSCA and 14-3-3 show high sensitivity but zero specificity. S100P and mesothelin were useful in nine indeterminate cases. S100P correctly predicted six of seven cancers and one of one without cancer and mesothelin correctly diagnosed five of seven cancers and one of two noncancers in this group. EUS-FNA cytomorphology is superior to any of the immunohistochemical markers used in this study. Use of S100P and mesothelin in cytologically borderline cases can increase the diagnostic accuracy in this group. PMID:21538952

  6. Group 3 sigma factor gene, sigJ, a key regulator of desiccation tolerance, regulates the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Okamoto, Shinobu; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The changes in the expression of sigma factor genes during dehydration in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01 and aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120 were determined. The expression of the sigJ gene in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01, which is homologous to sigJ (alr0277) in aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120, was significantly induced in the mid-stage of dehydration. We constructed a higher-expressing transformant of the sigJ gene (HE0277) in Anabaena PCC 7120, and the transformant acquired desiccation tolerance. The results of Anabaena oligonucleotide microarray experiments showed that a comparatively large number of genes relating to polysaccharide biosynthesis were upregulated in the HE0277 cells. The extracellular polysaccharide released into the culture medium of the HE0277 cells was as much as 3.2-fold more than that released by the control cells. This strongly suggests that the group 3 sigma factor gene sigJ is fundamental and conducive to desiccation tolerance in these cyanobacteria. PMID:17376888

  7. Vibrational population of the A super 3 sigma sub u/+/ and B super 3 pi sub g states of N2 in normal auroras.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.; Williams, W.

    1971-01-01

    Use of new electron impact excitation cross sections for the six lowest triplet states (A, B, W, C, E, D) of N2, and solution of the coupled equations of statistical equilibrium to obtain the vibrational population of each electronic state. The results show that cascade from high levels of the A super 3 sigma sub u(+) state and from the W super 3 delta sub u state is significant in populating the lower vibrational levels of the B state and hence the character of its ?apparent' excitation cross sections. For the B state excited under auroral conditions, the fraction of the total population due to cascade processes exceeds 25% for all levels lower than 7 and is greater than 80% for B(v' = 0). For the A state under similar conditions, cascade from the B state contributes 50% or more of the total vibrational population for levels lower than 7, and 80% or more for levels below 4. For levels of the A state greater than 7, the A yields B transitions depopulate the levels rapidly and indicate that the Vegard-Kaplan emissions from these higher levels will be weak or totally absent in normal auroras.

  8. Computational study of the mechanisms for the reaction of O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}) with aromatic radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Barckholtz, C.; Fadden, M.J.; Hadad, C.M.

    1999-10-07

    The potential energy surface (PES) of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sm{underscore}bullet} + O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}) reaction has been studied using the B3LYP method. Several pathways were considered following the formation of the phenylperoxy (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OO{sm{underscore}bullet}) radical. At low temperatures (T < 432 K), the lowest energy pathway was found to go through a dioxiranyl radical. Scission of the O-O bond to form the phenoxy (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sm{underscore}bullet}) radical and O({sup 3}P) atom is more favorable at higher temperatures. Transition state structures for several steps in the decomposition of the phenylperoxy radical are presented to augment the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sm{underscore}bullet} + O{sub 2} PES. For the heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, such as pyridine, furan, and thiophene, only minima on the PES are calculated in analogy with the intermediates obtained for the reaction of phenyl radical with O{sub 2}. One important result of the proposed decomposition mechanism is that subsequent rearrangements of the heteroatomic aromatic hydrocarbon peroxy radicals (Ar-OO{sm{underscore}bullet}) are likely to yield intermediates that are of atmospheric interest.

  9. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; De Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  10. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs-Boson Production with up to 6.7 fb$^{-1}$ of Data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0 on direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination more data have been added, additional new channels have been incorporated, and some previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With up to 5.9 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and up to 6.7 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are factors of 1.56 and 0.68 the values of the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 GeV/c{sup 2} and 165 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude, at the 95% C.L., a new and larger region at high mass between 158 < m{sub H} < 175 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  11. MAGIC UPPER LIMITS FOR TWO MILAGRO-DETECTED BRIGHT FERMI SOURCES IN THE REGION OF SNR G65.1+0.6

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bose, D.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: decea@ieec.uab.e

    2010-12-20

    We report on the observation of the region around supernova remnant G65.1+0.6 with the stand-alone MAGIC-I telescope. This region hosts the two bright GeV gamma-ray sources 1FGL J1954.3+2836 and 1FGL J1958.6+2845. They are identified as GeV pulsars and both have a possible counterpart detected at about 35 TeV by the Milagro observatory. MAGIC collected 25.5 hr of good quality data and found no significant emission in the range around 1 TeV. We therefore report differential flux upper limits, assuming the emission to be point-like ({<=}0.{sup 0}1) or within a radius of 0.{sup 0}3. In the point-like scenario, the flux limits around 1 TeV are at the level of 3% and 2% of the Crab Nebula flux for the two sources, respectively. This implies that the Milagro emission is either extended over a much larger area than our point-spread function or it must be peaked at energies beyond 1 TeV, resulting in a photon index harder than 2.2 in the TeV band.

  12. Quantifying Upper Particle-size Limits of Salmonid Spawning Gravel: Analysis of Fall-run Chinook Salmon of the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.

    2008-12-01

    Reversing the decline of historically prolific runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) remains a high priority of river restoration along the US Pacific Coast. One routinely implemented strategy is gravel injection, to supplement spawning habitat which has been depleted by gravel mining and bed coarsening below dams. Gravel augmentation is generally designed around a qualitatively assessed "preferred" median particle size. Implementation sites are not always ecologically ideal, because there often is little quantitative basis for determining where added gravel would be most suitable. Although gravel augmentation may increase spawning habitat, a more mechanistic design basis could reduce costs, improve efficiency, and make results more predictable. One key to developing better designs is a better method for characterizing existing spawning gravel deposits. Here we propose a series of mechanistically oriented hypotheses about the spawning suitability of natural gravels. One hypothesis is that there is an upper size limit on particles that can be moved by salmon. We expect that this limit depends on salmon size, water velocity and the size (and embeddedness) of surrounding rocks. Another hypothesis is that spawning success is related to percent coverage by immovable particles. A corollary hypothesis is that redds become irregular (and less productive) as percent coverage by immovable particles increases. Another related hypothesis is that redd-building success should approach zero at an upper threshold of coverage by immovable particles. We explored our hypotheses for fall-run Chinook in the Sacramento River. We collected grain size data, constructed facies maps of the bed, and delineated boundaries of spawning use at the peak of spawning, prior to the run's recent population decline. Our observations suggest that particles with intermediate axes diameters bigger than about 130 mm are not generally movable by fall run Chinook. Moreover we observed no

  13. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  14. The GMRT Epoch of Reionization experiment: a new upper limit on the neutral hydrogen power spectrum at z≈ 8.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, Gregory; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Gupta, Yashwant; Nityanada, Rajaram; Odegova, Julia; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roy, Jayanta; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-05-01

    We present a new upper limit to the 21-cm power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) which constrains reionization models with an unheated IGM. The GMRT-EoR experiment is an ongoing effort to make a statistical detection of the power spectrum of 21-cm neutral hydrogen emission at redshift z˜ 9. Data from this redshift constrain models of the EoR, the end of the Dark Ages arising from the formation of the first bright UV sources, probably stars or mini-quasars. We present results from approximately 50 h of observations with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope in India from 2007 December. We describe radio-frequency interference (RFI) localization schemes which allow bright sources on the ground to be identified and physically removed in addition to automated flagging. Singular-value decomposition is used to remove the remaining broad-band RFI by identifying ground sources with large eigenvalues. Foregrounds are modelled using a piecewise linear filter and the power spectrum is measured using cross-correlations of foreground-subtracted images.

  15. Combined CDF and D0 Upper Limits on Standard Model Higgs Boson Production with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of Data

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2011-03-01

    We combine results from CDF and D0's direct searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) produced in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The results presented here include those channels which are most sensitive to Higgs bosons with mass between 130 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}, namely searches targeted at Higgs boson decays to W{sup +}W{sup -}, although acceptance for decays into {tau}{sup |+} {tau}{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} is included. Compared to the previous Tevatron Higgs search combination, more data have been added and the analyses have been improved to gain sensitivity. We use the MSTW08 parton distribution functions and the latest gg {yields} H theoretical cross section predictions when testing for the presence of a SM Higgs boson. With up to 7.1 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and up to 8.2 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production is a factor of 0.54 times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of 165 GeV/c{sup 2}. We exclude at the 95% C.L. the region 158 < m{sub H} < 173 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. An X-ray survey of clusters of galaxies. IV - A survey of southern clusters and a compilation of upper limits for both Abell and southern clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Cruddace, R. G.; Wood, K. S.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the HEAO 1 A-1 X-ray survey of galaxy clusters are reported. X-ray error boxes and intensities are presented for all clusters in the Abell catalog and for the catalog of southern clusters and groups compiled by Duus and Newell (1977). A correlation is derived on the basis of the X-ray luminosity function for 2-6 keV which may be used to calculate the contribution of clusters to the diffuse X-ray background at different energies. The cluster X-ray is estimated to be 9.3 percent (+ 1.9 or - 1.5 percent). Correlations between X-ray luminosity and other cluster properties are exmained, and it is found that the distribution of upper limits may be applied to obtaining a more precise estimate of the average X-ray luminosity of clusters. The Abell richness class and southern cluster concentrations were strongly correlated with X-ray luminosity. Correlations between optical x-ray luminosity and optical radius velocity dispersion, spiral fraction, and radio power are analyzed. The evidence for all these correlations was considered to be weak because of poor scatter in the data.

  17. Search for B+/--->[K(-/+)pi(+/-)](D)K+/- and upper limit on the b-->u amplitude in B+/--->DK+/-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Leclerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-09-24

    We search for B+/--->[K(-/+)pi(+/-)](D)K+/- decays, where [K(-/+)pi(+/-)](D) indicates that the K-/+pi(+/-) pair originates from the decay of a D0 or D (0). Results are based on 120x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC. We set an upper limit on the ratio R(Kpi) identical with[Gamma(B+-->[K(-)pi(+)](D)K+)+Gamma(B--->[K(+)pi(-)](D)K-)][Gamma(B+-->[K(+)pi(-)](D) / K+)+Gamma(B--->[K(-)pi(+)](D)K-)]<0.026 (90% C.L.). This constrains the amplitude ratio r(B) identical with|A(B--->D 0K-)/A(B--->D0K-)|<0.22 (90% C.L.), consistent with expectations. The small value of r(B) favored by our analysis suggests that the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase gamma from B-->DK will be difficult. PMID:15524706

  18. The influence of differential irradiation and circulation on the thermal evolution of gas giant planets. I. Upper limits from radiative equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-04-01

    As a planet ages, it cools and its radius shrinks at a rate set by the efficiency with which heat is transported from the interior out to space. The bottleneck for this transport is at the boundary between the convective interior and the radiative atmosphere; the opacity there sets the global cooling rate. Models of planetary evolution are often one dimensional (1D), such that the radiative-convective boundary (RCB) is defined by a single temperature, pressure, and opacity. In reality the spatially inhomogeneous stellar heating pattern and circulation in the atmosphere could deform the RCB, allowing heat from the interior to escape more efficiently through regions with lower opacity. We present an analysis of the degree to which the RCB could be deformed and the resultant change in the evolutionary cooling rate. In this initial work we calculate the upper limit for this effect by comparing an atmospheric structure in local radiative equilibrium to its 1D equivalent. We find that the cooling through an uneven RCB could be enhanced over cooling through a uniform RCB by as much as 10%-50%. We also show that the deformation of the RCB (and the enhancement of the cooling rate) increases with a greater incident stellar flux or a lower inner entropy. Our results indicate that this mechanism could significantly change a planet's thermal evolution, causing it to cool and shrink more quickly than would otherwise be expected. This may exacerbate the well-known difficulty in explaining the very large radii observed for some hot Jupiters.

  19. Upper limits to the fractionation of isotopes due to atmospheric escape: Implications for potential 14N/15N in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, K.; Mousis, O.

    2014-12-01

    Formation and evolution of the solar system is studied in part using stable isotope ratios that are presumed to be primordial, or representative of conditions in the protosolar Nebula. Comets, meteorites and giant planet atmospheres provide measurements that can reasonably be presumed to represent primordial conditions while the terrestrial planets, Pluto and Saturn's moon Titan have atmospheres that have evolved over the history of the solar system. The stable isotope ratios measured in these atmospheres are, therefore, first a valuable tool for evaluating the history of atmospheric escape and once escape is constrained can provide indications of conditions of formation. D/H ratios in the atmosphere of Venus provide indications of the amount of water lost from Venus over the history of the solar system, while several isotope ratios in the atmosphere of Mars provide evidence for long-term erosion of the atmosphere. We have recently demonstrated that the nitrogen ratios, 14N/15N, in Titan's atmosphere cannot evolve significantly over the history of the solar system and that the primordial ratio for Titan must have been similar to the value recently measured for NH3 in comets. This implies that the building blocks for Titan formed in the protosolar nebula rather than in the warmer subnebula surrounding Saturn at the end of its formation. Our result strongly contrasts with works showing that 14N/15N in the atmosphere of Mars can easily fractionate from the terrestrial value to its current value due to escape processes within the lifetime of the solar system. The difference between how nitrogen fractionates in Mars and Titan's atmospheres presents a puzzle for the fractionation of isotopes in an atmosphere due to atmospheric escape. Here, we present a method aiming at determining an upper limit to the amount of fractionation allowed to occur due to escape, which is a function of the escape flux and the column density of the atmospheric constituent. Through this

  20. Detections and Sensitive Upper Limits for Methane and Related Trace Gases on Mars during 2003-2014, and planned extensions in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Novak, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    Five groups report methane detections on Mars; all results suggest local release and high temporal variability [1-7]. Our team searched for CH4 on many dates and seasons and detected it on several dates [1, 9, 10]. TLS (Curiosity rover) reported methane upper limits [6], and then detections [7] that were consistent in size with earlier reports and that also showed rapid modulation of CH4 abundance.[8] argued that absorption features assigned to Mars 12CH4 by [1] might instead be weak lines of terrestrial 13CH4. If not properly removed, terrestrial 13CH4 signatures would appear on the blue wing of terrestrial 12CH4 even when Mars is red-shifted - but they do not (Fig. S6 of [1]), demonstrating that terrestrial signatures were correctly removed. [9] demonstrated that including the dependence of δ13CH4 with altitude did not affect the residual features, nor did taking δ13CH4 as zero. Were δ13CH4 important, its omission would have overemphasized the depth of 13CH4 terrestrial absorption, introducing emission features in the residual spectra [1]. However, the residual features are seen in absorption, establishing their origin as non-terrestrial - [8] now agrees with this view.We later reported results for multiple organic gases (CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6, C2H2, C2H4), hydroperoxyl (HO2), three nitriles (N2O, NH3, HCN) and two chlorinated species (HCl, CH3Cl) [9]. Most of these species cannot be detected with current space assets, owing to instrumental limitations (e.g., spectral resolving power). However, the high resolution infrared spectrometers (NOMAD, ACS) on ExoMars 2016 (Trace Gas Orbiter) will begin measurements in late 2016. In solar occultation, TGO sensitivities will far exceed prior capabilities.We published detailed hemispheric maps of H2O and HDO on Mars, inferring the size of a lost early ocean [10]. In 2016, we plan to acquire 3-D spatial maps of HDO and H2O with ALMA, and improved maps of organics with iSHELL/NASA-IRTF.References: [1] Mumma et al. Sci09

  1. The Oxidation State of Fe in MORB Glasses and the Oxygen Fugacity of the Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    E Cottrell; K Kelley

    2011-12-31

    Micro-analytical determination of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses using micro X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) spectroscopy reveals a substantially more oxidized upper mantle than determined by previous studies. Here, we show that global MORBs yield average Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of 0.16 {+-} 0.01 (n = 103), which trace back to primary MORB melts equilibrated at the conditions of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. Our results necessitate an upward revision of the Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios of MORBs, mantle oxygen fugacity, and the ferric iron content of the mantle relative to previous wet chemical determinations. We show that only 0.01 (absolute, or < 10%) of the difference between Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios determined by micro-colorimety and XANES can be attributed to the Moessbauer-based XANES calibration. The difference must instead derive from a bias between micro-colorimetry performed on experimental vs. natural basalts. Co-variations of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios in global MORB with indices of low-pressure fractional crystallization are consistent with Fe{sup 3+} behaving incompatibly in shallow MORB magma chambers. MORB Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios do not, however, vary with indices of the extent of mantle melting (e.g., Na{sub 2}O(8)) or water concentration. We offer two hypotheses to explain these observations: The bulk partition coefficient of Fe{sup 3+} may be higher during peridotite melting than previously thought, and may vary with temperature, or redox exchange between sulfide and sulfate species could buffer mantle melting at {approx} QFM. Both explanations, in combination with the measured MORB Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe ratios, point to a fertile MORB source with greater than 0.3 wt.% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  3. A sensitive search for nitric oxide in the lower atmospheres of Venus and Mars: Detection on Venus and upper limit for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2006-05-01

    temperature in the martian atmosphere, and we do not see any explanation of a possible emission of NO at 5.3 μm. Therefore the data are treated as the lack of absorption with a 2 sigma upper limit of 1.7 ppb to the NO abundance in the lower atmosphere of Mars. This limit is above the predictions of photochemical models by a factor of 3.

  4. POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF COVER CROPS, LIVING MULCHES, AND PERENNIALS TO REDUCE NUTRIENT LOSSES TO WATER SOURCES FROM AGRICULTURAL FIELDS IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI BASIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Losses of nitrate and phosphorus to water resources in the Upper Mississippi River basin threaten aquatic ecosystems and impair water sources. Numerous studies at the field and watershed scale have shown that a significant proportion of the nitrate and phosphorus in surface waters comes from agricul...

  5. Nonadiabatic effects in the photodissociation of vibrationally excited HNCO: The branching between singlet (athinsp{sup 1}{Delta}) and triplet (Xthinsp{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup {minus}}) NH

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H.L.; Brown, S.S.; Delgado, R.; Fleming Crim, F.

    1998-08-01

    Initial vibrational excitation of a state containing three quanta of N{endash}H stretch (3{nu}{sub 1}) decreases the fractional photolysis yield of NH (athinsp{sup 1}{Delta}) relative to NH (Xthinsp{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup {minus}}) by a factor of approximately two compared to the isoenergetic photodissociation of a 300 K thermal sample of HNCO. At a total energy of 43thinsp480thinspcm{sup {minus}1}, NH (athinsp{sup 1}{Delta}) accounts for 24{percent} of the total NH yield in the direct photolysis but only 10{percent} in the photodissociation of 3{nu}{sub 1}. At 44thinsp440thinspcm{sup {minus}1}, the NH (athinsp{sup 1}{Delta}) yields are 65{percent} and 32{percent} in the single photon and two-step photodissociations, respectively. The variation in branching ratio may arise from dynamical behavior that is closely related to the preferential production of NCO in the photolysis of vibrationally excited HNCO. The initial vibrational excitation has no influence on the rotational and vibrational distributions of NH (Xthinsp{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup {minus}}), but it significantly increases the amount of energy in rotation of NH (athinsp{sup 1}{Delta}). These results, along with several recent experimental and theoretical studies, suggest the participation of at least three different potential energy surfaces in the photodissociation of isocyanic acid. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Singlet molecular oxygen ( sup 1. Delta. sub g O sub 2 ) formation upon irradiation of an oxygen ( sup 3. Sigma. sub g sup minus O sub 2 )-organic molecule charge-transfer absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R. )

    1989-07-13

    Singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}) phosphorescence ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}O{sub 2} {l arrow} {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}: 1270 nm) has been observed in a time-resolved experiment subsequent to pulsed UV laser irradiation of the oxygen ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}O{sub 2})-organic molecule charge-transfer bands of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons (mesitylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, benzene), ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, glyme, diglyme, triglyme), alcohols (methanol, propanol), and aliphatic hydrocarbons (cyclohexane, cyclooctane, decahydronaphthalene). Although {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} could originate from a variety of different processes in these oxygenated solvent systems, we have used the results of several independent experiments to indicate that an oxygen-solvent charge-transfer (CT) state is the {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} precursor. Other transient species have also been observed in time-resolved absorption experiments subsequent to pulsed UV irradiation of the oxygen-solvent CT bands. Some of these molecular transients, or species derived from these intermediates, may be responsible for an observed increase in the rate of {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} decay under certain conditions.

  7. Glacier-fed Irrigation Systems in upper Hunza: Evolution and Limitations of socio-hydrological Interactions in the Karakoram, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Sitara; Winiger, Matthias; Schmidt, Susanne; Nüsser, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Unlike other Himalayan regions, where glacier retreat dominates, glaciers in the upper Indus catchment are characterised by an overall increase of total snow and ice volumes with significant regional differences. However, there are many cases where glacier termini are in retreat and where ablation reduces glacier surfaces, often resulting in the desiccation of irrigation channels across lateral moraines. The question of how glacial dynamics affect the livelihoods of mountain communities living in close proximity to these ice bodies has been largely neglected. Local irrigation systems in high mountain regions are unique examples of socio-hydrological interactions, which are characterised by an interplay of site-specific glacio-hydrological conditions, socio-economic development, institutional arrangements and external development interventions. Reliable crop production requires constant and sufficient melt-water supply from glaciers and snowfields. Based on three case studies, this study describes and analyzes the structure and dynamics of irrigation systems in upper Hunza, located in the western Karakoram, Pakistan. In these deeply incised and arid valleys, glacier and snow melt-water are the primary water sources for agricultural production. The study shows how glacio-fluvial dynamics impact upon irrigation systems and land-use practices, and how in turn, local communities adapt to these changing conditions: framed here as coupled socio-hydrological interactions. A combined methodological approach, including field observations, interviews, mapping and remote sensing analysis, was used to trace historical and recent changes of irrigation networks and land-use patterns.

  8. Generating Light from Upper Excited Triplet States: A Contribution to the Indirect Singlet Yield of a Polymer OLED, Helping to Exceed the 25% Singlet Exciton Limit

    PubMed Central

    Jankus, Vygintas; Aydemir, Murat; Dias, Fernando B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which light is generated in an organic light emitting diode have slowly been elucidated over the last ten years. The role of triplet annihilation has demonstrated how the “spin statistical limit” can be surpassed, but it cannot account for all light produced in the most efficient devices. Here, a further mechanism is demonstrated by which upper excited triplet states can also contribute to indirect singlet production and delayed fluorescence. Since in a device the population of these TN states is large, this indirect radiative decay channel can contribute a sizeable fraction of the total emission measured from a device. The role of intra‐ and interchain charge transfer states is critical in underpinning this mechanism. PMID:27610333

  9. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  10. Interaction of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and depsipeptide on antineoplastic activity and activation of 14-3-3sigma, E-cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 expression in human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Jacynthe; Shaker, Sepideh; Primeau, Mélanie; Hurtubise, Annie; Momparler, Richard L

    2003-03-01

    Genes that suppress tumorigenesis can be silenced by epigenetic events, such as aberrant DNA methylation and modification of chromatin structure. Inhibitors of DNA methylase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) can potentially reverse these events. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antineoplastic activity of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR), a potent inhibitor of DNA methylase, in combination with depsipeptide (depsi), an inhibitor of HDAC, on human breast carcinoma cells. We observed a synergistic antineoplastic interaction between 5-AZA-CdR and depsi in their capacity to inhibit colony formation of Hs578T and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of this interaction, we investigated the effect of these drugs on the activation of the 14-3-3sigma, E-cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) cancer-related genes, which were reported to be silenced by aberrant methylation in many breast tumor cell lines. 14-3-3sigma was reported to produce G cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. E-cadherin and TIMP3 function as suppressors of tumor metastasis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the effect of the co-administration of 5-AZA-CdR and depsi on four breast carcinoma cell lines for the reactivation of these genes. We observed a synergistic activation of E-cadherin by the combination in Hs578T, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 tumor cells. For 14-3-3sigma, we demonstrated an additive to synergistic activation by the combination for Hs578T and MDA-MB-435 tumor cells, respectively. In the MCF-7 tumor cells, the drug combination produced a synergistic activation of TIMP3. The association between the synergistic antineoplastic activity and the synergistic activation of the target genes in this study suggests that the mechanism of anticancer activity of 5-AZA-CdR, in combination with depsi, is probably related to their enhanced activation of different types of tumor suppressor genes that have been

  11. Spectroscopic evidence for the formation of singlet molecular oxygen (/sup 1/. delta. /sub g/O/sub 2/) upon irradiation of a solvent-oxygen (/sup 3/Sigma/sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) cooperative absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R.

    1988-01-20

    It is well-known that the presence of molecular oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) in a variety of organic solvents causes an often substantial red shift in the solvent absorption spectrum. This extra, broad absorption feature is reversibly removed by purging the solvent with nitrogen gas. Mulliken and Tsubomura assigned the oxygen-dependent absorption band to a transition from a ground state solvent-oxygen complex to a solvent-oxygen charge transfer (CT) state (sol/sup .+/O/sub 2//sup .-/). In addition to the broad Mulliken CT band, there are, often in the same spectral region, distinct singlet-triplet transitions (T/sub 1/ reverse arrow S/sub 0/) which are enhanced by molecular oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/). Since both of these solvent-oxygen cooperative transitions may result in the formation of reactive oxygenating species, singlet molecular oxygen (/sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/) and/or the superoxide ion (O/sub 2//sup .-/), it follows that recent studies have focused on unsaturated hydrocarbon oxygenation subsequent to the irradiation of the oxygen-induced absorption bands in both the solution phase and cryogenic (10 K) glasses. In these particular experiments, oxygenated products characteristic of both /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2//sub .-/ were obtained, although the systems studied appeared to involve the participation of one intermediate at the exclusion of the other. In this communication, the authors provide, for the first time, direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2/ following a solvent-oxygen (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/O/sub 2/) cooperative absorption. They have observed, in a time-resolved experiment, a near-IR luminescence subsequent to laser excitation of the oxygen-induced absorption bands of mesitylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, and benzene at 355 nm and 1,4-dioxane at 266 nm. They suggest that this signal is due to /sup 1/..delta../sub g/O/sub 2

  12. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination. PMID:16517345

  13. Pauli-limited upper critical field of Fe1+yTe1-xSex

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Hechang; Hu, Rongwei; Choi, E. S.; Warren, J. B.; Petrovic, Cedomir

    2010-03-22

    In this work, we investigated the temperature dependence of the upper critical field μ0Hc2(T) of Fe1.02(3)Te0.61(4)Se0.39(4) and Fe1.05(3)Te0.89(2)Se0.11(2) single crystals by measuring the magnetotransport properties in stable dc magnetic fields up to 35 T. Both crystals show that μ0Hc2(T) in the ab plane and along the c-axis exhibit saturation at low temperatures. The anisotropy of μ0Hc2(T) decreases with decreasing temperature, becoming nearly isotropic when the temperature T→0. Furthermore, μ0Hc2(0) deviates from the conventional Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theoretical prediction values for both field directions. Our analysis indicates that the spin-paramagnetic pair-breaking effect is responsible for the temperature-dependent behavior of μ0Hc2(T) in both field directions.

  14. TWO UPPER LIMITS ON THE ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN EFFECT, WITH DIFFERING IMPLICATIONS: WASP-1 HAS A HIGH OBLIQUITY AND WASP-2 IS INDETERMINATE

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Hirano, Teruyuki; Johnson, John Asher; Paul Butler, R.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Enya, Keigo; Fischer, Debra

    2011-09-01

    We present precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements of WASP-1 and WASP-2 throughout transits of their giant planets. Our goal was to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, the anomalous RV observed during eclipses of rotating stars, which can be used to study the obliquities of planet-hosting stars. For WASP-1, a weak signal of a prograde orbit was detected with {approx}2{sigma} confidence, and for WASP-2 no signal was detected. The resulting upper bounds on the RM amplitude have different implications for these two systems because of the contrasting transit geometries and the stellar types. Because WASP-1 is an F7V star, and such stars are typically rapid rotators, the most probable reason for the suppression of the RM effect is that the star is viewed nearly pole-on. This implies that the WASP-1 star has a high obliquity with respect to the edge-on planetary orbit. Because WASP-2 is a K1V star, and is expected to be a slow rotator, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the stellar obliquity. Our data and our analysis contradict an earlier claim that WASP-2b has a retrograde orbit, thereby revoking this system's status as an exception to the pattern that cool stars have low obliquities.

  15. ACCURATE LABORATORY WAVELENGTHS OF THE e {sup 3} {Sigma}{sup -}({nu}' = 5) - X {sup 1} {Sigma}{sup +}({nu}'' = 0) BAND OF {sup 12}C{sup 16}O

    SciTech Connect

    Dickenson, G. D.; Nortje, A. C.; Steenkamp, C. M.; Rohwer, E. G.; Du Plessis, A.

    2010-05-10

    The forbidden singlet-triplet transitions of carbon monoxide (CO) are important in the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet interstellar absorption spectra and in particular for the measurement of large CO column densities. Twenty rovibronic lines of the e {sup 3}{Sigma}-({nu}' = 5) - X {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}({nu}'' = 0) band of {sup 12} C {sup 16}O for which laboratory wavelengths were previously unavailable were identified in laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra. Wavelengths were assigned to five rovibronic transitions to an average accuracy of 0.0028 A. A further 15 lines could not be fully resolved and average wavelengths were measured for these groups of closely spaced lines. A wavelength difference of 0.011 {+-} 0.0028 A between the measured wavelengths and the calculated wavelengths in the atlas of Eidelsberg and Rostas demonstrates the need for more experimental data on CO.

  16. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on MSSM Higgs boson production in tau-tau final states with up to 2.2 fb-1

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Doug; Herndon, Matt; James, Eric; Junk, Tom; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Weiming; Davies, Gavin; Hays, Jonathan; Adams, Todd; Verdier, Patrice; Fisher, Wade

    2010-03-01

    Combined results are presented on the search for a neutral Higgs boson in the di-tau final state using 1.8 fb{sup -1} and 2.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at the CDF and D0 experiments respectively. Data were collected in p{bar p} collisions at a centre of mass energy of 1.96 TeV during RunII of the Tevatron. Limits are set on the cross section x branching ratio ranging from 13.6 pb to 0.653 pb for Higgs masses from 90 GeV to 200 GeV respectively. The results are then interpreted as limits in four different benchmark scenarios within the framework of the MSSM.

  17. At the edge of the thermal window: effects of elevated temperature on the resting metabolism, hypoxia tolerance and upper critical thermal limit of a widespread African cichlid

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Laura H.; Chapman, Lauren J.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical inland fishes are predicted to be especially vulnerable to thermal stress because they experience small temperature fluctuations that may select for narrow thermal windows. In this study, we measured resting metabolic rate (RMR), critical oxygen tension (Pcrit) and critical thermal maximum (CTMax) of the widespread African cichlid (Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae) in response to short-term acclimation to temperatures within and above their natural thermal range. Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor collected in Lake Kayanja, Uganda, a population living near the upper thermal range of the species, were acclimated to 23, 26, 29 and 32°C for 3 days directly after capture, and RMR and Pcrit were then quantified. In a second group of P. multicolor from the same population, CTMax and the thermal onset of agitation were determined for fish acclimated to 26, 29 and 32°C for 7 days. Both RMR and Pcrit were significantly higher in fish acclimated to 32°C, indicating decreased tolerance to hypoxia and increased metabolic requirements at temperatures only slightly (∼1°C) above their natural thermal range. The CTMax increased with acclimation temperature, indicating some degree of thermal compensation induced by short-term exposure to higher temperatures. However, agitation temperature (likely to represent an avoidance response to increased temperature during CTMax trials) showed no increase with acclimation temperature. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that P. multicolor is able to maintain its RMR and Pcrit across the range of temperatures characteristic of its natural habitat, but incurs a higher cost of resting metabolism and reduced hypoxia tolerance at temperatures slightly above its present range. PMID:27293734

  18. The application scope of the reductive perturbation method and the upper limit of the dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan; Yang, Lei; Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000

    2014-01-15

    The dust acoustic solitary waves have been numerically investigated by using one dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell method. By comparing the numerical results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is found that there exist the maximum dimensionless amplitude and propagation speed of the dust acoustic solitary wave. And these limitations of the solitary wave are explained by using the Sagdeev potential technique. Furthermore, it is noticed that although ϵ ≪ 1 is required in the reductive perturbation method generally, the reductive perturbation method is also valid for ϵ < 1 in a dusty plasma, which may be extended to branches where the reductive perturbation method is used.

  19. Water purification and the incidence of fractures in patients receiving home haemodialysis supervised by a single centre: evidence for "safe" upper limit of aluminium in water.

    PubMed Central

    Platts, M M; Owen, G; Smith, S

    1984-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1980 fractures occurred in 56 of 284 patients treated by home haemodialysis in the Sheffield area for longer than one year. Patients sustained four times as many fractures while using dialysate prepared with water containing more than 1.0 mumol aluminium per 1 (2.7 micrograms/100 ml) than while using water containing a smaller concentration. When aluminium was removed from water by deionisation the incidence of fractures diminished during the next year and no patient developed dialysis encephalopathy. These findings show that 1.0 mumol/l is a safe maximum concentration of aluminium in water for use in home haemodialysis. It can be detected by the colorimetric aluminium analyses used by many water authorities. When financial resources are limited it is expedient to reserve aluminium analyses by electrothermal atomic absorption for plasma from patients receiving regular haemodialysis. Ingestion of aluminium hydroxide contributes significantly to the increased plasma aluminium concentration of these patients. PMID:6423163

  20. Effect of acclimation temperature on the upper thermal tolerance of Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus: thermal limits of a North American salmonid.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Z E; Myrick, C A; Rogers, K B

    2012-06-01

    In an effort to explore the thermal limitations of Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, the critical thermal maxima (T(cmax) ) of 1+ year Lake Nanita strain O. c. pleuriticus were evaluated when acclimated to 10, 15 and 20° C. The mean ±s.d.T(cmax) for O. c. pleuriticus acclimated to 10° C was 24·6 ± 2·0°C (n = 30), for 15° C-acclimated fish was 26·9 ± 1·5° C (n = 23) and for 20° C-acclimated fish was 29·4 ± 1·1° C (n = 28); these results showed a marked thermal acclimation effect (Q₁₀ = 1·20). Interestingly, there was a size effect within treatments, wherein the T(cmax) of larger fish was significantly lower than that of smaller fish acclimated to the same temperature. The critical thermal tolerances of age 0 year O. c. pleuriticus were also evaluated from three separate populations: Lake Nanita, Trapper Creek and Carr Creek reared under 'common-garden' conditions prior to thermal acclimation. The Trapper Creek population had significantly warmer T(cmax) than the Lake Nanita population, but that of the Carr Creek fish had T(cmax) similar to both Trapper Creek and Lake Nanita fish. A comparison of these O. c. pleuriticus T(cmax) results with those of other stream-dwelling salmonids suggested that O. c. pleuriticus are less resistant to rapid thermal fluctuations when acclimated to cold temperatures, but can tolerate similar temperatures when acclimated to warmer temperatures. PMID:22650425

  1. A search for interstellar CH3D: Limits to the methane abundance in Orion-KL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Apponi, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A search has been performed for interstellar CH3D via its J(K) = 1(0) - 0(0) transition at 230 GHz and its J(K) = 2(0) - l(0) and J(K) = 2(1) - 1(1) lines at 465 GHz using the NRAO 12 m and CSO 10 m telescopes towards Orion-KL. This search was done in conjunction with laboratory measurements of all three transitions of CH3D using mm/sub-mm direct absorption spectroscopy. The molecule was not detected down to a 3 sigma level of T(A) less than 0.05 K towards Orion, which suggests an upper limit to the CH3D column density of N less than 6 x 10(exp 18)/sq cm in the hot core region and a fractional abundance (with respect to H2) of less than 6 x 10(exp -6). These measurements suggest that the methane abundance in the Orion hot core is f less than 6 x 10-4, assuming D/H approximately 0.01. Such findings are in agreement with recent hot core chemical models, which suggest CH4/H2 approximately 10(exp -4).

  2. Observation of Vibrational Relaxation Dynamics in X(sup 3)Sigma(sup -)(sub g) Oxygen Following Stimulated Raman Excitation to the v=1 Level: Implications for the RELIEF Flow Tagging Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Glenn S.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.

    1996-01-01

    The vibrational relaxation of ground-state molecular oxygen (O2, X(sup 3)Sigma(sup -)(sub g)) has been observed, following stimulated Raman excitation to the first excited vibrational level (v=1). Time delayed laser-induced fluorescence probing of the ro-vibrational population distribution was used to examine the temporal relaxation behavior. In the presence of water vapor, the relaxation process is rapid, and is dominated by near-resonant vibrational energy exchange between the v=1 level of O2 and the n2 bending mode of H2O. In the absence of H2O, reequilibration proceeds via homogeneous vibrational energy transfer, in which a collision between two v=1 O2 molecules leaves one molecule in the v=2 state and the other in the v=0 state. Subsequent collisions between molecules in v=1 and v>1 result in continued transfer of population up the vibrational ladder. The implications of these results for the RELIEF flow tagging technique are discussed.

  3. The sulfur depletion problem: upper limits on the H2S2, HS·2, and S2 gas-phase abundances toward the low-mass warm core IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Occhiogrosso, A.; Testi, L.; Woods, P. M.; Viti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. A fraction of the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar regions could be in the form of three species not yet detected in the interstellar medium: H2S2, HS.2, and S2 according to experimental simulations performed under astrophysically relevant conditions. These S-S bonded molecules can be formed by the energetic processing of H2S-bearing ice mantles on dust grains, and subsequently desorb to the gas phase. Aims: The detection of these species could partially solve the sulfur depletion problem, and would help to improve our knowledge of the poorly known chemistry of sulfur in the interstellar medium. To this purpose we calculated the frequencies and expected intensities of the rotational transitions not previously reported, and performed dedicated ground-based observations toward the low-mass warm core IRAS 16293-2422, a region with one of the highest measured gas-phase H2S abundances. Methods: Observations in the submillimeter regime were obtained with the APEX 12 m telescope during 15 h of observation. A total of ~16 GHz were covered in a range of about 100 GHz, targeting a wide selection of the predicted rotational transitions of the three molecules. Results: The 1σ noise rms values were extracted in the spectral regions where the targeted species should have been detected. These values were a factor of 2-7 lower than those reached by previous observations toward the same source, and allowed us to estimate a 1σ upper limit to their molecular abundances of ≤8.1 × 10-9, ≤ 1.1 × 10-8, and ≤ 2.9 × 10-7 relative to H2, for H2S 2 , HS.2, and S2, respectively. Conclusions: The upper limit abundances of the three molecules containing the S2 unit are up to two orders of magnitude lower than the H2S abundance in the source, and one order of magnitude lower than the expected abundances from the experimental simulations using ice analogs. Subsequent gas-phase chemistry after desorption could lower the abundances of the three species to

  4. Upper ministernotomy.

    PubMed

    Reser, Diana; Holubec, Tomas; Scherman, Jacques; Yilmaz, Murat; Guidotti, Andrea; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    During the past 50 years, median sternotomy has been the gold standard approach in cardiac surgery with excellent long-term outcomes. However, since the 1990 s, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has gained wide acceptance due to patient and economic demand. The advantages include less surgical trauma, less bleeding, less wound infections, less pain and faster recovery of the patients. One of these MICS approaches is the J-shaped upper ministernotomy which results in favourable long-term outcomes even in elderly and redo patients when compared with conventional sternotomy. Owing to its similarity to a full midline sternotomy, it has become the most popular MICS approach besides a mini-thoracotomy. It is a safe and feasible access, but certain recognized principles are mandatory to minimize complications. After identification of the landmarks, the 5-cm skin incision is performed in the midline between the second and fourth rib. The third or fourth right intercostal space is located and dissected laterally off the sternum. After osteotomy, the pericardium is pulled up with stay sutures which allow excellent exposure. The surgical procedures are performed in a standard fashion with central cannulation. Continuous CO2 insufflation is used to minimize the risk of air embolism. Epicardial pacing wires are placed before the removal of the aortic cross-clamp and one chest tube is used. Sternal closure is achieved with three to five stainless steel wires. The pectoral muscle, subcutaneous tissue and skin are adapted with resorbable running sutures. When performed properly, complications are rare (conversion, bleeding and wound infection) and well manageable. PMID:26530961

  5. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on $gg\\to H\\to W^+W^-$ and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Doug; /Tufts U.

    2011-08-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and gg {yields} H {yields} ZZ in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.01 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.

  6. Systematics and limit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.

  7. Existence of vortices in a self-dual gauged linear sigma model and its singular limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkwon

    2006-03-01

    We study rigorously the static (2 + 1)D gauged linear sigma model introduced by Schroers. Analysing the governing system of partial differential equations, we show the existence of energy finite vortices under the partially broken symmetry on R2 with some conditions consistent with the necessary conditions given by Yang. Also, with a special choice of representation, we show that the gauged O(3) sigma model is a singular limit of the gauged linear sigma model.

  8. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  9. Differential Cross Sections for the Electron Impact Excitation of the A(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup +), B(sup 3)Pi(sub g), W(sup 3)(Delta)(sub u), B'(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup -), a'(sup 1)Sigma(sub u)(sup -), a(sup 1)Pi(sub g), w(sup 1)Delta(sub u), and C(sup 3)Pi(sub u) States of N(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Johnson, P. V.; Ozkay, I.; Yan, P.; Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of differential cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of molecular nitrogen from the ground X(sup 1)(Sigma)(sub g)(sup +)(v''=0)level to the A(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup +)(v'), B(sup 3)Pi(sub g)(v'), W(sup 3)(Delta)(sub u)(v'),B'(sup 3)(Sigma)(sub u)(sup -)(v'), a(sup 1)(Pi)(sub g)(v'), w(sup 1)(Delta)(sub u)(v'), and C(sup 3)(Pi)(sub u)(v') levels are presented. The data are obtained at the incident energies of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 30, 50, and 100 eV over the angular range of 5(deg)-130(deg) in 5(deg) intervals. The individual electronic state excitation differential cross sections are obtained by unfolding electron energy-loss spectra of molecular nitrogen using available semiempirical Frank-Condon factors. The data are compared to previous measurements and to available theory. We also make several important suggestions regarding future work that, like the present, relies on the unfolding of electron energy-loss spectra for obtaining differential cross sections.

  10. Upper airway test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An upper airway biopsy is obtained by using a flexible scope called a bronchoscope. The scope is passed down through ... may be performed when an abnormality of the upper airway is suspected. It may also be performed as ...

  11. Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.

  12. Pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Odgren, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal examinations are common procedures in many radiology departments. Performing this examination on pediatric patients requires understanding the formation of the gastrointestinal tract and the various disease processes and anatomical variances that can occur. The examination also requires a thorough patient history. This article discusses embryologic development and anatomy of the small bowel and colon, disease processes and conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal tract examinations performed on the pediatric and neonatal patient. PMID:24806054

  13. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome. PMID:27105797

  14. Upper critical field of copper molybdenum sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical field of sintered and sputtered copper molybdenum sulfide Cu(x)Mo6S8 was measured and found to exceed the Werthamer, Helfand, and Hohenberg (1966) value for a type II superconductor characterized by dirty limit, weak isotropic electron phonon coupling, and no paramagnetic limiting. It is suggested that the enhancement results from anisotropy or clean limit or both. Other ternary molybdenum sulfides appear to show similar anomalies.

  15. Centaur upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groesbeck, W.

    An account is given of the design features of the LOX/LH2-fueled Centaur upper stage engine and fuel cryotankage, in order to serve as a basis for understanding the Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) system instituted. MECO follows the instant of spacecraft separation from the upper stage. The planetary launch program during 1966-1978 involved 23 Centaur launches and led to no upper stage reentry; LEO missions for HEAO and OAO satellite lofting in 1963-1979 involved nine Centaur launches and led to five reentries. GEO satellite launches in 1969-1986 saw 32 launches and three known reentries.

  16. Kinetics of O{sub 2}({sup 1{Sigma}}) formation in the reaction O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) + O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) {yields} O{sub 2}({sup 1{Sigma}}) + O{sub 2}({sup 3{Sigma}})

    SciTech Connect

    Zagidullin, M V; Khvatov, N A; Nyagashkin, A Yu

    2011-02-28

    The dependence of the ratio of specific powers of dimole radiation of singlet oxygen in the 634 nm band and in the b - X band of the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Sigma}}) molecule in the O{sub 2}(X) - O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) - O{sub 2}({sup 1{Sigma}}) - H{sub 2}O - CO{sub 2} mixture on the CO{sub 2} concentration is measured. As a result, the rate constant of the reaction O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) + O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) {yields} O{sub 2}({sup 1{Sigma}}) + O{sub 2}({sup 3{Sigma}}) at the temperature {approx}330 K is found to equal (4.5 {+-} 1.1) 10{sup -17} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. (active media)

  17. X-ray astrophysics: Constraining thermal conductivity in intracluster gas in clusters of galaxies and placing limits on progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Brock Richard

    X-ray astrophysics provides a great many opportunities to study astronomical structures with large energies or high temperatures. This dissertation will describe two such applications: the use of Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) data to analyze the interaction between a supernova shock and the circumstellar medium, and the use of a straightforward computer simulation to model the dynamics of intracluster gas in clusters of galaxies and constrain the thermal conduction coefficient. Stars emit stellar wind at varying rates throughout their lifetimes. This wind populates the circumstellar medium (CSM) with gas. When the supernova explodes, the shock wave propogates outward through this CSM and heats it to X-ray emitting temperatures. By analyzing X-ray observations of the immediate post-supernova environment, we are able to determine whether any significant CSM is present. By stacking a large number of Swift observations of SNe Ia, we increase the sensitivity. We find no X-rays, with an upper limit of 1.7 x 1038 erg s-1 and a 3 sigma upper limit on the mass loss rate of progenitor systems 1.1 x 10-6 solar masses per year x (vw)/(10 km s -1). This low upper limit precludes a massive progenitor as the binary companion in the supernova progenitor system, unless that star is in Roche lobe overflow. The hot Intracluster Medium (ICM) is composed of tenuous gas which is gravitationally-bound to the cluster of galaxies. This gas is not initially of uniform temperature, and experiences thermal conduction while maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium. However, magnetic field lines present in the ionized gas inhibit the full thermal conduction. In this dissertation, we present the results of a new one-dimensional simulation that models this conduction (and includes cooling while maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium). By comparing the results of this model with the observed gas temperature profiles and recent accurate constraints on the scatter of the gas fraction, we are able to constrain

  18. The upper atmosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Yelle, Roger V.; Shemansky, Donald E.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager measurements of the upper atmosphere of Uranus are analyzed and developed. The upper atmosphere of Uranus is predominantly H2, with at most 10 percent He by volume, and the dominant constituent of the exosphere is H. The thermosphere is warm, with an asymptotic isothermal temperature of about 800 K. Atomic hydrogen at this temperature forms an extensive thermal corona and creates gas drag that severely limits the lifetime of small ring particles. The upper atmosphere emits copious amounts of UV radiation from pressures greater than 0.01 microbar. The depth of this emission level imposes a powerful constraint on permissible emission mechanisms. Electron excitation from a thin layer near the exobase appears to violate this constraint. Solar fluorescence is consistent with the observed trend in solar zenith-angle variation of the emissions and is absent from the night side of the planet. On Uranus, it accounts for the observed Lyman beta to H2 bands intensity ratio and an important fraction of the observed intensity (about 55 percent).

  19. Upper GI Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disclaimer Diagnostic Tests Upper GI Endoscopy Print or Order Publications Information on this topic is also available ... GI Endoscopy (PDF, 381 KB)​ You can also order print versions from our online catalog. ​​ Additional Links ​ ...

  20. Upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  1. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  2. Current systems: Upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States orbital transfer vehicles are presented: PAM-D (Payload Assist Module); PAM-D2; IUS (Inertial Upper Stage); and TOS (Transfer Orbit Stage). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  3. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  4. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  5. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Gabriela Mabel; Prost, Angela Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is complicated because the eyelid must retain mobility, flexibility, function, and a suitable mucosal surface over the delicate cornea. Defects of the upper eyelid may be due to congenital defects or traumatic injury or follow oncologic resection. This article focuses on reconstruction due to loss of tissue. Multiple surgeries may be needed to reach the desired results, addressing loss of tissue and then loss of function. Each defect is unique and the laxity and availability of surrounding tissue vary. Knowing the most common techniques for repair assists surgeons in the multifaceted planning that takes place. PMID:27105803

  6. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Irfan-Ur; Saeian, Kia

    2016-04-01

    In the intensive care unit, vigilance is needed to manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A focused history and physical examination must be completed to identify inciting factors and the need for hemodynamic stabilization. Although not universally used, risk stratification tools such as the Blatchford and Rockall scores can facilitate triage and management. Urgent evaluation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds requires prompt respiratory assessment, and identification of hemodynamic instability with fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions if necessary. Future studies are needed to evaluate the indication, safety, and efficacy of emerging endoscopic techniques. PMID:27016164

  7. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  8. The statistical upper mantle assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Anderson, Don L.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in modern mantle geochemistry is to link geochemical data with geological and geophysical observations. Most of the early geochemical models involved a layered mantle and the concept of geochemical reservoirs. Indeed, the two layer mantle model has been implicit in almost all geochemical literature and the provenance of oceanic island basalt (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) [van Keken et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 30 (2002) 493-525]. Large-scale regions in the mantle, such as the 'convective' (i.e. well-stirred, homogeneous) upper mantle, sub-continental lithosphere, and the lower mantle were treated as distinct and accessible geochemical reservoirs. Here we discuss evidence for a ubiquitous distribution of small- to moderate-scale (i.e. 10 2-10 5 m) heterogeneity in the upper mantle, which we refer to as the statistical upper mantle assemblage (SUMA). This heterogeneity forms as the result of long-term plate tectonic recycling of sedimentary and crustal components. The SUMA model does not require a convectively homogenized MORB mantle reservoir, which has become a frequently used concept in geochemistry. Recently, Kellogg et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 204 (2002) 183-202] modeled MORB and OIB Sr and Nd isotopic compositions as local mantle averages of random distributions of depleted residues and recycled continental crustal material. In this model, homogenization of the MORB source region is achieved by convective stirring and mixing. In contrast, in the SUMA model, the isotopic compositions of MORB and OIB are the outcome of homogenization during sampling, by partial melting and magma mixing (e.g. [Helffrich and Wood, Nature 412 (2001) 501-507]), of a distribution of small- to moderate-scale upper mantle heterogeneity, as predicted by the central limit theorem. Thus, the 'SUMA' acronym also captures what we consider the primary homogenization process: sampling upon melting and averaging. SUMA does not require the

  9. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Lobo, Alan J

    2015-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered medical emergency with an incidence of 84-160/100000 and associated with mortality of approximately 10%. Guidelines from the National Institute for Care and Care Excellence outline key features in the management of AUGIB. Patients require prompt resuscitation and risk assessment using validated tools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy provides accurate diagnosis, aids in estimating prognosis and allows therapeutic intervention. Endoscopy should be undertaken immediately after resuscitation in unstable patients and within 24 hours in all other patients. Interventional radiology may be required for bleeding unresponsive to endoscopic intervention. Drug therapy depends on the cause of bleeding. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors should be used in patients with high-risk ulcers. Terlipressin and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used following variceal haemorrhage. Hospitals admitting patients with AUGIB need to provide well organised services and ensure access to relevant services for all patients, and particularly to out of hours endoscopy. PMID:26430191

  10. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  11. 8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, ONE DIAGONAL BRACE - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  12. 7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. UPPER INSIDE CHORD, VERTICAL, LATERAL STRUT, UPPER LATERAL & GUSSET PLATE, TWO DIAGONAL BRACES - Enterprise Parker Truss Bridge, Spanning Smoky Hill River on K-43 Highway, Enterprise, Dickinson County, KS

  13. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  14. Re-examining the upper limit of temporal pitch.

    PubMed

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P

    2014-12-01

    Five normally hearing listeners pitch-ranked harmonic complexes of different fundamental frequencies (F0s) filtered in three different frequency regions. Harmonics were summed either in sine, alternating sine-cosine (ALT), or pulse-spreading (PSHC) phase. The envelopes of ALT and PSHC complexes repeated at rates of 2F0 and 4F0. Pitch corresponded to those rates at low F0s, but, as F0 increased, there was a range of F0s over which pitch remained constant or dropped. Gammatone-filterbank simulations showed that, as F0 increased and the number of harmonics interacting in a filter dropped, the output of that filter switched from repeating at 2F0 or 4F0 to repeating at F0. A model incorporating this phenomenon accounted well for the data, except for complexes filtered into the highest frequency region (7800-10 800 Hz). To account for the data in that region it was necessary to assume either that auditory filters at very high frequencies are sharper than traditionally believed, and/or that the auditory system applies smaller weights to filters whose outputs repeat at high rates. The results also provide evidence on the highest pitch that can be derived from purely temporal cues, and corroborate recent reports that a complex pitch can be derived from very-high-frequency resolved harmonics. PMID:25480066

  15. EVLA Radio Upper Limits for Nova V5588 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, M. I.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Rupen, M. P.; Mioduszewski, A. J.; Roy, N.; O'Brien, T. J.; Bode, M. F.; Eyres, S. P. S.

    2011-05-01

    The EVLA Nova Team has observed the classical nova V5588 Sgr (IAUC #9203, CBET #2707) with the EVLA on 2011 April 21.5, April 30.3, and May 1.3, corresponding to 24.6, 33.4, and 34.4 days after its discovery. These observations are part of an ongoing monitoring effort. The last two observations bracket an episode of re-brightening reported in optical observations (CBET #2707; see also the AAVSO Light Curve Generator). All observations yield non-detections, as enumerated in the table below.

  16. VLA radio upper limit on Type IIn Supernova 2008S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Poonam; Soderberg, Alicia

    2008-02-01

    Poonam Chandra and Alicia Soderberg report on behalf of a larger collaboration: We observed type IIn supernova SN 2008S (CBET 1234) with the Very Large Array (VLA) on 2008, February 10.62 UT. We do not detect any radio emission at the supernova position (CBET 1234). The flux density at the supernova position is -62 +/- 36 uJy.

  17. VLA radio upper limit on Type IIn Supernova 2007pk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Poonam; Soderberg, Alicia

    2007-11-01

    Poonam Chandra and Alicia Soderberg report on behalf of a larger collaboration: We observed Type IIn supernova SN 2007pk (CBET 1129) with the VLA in 8.46 GHz band on 2007, November 12.20 UT, 1.89 days since discovery (CBET 1129). We do not detect radio emission from the SN position (CBET 1129). The flux density at the SN position is 11 +/-26 uJy.

  18. First upper limits from LIGO on gravitational wave bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barker-Patton, C.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bland-Weaver, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Brozek, S.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, R.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W.; Dupuis, R. J.; Ebeling, C.; Edlund, J.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Flanagan, E.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ingley, R.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Kloevekorn, P.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNamara, P.; Mendell, G.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Naundorf, H.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Papa, M. A.; Parameswariah, C.; Parameswariah, V.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Pratt, M.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schofield, R.; Schrempel, M.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Skeldon, K.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P.; Spero, R.; Stapfer, G.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.; Taylor, I.; Taylor, R.; Thorne, K. S.; Tibbits, M.; Tilav, S.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traeger, S.; Traylor, G.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Vallisneri, M.; van Putten, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wallace, L.; Walther, H.; Ward, H.; Ware, B.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weiland, U.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Welling, H.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, P. R.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Wilson, A.; Winjum, B. J.; Winkler, W.

    2004-05-01

    We report on a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the first science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors. Our search focuses on bursts with durations ranging from 4 to 100 ms, and with significant power in the LIGO sensitivity band of 150 to 3000 Hz. We bound the rate for such detected bursts at less than 1.6 events per day at a 90% confidence level. This result is interpreted in terms of the detection efficiency for ad hoc waveforms (Gaussians and sine Gaussians) as a function of their root-sum-square strain hrss; typical sensitivities lie in the range hrss˜10-19 10-17 strain/√(Hz), depending on the waveform. We discuss improvements in the search method that will be applied to future science data from LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Upper Limit to Black Smoker Temperatures Not Yet in Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2011-12-01

    The world's hottest-known black smoker vent field (Turtle Pits Field, 4°50'S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has previously been reported as showing transient venting temperatures up to 464°C (Koschinsky et al., 2008). The calculated Mg-free endmember fluid has low salinity (ca. 280 mM Cl) suggesting it is a separated vapour phase. This end-member chlorinity has remained constant over the period of 26 months during which samples were repeatedly collected. We present new data showing that venting at Turtle Pits has in fact reached measured exit temperatures of at least 524°C, that the measured temperature is related to where on the smoker samples are collected (with higher temperatures found near the base) and that sampling temperature and salinity are not correlated. These observations can be explained by a simple two-stage model consisting of (1) a stable, high-temperature vapour production region at depth and (2) a region of cooling of the vapours within the smoker structure at the seafloor by heat exchange with ambient seawater. Sub-seafloor vapour transport between these two regions must occur with negligible heat loss to the surrounding rock - deposition of high-temperature minerals (e.g., Cu-sulphides, anhydrite) may, however, occur. Future attempts to sample the vapour before heat exchange will demonstrate its true maximum temperature - there seems to be no a priori reason why it could not approach magmatic temperatures, however. From chemical and phase equilibrium constraints, the vapour production region must lie at pressures of >550 bars (the pressure at which a vapour of the measured salinity will be formed on the two-phase boundary at 524°C), in conflict with the 350 bars given by silica geobarometry of the fluids (Koschinsky et al., 2008). This discrepancy may be related to the absence of quartz in the reaction zone, the very high fluid temperatures (outside the 390-430°C validity region of the Si barometry calibration) or a lack of fluid/rock equilibrium resulting from high water/rock ratios and rapid fluid through-put. Ref.: Koschinsky, A. et al. (2008), Geology, 36, 615-618, doi: 10.1130/G24726A.1

  20. First upper limits from LIGO on gravitational wave bursts

    SciTech Connect

    B. Abbott et al.

    2004-03-09

    We report on a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the first science run of the LIGO detectors. Our search focuses on bursts with durations ranging from 4 ms to 100 ms, and with significant power in the LIGO sensitivity band of 150 to 3000 Hz. We bound the rate for such detected bursts at less than 1.6 events per day at 90% confidence level. This result is interpreted in terms of the detection efficiency for ad hoc waveforms (Gaussians and sine-Gaussians) as a function of their root-sum-square strain h{sub rss}; typical sensitivities lie in the range h{sub rss} {approx} 10{sup -19} - 10{sup -17} strain/{radical}Hz, depending on waveform. We discuss improvements in the search method that will be applied to future science data from LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors.

  1. Re-examining the upper limit of temporal pitch

    PubMed Central

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Five normally-hearing listeners pitch-ranked harmonic complexes of different fundamental frequencies (F0s) filtered in three different frequency regions. Harmonics were summed either in sine, alternating sine-cosine (ALT), or pulse-spreading (PSHC) phase. The envelopes of ALT and PSHC complexes repeated at rates of 2F0 and 4F0. Pitch corresponded to those rates at low F0s, but, as F0 increased, there was a range of F0s over which pitch remained constant or dropped. Gammatone-filterbank simulations showed that, as F0 increased and the number of harmonics interacting in a filter dropped, the output of that filter switched from repeating at 2F0 or 4F0 to repeating at F0. A model incorporating this phenomenon accounted well for the data, except for complexes filtered into the highest frequency region (7800-10800 Hz). To account for the data in that region it was necessary to assume either that auditory filters at very high frequencies are sharper than traditionally believed, and/or that the auditory system applies smaller weights to filters whose outputs repeat at high rates. The results also provide new evidence on the highest pitch that can be derived from purely temporal cues, and corroborate recent reports that a complex pitch can be derived from very-high-frequency resolved harmonics. PMID:25480066

  2. Upper limits of possible photochemical hazes on Pluto

    SciTech Connect

    Stansberry, J.A.; Lunine, J.I.; Tomasko, M.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Elliot et al. (1989) invoked a haze layer near the surface of Pluto to explain certain features of a stellar occultation by that planet in June, 1988. The primary requirements for this haze layer were that it achieve unity tangential optical depth at a radius of 1174 km and be essentially transparent above 1189 km. The authors explore here the possibility that aerosols generated through methane photolysis could be responsible for such a haze layer. A comprehensive model of aerosol production, particle growth, sedimentation and condensation is applied to the atmosphere of Pluto using pressures, temperatures and composition derived from the stellar occultation and other data. They test two atmosphere models proposed in the literature, one from Elliot et al. (1989), and one from Hubbard et al. (1989), as well as a range of optical properties for the particles. In order to produce a haze with unity tangential optical depth at 1174 km, they had to use an aerosol mass production rate equal to twice the total methane dissociation rate due to solar UV expected for Pluto and assume that the particles produced were 10 times more absorbing than those in other hazes in the outer solar system. The possibility of condensation in the atmosphere was considered but did not result in distinctly different haze optical depths. If a photochemical haze on Pluto was responsible for the occultation lightcurve measured by Elliot et al., operation of a photochemical system different from those on Titan, Uranus or Neptune is indicated.

  3. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Lastovicka, J.; Roble, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases warm the troposphere but have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. The steady increase of CO2 is the dominant cause of upper atmosphere trends. Long-term changes of other radiatively active trace gases such as CH4, O3, and H2O, long-term changes of geomagnetic and solar activity, and other possible drivers also play a role. Observational and model studies have confirmed that in the past several decades, global cooling has occurred in the mesosphere and thermosphere; the cooling and contraction of the upper atmosphere has lowered the ionosphere, increased electron density in the lower ionosphere, but slightly decreased electron density in the upper ionosphere. Limited observations have suggested long-term changes in the occurrence rate of major stratospheric warming, mesosphere and lower thermosphere dynamics, wave activities and turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and occurrence of noctilucent clouds or polar mesospheric clouds. However, possible long-term changes of these parameters remain to be open questions due to lack of measurements. We will review recent progress in observations and simulations of global change in the upper atmosphere, and discuss future investigations with a focus on how measurements by commercial reusable suborbital vehicles can help resolve the open questions.

  4. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  5. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Strohl, Kingman P.; Butler, James P.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the upper airway (nose, pharynx, and larynx) in health and in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea, asthma, and other airway diseases, discussed elsewhere in the Comprehensive Physiology series, prompts this review of the biomechanical properties and functional aspects of the upper airway. There is a literature based on anatomic or structural descriptions in static circumstances, albeit studied in limited numbers of individuals in both health and disease. As for dynamic features, the literature is limited to studies of pressure and flow through all or parts of the upper airway and to the effects of muscle activation on such features; however, the links between structure and function through airway size, shape, and compliance remain a topic that is completely open for investigation, particularly through analyses using concepts of fluid and structural mechanics. Throughout are included both historically seminal references, as well as those serving as signposts or updated reviews. This article should be considered a resource for concepts needed for the application of biomechanical models of upper airway physiology, applicable to understanding the pathophysiology of disease and anticipated results of treatment interventions. PMID:23723026

  6. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  7. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  8. NEW LIMITS ON AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN OMEGA CENTAURI. II. DYNAMICAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Anderson, Jay

    2010-02-20

    strongly constrain the mass of any possible IMBH. The overall end result of the modeling is an upper limit to the mass of any possible IMBH in omega Centauri: M{sub BH} {approx}< 1.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} at {approx}1sigma confidence (or {approx}<1.8 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} at {approx}3sigma confidence). The 1sigma limit corresponds to M{sub BH}/M{sub tot} {approx}< 0.43%. We combine this with results for other clusters and discuss the implications for globular cluster IMBH demographics. Tighter limits will be needed to rule out or establish whether globular clusters follow the same black hole demographics correlations as galaxies. The arguments put forward by Noyola et al. to suspect an IMBH in omega Centauri are not confirmed by our study; the value of M{sub BH} they suggested is firmly ruled out.

  9. Upper extremity myoelectric prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Uellendahl, J E

    2000-08-01

    Myoelectric control of upper limb prostheses has proven to be an effective and efficient means of controlling prosthetic components. This means of control has been used extensively for over 30 years, during which time these systems have become reliable and durable in most situations. Myoelectric control, or any other prosthetic control scheme, should not be considered as the optimal control for arm prostheses, but rather as one of the several effective ways of producing desired function. Advanced clinical practice calls for a blending of all control schemes, as appropriate, to allow the prosthesis to serve the intentions of the user efficiently and with little mental effort. Technology continues to change, bringing with it new and sometimes better ways of fitting amputees. Microprocessors and programmable controllers have opened new and exciting avenues for improvement in function. New, and as of yet unidentified, electronic and mechanical advances are certainly on the horizon. There is much work to be done before upper limb prostheses rightfully are called arm replacements. But progress is occurring and advances are being made toward the goal of replacing the function and appearance of that marvelous tool, the human arm. PMID:10989484

  10. Planetary upper atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2005-10-01

    Earth and most planets in our solar system are surrounded by permanent atmospheres. Their outermost layers, the thermospheres, ionospheres and exospheres, are regions which couple the atmospheres to space, the Sun and solar wind. Furthermore, most planets possess a magnetosphere, which extends into space considerably further than the atmosphere, but through magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes closely interacts with it. Auroral emissions, found on Earth and other panets, are manifestations of this coupling and a mapping of distant regions in the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere along magnetic field lines. This article compares planetary upper atmospheres in our solar system and attempts to explain their differences via fundamental properties such as atmospheric gas composition, magnetosphere structure and distance from Sun. Understanding the space environment of Earth and its coupling to the Sun, and attempting to predict its behaviour ("Space Weather") plays an important practical role in protecting satellites, upon which many aspects to todays civilisation rely. By comparing our own space environment to that of other planets we gain a deeper understanding of its physical processes and uniqueness. Increasingly, we apply our knowledge also to atmospheres of extrasolar system planets, which will help assessing the possibility of life-elsewhere in the Universe.

  11. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  12. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  13. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hasan, N; Fletcher, E C

    1998-07-01

    Many clinicians are familiar with the clinical symptoms and signs of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In its most blatant form, OSA is complete airway obstruction with repetitive, prolonged pauses in breathing, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation; followed by arousal with resumption of breathing. Daytime symptoms of this disorder include excessive daytime somnolence, intellectual dysfunction, and cardiovascular effects such as systemic hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. It has been recently recognized that increased pharyngeal resistance with incomplete obstruction can lead to a constellation of symptoms identical to OSA called "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS). The typical findings of UARS on sleep study are: (1) repetitive arousals from EEG sleep coinciding with a (2) waxing and waning of the respiratory airflow pattern and (3) increased respiratory effort as measured by esophageal pressure monitoring. There may be few, if any, obvious apneas or hypopneas with desaturation, but snoring may be a very prominent finding. Treatment with nasal positive airway pressure (NCPAP) eliminates the symptoms and confirms the diagnosis. Herein we describe two typical cases of UARS. PMID:9676067

  14. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  15. On limit and limit setting.

    PubMed

    Gorney, J E

    1994-01-01

    This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580

  16. Congenital Median Upper Lip Fistula

    PubMed Central

    al Aithan, Bandar

    2012-01-01

    Congenital median upper lip fistula (MULF) is an extremely rare condition resulting from abnormal fusion of embryologic structures. We present a new case of congenital medial upper lip fistula located in the midline of the philtrum of a 6 year old girl. PMID:22953305

  17. Fundamental Limits to Extinction by Metallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, O. D.; Hsu, C. W.; Reid, M. T. H.; Qiu, W.; DeLacy, B. G.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Soljačić, M.; Johnson, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    We show that there are shape-independent upper bounds to the extinction cross section per unit volume of dilute, randomly arranged nanoparticles, given only material permittivity. Underlying the limits are restrictive sum rules that constrain the distribution of quasistatic eigenvalues. Surprisingly, optimally designed spheroids, with only a single quasistatic degree of freedom, reach the upper bounds for four permittivity values. Away from these permittivities, we demonstrate computationally optimized structures that surpass spheroids and approach the fundamental limits.

  18. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles K; Ahn, Sang Tae; Kim, Nakyung

    2013-01-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is the most common plastic surgery procedure in Asia and has consistently maintained its position as cultural acceptance and techniques have evolved. Asian upper lid blepharoplasty is a complex procedure that requires comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and precise surgical technique. The creation of the supratarsal crease has gone through many evolutions in technique but the principles and goals remain the same: a functional, natural-appearing eyelid crease that brings out the beauty of the Asian eye. Recent advances have improved functional and aesthetic outcomes of Asian upper lid blepharoplasty. PMID:23186767

  19. Upper bounds on the photon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley

    2010-09-15

    The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.

  20. Upper Bound Deformation In The Upper Rhine Graben From GPS Data - Results From GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, F.; Lehujeur, M.; Doubre, C.; Ulrich, P.; Knoepfler, A.; Mayer, M.; Heck, B.

    2012-12-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. The Rhine Graben is the central, most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system (ECRIS) of Oligocene age which extends from the North Sea through Germany and France to the Mediterranean coast over a distance of some 1100km. It is a 300 km long and 40 km wide SSW-NNE trending rift, extending from Basel (Switzerland) to Frankfurt (Germany). It is limited to the west by the Vosges mountains and to the east by the Black Forest. Culminating in ~1500m in elevation, these two massifs represent the Eocene- Oligocene rift shoulders, but a large part of the differential uplift is much younger. The graben is bounded to the north by the uplifted area of the Rhenish Massif. To the south, the Leymen, Ferrette and Vendlincourt folds represent the northernmost structural front of the Jura fold and thrust belt. The presentation will discuss the first results concerning the upper bound deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben région, which is smaller than 0.1 or 0.2 mm/yr while the seismicity is significant. A large focus will be given about the processing of the time series and the correction of the offsets.

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhage, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Stage Element of NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is a "clean-sheet" approach that is being designed and developed in-house, with Element management at MSFC. The Upper Stage Element concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. While the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) design has changed since the CLV inception, the Upper Stage Element design has remained essentially a clean-sheet design approach. A clean-sheet upper stage design does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in evolvability to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; incorporation of state-of-the-art materials and hardware; and incorporation of design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a more operable system.

  2. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  3. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  4. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  5. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  6. Robust warming of the global upper ocean.

    PubMed

    Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

    2010-05-20

    A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2). PMID:20485432

  7. On Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

  8. Reflections on the present and future of upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Amsüss, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Despite progress in research and media attention on active upper limb prostheses, presently the most common commercial upper limb prosthetic devices are not fundamentally different from solutions offered almost one century ago. Limited information transfer for both control and sensory-motor integration and challenges in socket technology have been major obstacles. By analysing the present state-of-the-art and academic achievements, we provide our opinion on the future of upper limb prostheses. We believe that surgical procedures for muscle reinnervation and osseointegration will become increasingly clinically relevant; muscle electrical signals will remain the main clinical means for prosthetic control; and chronic electrode implants, first in muscles (control), then in nerves (sensory feedback), will become viable clinical solutions. After decades of suspended clinically relevant progress, it is foreseeable that a new generation of upper limb prostheses will enter the market in the near future based on such advances, thereby offering substantial clinical benefit for patients. PMID:26924191

  9. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

  10. Family Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert

    1966-01-01

    Dr Robert Smith surveys the history of birth control and sounds a warning for the future of mankind, if the population explosion is allowed to continue unchecked. He stresses the importance of the role of the general practitioner in the limitation of births. Sir Theodore Fox describes the work of the Family Planning Association and stresses that, increasingly, this is a specialist service covering all aspects of fertility. He also feels that the general practitioner has a role in family planning. PMID:5954261

  11. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways. PMID:15301356

  12. Least limiting water range of soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The least limiting water range (LLWR) has been developed as an index of the soil structural quality. The LLWR was defined as the region bounded by the upper and lower soil water content over which water, oxygen, and mechanical resistance become major limitations for root growth. Thus, it combines th...

  13. Upper-Bound Estimates Of SEU in CMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    Theory of single-event upsets (SEU) (changes in logic state caused by energetic charged subatomic particles) in complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices extended to provide upper-bound estimates of rates of SEU when limited experimental information available and configuration and dimensions of SEU-sensitive regions of devices unknown. Based partly on chord-length-distribution method.

  14. Nile behaviour and Upper Palaeolithic humans in Upper Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeersch, Pierre M.

    2014-05-01

    There is evidence of a decreasing human occupation of the Upper Egyptian Nile valley during the MIS 5 to MIS 3 period. Whereas very large extraction sites of the Middle Stone Age have been recorded, only very few sites of the Upper Palaeolithic have been found. The best explanation of this fact is that during the Late Middle Stone Age and the Upper Palaeolithc there was nearly no need for raw materials because there was only a very restricted population present in Upper Egypt. From about 22 ka BP an important population increase is registered by the presence of numerous Late Palaeolithic sites. During the whole LGM there is abundant presence of humans along the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. This population was mainly living from fishing. There seems to be an abrupt end of the Palaeolithic occupation after 12.8 ka BP. Until now, no sites were found in the Valley until some rare Epipaleolithic sites occur about 8.0 ka BP. It will be suggested that these population changes are influenced by the river Nile behaviour. The best interpretation of the observations in the Upper Egyptian Nile Valley is the hypothesis that at the same time that Nile flow was reduced because of the dryness in its source area, the impact of aeolian activity was increased over Northeast Africa. The increased aeolian activity by northern winds in the Fayum and Wadi Ryan during the LGM resulted in the accumulation of aeolian sand in the valley. That aeolian sand was transported along the western Nile valley cliffs until it was accumulated when the Nile Valley change it S-N direction, such as at Nag'Hammadi. At other places sand was invading the Nile valley, directly from the Western Desert, creating a damming of the Nile at several places such as Armant and Aswan. As Nile flow was quite reduced, the Nile was unable to erode all the incoming sand and the Nile water with its important clay content was dammed. At several places large lakes were created in the Nile Valley. Those lakes were an ideal

  15. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  16. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  17. Vascular injuries in the upper extremity in athletes.

    PubMed

    de Mooij, Tristan; Duncan, Audra A; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-02-01

    Repetitive, high-stress, or high-impact arm motions can cause upper extremity arterial injuries. The increased functional range of the upper extremity causes increased stresses on the vascular structures. Muscle hypertrophy and fatigue-induced joint translation may incite impingement on critical neurovasculature and can cause vascular damage. A thorough evaluation is essential to establish the diagnosis in a timely fashion as presentation mimics more common musculoskeletal injuries. Conservative treatment includes equipment modification, motion analysis and adjustment, as well as equipment enhancement to limit exposure to blunt trauma or impingement. Surgical options include ligation, primary end-to-end anastomosis for small defects, and grafting. PMID:25455355

  18. Upper Blepharoplasty for Areola Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, O. L.; Heil, J.; Golatta, M.; Domschke, C.; Sohn, C.; Blumenstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is one of the most common rejuvenating facial plastic surgery procedures. The procedure has been described many times and has very few complications. The tissue removed from the upper eyelid during blepharoplasty can be used as a skin graft for areola reconstruction due to the tissueʼs similarity to the areolaʼs natural skin. The present study investigated the use of upper blepharoplasty for areola reconstruction. Criteria were patient satisfaction, objective measurements and the assessment of cosmesis by a panel of physicians. All eight patients included in the study were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Objective measurements and assessment by a panel of physicians using photographs of the reconstructed nipple-areola complex showed very good aesthetic results. PMID:24771929

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  20. Upper extremity injuries in golf.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler

    2009-04-01

    Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper extremity injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper extremity golf injuries. This article focuses on upper extremity injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492

  1. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  2. Expendable solid rocket motor upper stages for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.; Jones, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A family of expendable solid rocket motor upper stages has been conceptually defined to provide the payloads for the Space Shuttle with performance capability beyond the low earth operational range of the Shuttle Orbiter. In this concept-feasibility assessment, three new solid rocket motors of fixed impulse are defined for use with payloads requiring levels of higher energy. The conceptual design of these motors is constrained to limit thrusting loads into the payloads and to conserve payload bay length. These motors are combined in various vehicle configurations with stage components derived from other programs for the performance of a broad range of upper-stage missions from spin-stabilized, single-stage transfers to three-axis stabilized, multistage insertions. Estimated payload delivery performance and combined payload mission loading configurations are provided for the upper-stage configurations.

  3. Limit on possible narrow rings around Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, E.; Elliot, J. L.; Mink, D.; Klemola, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    An upper limit to the optical depth of the Jovian ring at high spatial resolution, determined from stellar occultation data, is reported. The spatial resolution of the observation is limited to about 13 km in Jupiter's equatorial plane by the projection of the Fresnel zone on the equatorial plane in the radial direction. At this resolution, the normal optical depth limit is about 0.008. This limit applies to a strip in the Jovian equatorial plane that crosses the orbits of Amalthea, 1979J1, 1979J3, and the ring. An upper limit on the number density of kilometer-size boulders has been set at one per 11.000 sq km in the equatorial plane.

  4. Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivest, Chantal

    1990-01-01

    Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained

  5. Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease The full report is titled “Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Best Practice Advice From the Clinical Guidelines ...

  6. The NASA program on upper atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Program is to develop a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere with emphasis on the stratosphere.

  7. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  8. [Distalization of the upper second molar: biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Castaldo, A

    1991-01-01

    The Author shows a system to dystalize the second upper molars and, if necessary, the third upper molars. This system, easy to be adapted, is made up by a palatal bar inserted between the first upper molars, by a sectional and a 100 grams precalibrated open Sentalloy coil spring used as an active force. PMID:1784296

  9. Coping with upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, John W

    2002-09-01

    Your doctor has diagnosed your problem as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Common URIs include viral rhinitis (the common cold), sore throat, and sinusitis (sinus infection). Most URIs are caused by viruses, but some are caused by bacteria. Your physician may have recommended medication to treat your symptoms; these include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen for pain or fever and antihistamines and/or decongestants to treat congestion and runny nose. Because they treat bacterial infections, antibiotics will not help a viral URI. PMID:20086546

  10. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  11. Nonmarine upper cretaceous rocks, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Magoon, L.B.; Griesbach, F.B.; Egbert, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    A section of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) nonmarine sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with associated coal is exposed near Saddle mountain on the northwest flank of Cook Inlet basin, the only known surface exposure of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks in the Cook Inlet area. The section, at least 83.3 m thick, unconformably overlies the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation and is unconformably overlain by the lower Tertiary West Foreland Formation. These upper Cretaceous rocks correlate lithologically with the second or deeper interval of nonmarine Upper Cretaceous rocks penetrated in the lower Cook Inlet COST 1 well.

  12. 1995 and 1996 Upper Three Runs Dye Study Data Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of dye tracer studies conducted on Upper Three Runs. The revised STREAM code was used to analyze these studies and derive a stream velocity and a dispersion coefficient for use in aqueous transport models. These models will be used to facilitate the establishment of aqueous effluent limits and provide contaminant transport information to emergency management in the event of a release.

  13. Channel-wall limitations in the magnetohydrodynamic induction generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. D.; Pierson, E. S.

    1969-01-01

    Discussion of magnetohydrodynamic induction generator examines the machine in detail and materials problems influencing its design. The higher upper-temperature limit of the MHD system promises to be more efficient than present turbine systems for generating electricity.

  14. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609

  15. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. PMID:25857514

  17. Limits to sustainable human metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, K R

    2001-09-01

    There is a limit to the performance of an organism set by energy intake and energy mobilization. Here, the focus is on humans with unlimited access to food and for whom physical activity can be limited by energy mobilization. The physical activity level (PAL) in the general population, calculated as doubly-labelled-water-assessed average daily metabolic rate as a multiple of basal metabolic rate, has an upper limit of 2.2-2.5. The upper limit of sustainable metabolic rate is approximately twice as high in endurance athletes, mainly because of long-term exercise training with simultaneous consumption of carbohydrate-rich food during exercise. Endurance athletes have an increased fat-free mass and can maintain energy balance at a PAL value of 4.0-5.0. High altitude limits exercise performance as a result of combined effects on nutrient supply and the capacity to process nutrients. Thus, trained subjects climbing Mount Everest reached PAL values of 2.0-2.7, well below the observed upper limit at sea level. PMID:11581332

  18. A “reverse direction” technique of single-port left upper pulmonary resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Sihoe, Alan D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) left upper lobectomy is difficult amongst all the lobes. At the beginning of single-port lobectomies, the upper lobes were believed not to be amenable for single-port approach due to the difficult angulation for staplers. Gonzalez reported the first single-port VATS left upper lobectomy in 2011. Methods We report a new technique of single-port VATS left upper lobectomy with the concept of “reverse direction”. We divide the apical-anterior arterial trunk with upper vein in the last. The procedure sequence is described as follows: posterior artery, lingular artery, bronchus and finally upper vein & apical-anterior arterial trunk. Results This method could overcome the angular limitations frequently encountered in single-port VATS procedures; reduce the risk of injuries to pulmonary artery; broaden the indications of single-port the upper lobe of the left lung (LUL) to include hypoplastic lung fissures. Limitations of this new practice include the enlargement or severe calcifications of hilar and bronchial lymph nodes. Conclusions A “reverse direction” technique of single-port left upper pulmonary resection is feasible and safe. PMID:27621885

  19. O2 Herzberg State Reaction with N2: A Possible Source of Stratospheric N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.; Copeland, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this one-year investigation was to determine whether N2O is formed in atmospherically significant quantities by the reaction of vibrationally excited levels of the O2((A3 Sigma(sub u)(sup +)) state with nitrogen. O2(A3 Sigma(sub u)(sup +)) is made throughout the upper stratosphere in considerable amounts by solar photoabsorption, and only a very small reactive yield is necessary for this mechanism to be a major N2O source. By long-term 245-252 nm irradiation of O2/N2 mixtures on- and off-resonance with absorption lines in the O2(A3 Sigma(sub u)(sup +) - X3 Sigma(sub g)(sup -)) transition, followed by N2O analysis by frequency-modulated diode laser absorption spectroscopy, we determined an upper limit for the N2O yield of the candidate reaction. This limit, 3 x 10(exp -5), eliminates O2(A3 Sigma(sub u)(sup +)) + N2 as a significant channel for the generation of stratospheric N2O. In further measurements, we established that N2O is stable under our photolysis conditions, showing that the small amounts of ozone generated from the reaction of O2(A) and O2 do not indirectly lead to destruction of N2O.

  20. Assessing upper limb function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Ilse; Feys, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The need to fully assess upper limb function in multiple sclerosis (MS) has become increasingly clear with recent studies revealing a high prevalence of upper limb dysfunction in persons with MS leading to increased dependency and reduced quality of life. It is important that clinicians and researchers use tailored outcome measures to systematically describe upper limb (dys)function and evaluate potential deterioration or improvement on treatment. This topical review provides a comprehensive summary of currently used upper limb outcome measures in MS, classified according to the levels of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). The clinical utility, strengths, weaknesses and psychometric properties of common upper limb outcome measures are discussed. Based on this information, recommendations for selecting appropriate upper limb outcome measures are given. The current shortcomings in assessment which need to be addressed are identified. PMID:24664300

  1. Rheology of the upper mantle: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Karato, S; Wu, P

    1993-05-01

    Rheological properties of the upper mantle of the Earth play an important role in the dynamics of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, such fundamental issues as the dominant mechanisms of flow have not been well resolved. A synthesis of laboratory studies and geophysical and geological observations shows that transitions between diffusion and dislocation creep likely occur in the Earth's upper mantle. The hot and shallow upper mantle flows by dislocation creep, whereas cold and shallow or deep upper mantle may flow by diffusion creep. When the stress increases, grain size is reduced and the upper mantle near the transition between these two regimes is weakened. Consequently, deformation is localized and the upper mantle is decoupled mechanically near these depths. PMID:17746109

  2. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  3. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early

  4. The porosity of the upper lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, Bruce; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The porosity of the upper centimeter or so of the lunar regolith strongly affects several properties that are commonly studied remotely. Hence, it is important to determine its value. We have reanalyzed the data of Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77), who used spacecraft and laboratory reflectance measurements of the Moon by Kaguya Multiband Imager instruments and an Apollo sample to infer a lunar regolith porosity of 74-87%. Our analysis was augmented by using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide and Narrow Angle Camera images. We confirm the Ohtake et al. (Ohtake et al. [2010]. Space Sci. Rev., 154, 57-77) estimate and refine it to 83 ± 3%. However, depending on the validity of key assumptions, this value could be a lower limit, so that the actual porosity could be somewhat higher. Even though the magnetic resonance index of the sample indicates that it is mature, it is appears to be optically less mature than a standard photometric site near the sample collection site.

  5. Upper Subcritical Calculations Based on Correlated Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don; Marshall, William BJ J; Scaglione, John M; Dunn, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute and American Nuclear Society standard for Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations defines the upper subcritical limit (USL) as “a limit on the calculated k-effective value established to ensure that conditions calculated to be subcritical will actually be subcritical.” Often, USL calculations are based on statistical techniques that infer information about a nuclear system of interest from a set of known/well-characterized similar systems. The work in this paper is part of an active area of research to investigate the way traditional trending analysis is used in the nuclear industry, and in particular, the research is assessing the impact of the underlying assumption that the experimental data being analyzed for USL calculations are statistically independent. In contrast, the multiple experiments typically used for USL calculations can be correlated because they are often performed at the same facilities using the same materials and measurement techniques. This paper addresses this issue by providing a set of statistical inference methods to calculate the bias and bias uncertainty based on the underlying assumption that the experimental data are correlated. Methods to quantify these correlations are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. The newly proposed USL methodology is based on the assumption that the integral experiments selected for use in the establishment of the USL are sufficiently applicable and that experimental correlations are known. Under the assumption of uncorrelated data, the new methods collapse directly to familiar USL equations currently used. We will demonstrate our proposed methods on real data and compare them to calculations of currently used methods such as USLSTATS and NUREG/CR-6698. Lastly, we will also demonstrate the effect experiment correlations can have on USL calculations.

  6. Vapor Dosimetry in the Nose and Upper Airways of Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D.

    2010-04-01

    A number of methodologies have been reported for measuring vapor uptake efficiencies in the upper respiratory tract of experimental animals (1). Hybrid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, as described by Frederick et al. (2) that incorporate information on the anatomy of both rats and humans have been used to improve interspecies dosimetric corrections for human health risk assessments. However, validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data, and robust data defining the role of the upper respiratory tract in modulating the absorption of gases and vapors in human volunteers, are lacking. A survey of the available literature shows a limited number of experimental studies to evaluate the dosimetry of vapors in the nose and upper airways of humans. The scarcity of literature data undoubtedly reflects the complication of conducting controlled studies in human volunteers, and with the exception of a few limited studies, little experimental data is available. This chapter will highlight studies specific for nasal dosimetry data from humans and briefly review modeling approaches for predictive extrapolations from animal data.

  7. Seismic structure and heterogeneity in the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenntt, B. L. N.

    The earliest models of the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle were smooth. But, since the introduction of strong gradients near 400 km depth by Jeffreys to explain the '20° discontinuity" in observed travel times, there has been a steady accumulation of detail in mantle structure. For a particular region, a smoothed and averaged representation of the seismic structure in the upper mantle can be derived from long-period body wave and higher mode surface wave observations. The vertical resolving power of such techniques is limited by the relatively long wavelengths. In contrast short-period observations offer potential resolution, but are susceptible to the influence of lateral heterogeneity. Fortunately the major features of the upper mantle can be discerned but important questions for structural processes such as the detailed nature ofthe transitions near 410 and 660 km are generally inaccessible. There is a natural tendency to overweight those observations on which particularly clear features are seen (as compared with the statistical anonymity of less spectacular data) which can lead to unwarranted generalizationsof specific results. To reconcile different views of mantle structure requires us to address the purpose for which the mantle structures are to be used. For example, fine detail in a velocity model which is insignificant for travel time studies can have a profound effect on amplitudes and short-period seismic waveforms. The variability in the patterns of body wave observations, especially atshort periods, provides strong evidence for 1-2 per cent heterogeneity on scales around 200 km in the upper mantle. Such features are superimposed on larger scale and larger amplitude lateral variations which can be mapped using surface wave studies. Much of the pattern of lateral variability in the upper mantle is likely to be due to thermal processes both directly by the influence of temperature and indirectly by compositional effects induced by flow

  8. Coupled Sulfur and Chlorine Chemistry in Venus' Upper Cloud Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Franklin P.

    2006-09-01

    Venus' atmosphere likely contains a rich variety of sulfur and chlorine compounds because HCl, SO2, and OCS have all been observed. Photodissociation of CO2 and SO2 in the upper cloud layer produces oxygen which can react directly or indirectly with SO2 to form SO3 and eventually H2SO4. Photodissociation of HCl within and above the upper cloud layer produces chlorine which can react with CO and O2 to form ClCO and ClC(O)OO. These two species have been identified as potentially critical intermediaries in the production of CO2. Much less work has been done on the potential coupling between sulfur and chlorine chemistry that may occur within the upper cloud layer. Several aspects have been examined in recent modeling: (1) linkage of the CO2 and sulfur oxidation cycles (based on ideas from Yung and DeMore, 1982), (2) reaction of Cl with SO2 to form ClSO2 (based on ideas from DeMore et al., 1985), and (3) the chemistry of SmCln for m,n = 1,2 (based on preliminary work in Mills, 1998). Initial results suggest the chemistry of SmCln may provide a pathway for accelerated production of polysulfur, Sx, if the oxygen abundance in the upper cloud layer is as small as is implied by the observational limit on O2 (Trauger and Lunine, 1983). Initial results also suggest that ClSO2 can act as a buffer which helps increase the scale height of SO2 and decrease the rate of production of H2SO4. This presentation will describe the results from this modeling; discuss their potential implications for the CO2, sulfur oxidation, and polysulfur cycles; and outline key observations from Venus Express that can help resolve existing questions concerning the chemistry of Venus' upper cloud. Partial funding for this research was provided by the Australian Research Council.

  9. A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

  10. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: The Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Mitchel; Johnson, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    The shoulder joint is essential for placing the hand in a functional position for reach and overhead activities. This depends on the delicate balance between abductor/adductor and internal/external rotator muscles. Spasticity alters this equilibrium, limiting the interaction of the upper limb with the environment. Classically, pediatric patients with upper limb spasticity present with an adduction and internal rotation contracture of the shoulder. These contractures are typically secondary to spasticity of the pectoralis major and subscapularis muscles and sometimes attributed to the latissimus dorsi muscle. Fractional lengthening, Z-step lengthening, or tendon release of the contributing muscle groups may help correct the adduction and internal rotation contractures. With proper diagnosis, a well-executed surgical plan, and a consistent hand rehabilitation regimen, successful surgical outcomes can be achieved. PMID:26869863

  11. Antiproton limits on decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael E-mail: michael.grefe@uam.es

    2013-12-01

    We derive 95 % CL lower limits on the lifetime of decaying dark matter in the channels Zν, Wℓ and hν using measurements of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux by the PAMELA experiment. Performing a scan over the allowed range of cosmic-ray propagation parameters we find lifetime limits in the range of 8 × 10{sup 28} s to 5 × 10{sup 25} s for dark matter masses from roughly 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We apply these limits to the well-motivated case of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear violation of R-parity and find a similar range of lifetime limits for the same range of gravitino masses. Converting the lifetime limits to constraints on the size of the R-parity violating coupling we find upper limits in the range of 10{sup −8} to 8 × 10{sup −13}.

  12. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  13. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  14. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  15. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  16. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  17. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  18. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098

  5. Congenital cervical spinal muscular atrophy: a non-familial, non progressive condition of the upper limbs.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, G; Ramaekers, V T; Hilhorst, B G; Rozeboom, A R

    1993-01-01

    Two patients with congenital cervical spinal muscular atrophy had symmetrical severe muscle weakness and wasting confined to the upper limbs, areflexia and congenital contractures. The shoulders were internally rotated, elbows extended and wrists flexed. There were no sensory or bulbar symptoms, scoliosis, long tract signs or lower limb involvement. This condition should be regarded as a neurogenic type of arthrogryposis, limited to the upper limbs. Images PMID:8482956

  6. Upper Mantle Structure of Eastern Africa from Body Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Fredinand, R.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents preliminary results of the upper mantle structure beneath the east Africa from body wave tomography. This work is part of an on-going study aimed at investigating the origin and structure of the African Superplume. The available global tomographic studies suggest that the African Superplume is a low velocity-anomaly extending from the core-mantle boundary upward into the mid mantle beneath southern Africa and may reach the upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. However, the limited vertical resolution of global tomographic models makes it difficult to confirm a connection from the lower to the upper mantle. Previous regional studies of upper mantle structure in east Africa have found evidence of a low velocity anomaly beneath the region that has been suggested as the upper mantle expression of the Superplume. Models from previous tomographic studies in east Africa have limited resolution below ~400 km beneath the eastern rift and are less well resolved beneath the western part of the rift due to less data coverage. This study uses teleseismic data from a wider region in east Africa than previously used. Data for this study are from a 3-year (2007-2010) deployment of 40 broadband seismic stations in Uganda and Tanzania. The dataset is supplemented by data from the 1994-1995 Tanzania broadband seismic experiment, the 2001-2002 Kenya broadband seismic experiment, the permanent AfricaArray seismic stations and IRIS/GSN stations. The data have been used for body wave tomography by computing relative travel time delays using a multi-channel cross-correlation technique and then inverting them for a 3D wave speed model. Preliminary results from the inversion of the relative delay times show that there is a broad low wave speed anomaly beneath east Africa extending from shallow upper mantle depths to at least 500 km into the mantle transition zone. The appearance and size of the low wave speed anomaly in the region indicates the presence of broad thermal

  7. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bandla, Preetam; Huang, Jingtao; Karamessinis, Laurie; Kelly, Andrea; Pepe, Michelle; Samuel, John; Brooks, Lee; Mason, Thornton. A.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading declines with age. The epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea suggests that sex hormones play a role in modulating upper airway function. Sex hormones increase gradually during puberty, from minimally detectable to adult levels. We hypothesized that the upper airway response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with increasing pubertal Tanner stage in males but remained stable during puberty in females. Design: Upper airway dynamic function during sleep was measured over the course of puberty. Participants: Normal subjects of Tanner stages 1 to 5. Measurements: During sleep, maximal inspiratory airflow was measured while varying the level of nasal pressure. The slope of the upstream pressure-flow relationship (SPF) was measured. Results: The SPF correlated with age and Tanner stage. However, the relationship with Tanner stage became nonsignificant when the correlation due to the mutual association with age was removed. Females had a lower SPF than males. Conclusions: In both sexes, the upper airway compensatory response to subatmospheric pressure loading decreased with age rather than degree of pubertal development. Thus, changes in sex hormones are unlikely to be a primary modulator of upper airway function during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Although further studies of upper airway structural changes during puberty are needed, we speculate that the changes in upper airway function with age are due to the depressant effect of age on ventilatory drive, leading to a decrease in upper airway neuromotor tone. Citation: Bandla P; Huang J; Karamessinis L; Kelly A; Pepe M; Samuel J; Brooks L; Mason TA; Gallagher PR; Marcus CL. Puberty and Upper Airway Dynamics During Sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):534-541. PMID:18457241

  8. Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

  9. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  10. Classical and thermodynamic limits for generalised quantum spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, N. G.

    1990-01-01

    We prove that the rescaled upper and lower symbols for arbitrary generalised quantum spin systems converge in the classical limit. For a large class of models this enables us to derive the asyptotics of quantum free energies in the classical and in the thermodynamic limit.

  11. Exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus.

    PubMed

    Hoyen, Harry; Papendrea, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Extensile and adequate exposures of the shoulder and upper humerus are important in trauma surgery. The standard deltopectoral approach can be extended distally to expose the whole humerus if necessary. Often, wide exposures of the upper humerus are necessary to reduce complex fractures and apply the plate on the lateral aspect of the humerus. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy as well as strategies of nerve mobilization is necessary for achieving adequate exposures in this area. This article details the many exposure methods for the shoulder, upper humerus, and their extensile extensions. PMID:25440068

  12. ITER Experts' meeting on density limits

    SciTech Connect

    Borrass, K.; Igitkhanov, Y.L.; Uckan, N.A.

    1989-12-01

    The necessity of achieving a prescribed wall load or fusion power essentially determines the plasma pressure in a device like ITER. The range of operation densities and temperatures compatible with this condition is constrained by the problems of power exhaust and the disruptive density limit. The maximum allowable heat loads on the divertor plates and the maximum allowable sheath edge temperature practically impose a lower limit on the operating densities, whereas the disruptive density limit imposes an upper limit. For most of the density limit scalings proposed in the past an overlap of the two constraints or at best a very narrow accessible density range is predicted for ITER. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms is therefore a crucial issue in order to provide a more reliable basis for extrapolation to ITER and to identify possible ways of alleviating the problem.

  13. Management of catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey D; Liem, Timothy K; Moneta, Gregory L

    2016-07-01

    Central venous catheters or peripherally inserted central catheters are major risk factors for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). The body and quality of literature evaluating catheter-associated (CA) UEDVT have increased, yet strong evidence on screening, diagnosis, prevention, and optimal treatment is limited. We herein review the current evidence of CA UEDVT that can be applied clinically. Principally, we review the anatomy and definition of CA UEDVT, identification of risk factors, utility of duplex ultrasound as the preferred diagnostic modality, preventive strategies, and an algorithm for management of CA UEDVT. PMID:27318061

  14. Upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopic simulator for neonates with bilious emesis.

    PubMed

    Benya, Ellen C; Wyers, Mary R; O'Brien, Ellen K; Nandhan, Vikram; Adler, Mark D

    2015-08-01

    Prompt diagnosis of malrotation and midgut volvulus in infants with bilious emesis is critical. However because of the limited frequency of pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) fluoroscopic procedures in neonates, many diagnostic radiology residents complete their training never having seen or performed a UGI on a baby for evaluation of malrotation and midgut volvulus. A UGI simulation model for infants with bilious emesis was created to supplement the hands-on fluoroscopic experience of residents in training. We are now studying the addition of simulated UGI studies to our pediatric radiology curriculum. PMID:25796384

  15. On the upper tail of Italian firms’ size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Hüsler, Jürg

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the upper tail of the size distribution of Italian companies with limited liability belonging to the CEBI database. Size is defined in terms of net worth. In particular, we show that the largest firms follow a power law distribution, according to the well-known Pareto law, for which we give estimates of the shape parameter. Such a behavior seems to be quite persistent over time, view that for almost 20 years of observations, the shape parameter is always in the vicinity of 1.8. The power law hypothesis is also positively tested using graphical and analytical methods.

  16. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  17. Bob West field: Extending upper Wilcox production in south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-05-01

    Discovered in 1990 near the southern limit of the upper Wilcox gas-producing trend in south Texas, Bob West field is the largest pool to date in this trend, with probable reserves of up to 1 Tcf. The field produces from seven major sandstone {open_quotes}packages,{close_quotes} comprising 27 individual reservoirs and distributed over 3500 productive acres. The sandstones represent either fluvial/deltaic deposits or delta-margin barrier bar and strand-plain sediments. Porosities range up to 20%, but permeabilities are low, commonly less than 1.5 md. Artificial stimulation is therefore required to establish commercial rates of production. Bob West lies on a faulted anticline between two major growth-fault structures, with several stages of structural development evident. Such development has directly affected sandstone thickness. Rates of production are higher at Bob West than at other upper Wilcox fields due to commingling of zones, large-scale fracture treatments, and directional drilling. Discovery at Bob West has significant implications for renewed exploration in this part of the upper Wilcox gas trend.

  18. A speed limit for evolution.

    PubMed

    Worden, R P

    1995-09-01

    An upper bound on the speed of evolution is derived. The bound concerns the amount of genetic information which is expressed in observable ways in various aspects of the phenotype. The genetic information expressed in some part of the phenotype of a species cannot increase faster than a given rate, determined by the selection pressure on that part. This rate is typically a small fraction of a bit per generation. Total expressed genetic information cannot increase faster than a species-specific rate--typically a few bits per generation. These bounds apply to all aspects of the phenotype, but are particularly relevant to cognition. As brains are highly complex, we expect large amounts of expressed genetic information in the brain--of the order of 100 kilobytes--yet evolutionary changes in brain genetic information are only a fraction of a bit per generation. This has important consequences for cognitive evolution. The limit implies that the human brain differs from the chimpanzee brain by at most 5 kilobytes of genetic design information. This is not enough to define a Language Acquisition Device, unless it depends heavily on pre-existing primate symbolic cognition. Subject to the evolutionary speed limit, in changing environments a simple, modular brain architecture is fitter than more complex ones. This encourages us to look for simplicity in brain design, rather than expecting the brain to be a patchwork of ad hoc adaptations. The limit implies that pure species selection is not an important mechanism of evolutionary change. PMID:7475097

  19. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  20. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  1. Golf injuries of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Wiesler, Ethan R; Lumsden, Boyd