Science.gov

Sample records for 3t clinical scanner

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of isolated perfused pig hearts in a 3T clinical MR scanner

    PubMed Central

    Chiribiri, Amedeo; Ishida, Masaki; Morton, Geraint; Paul, Matthias; Hussain, Shazia T.; Bigalke, Boris; Perera, Divaka; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nagel, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An isolated perfused pig heart model has recently been proposed for the development of novel methods in standard clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The original set-up required the electrical system to be within the safe part of the MR-room, which introduced significant background noise. The purpose of the current work was to refine the system to overcome this limitation so that all electrical parts are completely outside the scanner room. Methods Four pig hearts were explanted under terminal anaesthesia from large white cross landrace pigs. All hearts underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanning in the MR part of a novel combined 3T MR and x-ray fluoroscopy (XMR) suite. CMR scanning included real-time k-t SENSE functional imaging, k-t SENSE accelerated perfusion imaging and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Interference with image quality was assessed by spurious echo imaging and compared to noise levels acquired while operating the electrical parts within the scanner room. Results Imaging was performed successfully in all hearts. The system proved suitable for isolated heart perfusion in a novel 3T XMR suite. No significant additional noise was introduced into the scanner room by our set-up. Conclusions We have substantially improved a previous version of an isolated perfused pig heart model and made it applicable for MR imaging in a state of the art clinical 3T XMR imaging suite. The use of this system should aid novel CMR sequence development and translation into clinical practice. PMID:24265875

  2. MR images of mouse brain using clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Eun Mi; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Junghyun; Han, Bo Mi; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Lee, Su Bin

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Although small-bore high-field magnets are useful for research in small rodent models,this technology, however, has not been easily accessible to most researchers. This current study, thus,tried to evaluate the usability of 4CH-Mouse coil (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) forpreclinical investigations in clinical 3T MR scan environment. We evaluated the effects of ischemicpreconditioning (IP) in the mouse stroke model with clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice that either received the IP or sham operation (control). Three different MR sequences including diffusion weighted images (DWI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were performed on the mouse brains following 24, 72 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and analyzed for infarct lesions. Results: The images showed that the IP-treated mouse brains had significantly smaller infarct volumes compared to the control group. Of the MR sequences employed, the T2WI showed the highest level of correlations with postmortem infarct volume measurements. Conclusions: The clinical 3T MR scanner turned out to have a solid potential as a practical tool for imaging small animal brains. MR sequences including DWI, T2WI, FLAIR were obtained with acceptable resolution and in a reasonable time constraint in evaluating a mouse stroke model brain.

  3. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:26398500

  4. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Demain, Boris; Davoust, Carole; Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8 nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner.

  5. Time Efficient 3D Radial UTE Sampling with Fully Automatic Delay Compensation on a Clinical 3T MR Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2016-01-01

    This work’s aim was to minimize the acquisition time of a radial 3D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequence and to provide fully automated, gradient delay compensated, and therefore artifact free, reconstruction. The radial 3D UTE sequence (echo time 60 μs) was implemented as single echo acquisition with center-out readouts and improved time efficient spoiling on a clinical 3T scanner without hardware modifications. To assess the sequence parameter dependent gradient delays each acquisition contained a quick calibration scan and utilized the phase of the readouts to detect the actual k-space center. This calibration scan does not require any user interaction. To evaluate the robustness of this automatic delay estimation phantom experiments were performed and 19 in vivo imaging data of the head, tibial cortical bone, feet and lung were acquired from 6 volunteers. As clinical application of this fast 3D UTE acquisition single breath-hold lung imaging is demonstrated. The proposed sequence allowed very short repetition times (TR~1ms), thus reducing total acquisition time. The proposed, fully automated k-phase based gradient delay calibration resulted in accurate delay estimations (difference to manually determined optimal delay −0.13 ± 0.45 μs) and allowed unsupervised reconstruction of high quality images for both phantom and in vivo data. The employed fast spoiling scheme efficiently suppressed artifacts caused by incorrectly refocused echoes. The sequence proved to be quite insensitive to motion, flow and susceptibility artifacts and provides oversampling protection against aliasing foldovers in all directions. Due to the short TR, acquisition times are attractive for a wide range of clinical applications. For short T2* mapping this sequence provides free choice of the second TE, usually within less scan time as a comparable dual echo UTE sequence. PMID:26975051

  6. Patient-induced susceptibility effect on geometric distortion of clinical brain MRI for radiation treatment planning on a 3T scanner.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Balter, J; Cao, Y

    2013-02-01

    Concerns about the geometric accuracy of MRI in radiation therapy (RT) have been present since its invention. Although modern scanners typically have system levels of geometric accuracy that meet requirements of RT, subject-specific distortion is variable, and methods to in vivo assess and control patient-induced geometric distortion are not yet resolved. This study investigated the nature and magnitude of the subject-induced susceptibility effect on geometric distortions in clinical brain MRI, and tested the feasibility of in vivo quality control using field inhomogeneity mapping. For 19 consecutive patients scanned on a dedicated 3T MR scanner, B0 field inhomogeneity maps were acquired and analyzed to determine subject-induced distortions. For 3D T1 weighted images frequency-encoded with a bandwidth of 180 Hz/pixel, 86.9% of the estimated displacements were <0.5 mm, 97.4% <1 mm, and only 0.1% of displacements > 2 mm. The maximum displacement was <4 mm. The greatest distortions were observed at the interfaces with air at the sinuses. Displacements decayed to less than 1 mm over a distance of 8 mm. Metal surgical wires generated smaller distortions, with an averaged maximum displacement of 0.76 mm. Repeat acquisition of the field maps in 17 patients revealed a within-subject standard deviation of 0.25 ppm, equivalent to 0.22 mm displacement in the frequency-encoding direction in the 3D T1 weighted images. Susceptibility-induced voxel displacements in the brain are generally small, but should be monitored for precision RT. These effects are manageable at 3T and lower fields, and the methods applied can be used to monitor for potential local errors in individual patients, as well as to correct for local distortions as needed. PMID:23302471

  7. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Andrew; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Pavlicek, William; Thunberg, Christopher A; Seamans, David

    2015-01-01

    Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment. PMID:25792858

  8. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gorlin, Andrew; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Pavlicek, William; Thunberg, Christopher A; Seamans, David

    2015-01-01

    Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment. PMID:25792858

  9. Computational dosimetry of induced electric fields during realistic movements in the vicinity of a 3 T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Kännälä, Sami; Jokela, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Medical staff working near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed both to the static magnetic field itself and also to electric currents that are induced in the body when the body moves in the magnetic field. However, there are currently limited data available on the induced electric field for realistic movements. This study computationally investigates the movement induced electric fields for realistic movements in the magnetic field of a 3 T MRI scanner. The path of movement near the MRI scanner is based on magnetic field measurements using a coil sensor attached to a human volunteer. Utilizing realistic models for both the motion of the head and the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, the induced fields are computationally determined using the finite-element method for five high-resolution numerical anatomical models. The results show that the time-derivative of the magnetic flux density (dB/dt) is approximately linearly proportional to the induced electric field in the head, independent of the position of the head with respect to the magnet. This supports the use of dB/dt measurements for occupational exposure assessment. For the path of movement considered herein, the spatial maximum of the induced electric field is close to the basic restriction for the peripheral nervous system and exceeds the basic restriction for the central nervous system in the international guidelines. The 99th percentile electric field is a considerably less restrictive metric for the exposure than the spatial maximum electric field; the former is typically 60-70% lower than the latter. However, the 99th percentile electric field may exceed the basic restriction for dB/dt values that can be encountered during tasks commonly performed by MRI workers. It is also shown that the movement-induced eddy currents may reach magnitudes that could electrically stimulate the vestibular system, which could play a significant role in the generation of vertigo-like sensations reported

  10. Advanced clinical KCD scanner for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBianca, Frank A.; Davis, Keana M.; Jordan, Lawrence M.; Laughter, Joseph S.; Krishnamurthy, Anand; Hu, Bo

    1998-07-01

    One of the goals of medical imaging scientists and bioengineers remains the development of digital electronic technologies that can replace film-based methods of acquiring x-ray images. With the achievement of this goal, all diagnostic imaging technologies would be based on digital techniques with all the attending benefits. Based on the performance of numerous research prototype small-field and one large-field Kinestatic Charge Detector (KCD) system for digital radiography, a large-field clinical KCD scanner is currently being designed and built for technical evaluation and for clinical evaluation of 200 volunteer patients (including clinical comparisons with film, storage phosphor, and other available clinical systems). The state of development of this clinical KCD system, including detector, data-acquisition system and scanning gantry design, is reviewed in this paper.

  11. Ag/AgCl electrodes in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Cengiz; Kepceoğlu, Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of two different types of EEG electrodes (the first B10-S-150 Ag/AgCl sintered ring electrode with 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket and 150 cm heavy-duty lead wire and the second, B12-LS-100 Ag/AgCl sintered FE-electrode with 100 cm light-duty lead wire and 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket with 5 kΩ resistor near sensor) used in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner. We compared these electrodes by their specific absorption rate (SAR) simulation values and the temperature change calculated by PRF method. The experimental setup of the study is described as follows: a phantom is prepared and the electrodes are placed on it. Then, a simulation for SAR values is realized. The temperature change is calculated by MR thermometer. As a result of this study, Ag/AgCl pin electrode is better to be use in EEG/fMRI; because the measured temperature change is expected to be low.

  12. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  13. [Experimental evaluation of the occupational exposure to static magnetic fields on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner].

    PubMed

    Moro, Luca; Alabiso, Francesco; Parisoli, Francesco; Frigerio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The recent postponement until 31 October 2013 of the deadline for transposition of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, concerning the minimum health requirementsfor the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields between 0 and 300 GHz, keeps on suspending the Italian law which was aimed to implement the EU regulations on the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, including those generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) units. Waiting for the revision of the exposure limits proposed by the EU Directive taking into account results from new studies and evolution of knowledge, the time-weighted values of static magnetic field proposed by the Italian Ministry of Health (D.M 02/08/91) still survive as limits for worker's exposure. The comparison between the proposed thresholds and the time required to position patients allows to calculate how long the MRI staff can stay at different values of static magnetic field, i.e. the maximum workload of each worker. In order to evaluate more accurately how many time the members of MRI staff are near the magnet bore and the real value of worker's exposure to the static magnetic field during the handling of patients, a teslameter Metrolab THM1176-PDA was used. Personal exposure measurements on the radiologists and the radiographers who worked on a 3 T GE Healthcare Discovery 750 MR were carried out during the positioning of self-sufficient and collaborative patients. The sensor was worn at the chest level on the side that was nearest to the magnet bore. Results show wide variations occurring between individual working procedures concerning the handling of patients, especially during the initial position phase. The mean values of the time spent by radiographers inside the magnet room (B > 0.5 mT) to place the patient and to take him outside at the end of the exam were respectively 220 and 127 seconds. The mean value of the time spent by radiologists was 162 seconds when they had to insert a peripheral

  14. [Experimental evaluation of the occupational exposure to static magnetic fields on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner].

    PubMed

    Moro, Luca; Alabiso, Francesco; Parisoli, Francesco; Frigerio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The recent postponement until 31 October 2013 of the deadline for transposition of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, concerning the minimum health requirementsfor the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields between 0 and 300 GHz, keeps on suspending the Italian law which was aimed to implement the EU regulations on the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, including those generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) units. Waiting for the revision of the exposure limits proposed by the EU Directive taking into account results from new studies and evolution of knowledge, the time-weighted values of static magnetic field proposed by the Italian Ministry of Health (D.M 02/08/91) still survive as limits for worker's exposure. The comparison between the proposed thresholds and the time required to position patients allows to calculate how long the MRI staff can stay at different values of static magnetic field, i.e. the maximum workload of each worker. In order to evaluate more accurately how many time the members of MRI staff are near the magnet bore and the real value of worker's exposure to the static magnetic field during the handling of patients, a teslameter Metrolab THM1176-PDA was used. Personal exposure measurements on the radiologists and the radiographers who worked on a 3 T GE Healthcare Discovery 750 MR were carried out during the positioning of self-sufficient and collaborative patients. The sensor was worn at the chest level on the side that was nearest to the magnet bore. Results show wide variations occurring between individual working procedures concerning the handling of patients, especially during the initial position phase. The mean values of the time spent by radiographers inside the magnet room (B > 0.5 mT) to place the patient and to take him outside at the end of the exam were respectively 220 and 127 seconds. The mean value of the time spent by radiologists was 162 seconds when they had to insert a peripheral

  15. Left Ventricular Function Evaluation on a 3T MR Scanner with Parallel RF Transmission Technique: Prospective Comparison of Cine Sequences Acquired before and after Gadolinium Injection

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Thibault; Schultz, Anthony; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Labani, Aïssam; Jeung, Mi-Young; Jurgens, Paul Thomas; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cine MR b-TFE sequences acquired before and after gadolinium injection, on a 3T scanner with a parallel RF transmission technique in order to potentially improve scanning time efficiency when evaluating LV function. Methods 25 consecutive patients scheduled for a cardiac MRI were prospectively included and had their b-TFE cine sequences acquired before and right after gadobutrol injection. Images were assessed qualitatively (overall image quality, LV edge sharpness, artifacts and LV wall motion) and quantitatively with measurement of LVEF, LV mass, and telediastolic volume and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the myocardium and the cardiac chamber. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Bayesian paradigm. Results No difference was found before or after injection for the LVEF, LV mass and telediastolic volume evaluations. Overall image quality and CNR were significantly lower after injection (estimated coefficient cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.75 CI = [-3.78;-0.0305], prob(coef>0) = 0% and -0.23 CI = [-0.49;0.04], prob(coef>0) = 4%) respectively), but this decrease did not affect the visual assessment of LV wall motion (cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.46 CI = [-4.72;1.13], prob(coef>0) = 15%). Conclusions In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, qualitative and quantitative assessment of LV function can reliably be performed with cine sequences acquired after gadolinium injection, despite a significant decrease in the CNR and the overall image quality. PMID:27669571

  16. 1H MR Spectroscopy at 1.5 T & 3 T with clinical sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2004-09-01

    The only two MR spectroscopy clinical sequences are PRESS and STEAM. The STEAM sequence is able to generate a signal in a short time compared to PRESS and when operated as a single voxel technique. Half of the magnetisation theoretically contributes to 50% of the acquired signal. The metabolite concentration is altered because of this sequence disadvantage. Phantom spectra were acquired under different conditions to obtain the optimum MRS parameters. All spectrum experiments were computed on two clinical MR imagers (1.5T & 3T). No apparent increment can be observed when operating at 3 T.

  17. MR Spectroscopic Imaging of Peripheral Zone in Prostate Cancer Using a 3T MRI Scanner: Endorectal versus External Phased Array Coils.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Margolis, Daniel Ja; Raman, Steven S; Ouellette, David; Sarma, Manoj K; Reiter, Robert E; Thomas, M Albert

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) detects alterations in major prostate metabolites, such as citrate (Cit), creatine (Cr), and choline (Ch). We evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of three-dimensional MRSI of prostate using an endorectal compared to an external phased array "receive" coil on a 3T MRI scanner. Eighteen patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent endorectal MR imaging and proton (1H) MRSI were included in this study. Immediately after the endorectal MRSI scan, the PCa patients were scanned with the external phased array coil. The endorectal coil-detected metabolite ratio [(Ch+Cr)/Cit] was significantly higher in cancer locations (1.667 ± 0.663) compared to non-cancer locations (0.978 ± 0.420) (P < 0.001). Similarly, for the external phased array, the ratio was significantly higher in cancer locations (1.070 ± 0.525) compared to non-cancer locations (0.521 ± 0.310) (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and accuracy of cancer detection were 81% and 78% using the endorectal 'receive' coil, and 69% and 75%, respectively using the external phased array 'receive' coil.

  18. In Vivo O-Space Imaging With a Dedicated 12 cm Z2 Insert Coil on a Human 3T Scanner Using Phase Map Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Stockmann, Jason P.; Galiana, Gigi; Tam, Leo; Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Recently, spatial encoding with nonlinear magnetic fields has drawn attention for its potential to achieve faster gradient switching within safety limits, tailored resolution in regions of interest, and improved parallel imaging using encoding fields that complement the sensitivity profiles of radio frequency receive arrays. Proposed methods can broadly be divided into those that use phase encoding (Cartesian-trajectory PatLoc and COGNAC) and those that acquire nonlinear projections (O-Space, Null space imaging, radial PatLoc, and 4D-RIO). Nonlinear projection data are most often reconstructed with iterative algorithms that backproject data using the full encoding matrix. Just like conventional radial sequences that use linear spatial encoding magnetic fields, nonlinear projection methods are more sensitive than phase encoding methods to imperfect calibration of the encoding fields. In this work, voxel-wise phase evolution is mapped at each acquired point in an O-Space trajectory using a variant of chemical shift imaging, capturing all spin dynamics caused by encoding fields, eddy currents, and pulse timing. Phase map calibration is then applied to data acquired from a high-power, 12 cm, Z2 insert coil with an eight-channel radio frequency transmit-receive array on a 3T human scanner. We show the first experimental proof-of-concept O-Space images on in vivo and phantom samples, paving the way for more in-depth exploration of O-Space and similar imaging methods. PMID:22585546

  19. The clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Beom; Yang, Shin Suk; Lee, Woo Yong; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Shin, Hee Jung; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the clinical significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in cases of T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer. Eighty-nine patients diagnosed with T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer who underwent curative resection were enrolled. Tumors expressing neuroendocrine markers were classified as either low expression (2% cells staining positive for a neuroendocrine marker). Immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and synaptophysin revealed high expression in 27 (30.3%) and 69 (77.5%) of the 89 patients, respectively. All tumors that showed high expression of chromogranin A also displayed high expression of synaptophysin. With the exception of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, no statistically significant correlation was found between neuroendocrine differentiation and all other clinicopathologic variables. Analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that neuroendocrine differentiation for chromogranin A and synaptophysin was not associated with disease-free survival. Therefore, neuroendocrine differentiation markers would not be useful variables for prognostic assessment of patients with T3-T4 node-negative colorectal cancer.

  20. Spectroscopic Imaging with Improved Gradient Modulated Constant Adiabadicity Pulses on High-Field Clinical Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Jennings, Dominique; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to design and implement constant adiabadicity gradient modulated pulses that have improved slice profiles and reduced artifacts for spectroscopic imaging on 3T clinical scanners equipped with standard hardware. The newly proposed pulses were designed using the gradient offset independent adiabaticity (GOIA, Tannus and Garwood, 1997) method using WURST modulation for RF and gradient waveforms. The GOIA-WURST pulses were compared with GOIA-HSn (GOIA based on nth-order hyperbolic secant) and FOCI (Frequency Offset Corrected Inversion) pulses of the same bandwidth and duration. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements in phantoms and healthy volunteers are presented. GOIA-WURST pulses provide improved slice profile that have less slice smearing for off-resonance frequencies compared to GOIA-HSn pulses. The peak RF amplitude of GOIA-WURST is much lower (40% less) than FOCI but slightly higher (14.9% more) to GOIA-HSn. The quality of spectra as shown by the analysis of line-shapes, eddy currents artifacts, subcutaneous lipid contamination and SNR is improved for GOIA-WURST. GOIA-WURST pulse tested in this work shows that reliable spectroscopic imaging could be obtained in routine clinical setup and might facilitate the use of clinical spectroscopy. PMID:20163975

  1. Optimized magnetic resonance diffusion protocol for ex-vivo whole human brain imaging with a clinical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides a novel insight into the brain to facilitate our understanding of the brain connectivity and microstructure. While in-vivo DW-MRI enables imaging of living patients and longitudinal studies of brain changes, post-mortem ex-vivo DW-MRI has numerous advantages. Ex-vivo imaging benefits from greater resolution and sensitivity due to the lack of imaging time constraints; the use of tighter fitting coils; and the lack of movement artifacts. This allows characterization of normal and abnormal tissues with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, facilitating our ability to investigate anatomical structures that are inaccessible in-vivo. This also offers the opportunity to develop today novel imaging biomarkers that will, with tomorrow's MR technology, enable improved in-vivo assessment of the risk of disease in an individual. Post-mortem studies, however, generally rely on the fixation of specimen to inhibit tissue decay which starts as soon as tissue is deprived from its blood supply. Unfortunately, fixation of tissues substantially alters tissue diffusivity profiles. In addition, ex-vivo DW-MRI requires particular care when packaging the specimen because the presence of microscopic air bubbles gives rise to geometric and intensity image distortion. In this work, we considered the specific requirements of post-mortem imaging and designed an optimized protocol for ex-vivo whole brain DW-MRI using a human clinical 3T scanner. Human clinical 3T scanners are available to a large number of researchers and, unlike most animal scanners, have a bore diameter large enough to image a whole human brain. Our optimized protocol will facilitate widespread ex-vivo investigations of large specimen.

  2. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  3. MRI Near Metallic Implants Using MAVRIC SL: Initial Clinical Experience at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Luis B.; Do, Bao H.; Gold, Garry E.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Koch, Kevin M.; Worters, Pauline W.; Stevens, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To compare the effectiveness of MAVRIC SL with conventional 2D-FSE MR techniques at 3T in imaging patients with a variety of metallic implants. Materials and Methods Twenty-one 3T MR studies were obtained in 19 patients with different types of metal implants. Paired MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE sequences were reviewed by 2 radiologists, and compared for in-plane and through-plane metal artifact, visualization of the bone implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, blurring, and overall image quality using a 2-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. The area of artifact on paired images was measured and compared using a paired Wilcoxon signed rank test. Changes in patient management resulting from MAVRIC SL imaging were documented. Results Significantly less in-plane and through-plane artifact was seen with MAVRIC SL, with improved visualization of the bone-implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, and superior overall image quality (p = 0.0001). Increased blurring was seen with MAVRIC SL (p=0.0016). MAVRIC SL significantly decreased the image artifact compared to 2D-FSE (p=0.0001). Inclusion of MAVRIC SL to the imaging protocol determined the need for surgery or type of surgery in 5 patients, and ruled out the need for surgery in 13 patients. In 3 patients the area of interest was well seen on both MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE images, so the addition of MAVRIC had no effect on patient management. Conclusion Imaging around metal implants with MAVRIC SL at 3T significantly improved image quality and decreased image artifact compared to conventional 2D-FSE imaging techniques, and directly impacted patient management. PMID:25435186

  4. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Mahtab; Farzan, Arash; Baghban, Ali Reza Akbarzadeh; Massudi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxillary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula. RESULTS: The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140). The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24). In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors. PMID:25741826

  5. SU-E-J-35: Clinical Performance Evaluation of a Phase II Proton CT Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A; Ghebremedhin, A; Farley, D; Giacometti, V; Vence, N; Bashkirov, V; Patyal, B; Schulte, R; Plautz, T; Zatserklyaniy, A; Johnson, R; Sadrozinski, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop the methodology to evaluate the clinical performance of a Phase II Proton CT scanner Methods: Range errors on the order of 3%-5% constitute a major uncertainty in current charged particle treatment planning based on Hounsfield Unit (HU)-relative stopping power (RSP) calibration curves. Within our proton CT collaboration, we previously developed and built a Phase I proton CT scanner that provided a sensitive area of 9 cm (axial) × 18 cm (in-plane). This scanner served to get initial experience with this new treatment planning tool and to incorporate lessons learned into the next generation design. A Phase II scanner was recently completed and is now undergoing initial performance testing. It will increase the proton acquisition rate and provide a larger detection area of 9 cm x 36 cm. We are now designing a comprehensive evaluation program to test the image quality, imaging dose, and range uncertainty associated with this scanner. The testing will be performed along the lines of AAPM TG 66. Results: In our discussion of the evaluation protocol we identified the following priorities. The image quality of proton CT images, in particular spatial resolution and low-density contrast discrimination, will be evaluated with the Catphan600 phantom. Initial testing showed that the Catphan uniformity phantom did not provide sufficient uniformity; it was thus replaced by a cylindrical water phantom. The imaging dose will be tested with a Catphan dose module, and compared to a typical cone beam CT dose for comparable image quality. Lastly, we developed a dedicated dosimetry range phantom based on the CIRS pediatric head phantom HN715. Conclusion: A formal evaluation of proton CT as a new tool for proton treatment planning is an important task. The availability of the new Phase II proton CT scanner will allow us to perform this task. This research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the NIH under award number R01

  6. Clinical experience with the first combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanner in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lau, W F Eddie; Binns, David S; Ware, Robert E; Ramdave, Shakher; Cachin, Florent; Pitman, Alexander G; Hicks, Rodney J

    2005-02-21

    Metabolic imaging with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasing rapidly worldwide because of superior accuracy compared with conventional non-invasive techniques used for evaluating cancer. Limited anatomical information from FDG-PET images alone dictates that complementary use with structural imaging is required to optimise benefit. Recently, combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners have overtaken standalone PET scanners as the most commonly purchased PET devices. We describe our experience of over 5500 scans performed since the first PET/CT scanner in Australia was commissioned at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (PMCC), Melbourne, in January 2002. Clinical indications for PET/CT scans performed at PMCC largely reflect current Medicare reimbursement policy. Advantages of PET/CT include greater patient comfort and higher throughput, greater diagnostic certainty and accuracy, improved biopsy methods, and better treatment planning. We believe PET/CT will underpin more effective and efficient imaging paradigms for many common tumours, and lead to a decrease in imaging costs. PMID:15720173

  7. First results from a hybrid prototype CT scanner for exploring benefits of quantum-counting in clinical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, S.; Hannemann, T.; Kraft, E.; Kreisler, B.; Niederloehner, D.; Stierstorfer, K.; Flohr, T.

    2012-03-01

    μWe introduce a novel hybrid prototype scanner built to explore benefits of the quantum-counting technique in the context of clinical CT. The scanner is equipped with two measurement systems. One is a CdTe-based counting detector with 22cm field-of-view. Its revised ASIC architecture allows configuration of the counter thresholds of the 225m small sub-pixels in chess patterns, enabling data acquisition in four energy bins or studying high-flux scenarios with pile-up trigger. The other one is a conventional GOS-based energy-integrating detector from a clinical CT scanner. The integration of both detection technologies in one CT scanner provides two major advantages. It allows direct comparison of image quality and contrast reproduction as well as instantaneous quantification of the relative dose usage and material separation performance achievable with counting techniques. In addition, data from the conventional detector can be used as complementary information during reconstruction of the images from the counting device. In this paper we present CT images acquired with the hybrid prototype scanner, illustrate its underlying conceptual methods, and provide first experimental results quantifying clinical benefits of quantum-counting CT.

  8. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300 g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0 T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12 ± 0.04 cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28 ± 34.61% and 26.45 ± 5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents.

  9. Cardiac imaging using clinical 1.5 t MRI scanners in a murine ischemia/reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Voelkl, Jakob G J; Haubner, Bernhard J; Kremser, Christian; Mayr, Agnes; Klug, Gert; Loizides, Alexander; Müller, Silvana; Pachinger, Otmar; Schocke, Michael; Metzler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    To perform cardiac imaging in mice without having to invest in expensive dedicated equipment, we adapted a clinical 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for use in a murine ischemia/reperfusion model. Phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) sequence facilitated the determination of infarct sizes in vivo by late gadolinium enhancement. Results were compared to histological infarct areas in mice after ischemia/reperfusion procedure with a good correlation (r = 0.807, P < .001). In addition, fractional area change (FAC) was assessed with single slice cine MRI and was matched to infarct size (r = -0.837) and fractional shortening (FS) measured with echocardiography (r = 0.860); both P < .001. Here, we demonstrate the use of clinical 1.5 MRI scanners as a feasible method for basic phenotyping in mice. These widely available scanners are capable of investigating in vivo infarct dimensions as well as assessment of cardiac functional parameters in mice with reasonable throughput.

  10. Image quality assessment of a pre-clinical flat-panel volumetric micro-CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Louise Y.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Holdsworth, David W.

    2006-03-01

    Small animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. Current micro-CT systems are capable of achieving spatial resolution on the order of 10 μm, giving highly detailed anatomical information. However, the speed of data acquisition of these systems is relatively slow, when compared with clinical CT systems. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging has proven to be a powerful tool clinically in detecting and diagnosing cancer, stroke, pulmonary and ischemic heart diseases. In order to perform this technique in mice and rats, quantitative CT images must be acquired at a rate of at least 1 Hz. Recently, a research pre-clinical CT scanner (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare) has been designed specifically for dynamic perfusion imaging in small animals. Using an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector and a clinical slip-ring gantry, this system is capable of acquiring volumetric image data at a rate of 1 Hz, with in-plane resolution of 150 μm, while covering the entire thoracic region of a mouse or whole organs of a rat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the principal imaging performance of the micro-CT system, in terms of spatial resolution, image uniformity, linearity, dose and voxel noise for the feasibility of imaging mice and rats. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.7 line pairs per mm and noise of 42 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 seconds at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy.

  11. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  12. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W.; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167–181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85 × 0.85 × 0.85 mm3) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2 × 2 × 2 mm3). PMID:26072250

  13. Thalamic nuclei segmentation in clinical 3T T1-weighted Images using high-resolution 7T shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; D'Haese, Pierre-François; Newton, Allen T.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate and reliable identification of thalamic nuclei is important for surgical interventions and neuroanatomical studies. This is a challenging task due to their small sizes and low intra-thalamic contrast in standard T1-weighted or T2- weighted images. Previously proposed techniques rely on diffusion imaging or functional imaging. These require additional scanning and suffer from the low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in these images. In this paper, we aim to directly segment the thalamic nuclei in standard 3T T1-weighted images using shape models. We manually delineate the structures in high-field MR images and build high resolution shape models from a group of subjects. We then investigate if the nuclei locations can be inferred from the whole thalamus. To do this, we hierarchically fit joint models. We start from the entire thalamus and fit a model that captures the relation between the thalamus and large nuclei groups. This allows us to infer the boundaries of these nuclei groups and we repeat the process until all nuclei are segmented. We validate our method in a leave-one-out fashion with seven subjects by comparing the shape-based segmentations on 3T images to the manual contours. Results we have obtained for major nuclei (dice coefficients ranging from 0.57 to 0.88 and mean surface errors from 0.29mm to 0.72mm) suggest the feasibility of using such joint shape models for localization. This may have a direct impact on surgeries such as Deep Brain Stimulation procedures that require the implantation of stimulating electrodes in specific thalamic nuclei.

  14. Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghita, Monica

    Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations

  15. High-resolution label-free vascular imaging using a commercial, clinically approved dermatological OCT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, R. A.; Tozer, G.; Brown, N. J.; Matcher, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Background and Aim: Recently developed decorrelative techniques such as speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) have demonstrated non-invasive depth-resolved imaging of the microcirculation in-vivo. However, bulk tissue motion (BTM) originating from the subject's breathing or heartbeat remains problematic at low imaging speeds, often resulting in full frame decorrelation and a loss of vascular contrast. The aim of this study was to build upon existing svOCT techniques through utilisation of a commercially available, probe-based VivoSight OCT system running at 20 kHz Axial-scan rate. Methods and results: Custom four-dimensional scanning strategies were developed and utilised in order to maximise the interframe correlation during image acquisition. Volumes of structural OCT data were collected from various anatomical regions and processed using the aforementioned svOCT algorithm to reveal angiographic information. Following data collection, three dimensional image registration and novel filtering algorithms were applied to each volume in order to ensure that BTM artefacts were sufficiently suppressed. This enabled accurate visualisation of the microcirculation within the papillary dermis, to a depth of approximately 2mm. Applications of this technique, including quantitative capillary loop density measurement and visualisation of wound healing are demonstrated and enhanced through widefield mosaicing of the svOCT data. Conclusions: Non-invasive microcirculation imaging using an FDA 510(k) approved OCT scanner such as the VivoSight allows direct clinical utilisation of these techniques, in particular for the pathological analysis of skin diseases. This research was supported by BBSRC Doctoral Training Grant: BB/F016840/1. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the use of equipment funded by MRC grant: MR/L012669/1.

  16. Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel

  17. Practical considerations for noise power spectra estimation for clinical CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Steven; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Anastasio, Mark; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Local noise power spectra (NPS) have been commonly calculated to represent the noise properties of CT imaging systems, but their properties are significantly affected by the utilized calculation schemes. In this study, the effects of varied calculation parameters on the local NPS were analyzed, and practical suggestions were provided regarding the estimation of local NPS for clinical CT scanners. The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64 slice CT simulator with varied scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using FBP and iDose4 iterative reconstruction with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6. Local NPS were calculated and compared for varied region of interest (ROI) locations and sizes, image background removal methods, and window functions. Additionally, with a predetermined NPS as a ground truth, local NPS calculation accuracy was compared for computer simulated ROIs, varying the aforementioned parameters in addition to ROI number. An analysis of the effects of these varied calculation parameters on the magnitude and shape of the NPS was conducted. The local NPS varied depending on calculation parameters, particularly at low spatial frequencies below ~ 0.15 mm-1. For the simulation study, NPS calculation error decreased exponentially as ROI number increased. For the Catphan study the NPS magnitude varied as a function of ROI location, which was better observed when using smaller ROI sizes. The image subtraction method for background removal was the most effective at reducing low-frequency background noise, and produced similar results no matter which ROI size or window function was used. The PCA background removal method with a Hann window function produced the closest match to image subtraction, with an average percent difference of 17.5%. Image noise should be analyzed locally by calculating the NPS for small ROI sizes. A minimum ROI size is recommended based on the chosen radial bin size and image pixel

  18. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on

  19. NEMA and clinical evaluation of a novel brain PET-CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Grogg, Kira S.; Toole, Terrence; Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Normandin, Marc; Johnson, Keith; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Fakhri, Georges El

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel mobile human brain/small animal PET-CT system, developed by Photo Diagnostic Systems Inc. The scanner has a 35.7-cm diameter bore and a 22-cm axial extent. The detector ring has 7 modules each with 3×4 cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal blocks, each consisting of 22×22 outer layer and 21×21 inner layer crystals, each layer 1 cm thick. Light is collected by 12×12 SiPMs. The integrated CT can be used for attenuation correction and anatomical localization. The scanner was designed as a low-cost device that nevertheless produces high-quality PET images with the unique capability of battery-powered propulsion, enabling use in many settings. Methods Spatial resolution, sensitivity and noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) were measured based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 procedures. Reconstruction was done with tight energy and timing cuts: 400-650 keV and 7ns, and loose cuts: 350-700 keV and 10ns. Additional image quality measurements were made from phantoms, human, and animal studies. Performance was compared to a reference scanner (ECAT Exact HR+) with comparable imaging properties. Results The full-width half-max transverse resolution at 1 cm (10 cm) radius is 3.2 mm (5.2 mm radial, 3.1 mm tangential) and the axial resolution is 3.5 mm (4.0 mm). For tight (loose) cuts, a sensitivity of 7.5 (11.7) kcps/MBq at the center increases to 8.8 (13.9) kcps/MBq at a 10 cm radial offset. The maximum NECR of 19.5 (22.7) kcps was achieved for an activity concentration of 2.9 kBq/ml. Contrast recovery for 4:1 hot cylinder to warm background was 76% for the 25 mm diameter cylinder, but decreased with decreasing cylinder size. The quantitation agrees within 2% of the known activity distribution and concentration. Brain phantom and human scans have shown agreement in SUV values and image quality with the HR+. Conclusion We have characterized the performance of the Neuro

  20. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  1. MARIA M4: clinical evaluation of a prototype ultrawideband radar scanner for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Preece, Alan W; Craddock, Ian; Shere, Mike; Jones, Lyn; Winton, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    A microwave imaging system has been developed as a clinical diagnostic tool operating in the 3- to 8-GHz region using multistatic data collection. A total of 86 patients recruited from a symptomatic breast care clinic were scanned with a prototype design. The resultant three-dimensional images have been compared "blind" with available ultrasound and mammogram images to determine the detection rate. Images show the location of the strongest signal, and this corresponded in both older and younger women, with sensitivity of [Formula: see text], which was found to be maintained in dense breasts. The pathway from clinical prototype to clinical evaluation is outlined.

  2. MARIA M4: clinical evaluation of a prototype ultrawideband radar scanner for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Preece, Alan W; Craddock, Ian; Shere, Mike; Jones, Lyn; Winton, Helen L

    2016-07-01

    A microwave imaging system has been developed as a clinical diagnostic tool operating in the 3- to 8-GHz region using multistatic data collection. A total of 86 patients recruited from a symptomatic breast care clinic were scanned with a prototype design. The resultant three-dimensional images have been compared "blind" with available ultrasound and mammogram images to determine the detection rate. Images show the location of the strongest signal, and this corresponded in both older and younger women, with sensitivity of [Formula: see text], which was found to be maintained in dense breasts. The pathway from clinical prototype to clinical evaluation is outlined. PMID:27446970

  3. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND... element on a radiochromatogram. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  4. TH-C-18A-06: Combined CT Image Quality and Radiation Dose Monitoring Program Based On Patient Data to Assess Consistency of Clinical Imaging Across Scanner Models

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, O; Winslow, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: One of the principal challenges of clinical imaging is to achieve an ideal balance between image quality and radiation dose across multiple CT models. The number of scanners and protocols at large medical centers necessitates an automated quality assurance program to facilitate this objective. Therefore, the goal of this work was to implement an automated CT image quality and radiation dose monitoring program based on actual patient data and to use this program to assess consistency of protocols across CT scanner models. Methods: Patient CT scans are routed to a HIPPA compliant quality assurance server. CTDI, extracted using optical character recognition, and patient size, measured from the localizers, are used to calculate SSDE. A previously validated noise measurement algorithm determines the noise in uniform areas of the image across the scanned anatomy to generate a global noise level (GNL). Using this program, 2358 abdominopelvic scans acquired on three commercial CT scanners were analyzed. Median SSDE and GNL were compared across scanner models and trends in SSDE and GNL with patient size were used to determine the impact of differing automatic exposure control (AEC) algorithms. Results: There was a significant difference in both SSDE and GNL across scanner models (9–33% and 15–35% for SSDE and GNL, respectively). Adjusting all protocols to achieve the same image noise would reduce patient dose by 27–45% depending on scanner model. Additionally, differences in AEC methodologies across vendors resulted in disparate relationships of SSDE and GNL with patient size. Conclusion: The difference in noise across scanner models indicates that protocols are not optimally matched to achieve consistent image quality. Our results indicated substantial possibility for dose reduction while achieving more consistent image appearance. Finally, the difference in AEC methodologies suggests the need for size-specific CT protocols to minimize variability in image

  5. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND... to measure the concentration of a substance on the surface of a film or other support media by...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND... to measure the concentration of a substance on the surface of a film or other support media by...

  7. Cylindrical Scanner

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to sendmore » data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.« less

  8. Design and performance of a multi-pinhole collimation device for small animal imaging with clinical SPECT and SPECT-CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Frank P

    2008-08-01

    A multi-pinhole collimation device is developed that uses the gamma camera detectors of a clinical SPECT or SPECT-CT scanner to produce high-resolution SPECT images. The device consists of a rotating cylindrical collimator having 22 tungsten pinholes with 0.9 mm diameter apertures and an animal bed inside the collimator that moves linearly to provide helical or ordered-subsets axial sampling. CT images also may be acquired on a SPECT-CT scanner for purposes of image co-registration and SPECT attenuation correction. The device is placed on the patient table of the scanner without attaching to the detectors or scanner gantry. The system geometry is calibrated in-place from point source data and is then used during image reconstruction. The SPECT imaging performance of the device is evaluated with test phantom scans. Spatial resolution from reconstructed point source images is measured to be 0.6 mm full width at half maximum or better. Micro-Derenzo phantom images demonstrate the ability to resolve 0.7 mm diameter rod patterns. The axial slabs of a Micro-Defrise phantom are visualized well. Collimator efficiency exceeds 0.05% at the center of the field of view, and images of a uniform phantom show acceptable uniformity and minimal artifact. The overall simplicity and relatively good imaging performance of the device make it an interesting low-cost alternative to dedicated small animal scanners.

  9. Improving Clinical Feedback to Anesthesia Residents by Using an Optical Scanner and a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Iowa problems associated with managing evaluations of anesthesia residents led to a major backlog of unanalyzed evaluation forms. A system developed at the University that enables ongoing feedback to residents and provides a method to assess the clinical competence of residents is described. (Author/MLW)

  10. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  11. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  12. Gated cardiac imaging using a continuously rotating CT scanner: clinical evaluation of 91 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Y.; Uji, T.; Hirayama, T.; Inada, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Fujii, M.

    1984-05-01

    To produce electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated computed tomographic (CT) image of the heart, a post-data-acquisition ECG correlation technique was used in which data for missing angular projections are derived from the original scan data to complete 360 angular projections. Improved image quality and clinical usefulness were demonstrated compared with routine nongated CT and two-dimensional echocardiography. The equipment required for CT gating is of low cost, but the examination time is lengthy and less conveniently performed than echocardiography. However, when echocardiography is indecisive or suspected to be falsely negative, gated CT imaging of the heart is recommended.

  13. Clinical utility and economic viability of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre: The experience of the centre Oscar Lambret.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, S; Devise, V; Pouliquen, G; Rocourt, N; Faivre-Pierret, M; Brongniart, S; Peugny, P; Ceugnart, L

    2012-07-01

    This paper will try and describe the installation of a 3T MRI in an anti-cancer centre. Functional sequences become indispensable in the assessment of targeted treatments. It is only possible to carry out these treatments on a routine basis in acceptable examination times with 3T. The technical constraints are overcome with third generation MRI and the improvement of the spatial resolution in examination times reduced by 30 to 50% increases patient comfort. Nevertheless, the financial constraints represent a major handicap. It is not possible to obtain an economic balance with rates based on the cost and depreciation of 1.5T imagers that are half the price. PMID:22726637

  14. Characterization of Nyquist ghost in EPI-fMRI acquisition sequences implemented on two clinical 1.5 T MR scanner systems: effect of readout bandwidth and echo spacing.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Tessa, Carlo; Mascalchi, Mario

    2010-07-12

    In EPI-fMRI acquisitions, various readout bandwidth (BW) values are used as a function of gradients' characteristics of the MR scanner system. Echo spacing (ES) is another fundamental parameter of EPI-fMRI sequences, but the employed ES value is not usually reported in fMRI studies. Nyquist ghost is a typical EPI artifact that can degrade the overall quality of fMRI time series. In this work, the authors assessed the basic effect of BW and ES for two clinical 1.5 T MR scanner systems (scanner-A, scanner-B) on Nyquist ghost of gradient-echo EPI-fMRI sequences. BW range was: scanner-A, 1953-3906 Hz/pixel; scanner-B, 1220-2894 Hz/pixel. ES range was: scanner-A, scanner-B: 0.75-1.33 ms. The ghost-to-signal ratio of time series acquisition (GSRts) and drift of ghost-to-signal ratio (DRGSR) were measured in a water phantom. For both scanner-A (93% of variation) and scanner-B (102% of variation) the mean GSRts significantly increased with increasing BW. GSRts values of scanner-A did not significantly depended on ES. On the other hand, GSRts values of scanner-B significantly varied with ES, showing a downward trend (81% of variation) with increasing ES. In addition, a GSRts spike point at ES = 1.05 ms indicating a potential resonant effect was revealed. For both scanners, no significant effect of ES on DRGSR was revealed. DRGSR values of scanner-B did not significantly vary with BW, whereas DRGSR values of scanner-A significantly depended on BW showing an upward trend from negative to positive values with increasing BW. GSRts and DRGSR can significantly vary with BW and ES, and the specific pattern of variation may depend on gradients performances, EPI sequence calibrations and functional design of radiofrequency coil. Thus, each MR scanner system should be separately characterized. In general, the employment of low BW values seems to reduce the intensity and temporal variation of Nyquist ghost in EPI-fMRI time series. On the other hand, the use of minimum ES value might

  15. Optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, Mitchell W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for imaging lines in an object plane onto a linear array in a focal plane either continuously or discretely is described. The scanner consists of a set of four mutually perpendicularly oriented plane corner mirrors which provide a reflecting path that describes a parallelogram. In addition, there is a plane parallel scanning mirror with a front and back reflecting surface located midway between the first and fourth corner mirrors. It is oriented so that in the mid-scan position it is parallel to the first corner mirror, and therefore perpendicular to the fourth corner mirror. As the scan mirror rotates, rays incident from a plurality of lines in the object plane are selectively directed through the optical system arriving at a common intersection on the back surface of the scanning mirror where the rays are colinearly directed toward a lens and then imaged onto the linear array in the focal plane. A set of compensating mirrors may be introduced just before the imaging lens to compensate for a small and generally negligible path difference delta sub l between the axial and marginal rays.

  16. MR thermometry analysis program for laser- or high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating at a clinical MR scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Jeong, Kiyoung; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Daehong; Park, Eun Hae; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry is a noninvasive method for monitoring local temperature change during thermal therapy. In this study, a MR temperature analysis program was established for a laser with gold nanorods (GNRs) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-induced heating MR thermometry. The MR temperature map was reconstructed using the water proton resonance frequency (PRF) method. The temperature-sensitive phase difference was acquired by using complex number subtraction instead of direct phase subtraction in order to avoid another phase unwrapping process. A temperature map-analyzing program was developed and implemented in IDL (Interactive Data Language) for effective temperature monitoring. This one program was applied to two different heating devices at a clinical MR scanner. All images were acquired with the fast spoiled gradient echo (fSPGR) pulse sequence on a 3.0 T GE Discovery MR750 scanner with an 8-channel knee array coil or with a home-built small surface coil. The analyzed temperature values were confirmed by using values simultaneously measured with an optical temperature probe (R2 = 0.996). The temperature change in small samples induced by a laser or by HIFU was analyzed by using a raw data, that consisted of complex numbers. This study shows that our MR thermometry analysis program can be used for thermal therapy study with a laser or HIFU at a clinical MR scanner. It can also be applied to temperature monitoring for any other thermal therapy based on the PRF method.

  17. Philips 3T Intera Magnetic Resonance Imaging System and Upgrade of existing MRI equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Evanochko, William T

    2004-05-14

    The objective of this proposal was twofold. First, upgrade existing MRI equipment, specifically a research 4.1T whole-body system. Second, purchase a clinical, state-of-the-art 3T MRI system tailored specifically to cardiovascular and neurological applications. This project was within the guidelines of ''Medical Applications and Measurement Science''. The goals were: [1] to develop beneficial applications of magnetic resonance imaging; [2] discover new applications of MR strategies for medical research; and [2] apply them for clinical diagnosis. Much of this proposal searched for breakthroughs in this noninvasive and nondestructive imaging technology. Finally, this proposal's activities focused on research in the basic science of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and engineering as applied to bioengineering. The centerpiece of this grant was our 4.1T ultra-high field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance system and the newly acquired state-of-the-art, heart and head dedicated 3T clinical MRI system. We have successfully upgraded the equipment for the 4.1T system so that it is now state-of-the-art with new gradient and radio frequency amplifiers. We also purchase a unique In Vivo EKG monitoring unit that will permit tracking clinical quality EKG signals while the patient is in a high field MR scanner. Important upgrades of a peripheral vascular coil and a state-of-the-art clinical workstation for processing complex heart images were implemented. The most recent acquisition was the purchase of a state-of-the-art Philips 3T Intera clinical MRI system. This system is unique in that the magnet is only 5 1/2 feet long compare to over 12 feet long magnet of our 4.1T MRI system. The 3T MRI system is fully functional and its use and applications are already greatly benefiting the UAB with 200-300 micron resolution brain images and diagnostic quality MR angiography of coronary arteries in less than 5 minutes.

  18. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns using the time-spatial labeling inversion pulse technique with 3T MRI: early clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kayoko; Ono, Yuko; Yoneyama, Hiroko; Nishina, Yu; Aihara, Yasuo; Okada, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    CSF imaging using the time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) technique at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. The study population comprised 15 healthy volunteers and five patients with MR findings showing expansive dilation of the third and lateral ventricles suggesting aqueductal stenosis (AS). Signal intensity changes were evaluated in the tag-labeled CSF, untagged brain parenchyma, and untagged CSF of healthy volunteers by changing of black-blood time-inversion pulse (BBTI). CSF flow from the aqueduct to the third ventricle, the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle, and the foramen of Monro to the lateral ventricle was clearly rendered in all healthy volunteers with suitable BBTI. The travel distance of CSF flow as demonstrated by the time-SLIP technique was compared with the distance between the aqueduct and the fourth ventricle. The distance between the foramen of Monro and the lateral ventricle was used to calculate the CSF flow/distance ratio (CD ratio). The CD ratio at each level was significantly reduced in patients suspected to have AS compared to healthy volunteers. CSF flow was not identified at the aqueductal level in most of the patients. Two patients underwent time-SLIP assessments before and after endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETVs). CSF flow at the ETV site was confirmed in each patient. With the time-SLIP technique, CSF imaging is sensitive enough to detect kinetic changes in CSF flow due to AS and ETV.

  19. Fast and compact optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a water-proofing two-axis MEMS scanner, and a step forward to clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel microscopic tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. Conventional OR-PAM systems are typically slow and bulky because of the linear scanning stages with stepping motors. For practical purposes, however, fast imaging speed and small footprint are crucial. To address these issues, we have developed a real-time compact OR-PAM system equipped with a waterproof two-axis MEMS scanner. The OR-PAM system consists of key components such as an ultrasonic transducer with a bandwidth of 50 MHz, an opto-acoustic beam combiner (BC), and an MEMS scanner. These are all installed inside a small water tank, with dimensions of 30 mm × 90 mm × 30 mm along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. A pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 50 kHz is confocally aligned with the photoacoustic (PA) waves in the BC to maximize the SNRs. The fast scanning ability of the MEMS scanner fully utilizes the A-scan speed of 50 kHz. For instance, the B- and C-scan imaging speeds are 125 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively, when the acquired PA maximum amplitude projection image has 200 × 200 pixels along the x- and y-axes, respectively. The measured lateral resolution of 3.6 μm and axial resolution of 27 μm are sufficient to resolve the small capillaries. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of iris microvasculatures in mice. This real-time and compact OR-PAM system is optimized to examine small animals in clinical studies.

  20. Quantitative study of liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy quality at 3T using body and phased array coils with physical analysis and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Gu, Shiyong; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Changhong; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality difference of short echo time (TE) breathhold 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the liver at 3.0T using the body and phased array coils, respectively. In total, 20 pairs of single-voxel proton spectra of the liver were acquired at 3.0T using the phased array and body coils as receivers. Consecutive stacks of breathhold spectra were acquired using the point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) technique at a short TE of 30 ms and a repetition time (TR) of 1500 ms. The first spectroscopy sequence was "copied" for the second acquisition to ensure identical voxel positioning. The MRS prescan adjustments of shimming and water suppression, signal-to noise ratio (SNR), and major liver quantitative information were compared between paired spectra. Theoretical calculation of the SNR and homogeneity of the region of interest (ROI, 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm) using different coils loaded with 3D liver electromagnetic model of real human body was implemented in the theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis showed that, inside the ROI, the SNR of the phase array coil was 2.8387 times larger than that of body coil and the homogeneity of the phase array coil and body coil was 80.10% and 93.86%, respectively. The experimental results showed excellent correlations between the paired data (all r > 0.86). Compared with the body coil group, the phased array group had slightly worse shimming effect and better SNR (all P values < .01). The discrepancy of the line width because of the different coils was approximately 0.8 Hz (0.00625 ppm). No significant differences of the major liver quantitative information of Cho/Lip2 height, Cho/Lip2 area, and lipid content were observed (all P values >0.05). The theoretical analysis and clinical experiment showed that the phased array coil was superior to the body coil with respect to 3.0T breathhold hepatic proton MRS.

  1. Multi-channel metabolic imaging, with SENSE reconstruction, of hyperpolarized [1- 13C] pyruvate in a live rat at 3.0 tesla on a clinical MR scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, James; Lupo, Janine M.; Chen, Albert; Calderon, Paul; McCune, Don; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Hu, Simon; Yen, Yi-Fen; Robb, Fraser; Bok, Robert; Schulte, Rolf; Xu, Duan; Hurd, Ralph; Vigneron, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    We report metabolic images of 13C, following injection of a bolus of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate in a live rat. The data were acquired on a clinical scanner, using custom coils for volume transmission and array reception. Proton blocking of all carbon resonators enabled proton anatomic imaging with the system body coil, to allow for registration of anatomic and metabolic images, for which good correlation was achieved, with some anatomic features (kidney and heart) clearly visible in a carbon image, without reference to the corresponding proton image. Parallel imaging with sensitivity encoding was used to increase the spatial resolution in the SI direction of the rat. The signal to noise ratio in was in some instances unexpectedly high in the parallel images; variability of the polarization among different trials, plus partial volume effects, are noted as a possible cause of this.

  2. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  3. Characterization, prediction, and correction of geometric distortion in 3 T MR images.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Lesley N; Wachowicz, Keith; Thomas, Steven D; Rivest, Ryan; Fallone, B Gino

    2007-02-01

    The work presented herein describes our methods and results for predicting, measuring and correcting geometric distortions in a 3 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for the purpose of image guidance in radiation treatment planning. Geometric inaccuracies due to both inhomogeneities in the background field and nonlinearities in the applied gradients were easily visualized on the MR images of a regularly structured three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom. From a computed tomography scan, the locations of just under 10 000 control points within the phantom were accurately determined in three dimensions using a MATLAB-based computer program. MR distortion was then determined by measuring the corresponding locations of the control points when the phantom was imaged using the MR scanner. Using a reversed gradient method, distortions due to gradient nonlinearities were separated from distortions due to inhomogeneities in the background B0 field. Because the various sources of machine-related distortions can be individually characterized, distortions present in other imaging sequences (for which 3D distortion cannot accurately be measured using phantom methods) can be predicted negating the need for individual distortion calculation for a variety of other imaging sequences. Distortions were found to be primarily caused by gradient nonlinearities and maximum image distortions were reported to be less than those previously found by other researchers at 1.5 T. Finally, the image slices were corrected for distortion in order to provide geometrically accurate phantom images. PMID:17388155

  4. Three-dimensional SPACE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery at 3 T to improve subthalamic nucleus lead placement for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: from preclinical to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Senova, Suhan; Hosomi, Koichi; Gurruchaga, Jean-Marc; Gouello, Gaëtane; Ouerchefani, Naoufel; Beaugendre, Yara; Lepetit, Hélène; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Badin, Romina Aron; Dauguet, Julien; Jan, Caroline; Hantraye, Philippe; Brugières, Pierre; Palfi, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for motor symptoms in patients with pharmacoresistant Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the procedure, which requires multimodal perioperative exploration such as imaging, electrophysiology, or clinical examination during macrostimulation to secure lead positioning, remains challenging because the STN cannot be reliably visualized using the gold standard, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) at 1.5 T. Thus, there is a need to improve imaging tools to better visualize the STN, optimize DBS lead implantation, and enlarge DBS diffusion. METHODS Gradient-echo sequences such as those used in T2WI suffer from higher distortions at higher magnetic fields than spin-echo sequences. First, a spin-echo 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions) FLAIR sequence at 3 T was designed, validated histologically in 2 nonhuman primates, and applied to 10 patients with PD; their data were clinically compared in a double-blind manner with those of a control group of 10 other patients with PD in whom STN targeting was performed using T2WI. RESULTS Overlap between the nonhuman primate STNs segmented on 3D-histological and on 3D-SPACE-FLAIR volumes was high for the 3 most anterior quarters (mean [± SD] Dice scores 0.73 ± 0.11, 0.74 ± 0.06, and 0.60 ± 0.09). STN limits determined by the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence were more consistent with electrophysiological edges than those determined by T2WI (0.9 vs 1.4 mm, respectively). The imaging contrast of the STN on the 3D-SPACE-FLAIR sequence was 4 times higher (p < 0.05). Improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score (off medication, on stimulation) 12 months after the operation was higher for patients who underwent 3D-SPACE-FLAIR-guided implantation than for those in whom T2WI was used (62.2% vs 43.6%, respectively; p < 0.05). The total electrical energy

  5. Image scanner technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montuori, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Three classes of scanning devices are evaluated against a hypothetical set of requirements for a digital mapping system: electronic scanners, which may use cathode ray tubes (CRT), vidicon or image dissector tubes; electro-optical scanners, which may use lasers, light-emitting diodes, or conventional lamps as sources of illumination; and solid-state scanners, which may use charge-coupled devices (CCD), charge injection devices (CID), charge-coupled photodiode devices (CCPD), or self-scanned photodiode devices (SSPD). The major performance criteria for digital mapping application are resolution, format accommodation, data rates, geometric accuracy, photometric accuracy and dynamic range. Systems adaptable to all these requirements include: drumtype laser scanners, rotating-mirror laser scanners, and solid-state scanners comprised of a series of optically butted linear arrays. These requirements, as well as the operating environment (i.e., production or research and development), must be evaluated before the appropriate technology can be selected and a system design recommended.

  6. A method for benchmarking CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, A; Michael, G; Thiele, D

    2005-09-01

    This study involved the development of an objective method to compare the performance of five CT scanners for the purpose of benchmarking. The method used to assess the scanners was to determine the dose-normalised noise at a spatial resolution of 5.5 cm(-1). This gave a dose-normalised percent noise between 0.37% and 0.76%. The scanners were also assessed for radiation dose to patients undergoing abdomen and head CT examinations. Patients' dose-length product (DLP) for the abdomen clinical examinations varied from 305 to 685 mGy-cm, and for the head clinical examinations from 333 to 900 mGy-cm. The study results demonstrated that the comparison of dose and spatial resolution normalised percent noise levels is a useful method of comparing CT scanner performance.

  7. In vitro imaging of single living human umbilical vein endothelial cells with a clinical 3.0-T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; van den Bos, E J; Wielopolski, P A; de Jong-Popijus, M; Bernsen, M R; Duncker, D J; Krestin, G P

    2005-09-01

    Iron oxide-labelled, single, living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were imaged over time in vitro using a clinical 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy system. Labelling efficiency, toxicity, cell viability, proliferation and differentiation were assessed using flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and a phenanthroline assay. MR images were compared with normal light and fluorescence microscopy. Efficient uptake of iron oxide into HUVECs was shown, although with higher label uptake dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed, affecting cell viability. For MR imaging, a T2* weighted three-dimensional protocol was used with in-plane resolution of 39 x 48 microm2 and 100-microm slices with a scan time of 13 min. MRI could detect living cells in standard culture dishes at single-cell resolution, although label loss was observed that corresponded with the intracellular iron measurements. MR microscopy using iron oxide labels is a promising tool for studying HUVEC migration and cell biology in vitro and in vivo, but possible toxic effects of label uptake and loss of label over time should be taken into account. PMID:16096808

  8. Dynamic tracking of magnetic nanoparticles for mapping microvascular networks using a clinical 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olamaei, Nina; Cheriet, Farida; Deschênes, Sylvain; Martel, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Being able to visualize blood vessels with an inner diameter of less than 150 μm is the present limit of modern medical imaging modalities and it becomes an important issue to advance state-of-the-art medical imaging, diagnostics, surgery, and targeted interventions. In cancer therapy, such capability would provide the information required for new delivery methods such as magnetic resonance navigation to navigate therapeutic agents along a planned trajectory deeper in the vasculature and hence closer to the region to be treated for enhancing the therapeutic index. To demonstrate the possibility of gathering images of microvascular networks dynamically and beyond the limitation of medical imaging modalities, the susceptibility artifact was used as the contrast mechanism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect magnetic micro-aggregations of iron-oxide nanoparticles (150 ± 20 μm in diameter) as they were injected in a 2D synthetic microvascular network. Magnetic entities cause susceptibility artifacts in the images by disrupting the MRI's homogeneous magnetic field in a much larger scale than their actual size. The position of the artifact reflects the position of the aggregations in the vascular system. The calculated positions of discrete-time scans were extracted and assembled to build up the distribution of the vascular network. The results suggest that this method could be used to gather images of blood vessels beyond the spatial resolution of clinical medical imaging modalities with a measured average error confirmed on a 2D reconstruction of the micro-vessels of approximately half of a pixel's size.

  9. Monitoring fractional anisotropy in developing rabbit brain using MR diffusion tensor imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Yang, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factional anisotropy (FA) in various regions of developing rabbit brain using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) at 3 T. A whole-body clinical MR imaging (MRI) scanner with a 15-channel high resolution knee coil was used. An echo-planar-imaging (EPI)-DTI pulse sequence was performed. Five 5 week-old New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits underwent MRI once per week for 24 weeks. After scanning, FA maps were obtained. ROIs (regions of interests) in the frontal lobe, parietal & temporal lobe, and occipital lobe were measured. FA changes with time were evaluated with a linear regression analysis. The results show that the FA values in all lobes of the brain increased linearly with age. The ranking of FA values was FA(frontal lobe) < FA(parietal & temporal lobe) > FA(occipital lobe). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) among these lobes. FA values are associated with the nerve development and brain functions. The FA change rate could be a biomarker to monitor the brain development. Understanding the FA values of various lobes during development could provide helpful information to diagnosis the abnormal syndrome earlier and have a better treatment and prognosis. This study established a brain MR-DTI protocol for rabbits to investigate the brain anatomy during development using clinical MRI. This technique can be further applied to the pre-clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow-up of brain lesions.

  10. Multi-Parametric Neuroimaging Reproducibility: A 3T Resource Study

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Bennett A.; Huang, Alan J.; Gifford, Aliya; Vikram, Deepti S.; Lim, Issel Anne L.; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; Bogovic, John A.; Hua, Jun; Chen, Min; Jarso, Samson; Smith, Seth A.; Joel, Suresh; Mori, Susumu; Pekar, James J.; Barker, Peter B.; Prince, Jerry L.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern MRI image processing methods have yielded quantitative, morphometric, functional, and structural assessments of the human brain. These analyses typically exploit carefully optimized protocols for specific imaging targets. Algorithm investigators have several excellent public data resources to use to test, develop, and optimize their methods. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on combining MRI protocols in multi-parametric studies. Notably, these have included innovative approaches for fusing connectivity inferences with functional and/or anatomical characterizations. Yet, validation of the reproducibility of these interesting and novel methods has been severely hampered by the limited availability of appropriate multi-parametric data. We present an imaging protocol optimized to include state-of-the-art assessment of brain function, structure, micro-architecture, and quantitative parameters within a clinically feasible 60 minute protocol on a 3T MRI scanner. We present scan-rescan reproducibility of these imaging contrasts based on 21 healthy volunteers (11 M/10 F, 22–61 y/o). The cortical gray matter, cortical white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, thalamus, putamen, caudate, cerebellar gray matter, cerebellar white matter, and brainstem were identified with mean volume-wise reproducibility of 3.5%. We tabulate the mean intensity, variability and reproducibility of each contrast in a region of interest approach, which is essential for prospective study planning and retrospective power analysis considerations. Anatomy was highly consistent on structural acquisition (~1–5% variability), while variation on diffusion and several other quantitative scans was higher (~<10%). Some sequences are particularly variable in specific structures (ASL exhibited variation of 28% in the cerebral white matter) or in thin structures (quantitative T2 varied by up to 73% in the caudate) due, in large part, to variability in automated ROI placement. The

  11. Which pulse sequence is optimal for myo-Inositol detection at 3T?

    PubMed Central

    Hancu, Ileana

    2010-01-01

    Optimized myo-Inositol (mI) detection is important for diagnosing and monitoring a multitude of pathological conditions of the brain. Simulations are presented in this work, performed to decide which pulse sequence has the most significant advantage in terms of improving repeatability and accuracy of mI measurements at 3T over the pulse sequence used typically in the clinic, a TE=35ms PRESS sequence. Five classes of pulse sequences, four previously suggested for optimized mI detection (a short TE PRESS, a Carr-Purcell PRESS sequence, an optimized STEAM sequence, an optimized zero quantum filter), and one optimized for mI detection in this work (a single quantum filter) were compared to a standard, TE=35ms pulse sequence. While limiting the SNR of an acquisition to the equivalent SNR of a spectrum acquired in 5min from a 8cc voxel, it was found through simulations that the most repeatable mI measurements would be obtained with a Carr-Purcell sequence. This sequence was implemented in a clinical scanner, and improved mI measurements were demonstrated in vivo. PMID:19006101

  12. Ga-68-DOTATOC: Feasibility of high throughput screening by small animal PET using a clinical high-resolution PET/CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Michael; Weitzel, Thilo; Krause, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    As radio peptide tracers have been developed in recent years for the high sensitive detection of neuroendocrine tumors, still the broad application of other peptides to breast and prostate cancer is missing. A rapid screening of new peptides can, in theory, be based on in vivo screening in animals by PET/CT. To test this hypothesis and to asses the minimum screening time needed per animal, we used the application of Ga-68-DOTATOC PET/CT in rats as test system. The Ga-68-DOTATOC yields in a hot spot imaging with minimal background. To delineate liver and spleen, we performed PET/CT of 10 animals on a SIEMENS Biograph 16 LSO HIGHREZ after intravenous injection of 1.5 MBq Ga-68-DOTATOC per animal. Animals were mounted in an '18 slot' holding device and scanned for a single-bed position. The emission times for the PET scan was varied from 1 to 20 min. The images were assessed first for "PET only" and afterwards in PET/CT fusion mode. The detection of the two organs was good at emission times down to 1 min in PET/CT fusion mode. In the "PET only" scans, the liver was clearly to be identified down to 1 min emission in all animals. But the spleen could only be delineated only by 1 min of emission in the PET/CT-fusion mode. In conclusion the screening of "hot spot" enriching peptides is feasible. "PET only" is in terms of delineation of small organs by far inferior to PET/CT fusion. If animal tumors are above a diameter of 10 mm small, animal PET/CT using clinical high resolution scanners will enable rapid screening. Even the determination of bio-distributions becomes feasible by using list mode tools. The time for the whole survey of 18 animals including anesthesia, preparation and mounting was approximately 20 min. By use of several holding devices mounted simultaneously, a survey time of less than 1 h for 180 animals can be expected.

  13. Biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Belgovskiy, Alexander I.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  14. Portable biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Sharonov, Alexei; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  15. Multi-centre reproducibility of diffusion MRI parameters for clinical sequences in the brain.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Hales, Patrick W; Miyazaki, Keiko; Raschke, Felix; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wilson, Martin; Gill, Simrandip K; Banks, Tina; Saunders, Dawn E; Clayden, Jonathan D; Gwilliam, Matt N; Barrick, Thomas R; Morgan, Paul S; Davies, Nigel P; Rossiter, James; Auer, Dorothee P; Grundy, Richard; Leach, Martin O; Howe, Franklyn A; Peet, Andrew C; Clark, Chris A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. An ice-water phantom and nine healthy volunteers were scanned across fives centres on eight scanners (four Siemens 1.5T, four Philips 3T). The mean ADC, IVIM parameters (diffusion coefficient D and perfusion fraction f) and DTI parameters (mean diffusivity MD and fractional anisotropy FA), were measured in grey matter, white matter and specific brain sub-regions. A mixed effect model was used to measure the intra- and inter-scanner coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the five parameters. ADC, D, MD and FA had a good intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility in both grey and white matter, with a CV ranging between 1% and 7.4%; mean 2.6%. Other brain regions also showed high levels of reproducibility except for small structures such as the choroid plexus. The IVIM parameter f had a higher intra-scanner CV of 8.4% and inter-scanner CV of 24.8%. No major difference in the inter-scanner CV for ADC, D, MD and FA was observed when analysing the 1.5T and 3T scanners separately. ADC, D, MD and FA all showed good intra-scanner reproducibility, with the inter-scanner reproducibility being comparable or faring slightly worse, suggesting that using data from multiple scanners does not have an adverse effect compared with using data from the same scanner. The IVIM parameter f had a poorer inter-scanner CV when scanners of different field strengths were combined, and the parameter was also affected by the scan acquisition resolution. This study shows that the majority of diffusion MRI derived parameters are robust across 1.5T and 3T scanners and suitable for use in multi-centre clinical studies and trials.

  16. Multi-centre reproducibility of diffusion MRI parameters for clinical sequences in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Hales, Patrick W; Miyazaki, Keiko; Raschke, Felix; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wilson, Martin; Gill, Simrandip K; Banks, Tina; Saunders, Dawn E; Clayden, Jonathan D; Gwilliam, Matt N; Barrick, Thomas R; Morgan, Paul S; Davies, Nigel P; Rossiter, James; Auer, Dorothee P; Grundy, Richard; Leach, Martin O; Howe, Franklyn A; Peet, Andrew C; Clark, Chris A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. An ice–water phantom and nine healthy volunteers were scanned across fives centres on eight scanners (four Siemens 1.5T, four Philips 3T). The mean ADC, IVIM parameters (diffusion coefficient D and perfusion fraction f) and DTI parameters (mean diffusivity MD and fractional anisotropy FA), were measured in grey matter, white matter and specific brain sub-regions. A mixed effect model was used to measure the intra- and inter-scanner coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the five parameters. ADC, D, MD and FA had a good intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility in both grey and white matter, with a CV ranging between 1% and 7.4%; mean 2.6%. Other brain regions also showed high levels of reproducibility except for small structures such as the choroid plexus. The IVIM parameter f had a higher intra-scanner CV of 8.4% and inter-scanner CV of 24.8%. No major difference in the inter-scanner CV for ADC, D, MD and FA was observed when analysing the 1.5T and 3T scanners separately. ADC, D, MD and FA all showed good intra-scanner reproducibility, with the inter-scanner reproducibility being comparable or faring slightly worse, suggesting that using data from multiple scanners does not have an adverse effect compared with using data from the same scanner. The IVIM parameter f had a poorer inter-scanner CV when scanners of different field strengths were combined, and the parameter was also affected by the scan acquisition resolution. This study shows that the majority of diffusion MRI derived parameters are robust across 1.5T and 3T scanners and suitable for use in multi-centre clinical studies and trials. © 2015 The Authors NMR in

  17. In vivo conductivity imaging of canine male pelvis using a 3T MREIT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Jeong, W. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Minhas, A. S.; Lee, T. H.; Lim, C. Y.; Park, H. M.; Seo, J. K.; Woo, E. J.

    2010-04-01

    The prostate is an imaging area of growing concern related with aging. Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are the most common diseases and significant cause of death for elderly men. Hence, the conductivity imaging of the male pelvis is a challenging task with a clinical significance. In this study, we performed in vivo MREIT imaging experiments of the canine male pelvis using a 3T MRI scanner. Adopting carbon-hydrogel electrodes and a multi-echo pulse sequence, we could inject as much as 10 mA current in a form of 51 ms pulse into the pelvis. Collecting magnetic flux density data inside the pelvis subject to multiple injection currents, we reconstructed cross-sectional conductivity images using a MREIT software package CoReHA. Scaled conductivity images of the prostate show a clear contrast between the central and peripheral zones which are related with prostate diseases including cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In our future work, we will focus on prostate cancer model animal experiments.

  18. A 64-channel 3T array coil for accelerated brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Blau, James N.; Biber, Stephan; Hoecht, Philipp; Tountcheva, Veneta; Setsompop, Kawin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    A 64-channel brain array coil was developed and compared to a 32-channel array constructed with the same coil former geometry in order to precisely isolate the benefit of the two-fold increase in array coil elements. The constructed coils were developed for a standard clinical 3T MRI scanner and used a contoured head-shape curved former around the occipital pole and tapered in at the neck to both improve sensitivity and patient comfort. Additionally, the design is a compact, split-former design intended for robust daily use. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification (G-factor) for parallel imaging were quantitatively evaluated in human imaging and compared to a size and shape-matched 32-channel array coil. For unaccelerated imaging, the 64-channel array provided similar SNR in the brain center to the 32-channel array and 1.3-fold more SNR in the brain cortex. Reduced noise amplification during highly parallel imaging of the 64-channel array provided the ability to accelerate at approximately one unit higher at a given noise amplification compared to the sized-matched 32-channel array. For example, with a 4-fold acceleration rate, the central brain and cortical SNR of the 64-channel array was 1.2 and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, compared to the 32-channel array. The characteristics of the coil are demonstrated in accelerated brain imaging. PMID:22851312

  19. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  20. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  1. LIGA Scanner Control Software

    1999-02-01

    The LIGA Scanner Software is a graphical user interface package that facilitates controlling the scanning operation of x-rays from a synchrotron and sample manipulation for making LIGA parts. The process requires scanning of the LIGA mask and the PMMA resist through a stationary x-ray beam to provide an evenly distributed x-ray exposure over the wafer. This software package has been written specifically to interface with Aerotech motor controllers.

  2. High throughput optical scanner

    DOEpatents

    Basiji, David A.; van den Engh, Gerrit J.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  3. Abdominal MR imaging at 3T.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Elmar M; Dale, Brian M; Paulson, Erik K

    2006-02-01

    Body MR imaging at 3T is in its infancy, and should improve substantially over the next several years. Radiologists need to be aware of several limitations that are based on the laws of physics: Overall, the gain in SNR at 3T will be less than twofold (without protocol alteration) compared with a standard 1.5T MR system because of the increase in T'I'1 at ultra high field. Typically, the gain in SNR is greater in T2-weighted sequences than in TI-weighted sequences, because longer TRs allow for a more complete recovery of the longitudinal magnetization, and T2 is independent of Bo. Thus, for example, patients who are referred for an MR cholangiography may benefit from an ultrahigh-field MR examination. Chemical shift artifacts of the first kind are twice as large in ultrahigh-field MR imaging compared with standard 1.5T MR imaging. Conversely, chemical shift artifacts of the second kind do not increase in size, although the timing is altered. The increased difference in resonant frequency between water and fat at 3T also is advantageous because it allows for a better separation of the fat and water peak during MR spectroscopy, and allows better or faster fat suppression using chemical shift techniques, such as fat saturation or water excitation. Susceptibility artifacts are approximately twice as large by volume on 3T MR imaging. Although patients who are referred for a "colon" study may be challenging at ultrahigh field, the search for "gas" (eg, free air or pneumobilia) should be easier. Patients with metal implants should undergo an MR examination at 3T only if the metal-containing device specifically has been proved to be MR safe at this field strength. Usually, standing wave and conductivity effects are not seen in body imaging at a field strength of 1.5T. At 3T, these artifacts are most pronounced in pregnant women in the sec-ond and third trimester, because of the large amount of conductive amniotic fluid and the increased size of the abdomen. Therefore

  4. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  6. Feasibility of an intracranial EEG-fMRI protocol at 3T: risk assessment and image quality.

    PubMed

    Boucousis, Shannon M; Beers, Craig A; Cunningham, Cameron J B; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Pittman, Daniel J; Goodyear, Bradley G; Federico, Paolo

    2012-11-15

    Integrating intracranial EEG (iEEG) with functional MRI (iEEG-fMRI) may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the generation of seizures. However, the introduction of iEEG electrodes in the MR environment has inherent risk and data quality implications that require consideration prior to clinical use. Previous studies of subdural and depth electrodes have confirmed low risk under specific circumstances at 1.5T and 3T. However, no studies have assessed risk and image quality related to the feasibility of a full iEEG-fMRI protocol. To this end, commercially available platinum subdural grid/strip electrodes (4×5 grid or 1×8 strip) and 4 or 6-contact depth electrodes were secured to the surface of a custom-made phantom mimicking the conductivity of the human brain. Electrode displacement, temperature increase of electrodes and surrounding phantom material, and voltage fluctuations in electrode contacts were measured in a GE Discovery MR750 3T MR scanner during a variety of imaging sequences, typical of an iEEG-fMRI protocol. An electrode grid was also used to quantify the spatial extent of susceptibility artifact. The spatial extent of susceptibility artifact in the presence of an electrode was also assessed for typical imaging parameters that maximize BOLD sensitivity at 3T (TR=1500 ms; TE=30 ms; slice thickness=4mm; matrix=64×64; field-of-view=24 cm). Under standard conditions, all electrodes exhibited no measurable displacement and no clinically significant temperature increase (<1°C) during scans employed in a typical iEEG-fMRI experiment, including 60 min of continuous fMRI. However, high SAR sequences, such as fast spin-echo (FSE), produced significant heating in almost all scenarios (>2.0°C) that in some cases exceeded 10°C. Induced voltages in the frequency range that could elicit neuronal stimulation (<10 kHz) were well below the threshold of 100 mV. fMRI signal intensity was significantly reduced within 20mm of the electrodes for the imaging parameters

  7. SERI laser scanner system

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, R.J.; Cannon, T.W.

    1980-10-01

    A Laser Scanner System (LSS) produces a photoresponse map and can be used for the nondestructive detection of nonuniformities in the photoresponse of a semiconductor device. At SERI the photoresponse maps are used to identify solar cell faults including microcracks, metallization breaks, regions of poor contact between metallization and the underlying emitter surface, and variations in emitter sheet resistance. The SERI LSS is patterned after the LSS unit documented in the NBS Special Publication 400-24 A Laser Scanner for Semiconductor Devices by D.E. Sawyer and D.W. Berning. Assuming reader familiarity with the above publication, the modifications introduced by SERI are specified with the intention that the two reports can be used to reproduce the SERI LSS. The optical and electronic systems are reviewed, briefly discussing the significant items of each. The most notable difference between the two systems is the SERI substitution of commercially available state-of-the-art modular electronics for the discreet component circuitry used in the NBS LSS.

  8. Numerical study of remote detection outside the magnet with travelling wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Vázquez, F.; Solís-Nájera, S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the travelling wave approach for high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging has been used recently with very promising results. This approach offer images one with greater field-of-view and a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio using a circular waveguide. This scheme has been proved to be successful at 7 T and 9.4 T with whole-body imager. Images have also been acquired with clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems whose resonant frequencies were 64 MHz and 128 MHz. These results motivated the use of remote detection of the magnetic resonance signal using a parallel-plate waveguide together with 3 T clinical scanners, to acquired human leg images. The cut-off frequency of this waveguide is zero for the principal mode, allowing us to overcome the barrier of transmitting waves at lower frequency than 300 MHz or 7 T for protons. These motivated the study of remote detection outside the actual magnet. We performed electromagnetic field simulations of a parallel-plate waveguide and a phantom. The signal transmission was done at 128 MHz and using a circular surface coil located almost 200 cm away for the magnet isocentre. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the magnetic field of the principal mode propagate inside a waveguide outside the magnet. Numerical results were compared with previous experimental-acquired image data under similar conditions.

  9. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  10. A character string scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enison, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program called Character String Scanner (CSS), is presented. It is designed to search a data set for any specified group of characters and then to flag this group. The output of the CSS program is a listing of the data set being searched with the specified group of characters being flagged by asterisks. Therefore, one may readily identify specific keywords, groups of keywords or specified lines of code internal to a computer program, in a program output, or in any other specific data set. Possible applications of this program include the automatic scan of an output data set for pertinent keyword data, the editing of a program to change the appearance of a certain word or group of words, and the conversion of a set of code to a different set of code.

  11. Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2013-01-01

    A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image reconstruction can help reduce these image artifacts arising due to missing angular projections. Our goal in this work is to optimize the TOF, breast scanner design by performing studies for estimating image uniformity and lesion activity uptake as a function of system timing resolution, scanner angular coverage and shape. Our results show that (i) 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm3 lutetium oxy-orthosilicate (LSO) crystals provide a high spatial resolution and system sensitivity relative to clinical scanners, (ii) 2/3 angular coverage scanner design with TOF timing resolution less than 600 ps is appropriate for providing a tomographic image with fewer artifacts and good lesion uptake estimation relative to other partial ring designs studied in this work, (iii) a flat scanner design with 2/3 angular coverage is affected more by larger parallax error than a curved scanner geometry with the same angular coverage, but provides more uniform lesion contrast estimate over the imaging field-of-view (FOV), (iv) 2/3 angular coverage, flat, 300 ps TOF scanner design (for short, practical scan times of ≤ 5 mins per breast) provides similar precision of contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) values to a full curved, non-TOF scanner, and (v) employing depth-of-interaction (DOI) measuring detector and/or implementing resolution modeling (RM) in image reconstruction lead to improved and more uniform spatial resolution and lesion contrast over the whole FOV. PMID:24078744

  12. Measurement of creatine kinase reaction rate in human brain using magnetization transfer image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (MT-ISIS) and a volume ³¹P/¹H radiofrequency coil in a clinical 3-T MRI system.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-Kee; Sung, Young-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Zuo, Chun; Shi, Xianfeng; Mellon, Eric A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-08-01

    High-energy phosphate metabolism, which allows the synthesis and regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is a vital process for neuronal survival and activity. In particular, creatine kinase (CK) serves as an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering of ATP levels. Altered CK enzyme activity, reflecting compromised high-energy phosphate metabolism or mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain, can be assessed using magnetization transfer (MT) MRS. MT (31)P MRS has been used to measure the forward CK reaction rate in animal and human brain, employing a surface radiofrequency coil. However, long acquisition times and excessive radiofrequency irradiation prevent these methods from being used routinely for clinical evaluations. In this article, a new MT (31)P MRS method is presented, which can be practically used to measure the CK forward reaction rate constant in a clinical MRI system employing a volume head (31)P coil for spatial localization, without contamination from the scalp muscle, and an acquisition time of 30 min. Other advantages associated with the method include radiofrequency homogeneity within the regions of interest of the brain using a volume coil with image-selected in vivo spectroscopy localization, and reduction of the specific absorption rate using nonadiabatic radiofrequency pulses for MT saturation. The mean value of k(f) was measured as 0.320 ± 0.075 s(-1) from 10 healthy volunteers with an age range of 18-40 years. These values are consistent with those obtained using earlier methods, and the technique may be used routinely to evaluate energetic processes in the brain on a clinical MRI system.

  13. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss.

  14. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss. PMID:15130010

  15. [High resolution (3 T) magnetic resonance neurography of the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Aguilar, M; Falcón, L; Caneo, N; Acuña, M C

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography refers to a set of techniques that enable the structure of the peripheral nerves and nerve plexuses to be evaluated optimally. New two-dimensional and three-dimensional neurographic sequences, in particular in 3T scanners, achieve excellent contrast between the nerve and perineural structures. MR neurography makes it possible to distinguish between the normal fascicular pattern of the nerve and anomalies like inflammation, trauma, and tumor that can affect nerves. In this article, we describe the structure of the sciatic nerve, its characteristics on MR neurography, and the most common diseases that affect it.

  16. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  17. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  18. SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Wronski, M; Kim, A; Stanisz, G; Sarfehnia, A; Keller, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode prior to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.

  19. Dynamic diffusion tensor measurements in muscle tissue using Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Baete, Steven H.; Cho, Gene; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    When diffusion biomarkers display transient changes, i.e. in muscle following exercise, traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods lack temporal resolution to resolve the dynamics. This paper presents an MRI method for dynamic diffusion tensor acquisitions on a clinical 3T scanner. This method, SL-MEDITATE (Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique) achieves a high temporal resolution (4s) (1) by rapid diffusion encoding through the acquisition of multiple echoes with unique diffusion sensitization and (2) by limiting the readout to a single line volume. The method is demonstrated in a rotating anisotropic phantom, in a flow phantom with adjustable flow speed, and in in vivo skeletal calf muscle of healthy volunteers following a plantar flexion exercise. The rotating and flow-varying phantom experiments show that SL-MEDITATE correctly identifies the rotation of the first diffusion eigenvector and the changes in diffusion tensor parameter magnitudes, respectively. Immediately following exercise, the in vivo mean diffusivity (MD) time-courses show, before the well-known increase, an initial decrease which is not typically observed in traditional DTI. In conclusion, SL-MEDITATE can be used to capture transient changes in tissue anisotropy in a single line. Future progress might allow for dynamic DTI when combined with appropriate k-space trajectories and compressed sensing reconstruction. PMID:25900166

  20. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  1. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  2. T2 FLAIR artifacts at 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Tsougos, Ioannis; Kogia, Stella; Gratsias, Georgios; Svolos, Patricia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V; Kapsalaki, Eftychia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to identify and evaluate the presence and frequency of T2 FLAIR artifacts on brain MRI studies performed at 3 T. We reviewed axial T2 FLAIR images in 200 consecutive unremarkable brain MRI studies performed at 3 T. All studies were reviewed for the presence of artifacts caused by pulsatile CSF flow, magnetic susceptibility and no nulling of the CSF signal. T2 FLAIR images introduce several artifacts that may degrade image quality and mimic pathology. Knowledge of these artifacts and increased severity and frequency at 3 T is of particular importance in avoiding a misdiagnosis.

  3. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  4. [Scanner examination of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Richard, F; Khoury, S; Parienty, R; Ducellier, R; Fourcade, R; Küss, R

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a large series of documents, the authors participate in establishment of the classification of scanner appearances of urological diseases of the kidney : peripheral or parapelvic sub-capsular cysts, carcinomas and their spread, multiple tumours but of different nature in the same kidney, angiomyolipomas, polycystic disease, renal abscess, hydated cyst, non-invasive exploration of kidneys showed to be non-functioning by I.V.U., tumours of the intrarenal excretory system, lumbar trauma, long-term surveillance of the retroperitoneal space in individuals undergoing surgery for a urological malignant renoureteric tumour. The authors suggest a new chronological arrangement of investigations in the presence of a renal mass discovered by I.V.U. Scanner has its place between echotomography and renal arteriography. Investigations may be stopped at renal echotomography when this examination offers definite evidence of the fluid nature of the mass. Solid or doubtful nature of the mass necessitates the use of a scanner examination.

  5. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    PubMed Central

    Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. Materials and methods An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. Results At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8±3.9 from 30.4±3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3±8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6±4.7 from 6.5±3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06±0.14 from 7.17±0.07) from resting levels. Conclusion The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. PMID:21271342

  6. BOLD contrast on a 3 T magnet: detectability of the motor areas.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Okada, T; Moriya, T; Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Sakahara, H

    2001-01-01

    To predict the potential and the limitations of functional MRI (fMRI) with a very high field magnet, the detectability and reproducibility of activation were evaluated by comparing the activation induced by a sequential finger movement task at 1.5 T with that at 3 T. The detectability of the premotor area, supplementary motor area (SMA), and ipsilateral sensorimotor area (SM1) showed significant improvement at 3 T. On the other hand, the detectability of contralateral SM1 was not significantly different between 1.5 and 3 T. The degree of activation was proportional to task demand in the ipsilateral SM1 and SMA, whereas that in the contralateral SM1 and SMA was not. FMRI with a 3 T magnet has greater potential for detection of neuronal activation as a functional network. These observations indicated that task demand and static magnetic field strength should be considered in interpretation of fMRI data for clinical usage.

  7. What Scanner products are available?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... the ERBE scanner CD which gives all the S4G monthly mean 2.5 degree gridded data from both single satellite and combined-satellite product in ASCII format. Also, ordering the S4G HDF data online and using the ncdump utility to perform a straight ASCII dump is another ...

  8. Scanner as a Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

  9. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq (18)F-FDG. (13)C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Peak heights of (13)C-pyruvate and (13)C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic (1)H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased (13)C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high (18)F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high (13)C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly

  10. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughan, Michael D.; Tiefenback, Michael G.; Turner, Dennis L.

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  11. Image quality and signal distribution in 1.5-T and 3-T MRI in mild traumatic brain injury patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maija E.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Ylinen, Aarne; Öhman, Juha; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Clear standards are lacking in the imaging modalities of the deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality by signal distribution between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI in turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) images in normal hospital settings and to find preferences for which field to use in MTBI patients. We studied 40 MTBI patients with TSE and GRE; 20 patients were imaged at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T. The imaging parameters were optimized separately for the two scanners. Histograms of the signal distribution in 22 ROIs were fitted to a 1-peak Gaussian model and the resulting peak positions were scaled in respect to the peak positions of genu of the corpus callosum and the caudate nuclei. Correlation of the contrast of the ROIs in reference to genu of the corpus callosum between both the two scanners and the two imaging sequences was good. Image contrast was similar at both in the TSE images; in the GRE images contrast improved from 1.5 T to 3 T. However, based on peak positions and widths, a slight drawback in the separability between the ROIs was observed when 1.5 T MRI was replaced by 3 T. No clear improvement in tissue contrast or separability of 3 T was found compared to 1.5 T. Imaging of MTBI with 3 T should therefore be based on other advantages of high-field imaging, such as improved SNR and spatial resolution.

  12. A Simple X-Y Scanner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halse, M. R.; Hudson, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an X-Y scanner used to create acoustic holograms. Scanner is computer controlled and can be adapted to digitize pictures. Scanner geometry is discussed. An appendix gives equipment details. The control program in ATOM BASIC and 6502 machine code is available from the authors. (JM)

  13. Simulation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner spatial resolution with airborne scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for simulation of low spatial resolution satellite imagery by using high resolution scanner data is described. The scanner data is convolved with the approximate point spread function of the low resolution data and then resampled to emulate low resolution imagery. The technique was successfully applied to Daedalus airborne scanner data to simulate a portion of a LANDSAT multispectra scanner scene.

  14. Final Gleason Score Prediction Using Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Based on Preoperative Multiparametric MR Imaging of Prostate Cancer at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Citak-Er, Fusun; Vural, Metin; Acar, Omer; Esen, Tarik; Onay, Aslihan; Ozturk-Isik, Esin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at evaluating linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for estimating final Gleason score preoperatively using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and clinical parameters. Materials and Methods. Thirty-three patients who underwent mp-MRI on a 3T clinical MR scanner and radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. The input features for classifiers were age, the presence of a palpable prostate abnormality, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, index lesion size, and Likert scales of T2 weighted MRI (T2w-MRI), diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI), and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) estimated by an experienced radiologist. SVM based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) was used for eliminating features. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data uncorrelation. Results. Using a standard PCA before final Gleason score classification resulted in mean sensitivities of 51.19% and 64.37% and mean specificities of 72.71% and 39.90% for LDA and SVM, respectively. Using a Gaussian kernel PCA resulted in mean sensitivities of 86.51% and 87.88% and mean specificities of 63.99% and 56.83% for LDA and SVM, respectively. Conclusion. SVM classifier resulted in a slightly higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than LDA method for final Gleason score prediction for prostate cancer for this limited patient population. PMID:25544944

  15. Tumor Volume and Metabolism of Prostate Cancer Determined by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3T Without Endorectal Coil Reveal Potential Clinical Implications in the Context of Radiation Oncology;Prostate cancer; Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging; Radiation oncology; Tumor volume; Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Crehange, Gilles; Parfait, Sebastien; Liegard, Melanie; Maingon, Philippe; Ben Salem, Douraied; Cochet, Alexandre; Funes de la Vega, Mathilde; Cormier, Luc; Bonnetain, Franck; Mirjolet, Celine; Brunotte, Francois; Walker, Paul M.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether a relationship exists between the tumor volume (TV) or relative choline content determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) at 3T and the clinical prognostic parameters for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: A total of 72 men (mean age, 67.8 {+-} 6.2 years) were stratified as having low-risk (n = 26), intermediate-risk (n = 24), or high-risk (n = 22) PCa. MRSI was performed at 3T using a phased-array coil. Spectra are expressed as the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamines plus creatine/citrate ratios. The mean ratio of the most pathologic voxels and the MRSI-based TV were also determined. Results: The mean values of the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamine plus creatine/citrate ratios were greater for Stage T2b or greater tumors vs. Stage T2a or less tumors: 7.53 {+-} 13.60 vs. 2.31 {+-} 5.65 (p = .018), 8.98 {+-} 14.58 vs. 2.56 {+-} 5.70 (p = .016), and 10.32 {+-} 15.47 vs. 3.55 {+-} 6.16 (p = .014), respectively. The mean MRSI-based TV for Stage T2b or greater and Stage T2a or less tumors was significantly different (2.23 {+-} 2.62 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.26 {+-} 2.06 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = .030). This TV correlated with increased prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.293; p = .012). Patients with high-risk PCa had a larger TV than did the patients with intermediate-risk PCa. A similar result was found for the intermediate-risk group compared with the low-risk group (odds ratio, 1.225; p = .041). Conclusion: Biomarkers expressing the relative choline content and TV were significant parameters for the localization of PCa and could be helpful for determining the prognosis more accurately.

  16. Effects of in-pulse transverse relaxation in 3D ultrashort echo time sequences: Analytical derivation, comparison to numerical simulation and experimental application at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, Fabian; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz

    2010-09-01

    The introduction of ultrashort-echo-time-(UTE)-sequences to clinical whole-body MR scanners has opened up the field of MR characterization of materials or tissues with extremely fast signal decay. If the transverse relaxation time is in the range of the RF-pulse duration, approximation of the RF-pulse by an instantaneous rotation applied at the middle of the RF-pulse and immediately followed by free relaxation will lead to a distinctly underestimated echo signal. Thus, the regular Ernst equation is not adequate to correctly describe steady state signal under those conditions. The paper presents an analytically derived modified Ernst equation, which correctly describes in-pulse relaxation of transverse magnetization under typical conditions: The equation is valid for rectangular excitation pulses, usually applied in 3D UTE sequences. Longitudinal relaxation time of the specimen must be clearly longer than RF-pulse duration, which is fulfilled for tendons and bony structures as well as many solid materials. Under these conditions, the proposed modified Ernst equation enables adequate and relatively simple calculation of the magnetization of materials or tissues. Analytically derived data are compared to numerical results obtained by using an established Runge-Kutta-algorithm based on the Bloch equations. Validity of the new approach was also tested by systematical measurements of a solid polymeric material on a 3 T whole-body MR scanner. Thus, the presented modified Ernst equation provides a suitable basis for T1 measurements, even in tissues with T2 values as short as the RF-pulse duration: independent of RF-pulse duration, the 'variable flip angle method' led to consistent results of longitudinal relaxation time T1, if the T2 relaxation time of the material of interest is known as well.

  17. Multi-session complex averaging for high resolution high SNR 3T MR visualization of ex vivo hippocampus and insula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene M.; Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    The hippocampus and the insula are responsible for episodic memory formation and retrieval. Hence, visualization of the cytoarchitecture of such structures is of primary importance to understand the underpinnings of conscious experience. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers an opportunity to non-invasively image these crucial structures. However, current clinical MR imaging operates at the millimeter scale while these anatomical landmarks are organized into sub-millimeter structures. For instance, the hippocampus contains several layers, including the CA3-dentate network responsible for encoding events and experiences. To investigate whether memory loss is a result of injury or degradation of CA3/dentate, spatial resolution must exceed one hundred micron, isotropic, voxel size. Going from one millimeter voxels to one hundred micron voxels results in a 1000× signal loss, making the measured signal close to or even way below the precision of the receiving coils. Consequently, the signal magnitude that forms the structural images will be biased and noisy, which results in inaccurate contrast and less than optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we propose a strategy to perform high spatial resolution MR imaging of the hippocampus and insula with 3T scanners that enables accurate contrast (no systematic bias) and arbitrarily high SNR. This requires the collection of additional repeated measurements of the same image and a proper averaging of the k-space data in the complex domain. This comes at the cost of additional scan time, but long single-session scan times are not practical for obvious reasons. Hence, we also develop an approach to combine k-space data from multiple sessions, which enables the total scan time to be split into arbitrarily short sessions, where the patient is allowed to move and rest in-between. For validation, we hereby illustrate our multi-session complex averaging strategy by providing high spatial resolution 3T MR visualization

  18. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  19. Performance comparison of a state-of-the-art neuro-SPET scanner and a dedicated neuro-PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D L; Zito, F; Gilardi, M C; Savi, A R; Fazio, F; Jones, T

    1994-05-01

    The physical performances of two current state-of-the-art scanners dedicated to functional imaging of the brain, one a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scanner and the other a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, have been compared under identical conditions. The aim of the study was to compare the capabilities of the devices under conditions resembling the routine clinical environment, as well as to consider other issues such as radiation burden for some common investigations. Both systems have slightly less than 11-cm axial fields of view. The PET system can be operated in a septa-less (3D) mode as well as conventionally with septa (2D). The spatial resolution of both devices was less than 8 mm in all dimensions in scattering media. On average, the PET scanner's resolution was approximately 10%-15% better than the SPET system. Energy resolution on the SPET system was superior due the scintillator used [NaI(Tl)]. Sensitivity in air with a line source on the PET system was found to be approximately 150 times greater in 3D and approximately 25 times greater in 2D than with the SPET system. A normal subject was studied on each system in an attempt to obtain the highest quality data possible for a subjective comparison. It is clear that, while PET retains the advantages of more desirable radiopharmaceuticals and higher sensitivity, the quality obtainable from SPET devices has improved markedly. SPET may prove as useful for many clinical investigations. PMID:8062841

  20. Reproducibility of MRI-Determined Proton Density Fat Fraction Across Two Different MR Scanner Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Geraldine H.; Cruite, Irene; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Hamilton, Gavin; Bydder, Mark; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined proton density fat fraction (PDFF) reproducibility across two MR scanner platforms and, using MR spectroscopy (MRS)-determined PDFF as reference standard, to confirm MRI-determined PDFF estimation accuracy. Materials and Methods This prospective, cross-sectional, crossover, observational pilot study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Twenty-one subjects gave written informed consent and underwent liver MRI and MRS at both 1.5T (Siemens Symphony scanner) and 3T (GE Signa Excite HD scanner). MRI-determined PDFF was estimated using an axial 2D spoiled gradient-recalled echo sequence with low flip-angle to minimize T1 bias and six echo-times to permit correction of T2* and fat-water signal interference effects. MRS-determined PDFF was estimated using a stimulated-echo acquisition mode sequence with long repetition time to minimize T1 bias and five echo times to permit T2 correction. Interscanner reproducibility of MRI determined PDFF was assessed by correlation analysis; accuracy was assessed separately at each field strength by linear regression analysis using MRS-determined PDFF as reference standard. Results 1.5T and 3T MRI-determined PDFF estimates were highly correlated (r = 0.992). MRI-determined PDFF estimates were accurate at both 1.5T (regression slope/intercept = 0.958/−0.48) and 3T (slope/intercept = 1.020/0.925) against the MRS-determined PDFF reference. Conclusion MRI-determined PDFF estimation is reproducible and, using MRS-determined PDFF as reference standard, accurate across two MR scanner platforms at 1.5T and 3T. PMID:21769986

  1. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s-1 for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s-1 for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s-1) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  2. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  3. The solar cell laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. L.; Chern, S.-S.; Shumka, A.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the Low Cost Solar Array Program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, failure analyses have been performed on over 300 photovoltaic modules from thirty different manufacturers and five countries. Because of the volume of work and the variety of module types encountered, it has been necessary to develop non-destructive techniques to rapidly locate the failure sites. This paper will present design details and results obtained with one instrument developed specifically for this purpose, the Solar Cell Laser Scanner (SCLS). The effects of applying a bias current to the modules will also be discussed, based upon experimental observations and computer generated predictions.

  4. Relaxation effects of Ferucarbotran-labeled mesenchymal stem cells at 1.5T and 3T: Discrimination of viable from lysed cells

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Tobias D; Wendland, Michael F; Golovko, Daniel; Sutton, Elizabeth J; Sennino, Barbara; Malek, Farbod; Bauer, Jan S; McDonald, Donald M; Daldrup-Link, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were labeled with Ferucarbotran by simple incubation and cultured for up to 14 days. Iron content was determined by spectrometry and the intracellular localization of the contrast agent uptake was studied by electron and confocal microscopy. At various time points after labeling, reaching from 1 to 14 days, samples with viable or lysed labeled hMSCs, as well as non-labeled controls underwent MR imaging. SE- and GE-sequences with multiple TRs and TEs were used at 1.5T and 3T on a clinical scanner. Spectrometry showed an initial iron oxide uptake of 7.08 pg per cell. Microscopy studies revealed lysosomal compartmentalization. Contrast agent effects of hMSC were persistent for up to 14 days after labeling. A marked difference in the T2-effect of compartmentalized iron oxides compared to free iron oxides was found on T2-weighted sequences, but not on T2*-sequences. The observed differences may be explained by the loss of compartmentalization of iron oxide particles, the uniformity of distribution and the subsequent increase in dephasing of protons on SE images. These results show that viable cells with compartmentalized iron oxides may – in principle – be distinguished from lysed cells or released iron oxides. PMID:19353670

  5. EUV mask particle adders during scanner exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yoonsuk; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Kyuyoung; Koo, Sunyoung; Kim, SeoMin; Kim, Youngsik; Lim, Changmoon; Kwak, Nohjung

    2015-03-01

    As EUV reaches high volume manufacturing, scanner source power and reticle defectivity attract a lot of attention. Keeping a EUV mask clean after mask production is as essential as producing a clean EUV mask. Even though EUV pellicle is actively investigated, we might expose EUV masks without EUV pellicle for some time. To keep clean EUV mask under pellicle-less lithography, EUV scanner cleanliness needs to meet the requirement of high volume manufacturing. In this paper, we will show the cleanliness of EUV scanners in view of mask particle adders during scanner exposure. From this we will find several tendencies of mask particle adders depending on mask environment in scanner. Further we can categorize mask particle adders, which could show the possible causes of particle adders during exposure in scanners.

  6. A robust method to estimate the intracranial volume across MRI field strengths (1.5T and 3T).

    PubMed

    Keihaninejad, Shiva; Heckemann, Rolf A; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; Symms, Mark R; Hajnal, Joseph V; Hammers, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    As population-based studies may obtain images from scanners with different field strengths, a method to normalize regional brain volumes according to intracranial volume (ICV) independent of field strength is needed. We found systematic differences in ICV estimation, tested in a cohort of healthy subjects (n=5) that had been imaged using 1.5T and 3T scanners, and confirmed in two independent cohorts. This was related to systematic differences in the intensity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with higher intensities for CSF located in the ventricles compared with CSF in the cisterns, at 3T versus 1.5T, which could not be removed with three different applied bias correction algorithms. We developed a method based on tissue probability maps in MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) space and reverse normalization (reverse brain mask, RBM) and validated it against manual ICV measurements. We also compared it with alternative automated ICV estimation methods based on Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) and Brain Extraction Tool (FSL). The proposed RBM method was equivalent to manual ICV normalization with a high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC=0.99) and reliable across different field strengths. RBM achieved the best combination of precision and reliability in a group of healthy subjects, a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be used as a common normalization framework.

  7. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  8. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  9. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... fluorescent scanner is a device intended to measure the induced fluorescent radiation in the body by...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... fluorescent scanner is a device intended to measure the induced fluorescent radiation in the body by...

  13. Scanner Art and Links to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David

    2005-01-01

    A photocopier or scanner can be used to produce not only the standard motion graphs of physics, but a variety of other graphs that resemble gravitational and electrical fields. This article presents a starting point for exploring scanner graphics, which brings together investigation in art and design, physics, mathematics, and information…

  14. Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

  15. Development of a Head Scanner for Proton CT

    PubMed Central

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Johnson, R. P.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Steinberg, D.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Hurley, V. Bashkirov, F.; Schulte, R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes. PMID:23264711

  16. Development of a head scanner for proton CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Johnson, R. P.; Macafee, S.; Plumb, A.; Steinberg, D.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new head scanner developed for Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) in support of proton therapy treatment planning, aiming at reconstructing an accurate map of the stopping power (S.P.) in a phantom and, in the future, in patients. The system consists of two silicon telescopes which track the proton before and after the phantom/patient, and an energy detector which measures the residual energy or range of the proton to reconstruct the Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) in the phantom. Based on the experience of the existing prototype and extensive Geant4 simulations and CT reconstructions, the new pCT scanner will support clinically useful proton fluxes.

  17. A comparison of film and phosphor scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Chancellor, T.; Morris, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and spatial distortions have been measured for three types of scanners: the Molecular Dynamics (MD) and DuPont film scanners and the MD phosphor scanner. The MD film scanner is a deployable and compact scanner that gives a peak SNR of 110 for low (< 2.0) optical densities (ODs), but the spatial distortions across the digitized film plane are significant. The authors compare this with the DuPont film scanner, which has equally good SNRs at low ODs, but very low spatial distortions. The DuPont also allows the user to define an OD range and contains a prescan function to find the suitable range if the user cannot input such a value; its scan times are quick, and the hardware allows for internal data averaging before being stored to disk. The MD phosphor imager has excellent low-dose capability, producing usable images at a 10-{mu}rad dose (from a 150-pkeV source) but its SNRs are low compared to the film scanner, but they can be increased by adjusting the photomultiplier tube voltage and laser radius across the scan arc.

  18. Evaluation Of Back Shape Using The ISIS Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Thomas, David C.

    1989-04-01

    The Integrated Shape Investigation System (ISIS) is a structured light scanner and shape analysis system, developed as a safe alternative to follow-up radiographs for the clinical assessment of deformities of the human back. The system is described and results presented of several clinic studies. These show a significant correlation between ISIS measures and conventional radiographic measures of spinal curvature, such as the Cobb angle. The development of a predictor for deterioration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, based on surface shape weasures, is discussed.

  19. Eddy current X-Y scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Branch of the Materials and Processes Laboratory became aware of a need for a miniature, portable X-Y scanner capable of performing eddy current or other nondestructive testing scanning operations such as ultrasonic, or small areas of flat plate. The technical description and operational theory of the X-Y scanner system designed and built to fulfill this need are covered. The scanner was given limited testing and performs according to its design intent, which is to scan flat plate areas of approximately 412 sq cm (64 sq in) during each complete cycle of scanning.

  20. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  1. Flexure pivots for oscillatory scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David C.; Pruyn, Kristopher

    2002-06-01

    Flexures are quite ancient, and their use as pivots is also ancient. Long before the use of the most primitive sleeve bearings leather strap flexures were used as trunk lidhinges and the like. Early engines of war, including the ballista of the Romans, technically advanced hand bows, and the cross bows of the fourteenth century all employ flexure pivots as their enabling technology. Designers of modern scientific instruments, including optical and laser scanning equipment exploit the same attributes of the flexure which appealed to their forefathers: simplicity, reliability, lack of internal clearance, long service life, ease of construction, and often, it's high mechanical Q. A special case of the flexure pivot, the torsional pivot, has made possible very long lived scanners at speeds which are far out of the reach of other bearing types. Since success with flexures requires consideration of some simple but non-intuitive issues such as stress distribution and stress corrosion, this talk will emphasize the practicum of flexure design and application.

  2. Contributed review: nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Fordham, Edmund J

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  3. Contributed Review: Nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jonathan Fordham, Edmund J.

    2014-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  4. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fluorescent scanner is a device intended to measure the induced fluorescent radiation in the body by exposing the body to certain x-rays or low-energy gamma rays. This generic type of device may include...

  5. High voltage battery cell scanner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

  6. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  7. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  8. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  9. Plasma system of the GOL-3T facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burdakov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Kuklin, K. N.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V. Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Sklyarov, V. F.

    2015-11-15

    The plasma system and diagnostics of the new facility GOL-3T are described. This facility is the final result of the first stage in the deep upgrade of the GOL-3 multiple-mirror system, which has operated at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 1988. The upgrade project supposes creation of two new independent facilities at the site of GOL-3. The GOL-3T facility is intended to study the physics of beam—plasma interaction and generation of subterahertz electromagnetic radiation during the collective relaxation of a high-power relativistic electron beam with a duration of 5–10 μs. Studies on the physics of multiple-mirror plasma confinement in axisymmetric magnetic systems will be continued in a new range of experiment parameters at the second facility, named GOL-NB.

  10. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S

    2016-01-21

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner's transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner's optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  11. Growth stimulation of 3T3 fibroblasts by Cystatin

    SciTech Connect

    Quan Sun Beijing Medical Univ. )

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of cultures of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with Cystatin C, a thiol-proteinase inhibitor isolated from chicken egg white, resulted in an enhanced rate of cell proliferation. This stimulation was demonstrated using two independent assay systems: (a) assessment of total cell number and (b) measurement of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporated into acid-precipitable DNA. In both assays, the dose-response curves of Cystatin stimulation showed a rising function that plateaued at a concentration of {approximately}120 {mu}g/ml. The addition of Cystatin to cultures of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells also enhanced DNA synthesis in these target cells. Control experiments showed that the presence of Cystatin did not alter the level of binding of radioactively labeled epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor to 3T3 cells. These results argue against the possibility that the observed growth stimulation by Cystatin was due to growth factor contamination of the Cystatin preparation.

  12. Uncertainty Propagation for Terrestrial Mobile Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezian, c.; Vallet, Bruno; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that takes into account all the sources of uncertainties and allows to compute a covariance matrix per 3D point. The sources of uncertainties are laser scanner, calibration of the scanner in relation to the vehicle and direct georeferencing system. We suppose that all the uncertainties follow the Gaussian law. The variances of the laser scanner measurements (two angles and one distance) are usually evaluated by the constructors. This is also the case for integrated direct georeferencing devices. Residuals of the calibration process were used to estimate the covariance matrix of the 6D transformation between scanner laser and the vehicle system. Knowing the variances of all sources of uncertainties, we applied uncertainty propagation technique to compute the variance-covariance matrix of every obtained 3D point. Such an uncertainty analysis enables to estimate the impact of different laser scanners and georeferencing devices on the quality of obtained 3D points. The obtained uncertainty values were illustrated using error ellipsoids on different datasets.

  13. A comparison of distributional considerations with statistical analysis of resting state fMRI at 3T and 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Holmes, Martha J.; Newton, Allen T.; Morgan, Victoria L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-high field 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers potentially unprecedented spatial resolution of functional activity within the human brain through increased signal and contrast to noise ratios over traditional 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. However, the effects physiological and imaging artifacts are also greatly increased. Traditional statistical parametric mapping theories based on distributional properties representative of data acquired at lower fields may be inadequate for new 7T data. Herein, we investigate the model fitting residuals based on two 7T and one 3T protocols. We find that model residuals are substantively more non-Gaussian at 7T relative to 3T. Imaging slices that passed through regions with peak inhomogeneity problems (e.g., mid-brain acquisitions for the 7T hippocampus) exhibited visually higher degrees of distortion along with spatially correlated and extreme values of kurtosis (a measure of non- Gaussianity). The impacts of artifacts have been previously addressed for 3T data by estimating the covariance matrix of the regression errors. We further extend the robust estimation approach for autoregressive models and evaluate the qualitative impacts of this technique relative to traditional inference. Clear differences in statistical significance are shown between inferences based on classical versus robust assumptions, which suggest that inferences based on Gaussian assumptions are subject to practical (as well as theoretical) concerns regarding their power and validity. Hence, modern statistical approaches, such as the robust autoregressive model posed herein, are appropriate and suitable for inference with ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Vaspin promotes 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Jine; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Liping; Han, Wenqi; Lv, Ying; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Vaspin, a novel adipocyte factor secreted from visceral adipose tissues, is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, increase insulin sensitivity, and suppress inflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Proliferation and maladaptive differentiation are important pathological mechanisms underlying obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaspin on the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and to explore the likely mechanisms responsible for 3T3-L1 differentiation. Vaspin was added to cultured 3T3-L1 cells, and the differentiation of adipocytes was evaluated using Oil Red O staining. The AKT signaling pathway and specific differentiation factors related to the differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family, were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses during the early phase of differentiation. Additionally, adiponectin mRNA, interleukin-6 mRNA (IL-6 mRNA), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein levels were measured in the differentiated adipocytes. The results indicated that vaspin promotes the intracellular accumulation of lipids and increases differentiation-related factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, C/EBPα, and free fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, vaspin (200 ng/mL) increased the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ, C/EBPα, and FABP4. Moreover, compared with the control, significantly smaller eight-day differentiated adipocytes were observed, and these cells exhibited decreased IL-6 mRNA and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels; these results also indicated the potential of vaspin to promote the insulin-mediated AKT signaling pathway during the early phase of differentiation. In conclusion

  15. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugalho, R.; Carriço, B.; Ferreira, C. S.; Frade, M.; Ferreira, M.; Moura, R.; Ortigão, C.; Pinheiro, J. F.; Rodrigues, P.; Rolo, I.; Silva, J. C.; Trindade, A.; Varela, J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean CDOI-1 is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  16. MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Pfeiffer, Norman; Krumbein, Ines; Herrmann, Lutz; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-03-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is decribed. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts.

  17. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  18. Topiramate effects lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, GABRIELA POLTRONIERI CAMPAGNARO; SOUZA, CAMILA OLIVEIRA; MARQUES, SCHEROLIN; LUCIANO, THAIS FERNANDES; DA SILVA PIERI, BRUNO LUIZ; ROSA, JOSÉ CÉSAR; DA SILVA, ADELINO SANCHEZ RAMOS; PAULI, JOSÉ RODRIGO; CINTRA, DENNYS ESPER; ROPELLE, EDUARDO ROCHETE; RODRIGUES, BRUNO; DE LIRA, FABIO SANTOS; DE SOUZA, CLAUDIO TEODORO

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that topiramate (TPM)-induced weight loss can be dependent on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the direct action of TPM on adipose tissue has not been tested previously. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether TPM modulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1. The 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in 50 µM TPM for 30 min. The β-adrenergic stimulator, isoproterenol, was used as a positive control. The release of lactate dehydrogenase, non-esterified fatty acid, glycerol and incorporation of 14C-palmitate to lipid were analyzed. The phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of comparative genetic identification 58 (CGI-58) were assessed. The levels of glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid increased markedly when the cells were treated with TPM. The TPM effects were similar to the isoproterenol positive control. Additionally, TPM reduced lipogenesis. These results were observed without any change in cell viability. Finally, the phosphorylation of PKA, HSL, ATGL and perilipin A, as well as the protein levels of CGI-58 were increased compared to the control cells. These results were similar to those observed in the cells treated with isoproterenol. The present results show that TPM increased the phosphorylation of pivotal lipolytic enzymes, which induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that this drug may act directly in the adipose tissue independent from its effect on the CNS. PMID:26623024

  19. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 μm and 26 μm, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25923931

  20. A PDMS-Based 2-Axis Waterproof Scanner for Photoacoustic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is an imaging tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. To achieve a small size, fast imaging speed, wide scan range, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in a water environment, we introduce a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based 2-axis scanner for a flexible and waterproof structure. The design, theoretical background, fabrication process and performance of the scanner are explained in details. The designed and fabricated scanner has dimensions of 15 × 15 × 15 mm along the X, Y and Z axes, respectively. The characteristics of the scanner are tested under DC and AC conditions. By pairing with electromagnetic forces, the maximum scanning angles in air and water are 18° and 13° along the X and Y axes, respectively. The measured resonance frequencies in air and water are 60 and 45 Hz along the X axis and 45 and 30 Hz along the Y axis, respectively. Finally, OR-PAM with high SNRs is demonstrated using the fabricated scanner, and the PA images of micro-patterned samples and microvasculatures of a mouse ear are successfully obtained with high-resolution and wide-field of view. OR-PAM equipped with the 2-axis PDMS based waterproof scanner has lateral and axial resolutions of 3.6 μm and 26 μm, respectively. This compact OR-PAM system could potentially and widely be used in preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25923931

  1. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  2. Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

  3. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives. PMID:22920424

  4. NYU3T: teaching, technology, teamwork: a model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Fulmer, Terry; Adams, Jennifer G; Lee, Sabrina; Triola, Marc M

    2012-09-01

    Interprofessional education is a critical precursor to effective teamwork and the collaboration of health care professionals in clinical settings. Numerous barriers have been identified that preclude scalable and sustainable interprofessional education (IPE) efforts. This article describes NYU3T: Teaching, Technology, Teamwork, a model that uses novel technologies such as Web-based learning, virtual patients, and high-fidelity simulation to overcome some of the common barriers and drive implementation of evidence-based teamwork curricula. It outlines the program's curricular components, implementation strategy, evaluation methods, and lessons learned from the first year of delivery and describes implications for future large-scale IPE initiatives.

  5. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity. PMID:24961835

  6. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  7. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  8. Objective Bayesian fMRI analysis-a pilot study in different clinical environments.

    PubMed

    Magerkurth, Joerg; Mancini, Laura; Penny, William; Flandin, Guillaume; Ashburner, John; Micallef, Caroline; De Vita, Enrico; Daga, Pankaj; White, Mark J; Buckley, Craig; Yamamoto, Adam K; Ourselin, Sebastien; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) used for neurosurgical planning delineates functionally eloquent brain areas by time-series analysis of task-induced BOLD signal changes. Commonly used frequentist statistics protect against false positive results based on a p-value threshold. In surgical planning, false negative results are equally if not more harmful, potentially masking true brain activity leading to erroneous resection of eloquent regions. Bayesian statistics provides an alternative framework, categorizing areas as activated, deactivated, non-activated or with low statistical confidence. This approach has not yet found wide clinical application partly due to the lack of a method to objectively define an effect size threshold. We implemented a Bayesian analysis framework for neurosurgical planning fMRI. It entails an automated effect-size threshold selection method for posterior probability maps accounting for inter-individual BOLD response differences, which was calibrated based on the frequentist results maps thresholded by two clinical experts. We compared Bayesian and frequentist analysis of passive-motor fMRI data from 10 healthy volunteers measured on a pre-operative 3T and an intra-operative 1.5T MRI scanner. As a clinical case study, we tested passive motor task activation in a brain tumor patient at 3T under clinical conditions. With our novel effect size threshold method, the Bayesian analysis revealed regions of all four categories in the 3T data. Activated region foci and extent were consistent with the frequentist analysis results. In the lower signal-to-noise ratio 1.5T intra-operative scanner data, Bayesian analysis provided improved brain-activation detection sensitivity compared with the frequentist analysis, albeit the spatial extents of the activations were smaller than at 3T. Bayesian analysis of fMRI data using operator-independent effect size threshold selection may improve the sensitivity and certainty of information available to guide neurosurgery.

  9. Objective Bayesian fMRI analysis—a pilot study in different clinical environments

    PubMed Central

    Magerkurth, Joerg; Mancini, Laura; Penny, William; Flandin, Guillaume; Ashburner, John; Micallef, Caroline; De Vita, Enrico; Daga, Pankaj; White, Mark J.; Buckley, Craig; Yamamoto, Adam K.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) used for neurosurgical planning delineates functionally eloquent brain areas by time-series analysis of task-induced BOLD signal changes. Commonly used frequentist statistics protect against false positive results based on a p-value threshold. In surgical planning, false negative results are equally if not more harmful, potentially masking true brain activity leading to erroneous resection of eloquent regions. Bayesian statistics provides an alternative framework, categorizing areas as activated, deactivated, non-activated or with low statistical confidence. This approach has not yet found wide clinical application partly due to the lack of a method to objectively define an effect size threshold. We implemented a Bayesian analysis framework for neurosurgical planning fMRI. It entails an automated effect-size threshold selection method for posterior probability maps accounting for inter-individual BOLD response differences, which was calibrated based on the frequentist results maps thresholded by two clinical experts. We compared Bayesian and frequentist analysis of passive-motor fMRI data from 10 healthy volunteers measured on a pre-operative 3T and an intra-operative 1.5T MRI scanner. As a clinical case study, we tested passive motor task activation in a brain tumor patient at 3T under clinical conditions. With our novel effect size threshold method, the Bayesian analysis revealed regions of all four categories in the 3T data. Activated region foci and extent were consistent with the frequentist analysis results. In the lower signal-to-noise ratio 1.5T intra-operative scanner data, Bayesian analysis provided improved brain-activation detection sensitivity compared with the frequentist analysis, albeit the spatial extents of the activations were smaller than at 3T. Bayesian analysis of fMRI data using operator-independent effect size threshold selection may improve the sensitivity and certainty of information available to guide neurosurgery

  10. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  11. Laser scanners: from industrial to biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2013-11-01

    We present a brief overview of our contributions in the field of laser scanning technologies, applied for a variety of applications, from industrial, dimensional measurements to high-end biomedical imaging, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Polygon Mirror (PM) scanners are presented, as applied from optical micrometers to laser sources scanned in frequency for Swept Sources (SSs) OCT. Galvanometer-based scanners (GSs) are approached to determine the optimal scanning function in order to obtain the highest possible duty cycle. We demonstrated that this optimal scanning function is linear plus parabolic, and not linear plus sinusoidal, as it has been previously considered in the literature. Risley prisms (rotational double wedges) scanners are pointed out, with our exact approach to determine and simulate their scan patterns in order to optimize their use in several types of applications, including OCT. A discussion on the perspectives of scanning in biomedical imaging, with a focus on OCT concludes the study.

  12. CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  14. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  15. Infrared scanner concept verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, F. D.

    1980-01-01

    The test results from a concept verification test conducted to assess the use of an infrared scanner as a remote temperature sensing device for the space shuttle program are presented. The temperature and geometric resolution limits, atmospheric attenuation effects including conditions with fog and rain, and the problem of surface emissivity variations are included. It is concluded that the basic concept of using an infrared scanner to determine near freezing surface temperatures is feasible. The major problem identified is concerned with infrared reflections which result in significant errors if not controlled. Action taken to manage these errors result in design and operational constraints to control the viewing angle and surface emissivity.

  16. Metal Optics For Laser Profile Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauke, T.; Hock, F.

    1987-01-01

    Laser scanners are a valuable tool for qualitiy control in hostile hot and vibrating environments. Their high measuring speed allows time minimisation of disturbing influences. The loss of accuracy of systems due to thermal distortion could be minimised by designing mechanical-optical systems with low temperature gradients and small differences between thermal expansions of the components. For application in the forging production a laser scanner measuring in situ a series of profile lines describing the hot forging tools has been designed using aluminium for all distortion sensitive mechanical and optical components.

  17. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  18. Medical imaging with a microwave tomographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Jofre, L; Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; de los Reyes, E; Ferrando, M; Elias-Fusté, A R

    1990-03-01

    A microwave tomographic scanner for biomedical applications is presented. The scanner consists of a 64 element circular array with a useful diameter of 20 cm. Electronically scanning the transmitting and receiving antennas allows multiview measurements with no mechanical movement. Imaging parameters are appropriate for medical use: a spatial resolution of 7 mm and a contrast resolution of 1% for a measurement time of 3 s. Measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms and volunteers, together with numerical simulations, are presented to assess the system for absolute imaging of tissue distribution and for differential imaging of physiological, pathological, and induced changes in tissues. PMID:2329003

  19. Bone mineral computation with a rectilinear scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, J.; Brown, S.; Silverstein, A.; Vogel, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A portable rectilinear transmission scanner and associated computerized data reduction techniques for estimating bone mineral content are described. This unit can be easily disassembled for transport to various measurement sites and has been used to estimate the bone mineral content of the os calcis, radius, and ulna in the Apollo and Skylab astronauts. The scanner is used to obtain multiple rows of data from which a bone profile is derived. Bone edges are determined with the aid of a digital computer program which employs an algorithm that determines the greatest rate of change of the counting rate.

  20. LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James D

    2012-04-11

    On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

  1. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, Erik; Hryniw, Natalia; Hansen, Jon A; Kesler, Leigh A; Li, Frank

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  2. The 3T3-L1 adipocyte glycogen proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide of glucose residues, consisting of α-1-4 glycosidic linkages with α-1-6 branches that together form multi-layered particles ranging in size from 30 nm to 300 nm. Glycogen spatial conformation and intracellular organization are highly regulated processes. Glycogen particles interact with their metabolizing enzymes and are associated with a variety of proteins that intervene in its biology, controlling its structure, particle size and sub-cellular distribution. The function of glycogen in adipose tissue is not well understood but appears to have a pivotal role as a regulatory mechanism informing the cells on substrate availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. To provide new molecular insights into the role of adipocyte glycogen we analyzed the glycogen-associated proteome from differentiated 3T3-L1-adipocytes. Results Glycogen particles from 3T3-L1-adipocytes were purified using a series of centrifugation steps followed by specific elution of glycogen bound proteins using α-1,4 glucose oligosaccharides, or maltodextrins, and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified regulatory proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, RACK1 and protein phosphatase 1 glycogen targeting subunit 3D. Evidence was also obtained for a regulated subcellular distribution of the glycogen particle: metabolic and mitochondrial proteins were abundant. Unlike the recently analyzed hepatic glycogen proteome, no endoplasmic proteins were detected, along with the recently described starch-binding domain protein 1. Other regulatory proteins which have previously been described as glycogen-associated proteins were not detected, including laforin, the AMPK beta-subunit and protein targeting to glycogen (PTG). Conclusions These data provide new molecular insights into the regulation of glycogen-bound proteins that are associated with the maintenance, organization and localization of the adipocyte glycogen particle. PMID:23521774

  3. Oxygenation in Cervical Cancer and Normal Uterine Cervix assessed using BOLD MRI at 3 T1

    PubMed Central

    Hallac, Rami R.; Ding, Yao; Yuan, Qing; McColl, Roderick W.; Lea, Jayanthi; Sims, Robert D.; Weatherall, Paul T.; Mason, Ralph P.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia is reported to be a biomarker for poor prognosis in cervical cancer. However, a practical non-invasive method is needed for routine clinical evaluation of tumor hypoxia. This study examined the potential use of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) contrast MRI as a non-invasive technique to assess tumor vascular oxygenation at 3 T. Following IRB-approved informed consent and in compliance with HIPAA, successful results were achieved in nine patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO stage IIA to IVA) and three normal volunteers. In the first four patients, dynamic T2*-weighted MRI was performed in the transaxial plane using a multi-shot EPI sequence while patients breathed room air followed by oxygen (15 dm3/min). Later, a multi-echo gradient echo examination was added to provide quantitative R2* measurements. Baseline T2*-weighted signal intensity was quite stable, but increased to various extents in tumors upon initiation of oxygen breathing. Signal in normal uterus increased significantly, while iliacus muscle did not change. R2* responded significantly in healthy uterus, cervix, and eight cervical tumors. This preliminary study demonstrates that BOLD MRI of cervical cancer at 3 T is feasible. However, more patients must be evaluated and followed clinically before any prognostic value can be determined. PMID:22619091

  4. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  5. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  6. Bottled liquid explosive scanner by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A bottled liquid explosive scanner has been developed using near infrared technology for glass or PET bottles and ultrasound technology for metal cans. It has database of near infrared absorbance spectra and sound velocities of various liquids. Scanned liquids can be identified by using this database. This device has been certified by ECAC and installed at Japanese international airport.

  7. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  8. MRI Scanners Guide Therapy to Tumors.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    A new study shows that MRI scanners can direct magnetically labeled macrophages bearing an oncolytic virus toward primary and metastatic tumors in mice. Researchers hope this approach, called magnetic resonance targeting, can be scaled for use in humans, to improve the delivery of cell-based cancer therapy. PMID:26370155

  9. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Vaska

    2011-03-09

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  10. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  11. Dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation ACR phantom magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: Assessment of the effect of image quality on high-contrast spatial resolution, percent signal ghosting, and low-contrast object detectability in comparison with conventional single-source transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Bae; Park, Yong-Sung; Choe, Bo-Young

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess dual-source parallel radiofrequency (RF) excitation American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3T compared with conventional single-source RF transmission and compared with the standard ACR MRI phantom test. We used a 3T MR scanner equipped with dual-source parallel RF excitation and an 8-channel head phased array coil. We employed T1- and T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequences for an assessment of the impact of image quality on high-contrast spatial resolution, percent signal ghosting and low-contrast object detectability following the ACR MRI quality control (QC) manual. With geometric accuracy and identical slice locations, dual RFs using dual-source parallel RF excitation MR showed an advantage over single RF using dual-source parallel RF excitation MR and conventional MR in terms of high-contrast spatial resolution (p < 0.010), percent signal ghosting (p < 0.010), and low-contrast object detectability (p < 0.010). The quality of the image from the dual-source parallel RF excitation MR equipment was superior to that of the image from conventional MR equipment for the ACR phantom. We need to pursue dual-source parallel RF excitation MR studies involving various clinical cases.

  12. 24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  15. 13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 11. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING EVAPORATIVE COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. Jackson Maddox, Brian R.; Chen, Hui; Kojima, Sadaoki; Millecchia, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system.

  18. Calibration and equivalency analysis of image plate scanners.

    PubMed

    Williams, G Jackson; Maddox, Brian R; Chen, Hui; Kojima, Sadaoki; Millecchia, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    A universal procedure was developed to calibrate image plate scanners using radioisotope sources. Techniques to calibrate scanners and sources, as well as cross-calibrate scanner models, are described to convert image plate dosage into physical units. This allows for the direct comparison of quantitative data between any facility and scanner. An empirical relation was also derived to establish sensitivity response settings for arbitrary gain settings. In practice, these methods may be extended to any image plate scanning system. PMID:25430350

  19. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  20. The Aporphine Alkaloid Boldine Induces Adiponectin Expression and Regulation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (100 μM) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5–100 μM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or TNFα and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5–25 μM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50–100 μM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H2O2 or TNFα was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  1. Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

  2. Scanner show-through reduction using reflective optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-fan

    2003-12-01

    Document scanners are used to convert paper documents to digital format for document distribution or archiving. Scanners are also used in copier and fax machine to convert document to electrical signal in analog and digital format. Most document scanners use white backing to avoid black border or black hole in scanned images. One problem with white backing is that show-through from the backside is visible for duplex printed (two sided) documents. This paper describes an optical method to eliminate show-through without reverting back to the black border or black hole. The scanner cover is made into a saw-tooth shaped mirror surface. The surface is oriented so that it reflects the light from the scanner lamp to the scanner lens. When scanning the scanner cover as in the case of a hole in the paper, it reflects light (specular reflection) from the scanner lamp directly to the scanner lens. Because the scanner lamp is much brighter than the reflected light from the document, only a small portion of the reflected light is needed to have the same output as scanning a piece of white paper. Radiometric calculation shows that this new approach can reduce the overall reflection from the scanner cover to 8% when scanning a document, and yet, appear to be white when no document is in between the cover and scan bar. The show-through is greatly reduced due to this reduced overall reflection from the scanner cover.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  12. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882.1925 Section 882.1925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test...

  13. Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-06-01

    Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals.

  14. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin

    2006-11-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  15. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  16. The Galileo star scanner observations at Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieseler, Paul D.; Adams, Olen W.; Vandermey, Nancy; Theilig, E. E.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lewis, George D.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Alexander, Claudia J.

    2004-06-01

    In November of 2002, the Galileo spacecraft passed within 250 km of Jupiter's moon Amalthea. An onboard telescope, the star scanner, observed a series of bright flashes near the moon. It is believed that these flashes represent sunlight reflected from 7 to 9 small moonlets located within about 3000 km of Amalthea. From star scanner geometry considerations and other arguments, we can constrain the diameter of the observed bodies to be between 0.5 m to several tens of kilometers. In September of 2003, while crossing Amalthea's orbit just prior to Galileo's destruction in the jovian atmosphere, a single additional body seems to have been observed. It is suspected that these bodies are part of a discrete rocky ring embedded within Jupiter's Gossamer ring system.

  17. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge /Tennessee U.

    2004-12-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  18. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-03-15

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%.

  19. Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyungmin; Park, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-02-22

    We report a novel MEMS fiber scanner with an electrothermal silicon microactuator and a directly mounted optical fiber. The microactuator comprises double hot arm and cold arm structures with a linking bridge and an optical fiber is aligned along a silicon fiber groove. The unique feature induces separation of resonant scanning frequencies of a single optical fiber in lateral and vertical directions, which realizes Lissajous scanning during the resonant motion. The footprint dimension of microactuator is 1.28 x 7 x 0.44 mm3. The resonant scanning frequencies of a 20 mm long optical fiber are 239.4 Hz and 218.4 Hz in lateral and vertical directions, respectively. The full scanned area indicates 451 μm x 558 μm under a 16 Vpp pulse train. This novel laser scanner can provide many opportunities for laser scanning endomicroscopic applications.

  20. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  1. Learning and teaching with a computer scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like scientists. They will conduct simple experiments, construct different explanations for their observations, test their explanations in new experiments and represent their ideas in multiple ways.

  2. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  3. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-06-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface.

  4. 26 CFR 1.6050H-3T - Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... premiums (temporary). 1.6050H-3T Section 1.6050H-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT....6050H-3T Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Information reporting... (or their successor organizations), or to private mortgage insurance (as defined by section 2 of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6050H-3T - Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... premiums (temporary). 1.6050H-3T Section 1.6050H-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT....6050H-3T Information reporting of mortgage insurance premiums (temporary). (a) Information reporting... (or their successor organizations), or to private mortgage insurance (as defined by section 2 of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  8. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  10. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private activity bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-3T Section 1.103(n)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....103(n)-3T Private activity bond limit (temporary). Q-1: What is the “State ceiling”? A-1: In...

  11. Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

  12. A 3 T superconducting magnet for the amy detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Maki, A.; Mito, T.; Omori, T.; Terada, S.; Tsuchiya, K.

    1989-01-01

    A 3 T high field superconducting magnet was constructed for the AMY detector at the TRISTAN electron-positron storage ring. Cooldown and excitation tests of the magnet were carried out with the detector in its final configuration. The coil is made with a fully stabilized superconductor wound into an eight layer cylinder with a 2.39 m inner diameter, a 2.58 m outer diameter and 1.54 m in length. An outer jacket of thick stainless steel was shrunk-fit around the coil to provide strength to contain the magnetic forces and to serve as a liquid helium container for the pool boiling cooling system for the coil. A computer controlled refrigeration system with a capacity of 300 W at 4.4. K (100 l/h) was prepared to cool down the 17 t of cold mass of the magnet. It took about five days to cool down from room temperature and achieve a superconducting state, and an additional two days to completely fill the coil with liquid helium and to prepare for the excitation of the magnet. The thermal stresses on the coil support rods were evenly balanced during the cooldown, and the mechanical stresses on the support rods at full excitation (a current of 5000 A) were well below the allowed maximum. In order to verify the safe operation of the magnet system, we carried out fast discharge tests with a time constant of 21 s, which was optimized to protect the magnet from quench. The pressure rise in the helium vessel during the discharge from 5000 A was an easily manageable 1.38 × 10 5 Pa. During the fast discharge of the 5000 A excitation, the coil showed no signs of developing any normal regions. At the maximum rated current of 5000 A, the central magnetic field and the inductance were measured to be 3.0367 and 3.2 H, respectively, corresponding to a stored energy of 40 MJ, in good agreement with magnetic field calculations. During these tests and in the succeeding long term operation, the magnet showed excellent stability and reliability.

  13. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS3 transforms NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sakamuro, D; Furukawa, T; Takegami, T

    1995-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that hepatitis C virus (HCV) is etiologically involved in hepatic cancer and liver cirrhosis. To investigate whether the HCV nonstructural protein NS3 has oncogenic activity, NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with an expression vector containing cDNA for the 5'- or 3'-half sequence of the HCV genome segment encoding NS3. Only cells transfected with the 5'-half cDNA rapidly proliferated, lost contact inhibition, grew anchorage independently in soft agar, and formed tumors in nude mice. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of the 5'-half DNA in the transfectants. These results suggest that the 5' region of the HCV genome segment encoding NS3 is involved in cell transformation. PMID:7745741

  14. Influence of fat on liver T 1 measurements using modified Look–Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) methods at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliffe, Elizabeth M.; Pavlides, Michael; Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effect of fat on modified Look–Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T 1 maps of the liver. The balanced steady‐state free precession (bSSFP) sequence causes water and fat signals to have opposite phase when repetition time (TR) = 2.3 msec at 3T. In voxels that contain both fat and water, the MOLLI T 1 measurement is influenced by the choice of TR. Materials and Methods MOLLI T 1 measurements of the liver were simulated using the Bloch equations while varying the hepatic lipid content (HLC). Phantom scans were performed on margarine phantoms, using both MOLLI and spin echo inversion recovery sequences. MOLLI T 1 at 3T and HLC were determined in patients (n = 8) before and after bariatric surgery. Results At 3T, with HLC in the 0–35% range, higher fat fraction values lead to longer MOLLI T 1 values when TR = 2.3 msec. Patients were found to have higher MOLLI T 1 at elevated HLC (T 1 = 929 ± 97 msec) than at low HLC (T 1 = 870 ± 44 msec). Conclusion At 3T, MOLLI T 1 values are affected by HLC, substantially changing MOLLI T 1 in a clinically relevant range of fat content. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:105–111. PMID:26762615

  15. Standardized quantitative measurements of wrist cartilage in healthy humans using 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Jean-Vincent; Souteyrand, Philippe; Guis, Sandrine; Chagnaud, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Militianu, Daniela; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Guye, Maxime; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the wrist cartilage cross-sectional area in humans from a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset and to assess the corresponding reproducibility. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 healthy volunteers (6 females and 8 males) between 30 and 58 years old and devoid of articular pain. Subjects were asked to lie down in the supine position with the right hand positioned above the pelvic region on top of a home-built rigid platform attached to the scanner bed. The wrist was wrapped with a flexible surface coil. MRI investigations were performed at 3T (Verio-Siemens) using volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) and dual echo steady state (DESS) MRI sequences. Cartilage cross sectional area (CSA) was measured on a slice of interest selected from a 3D dataset of the entire carpus and metacarpal-phalangeal areas on the basis of anatomical criteria using conventional image processing radiology software. Cartilage cross-sectional areas between opposite bones in the carpal region were manually selected and quantified using a thresholding method. RESULTS: Cartilage CSA measurements performed on a selected predefined slice were 292.4 ± 39 mm2 using the VIBE sequence and slightly lower, 270.4 ± 50.6 mm2, with the DESS sequence. The inter (14.1%) and intra (2.4%) subject variability was similar for both MRI methods. The coefficients of variation computed for the repeated measurements were also comparable for the VIBE (2.4%) and the DESS (4.8%) sequences. The carpus length averaged over the group was 37.5 ± 2.8 mm with a 7.45% between-subjects coefficient of variation. Of note, wrist cartilage CSA measured with either the VIBE or the DESS sequences was linearly related to the carpal bone length. The variability between subjects was significantly reduced to 8.4% when the CSA was normalized with respect to the carpal bone length. CONCLUSION: The ratio between wrist cartilage CSA and carpal bone length is a highly reproducible standardized

  16. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  17. Foxp3+ T-Regulatory Cells in Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Maria I.; Kapsogeorgou, Efstathia K.; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune exocrinopathy associated with variable lymphocytic infiltration of the affected organs (primarily salivary and lacrimal glands) and broad clinical manifestations, including lymphoma development. To investigate the potential implication of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells in the regulation of SS inflammatory responses, we studied their incidence in the minor salivary glands (MSGs) and their relationship with histopathological and clinical disease parameters. Similar percentages of infiltrating Foxp3+ cells were observed in the MSG lesions of all SS patients (n = 30) and non-SS sialadenitis controls (n = 7). Foxp3+ cells were not detected in sicca-complaining controls with negative biopsy (n = 6). In SS patients, Foxp3+ cell frequency varied according to lesion severity, with the highest and lowest frequencies obtained in intermediate and mild MSG lesions, respectively. In the peripheral blood of these patients, reverse distribution of Foxp3+ cells was observed. Furthermore, the frequency of Foxp3+ cells in the MSG lesions and peripheral blood was negatively associated (r = −0.6679, P = 0.0065). MSG-infiltrating Foxp3+ cells were found to positively correlate with biopsy focus score (P = 0.05), infiltrating mononuclear cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages (P ≤ 0.024 each), and serum C4 levels (P = 0.0328), whereas lower Foxp3+ cell incidence correlated with adverse predictors for lymphoma development, such as the presence of C4 hypocomplementemia (P = 0.012) and SG enlargement (tendency, P = 0.067). Our findings suggest that the Foxp3+ T-regulatory cell frequency in the MSG lesions of SS patients correlates with inflammation grade and certain risk factors for lymphoma development. PMID:18818377

  18. Fusion in diffusion MRI for improved fibre orientation estimation: An application to the 3T and 7T data of the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Hernández-Fernández, Moisés; Vu, An T; Andersson, Jesper L; Moeller, Steen; Yacoub, Essa; Lenglet, Christophe; Ugurbil, Kamil; Behrens, Timothy E J; Jbabdi, Saad

    2016-07-01

    Determining the acquisition parameters in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is governed by a series of trade-offs. Images of lower resolution have less spatial specificity but higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). At the same time higher angular contrast, important for resolving complex fibre patterns, also yields lower SNR. Considering these trade-offs, the Human Connectome Project (HCP) acquires high quality dMRI data for the same subjects at different field strengths (3T and 7T), which are publically released. Due to differences in the signal behavior and in the underlying scanner hardware, the HCP 3T and 7T data have complementary features in k- and q-space. The 3T dMRI has higher angular contrast and resolution, while the 7T dMRI has higher spatial resolution. Given the availability of these datasets, we explore the idea of fusing them together with the aim of combining their benefits. We extend a previously proposed data-fusion framework and apply it to integrate both datasets from the same subject into a single joint analysis. We use a generative model for performing parametric spherical deconvolution and estimate fibre orientations by simultaneously using data acquired under different protocols. We illustrate unique features from each dataset and how they are retained after fusion. We further show that this allows us to complement benefits and improve brain connectivity analysis compared to analyzing each of the datasets individually. PMID:27071694

  19. Measurement and evaluation of the acoustic noise of a 3 Tesla MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    We measured the sound level and frequencies of the acoustic noise generated by a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner, and investigated the subjective sound level for 30 healthy volunteers with either earplugs, headphones or both. The sound level of 3T was found to be higher than that of 1.5T in all sequences. The peak sound pressure level of 3T ranged from 125.7 dB for MR angiography to 130.7 dB for single shot EPI on the linear scale. The equivalent noise level was from 110.0 dB for FLAIR to 115.8 dB for T1-IR on the A-weighted scale, which exceeded 99 dB, the level regulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The study of the subjective sound level showed that the effect of noise reduction was not significantly different between earplugs and headphones. However, the use of both devices could reduce the subjective sound level significantly better than either one alone (P < 0.01). Thus we propose wearing both devices for ear-protection during 3T examinations.

  20. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  1. The solid state area scanner photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakos, K. D.

    The design and operation of a solid-state area-scanner photometer for observations of binaries are reported. Tracking and seeing errors are shown to be more significant than photoelectron statistics in determining overall accuracy; hence a system using individually recorded short scans and computer processing is adopted. A linear self-scanned photodiode array comprising 128 discrete Si photodiodes arranged on a 2.5 x 3.2-mm surface with virtually no dead space and having 80-percent quantum efficiency is used on a 1-m telescope at 1-sec integration time with thermoelectric cooling to -30 C. Good accuracy is obtained for binaries of magnitude 10 or less.

  2. A laser scanner for 35mm film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a laser scanning system is described. The scanner was designed to deliver a scanned beam over a 2.54 cm by 2.54 cm or a 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm format. In order to achieve a scan resolution and rate comparable to that of standard television, an acousto-optic deflector was used for one axis of the scan, and a light deflecting galvanometer for deflection along the other axis. The acoustic optic deflector has the capability of random access scan controlled by a digital computer.

  3. LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

    1980-01-01

    A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

  4. An all-nickel magnetostatic MEMS scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Niklas; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The design, fabrication and detailed characterization of a fully electroplated, magnetostatic low-cost MEMS scanning mirror are presented. By electroplating bright nickel on a sacrificial substrate, robust soft-magnetic micromirrors may be fabricated. The technology is simpler and cheaper than the standard process using bulk silicon micromachining of silicon-on-insulator wafers for fabricating magnetostatic scanners. The presented Ni mirrors exhibit deflection angles of ±7° at resonance for small external magnetic fields of 0.23 mT. Such magnetic fields are easily generated by miniaturized solenoids, making integration, for instance, into endoscopic systems possible.

  5. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  6. MR Scanner Systems Should Be Adequately Characterized in Diffusion-MRI of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Marco; Sghedoni, Roberto; Iacconi, Chiara; Iori, Mauro; Traino, Antonio Claudio; Guerrisi, Maria; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Breast imaging represents a relatively recent and promising field of application of quantitative diffusion-MRI techniques. In view of the importance of guaranteeing and assessing its reliability in clinical as well as research settings, the aim of this study was to specifically characterize how the main MR scanner system-related factors affect quantitative measurements in diffusion-MRI of the breast. In particular, phantom acquisitions were performed on three 1.5 T MR scanner systems by different manufacturers, all equipped with a dedicated multi-channel breast coil as well as acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast. We assessed the accuracy, inter-scan and inter-scanner reproducibility of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient measured along the main orthogonal directions () as well as of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI)-derived mean diffusivity (MD) measurements. Additionally, we estimated spatial non-uniformity of (NU) and MD (NUMD) maps. We showed that the signal-to-noise ratio as well as overall calibration of high strength diffusion gradients system in typical acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast varied across MR scanner systems, introducing systematic bias in the measurements of diffusion indices. While and MD values were not appreciably different from each other, they substantially varied across MR scanner systems. The mean of the accuracies of measured and MD was in the range [−2.3%,11.9%], and the mean of the coefficients of variation for and MD measurements across MR scanner systems was 6.8%. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of both and MD was < 1%, while NU and NUMD values were <4%. Our results highlight that MR scanner system-related factors can substantially affect quantitative diffusion-MRI of the breast. Therefore, a specific quality control program for assessing and monitoring the performance of MR scanner systems for diffusion-MRI of the breast is

  7. Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Markus; Fujio, Makoto; Minami, Masaaki; Miura, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    A real-time THz color scanner has the potential to further expand the application scope of THz spectral imaging based on its rapid image acquisition rate. We demonstrated three possible applications of a THz color scanner in the biomedical field: imaging of pharmaceutical tablets, human teeth, and human hair. The first application showed the scanner's potential in total inspection for rapid quality control of pharmaceutical tablets moving on a conveyor belt. The second application demonstrated that the scanner can be used to identify a potential indicator for crystallinity of dental tissue. In the third application, the scanner was successfully used to visualize the drying process of wet hairs. These demonstrations indicated the high potential of the THz color scanner for practical applications in the biomedical field. PMID:21258472

  8. Integrated Electro-optical Laser-Beam Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boord, Warren T.

    1990-01-01

    Scanners using solid-state devices compact, consume little power, and have no moving parts. Integrated electro-optical laser scanner, in conjunction with external lens, points outgoing beam of light in any number of different directions, depending on number of upper electrodes. Offers beam-deflection angles larger than those of acousto-optic scanners. Proposed for such diverse applications as nonimpact laser printing, color imaging, ranging, barcode reading, and robotic vision.

  9. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. Comparison of oxygen consumption rates in minimally transformed BALB/3T3 and virus-transformed 3T3B-SV40 cells.

    PubMed

    Leznev, E I; Popova, I I; Lavrovskaja, V P; Evtodienko, Y V

    2013-08-01

    In the recent years, bioenergetics of tumor cells and particularly cell respiration have been attracting great attention because of the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis and growing evidence of the possibility to diagnose and treat cancer by affecting the system of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. In the present work, a comparative study of oxygen consumption in 3T3B-SV40 cells transformed with oncovirus SV40 and parental BALB/3T3 cells was conducted. Such fractions of oxygen consumption as "phosphorylating" respiration coupled to ATP synthesis, "free" respiration not coupled to ATP synthesis, and "reserve" or hidden respiration observed in the presence of protonophore were determined. Maximal respiration was shown to be only slightly decreased in 3T3B-SV40 cells as compared to BALB/3T3. However, in the case of certain fractions of cellular respiration, the changes were significant. "Phosphorylating" respiration was found to be reduced to 54% and "reserve" respiration, on the contrary, increased up to 160% in virus-transformed 3T3B-SV40 cells. The low rate of "phosphorylating" respiration and high "reserve" respiration indicate that under normal incubation conditions the larger part of mitochondrial respiratory chains of the virus-transformed cells is in the resting state (i.e. there is no electron transfer to oxygen). The high "reserve" respiration is suggested to play an important role in preventing apoptosis of 3T3B-SV40 cells.

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  12. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady; Lukin, Igor

    2016-01-21

    In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5-10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km.

  13. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kaloshin, Gennady; Lukin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5–10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km. PMID:26805841

  14. Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

  15. Quest for an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Bertora, Franco; Borceto, Alice; Viale, Andrea; Sandini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A study of the motor cortex during the programming, execution and mental representation of voluntary movement is of great relevance; its evaluation in conditions close to reality is necessary, given the close integration of the visuomotor, sensory feedback and proprioceptive systems, as of yet, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner allowing a human subject to maintain erect stance, observe the surroundings and conserve limb freedom is still a dream. The need for high field suggests a solenoid magnet geometry that forces an unnatural posture that affects the results, particularly when the motor cortex is investigated. In contrast in a motor functional study, the scanner should allow the subject to sit or stand, with unobstructed sight and unimpeded movement. Two approaches are presented here to solve this problem. In the first approach, an increased field intensity in an open magnet is obtained lining the "back wall" of the cavity with a sheet of current: this boosts the field intensity at the cost of the introduction of a gradient, which has to be canceled by the introduction of an opposite gradient; The second approach is an adaptation of the "double doughnut" architecture, in which the cavity widens at the center to provide additional room for the subject. The detailed design of this kind of structure has proven the feasibility of the solution.

  16. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady; Lukin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5-10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km. PMID:26805841

  17. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4 mm(2) in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15 mm(3). More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7 μm, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14 Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications.

  18. A novel front-end chip for a human PET scanner based on monolithic detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Cela, J. M.; Oller, J. C.; Romero, L.; Pérez, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner based on avalanche photodiodes (APD), monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and a dedicated readout chip. All these components allow operation inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with the aim of building a PET/MRI hybrid imaging system for clinical human brain studies. Previous work verified the functional performance of our first chip (VATA240) based on a leading edge comparator and the principle of operation of our radiation sensors, which are capable of providing reconstructed images of positron point sources with spatial resolutions of 2.1 mm FWHM. The new VATA241 chip presented in this work has been designed with the aim of reducing the coincidence window of our final PET scanner by implementing an on-chip constant fraction discriminator (CFD), as well as providing a better robustness for its implementation in the full-scale PET scanner. Results from the characterization of the VATA241 chip are presented, together with the first results on coincidence performance, validating the new design for our application.

  19. [Evaluation of Artificial Hip Joint with Radiofrequency Heating Issues during MRI Examination: A Comparison between 1.5 T and 3 T].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Ideta, Takahiro; Kudo, Sadahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2016-06-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when radiofrequency (RF) is irradiated to a subject with metallic implant, it can generate heat by RF irradiation. Recently 3 T MRI scanner has spread widely and imaging for any regions of whole body has been conducted. However specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 T MRI becomes approximately four times as much as the 1.5 T, which can significantly affect the heat generation of metallic implants. So, we evaluated RF heating of artificial hip joints in different shapes and materials in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Three types of artificial hip joints made of stainless alloy, titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy were embedded in the human body-equivalent phantom respectively and their temperature change were measured for twenty minutes by 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The maximum temperature rise was observed at the bottom head in all of three types of artificial hip joints, the rise being 12°C for stainless alloy, 11.9°C for titanium alloy and 6.1°C for cobalt chrome alloy in 1.5 T. The temperature rise depended on SAR and the increase of SAR had a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. It was found from the result that the RF heating of metallic implants can take place in various kinds of material and the increase of SAR has a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. This experience shows that reduction of SAR can decrease temperature of metallic implants. PMID:27320151

  20. [Evaluation of Artificial Hip Joint with Radiofrequency Heating Issues during MRI Examination: A Comparison between 1.5 T and 3 T].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Ideta, Takahiro; Kudo, Sadahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2016-06-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when radiofrequency (RF) is irradiated to a subject with metallic implant, it can generate heat by RF irradiation. Recently 3 T MRI scanner has spread widely and imaging for any regions of whole body has been conducted. However specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 T MRI becomes approximately four times as much as the 1.5 T, which can significantly affect the heat generation of metallic implants. So, we evaluated RF heating of artificial hip joints in different shapes and materials in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Three types of artificial hip joints made of stainless alloy, titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy were embedded in the human body-equivalent phantom respectively and their temperature change were measured for twenty minutes by 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The maximum temperature rise was observed at the bottom head in all of three types of artificial hip joints, the rise being 12°C for stainless alloy, 11.9°C for titanium alloy and 6.1°C for cobalt chrome alloy in 1.5 T. The temperature rise depended on SAR and the increase of SAR had a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. It was found from the result that the RF heating of metallic implants can take place in various kinds of material and the increase of SAR has a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. This experience shows that reduction of SAR can decrease temperature of metallic implants.

  1. Modulation of Osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells by Different Frequency Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Haitao; Wu, Zhenxu; Wu, Naipeng; Wang, Zongliang; Chen, Xuesi; Wei, Yen; Zhang, Peibiao

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is therapeutic to many bone diseases, from promoting fracture regeneration to orthopedic intervention. The application of ES offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal ES parameters and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. In this study, we assembled an ES cell culture and monitoring device. Mc-3T3-E1 cells were subjected to different frequency to investigate the effect of osteogenesis. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, the mRNA levels of osteosis-related genes, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and intracellular concentration of Ca2+ were thoroughly evaluated. We found that 100 Hz could up-regulate the mRNA levels of collagen I, collagen II and Runx2. On the contrary, ES could down-regulate the mRNA levels of osteopontin (OPN). ALP activity assay and Fast Blue RR salt stain showed that 100 Hz could accelerate cells differentiation. Compared to the control group, 100 Hz could promote cell proliferation. Furthermore, 1 Hz to 10 Hz could improve calcium deposition in the intracellular matrix. Overall, these results indicate that 100Hz ES exhibits superior potentialities in osteogenesis, which should be beneficial for the clinical applications of ES for the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:27149625

  2. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

    PubMed

    Lue, Niyom; Kang, Jeon Woong; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Feld, Michael S; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    2012-01-01

    There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS), and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm) over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm), and both high spectral resolution (2 nm) and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue). Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error). Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a platform

  3. H3K79me3T80ph is a Novel Histone Dual Modification and a Mitotic Indicator in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Danielle R.; Richards, Hunter W.; Lin, Qiushi; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A.; Prieto, Victor G.; Curry, Jonathan L.; Medrano, Estela E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study characterizes the mitosis-associated histone dual modification on the core of histone H3: trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 79 and simultaneous phosphorylation of H3 threonine 80 (H3K79me3T80ph). Through the use of protein and microscopy-based techniques, we find that H3K79me3T80ph shares a similar spatial and temporal regulation as H3S10ph but additionally requires methyltransferase activity. In addition, we find that Aurora kinase activity is necessary for the catalysis of H3K79me3T80ph in vivo. Finally, our analysis of H3K79me3T80ph using a tissue microarray indicates that H3K79me3T80ph marks a subset of primary cutaneous melanomas with metastatic potential indicating that H3K79me3T80ph may identify a subset of invasive melanomas with a more aggressive clinical behaviour. PMID:23227340

  4. Locomotory behavior, contact inhibition, and pattern formation of 3T3 and polyoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Bell, PB

    1977-01-01

    The social behavior of 3T3 cells and their polynoma virus-transformed derivative (Py3T3 cells) was examined by time-lapse cinemicrography in order to determine what factors are responsible for the marked differences in the patterns formed by the two cell lines in culture. Contrary to expectations, both cell types have been found to exhibit contact inhibition of cell locomotion. Therefore, the tendency of 3T3 cells to form monolayers and of Py3T3 cells to form crisscrossed multilayers cannot be explained on the basis of the presence versus the absence of contact inhibition. Morevover, with the exception of cell division control, the social behavior of the two cell types is qualitively similar. Both exhibit cell underlapping and, after contact between lamelliopodia, both show inhibition of locomotory activity and adhesion formation. Neither cell type was observed to migrate over the surface of another cell. The two cell types do show quantitative differences in the frequency of underlapping, the frequency with which contact results in inhibition of locomotion, and the proportion of the cell margin that adheres to the substratum. The increased frequency pf Py3T3 underlapping is correlated with the reduced frequency of substratum adhesions, which in turn favors underlapping. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that the differences in culture patterns are the result of differences in the shapes of the individual cells, such that underlapping, and hence crisscrossing, is favored in Py3T3 cell interactions and discouraged in 3T3 cells. PMID:198414

  5. Identification of scanner models by comparison of scanned hologram images.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    A method to identify scanner models that had been used to forge low-level counterfeit currencies was proposed in this study. The method identified a scanner model by characterizing differences between hologram images that exist in low-level counterfeit currencies. Twenty scanners of 18 different models were used to make samples of hologram images used in this study. The method was divided into two steps: identification of capturing conditions and identification of the scanner model. The first proposed protocol used correlations of spatial distribution of brightness to identify capturing conditions. A second proposed protocol used correlations of color distributions to identify a scanner model. The effectiveness of the protocols was demonstrated with numerical methods and sample images. The preliminary study revealed that it is necessary to consider the orientation of the holograms when the scanner models were identified, but 180° rotations can be ignored. Moreover, it is necessary to consider position in the main scanning direction of the bed for charged-coupled-device scanners. The demonstration showed that the first protocol could correctly identify the capturing conditions of almost all hologram images. However, one image could not be identified correctly; the protocol could distinguish images captured by charged-coupled-device scanners and those captured by contact image sensor scanners if the hologram was placed on the right or left edge of the scanner bed, but could not distinguish them if the hologram was placed on the inside. The demonstration also showed that the second protocol could correctly identify scanner models of all hologram images.

  6. Quadrupole resonance scanner for narcotics detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Julian D.; Moeller, C. R.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.

    1994-10-01

    Interest in non-invasive, non-hazardous, bulk detection technologies for narcotics interdiction has risen over the last few years. As part of our continuing research and development programs in detection of narcotics and explosives using sensitive magnetic measuring devices, we present the first commercially available prototype Quadrupole Resonance (QR) scanner for narcotics detection. The portable narcotics detection system was designed in modular form such that a single QR base system could be easily used with a variety of custom detection heads. The QR system presented in this paper is suitable for scanning items up to 61 X 35 X 13 cm in size, and was designed to scan mail packages and briefcase-sized items for the presence of narcotics. System tests have shown that detection sensitivity is comparable that obtained in laboratory systems.

  7. Echelle crossed grating millimeter wave beam scanner.

    PubMed

    Furxhi, Orges; Marks, Daniel L; Brady, David J

    2014-06-30

    We present a two-dimensional, active, millimeter-wave, electronic beam scanner, with Doppler capabilities for stand-off imaging. The two-dimensional scan is achieved by mapping the millimeter wave spectrum to space using a pair of crossed gratings. The active transceiver and heterodyne quadrature detection allow the measurement of the relative phase between two consecutive measurements and the synthesis of the scene's Doppler signature. The frame rate of the imager is currently limited by the sweep rate of the vector network analyzer which is used to drive the millimeter wave extenders. All of the beam steering components are passive and can be designed to operate at any wavelength. The system design, characterization and measurements are presented and further uses and improvements are suggested.

  8. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  9. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  10. 34. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING ROOM 105 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - ROOM 105 - CHILLER ROOM, SHOWING SINGLE COMPRESSOR, LIQUID CHILLERS AND "CHILLED WATER RETURN", COOLING TOWER 'TOWER WATER RETURN" AND 'TOWER WATER SUPPLY" LINES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 25. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1930 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. MWOC SCREEN ALSO SHOWS RADAR "FACE A" AND "FACE B" ACTIVE STATUS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 26. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC IN OPERATION AT 1945 ZULU TIME, 26 OCTOBER, 1999. "SPACE TRACK BOARD" DATA SHOWING ITEMS #16609 MIR (RUSSIA) AND #25544 ISS (INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION) BEING TRACKED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. 20. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING IN COMPUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - IN COMPUTER ROOM LOOKING AT "CONSOLIDATED MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS CENTER" JOB AREA AND OPERATION WORK CENTER. TASKS INCLUDE RADAR MAINTENANCE, COMPUTER MAINTENANCE, CYBER COMPUTER MAINTENANCE AND RELATED ACTIVITIES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. 21. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT DISC STORAGE SYSTEMS A AND B (A OR B ARE REDUNDANT SYSTEMS), ONE MAINFRAME COMPUTER ON LINE, ONE ON STANDBY WITH STORAGE TAPE, ONE ON STANDBY WITHOUT TAPE INSTALLED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

  18. 27. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER - MWOC MONITOR NO. 4 IN OPERATION AT 2002 ZULU, OCTOBER 26, 1999 CAPE COD, AS PAVE PAWS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

    1992-02-25

    A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

  20. 10. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER "B" FACE AND "C" FACE ON WEST AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER AT NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 45° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. Application of Intra-Oral Dental Scanners in the Digital Workflow of Implantology

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Wicher J.; Andriessen, Frank S.; Wismeijer, Daniel; Ren, Yijin

    2012-01-01

    Intra-oral scanners will play a central role in digital dentistry in the near future. In this study the accuracy of three intra-oral scanners was compared. Materials and methods: A master model made of stone was fitted with three high precision manufactured PEEK cylinders and scanned with three intra-oral scanners: the CEREC (Sirona), the iTero (Cadent) and the Lava COS (3M). In software the digital files were imported and the distance between the centres of the cylinders and the angulation between the cylinders was assessed. These values were compared to the measurements made on a high accuracy 3D scan of the master model. Results: The distance errors were the smallest and most consistent for the Lava COS. The distance errors for the Cerec were the largest and least consistent. All the angulation errors were small. Conclusions: The Lava COS in combination with a high accuracy scanning protocol resulted in the smallest and most consistent errors of all three scanners tested when considering mean distance errors in full arch impressions both in absolute values and in consistency for both measured distances. For the mean angulation errors, the Lava COS had the smallest errors between cylinders 1–2 and the largest errors between cylinders 1–3, although the absolute difference with the smallest mean value (iTero) was very small (0,0529°). An expected increase in distance and/or angular errors over the length of the arch due to an accumulation of registration errors of the patched 3D surfaces could be observed in this study design, but the effects were statistically not significant. Clinical relevance For making impressions of implant cases for digital workflows, the most accurate scanner with the scanning protocol that will ensure the most accurate digital impression should be used. In our study model that was the Lava COS with the high accuracy scanning protocol. PMID:22937030

  2. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability... year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of change);...

  5. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.469-3T Passive activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive...

  7. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.469-3T Passive activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive...

  8. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.469-3T Passive activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive...

  9. On the spectral quality of scanner illumination with LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chengwu

    2013-01-01

    Document scanner illumination has evolved along with general illumination technologies. LEDs have become more and more popular as the illumination sources for document scanning. LED technologies provide a wide range of choices both in terms of structural design and spectral compositions. In this report, we examine some popular LED technologies used for document scanner. We evaluate the color rendering performance of scanner models with different illumination technologies by examining their rendering of the Macbeth ColorChecker™ in sRGB. We found that more phosphors in phosphor conversion types of white LEDs may not be necessarily advantageous in terms of scanner color rendering performance. Also CIS type of scanner may be sensitive to the peak wavelength shift and can be particularly problematic when the peaks are out of certain range.

  10. Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

  11. Hydroxytyrosol Inhibits Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Tutino, Valeria; Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco; Notarnicola, Maria

    2016-02-01

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line is a well characterized cell model for studying the adipocyte status and the molecular mechanisms involved in differentiation of these cells. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have the ability to synthesize and degrade endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) and their differentiation into adipocytes increases the expression of cannabinoid (CB1) and PPAR-γ receptors. Clinically, the blocking stimulation of the endocannabinoid pathway has been one of the first approaches proposed to counteract the obesity and obesity-associated diseases (such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer). In this connection, here we studied in cultured 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes the effects of n-3-PUFA, α-Linolenic acid (OM-3), n-6-PUFA, Linoleic acid (OM-6), and hydroxytyrosol (HT) on the expression of CB1 receptor gene and the adipogenesis-related genes PPAR-γ, Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL). HT was able to inhibit 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by down-regulating cell proliferation and CB1 receptor gene expression. HT exhibited anti-adipogenic effects, whereas OM-3 and OM-6 exerted an inhibitory action on cell proliferation associated with an induction of the preadipocytes differentiation and CB1 receptor gene expression. Moreover, the expression of FAS and LPL genes resulted increased after treatment with both HT and OM-3 and OM-6. The present study points out that the intake of molecules such as HT, contained in extra virgin olive oil, may be considered also in view of antiobesity and antineoplastic properties by acting directly on the adipose tissue and modulating CB1 receptor gene transcription.

  12. 3T3-L1 adipocytes display phenotypic characteristics of multiple adipocyte lineages

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean L

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes are a widely used in vitro model of white adipocytes. In addition to classical white and brown adipocytes that are derived from different cell lineages, beige adipocytes have also been identified, which have characteristics of both white and brown adipocytes. Here we show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes display features of multiple adipocytes lineages. While the gene expression profile and basal bioenergetics of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was typical of white adipocytes, they responded acutely to catecholamines by increasing oxygen consumption in an UCP1-dependent manner, and by increasing the expression of genes enriched in brown but not beige adipocytes. Chronic exposure to catecholamines exacerbated this phenotype. However, a beige adipocyte differentiation procedure did not induce a beige adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. These multiple lineage features should be considered when interpreting data from experiments utilizing 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26451286

  13. A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

  14. Regulation of Na+-H+ exchange in normal NIH-3T3 cells and in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the ras oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, N.E.; Knapik, J.; Strebel, F.; Tarpley, W.G.; Gorman, R.R.

    1989-04-01

    Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that Na+-H+ exchange can be regulated by two different pathways; one that is mediated by an inositol trisphosphate-stimulated increase in intracellular calcium activity, and one that is mediated by an increase in protein kinase C activity. To determine whether one of these pathways is more important than the other, or whether one pathway is physiologically relevant, we employed normal NIH-3T3 cells (3T3 cells) and NIH-3T3 cells expressing the EJ human bladder ras oncogene (EJ cells). The EJ cells were chosen because they provide a genetic model that does not exhibit serum- or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated inositol trisphosphate release or Ca2+ mobilization. It was found that serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange was more pronounced in EJ cells than in control 3T3 cells. As expected, serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange in 3T3 cells was inhibited by chelating intracellular Ca2+ with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator quin2, by the intracellular Ca2+ antagonist 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), and by the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. In contrast, these agents did not inhibit serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange in EJ cells. Activators of protein kinase C (e.g., 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol or biologically active phorbol esters) were found to stimulate Na+-H+ exchange in EJ cells to the same extent as serum. However, these agents were considerably less effective than serum in control 3T3 cells. Despite these findings, PDGF did not stimulate diacylglycerol levels in EJ cells.

  15. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  16. True Pathologic Abnormality versus Artifact Foot Position and Magic Angle Artifact in the Peroneal Tendons with 3T Imaging.

    PubMed

    Horn, Deena B; Meyers, Steven; Astor, William

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly ordered examination by many foot and ankle surgeons for ankle pain and suspected peroneal tendon pathologic abnormalities. Magic angle artifact is one of the complexities associated with this imaging modality. Magic angle refers to the increased signal on magnetic resonance images associated with the highly organized collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments when they are orientated at a 55° angle to the main magnetic field. We present several examples from a clinical practice setting using 3T imaging illustrating a substantial reduction in magic angle artifact of the peroneal tendon in the prone plantarflexed position compared with the standard neutral (right angle) position.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2014-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pluripotent lipid mediator that transmits signals through G-protein-coupled receptors to control diverse biological processes. The novel biological activity of S1P in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was identified in the present study. S1P significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes in a dose‑dependent manner. In order to understand the anti‑adipogenic effects of S1P, preadipocytes were treated with S1P, and the change in the expression of several adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. S1P downregulated the transcriptional levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and adiponectin, which are markers of adipogenic differentiation. The effects of S1P on the levels of mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals in preadipocytes were also investigated. The activation of JNK and p38 were downregulated by S1P treatment in human preadipocytes. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that S1P alters fat mass by directly affecting adipogenesis. This is mediated by the downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and by inactivation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. Thus, selective targeting of the S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases may have clinical applications for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25050633

  18. Pragmatic fully 3D image reconstruction for the MiCES mouse imaging PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kisung; Kinahan, Paul E.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Janes, Marie; Lewellen, Tom K.

    2004-10-01

    We present a pragmatic approach to image reconstruction for data from the micro crystal elements system (MiCES) fully 3D mouse imaging positron emission tomography (PET) scanner under construction at the University of Washington. Our approach is modelled on fully 3D image reconstruction used in clinical PET scanners, which is based on Fourier rebinning (FORE) followed by 2D iterative image reconstruction using ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM). The use of iterative methods allows modelling of physical effects (e.g., statistical noise, detector blurring, attenuation, etc), while FORE accelerates the reconstruction process by reducing the fully 3D data to a stacked set of independent 2D sinograms. Previous investigations have indicated that non-stationary detector point-spread response effects, which are typically ignored for clinical imaging, significantly impact image quality for the MiCES scanner geometry. To model the effect of non-stationary detector blurring (DB) in the FORE+OSEM(DB) algorithm, we have added a factorized system matrix to the ASPIRE reconstruction library. Initial results indicate that the proposed approach produces an improvement in resolution without an undue increase in noise and without a significant increase in the computational burden. The impact on task performance, however, remains to be evaluated.

  19. 35-mm film scanner as an intraoral dental radiograph digitizer. I: A quantitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shrout, M K; Potter, B J; Yurgalavage, H M; Hildebolt, C F; Vannier, M W

    1993-10-01

    A 35-mm slide scanner digital imaging system was tested for its suitability in digitizing intraoral dental radiographic film for quantitative studies. The system (Nikon model LS-3510AF Nikon Electronic Imaging, Nikon, Inc., Melville, N.Y.) uses a charge-coupled device linear photodiode array. The data content in the original film images was evaluated, and the system performance assessed objectively with the use of specially designed test films. Radiometric and geometric performances for the digitizing system were extracted from measurements and observations, and these were compared with published data for two other film digitizing systems (video camera DAGE MTI, Michigan City, Ind. and Barneyscan 35-mm film digitizer Barneyscan, Berkeley, Calif.). The techniques used to evaluate this system are easy and suitable for evaluation of any digitizing system. This scanner system (Nikon) was superior to previously evaluated systems in transforming and recording radiographic film densities across the range (0.3 to 2.0 optical density units) of clinically relevant optical densities. The scanner offers substantial advantage over the other digitizing systems for gray scale information from clinically important optical densities. PMID:8233432

  20. Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J R; Neil-Dwyer, G; Banham, J M; Cruickshank, D G

    1978-01-01

    An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change. PMID:100168

  1. Dual-energy CT with single- and dual-source scanners: current applications in evaluating the genitourinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kaza, Ravi K; Platt, Joel F; Cohan, Richard H; Caoili, Elaine M; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Wasnik, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Several promising clinical applications for dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in genitourinary imaging have been reported. Dual-energy CT not only provides excellent morphologic detail but also can supply material-specific and quantitative information that may be particularly useful in genitourinary imaging. Dual-energy CT has unique capabilities for characterizing renal lesions by quantifying iodine content and helping identify the mineral contents of renal stones, information that is important for patient care. Virtual unenhanced images reconstructed from dual-energy CT datasets can be useful for detecting calculi within the iodine-filled urinary collecting system, potentially reducing the need for an unenhanced scanning phase at CT urography. Although the underlying principles of dual-energy CT are the same regardless of scanner type, single-source dual-energy scanners with fast kilovoltage switching differ from dual-source dual-energy scanners both in image data acquisition and in processing methods; an understanding of these differences may help optimize dual-energy CT genitourinary protocols. Dual-energy CT performed with a dual-source scanner or with a single-source scanner with fast kilovoltage switching also has some important limitations. Further advances in scanning protocols and refinement of processing techniques to reduce image noise may lead to more widespread use of dual-energy CT.

  2. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  3. AMYGDALA VOLUME IN DEPRESSED PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER ASSESSED USING HIGH RESOLUTION 3T MRI: THE IMPACT OF MEDICATION

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Jonathan; Nugent, Allison C.; Bogers, Wendy; Liu, Alice; Sills, Rebecca; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Bain, Earle E.; Price, Joseph L.; Zarate, Carlos; Manji, Husseini K.; Cannon, Dara; Marrett, Sean; Charney, Dennis S.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2009-01-01

    MRI-based reports of both abnormally increased and decreased amygdala volume in bipolar disorder (BD) have surfaced in the literature. Two major methodological weaknesses characterizing extant studies are treatment with medication and inaccurate segmentation of the amygdala due to limitations in spatial and tissue contrast resolution. Here, we acquired high-resolution images (voxel size=0.55×0.55×0.60mm) using a GE 3T MRI scanner, and a pulse sequence optimized for tissue contrast resolution. The amygdala was manually segmented by one rater blind to diagnosis, using coronal images. Eighteen unmedicated (mean medication-free period 11±10 months) BD subjects were age and gender matched with 18 healthy controls, and 17 medicated (lithium or divalproex) subjects were matched to 17 different controls. The unmedicated BD patients displayed smaller left and right amygdala volumes than their matched control group (p<0.01). Conversely, the BD subjects undergoing medication treatment showed a trend towards greater amygdala volumes than their matched HC sample (p=0.051). Right and left amygdala volumes were larger (p<0.05) or trended larger, respectively, in the medicated BD sample compared with the unmedicated BD sample. The two control groups did not differ from each other in either left or right amygdala volume. BD patients treated with lithium have displayed increased gray matter volume of the cortex and hippocampus relative to untreated BD subjects in previous studies. Here we extend these results to the amygdala. We raise the possibility that neuroplastic changes in the amygdala associated with BD are moderated by some mood stabilizing medications. PMID:19931399

  4. Amygdala volume in depressed patients with bipolar disorder assessed using high resolution 3T MRI: the impact of medication.

    PubMed

    Savitz, Jonathan; Nugent, Allison C; Bogers, Wendy; Liu, Alice; Sills, Rebecca; Luckenbaugh, David A; Bain, Earle E; Price, Joseph L; Zarate, Carlos; Manji, Husseini K; Cannon, Dara M; Marrett, Sean; Charney, Dennis S; Drevets, Wayne C

    2010-02-15

    MRI-based reports of both abnormally increased and decreased amygdala volume in bipolar disorder (BD) have surfaced in the literature. Two major methodological weaknesses characterizing extant studies are treatment with medication and inaccurate segmentation of the amygdala due to limitations in spatial and tissue contrast resolution. Here, we acquired high-resolution images (voxel size=0.55 x 0.55 x 0.60 mm) using a GE 3T MRI scanner, and a pulse sequence optimized for tissue contrast resolution. The amygdala was manually segmented by one rater blind to diagnosis, using coronal images. Eighteen unmedicated (mean medication-free period 11+/-10 months) BD subjects were age and gender matched with 18 healthy controls, and 17 medicated (lithium or divalproex) subjects were matched to 17 different controls. The unmedicated BD patients displayed smaller left and right amygdala volumes than their matched control group (p<0.01). Conversely, the BD subjects undergoing medication treatment showed a trend towards greater amygdala volumes than their matched HC sample (p=0.051). Right and left amygdala volumes were larger (p<0.05) or trended larger, respectively, in the medicated BD sample compared with the unmedicated BD sample. The two control groups did not differ from each other in either left or right amygdala volume. BD patients treated with lithium have displayed increased gray matter volume of the cortex and hippocampus relative to untreated BD subjects in previous studies. Here we extend these results to the amygdala. We raise the possibility that neuroplastic changes in the amygdala associated with BD are moderated by some mood stabilizing medications. PMID:19931399

  5. Handheld laser scanner automatic registration based on random coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Yu, Chun-ping; Wang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Current research on Laser Scanner often focuses mainly on the static measurement. Little use has been made of dynamic measurement, that are appropriate for more problems and situations. In particular, traditional Laser Scanner must Keep stable to scan and measure coordinate transformation parameters between different station. In order to make the scanning measurement intelligently and rapidly, in this paper ,we developed a new registration algorithm for handleheld laser scanner based on the positon of target, which realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser scanner without any more complex work. the double camera on laser scanner can take photograph of the artificial target points to get the three-dimensional coordinates, this points is designed by random coding. And then, a set of matched points is found from control points to realize the orientation of scanner by the least-square common points transformation. After that the double camera can directly measure the laser point cloud in the surface of object and get the point cloud data in an unified coordinate system. There are three major contributions in the paper. Firstly, a laser scanner based on binocular vision is designed with double camera and one laser head. By those, the real-time orientation of laser scanner is realized and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, the coding marker is introduced to solve the data matching, a random coding method is proposed. Compared with other coding methods,the marker with this method is simple to match and can avoid the shading for the object. Finally, a recognition method of coding maker is proposed, with the use of the distance recognition, it is more efficient. The method present here can be used widely in any measurement from small to huge obiect, such as vehicle, airplane which strengthen its intelligence and efficiency. The results of experiments and theory analzing demonstrate that proposed method could realize the dynamic measurement of handheld laser

  6. Repeatability and sensitivity of T2* measurements in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Panek, Rafal; Welsh, Liam; Dunlop, Alex; Wong, Kee H.; Riddell, Angela M.; Koh, Dow‐Mu; Schmidt, Maria A.; Doran, Simon; Mcquaid, Dualta; Hopkinson, Georgina; Richardson, Cheryl; Nutting, Christopher M.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Robinson, Simon P.; Newbold, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether quantitation of T2* is sufficiently repeatable and sensitive to detect clinically relevant oxygenation levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at 3T. Materials and Methods Ten patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced HNSCC underwent two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans between 24 and 168 hours apart prior to chemoradiotherapy treatment. A multiple gradient echo sequence was used to calculate T2* maps. A quadratic function was used to model the blood transverse relaxation rate as a function of blood oxygenation. A set of published coefficients measured at 3T were incorporated to account for tissue hematocrit levels and used to plot the dependence of fractional blood oxygenation (Y) on T2* values, together with the corresponding repeatability range. Repeatability of T2* using Bland–Altman analysis, and calculation of limits of agreement (LoA), was used to assess the sensitivity, defined as the minimum difference in fractional blood oxygenation that can be confidently detected. Results T2* LoA for 22 outlined tumor volumes were 13%. The T2* dependence of fractional blood oxygenation increases monotonically, resulting in increasing sensitivity of the method with increasing blood oxygenation. For fractional blood oxygenation values above 0.11, changes in T2* were sufficient to detect differences in blood oxygenation greater than 10% (Δ T2* > LoA for ΔY > 0.1). Conclusion Quantitation of T2* at 3T can detect clinically relevant changes in tumor oxygenation within a wide range of blood volumes and oxygen tensions, including levels reported in HNSCC. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:72–80. PMID:26800280

  7. SU-E-T-445: Lateral Optical Density Variation in Flatbed Scanners in Combination with Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Battum, LJ van; Heukelom, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose This study investigates the origin of lateral optical density (OD) variation for Gafchromic film (EBT and EBT2) scanned in transmission mode with Epson flatbed scanners (1680 Expression Pro and 10000XL). Effects investigated are: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Methods Cross talk has been examined with triangular shaped light-transmission sheets with OD ranging from 0 to opaque. Optical path length has been studied with absorptive and reflective OD-filters (OD range 0.2 to 2.0). Dependency on light-polarization on the scanner read out has been investigated using linear polarizer sheets. All experiments have been performed at centre scanner position (norm point) and at several lateral scan positions, without and with (un)irradiated EBT-film. Dose values used ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, yielding an OD-range between 0.25 to 1.1. Results The lateral OD variation is dose dependent and increases up to 14% at most lateral position for dose up to 9 Gy. Cross talk effect contributes to 0.5% in clinical used OD ranges but equals 2% for extreme high dose gradients. Film induced optical path length will effect the lateral OD variation up to 3% at most lateral points. Light polarization is inherent present in these scanners due to multiple reflection on mirrors. In addition film induced polarization is the most important effect generating the observed lateral OD variation. Both Gafchromic film base and sensitive layer have polarizing capabilities; for the sensitive layer its influence is dose dependent. Conclusions Lateral OD variation origins from optical physics (i.e. polarization and reflection) related to scanner and film construction. Cross talk can be ignored in film dosimetry for clinical used dose values and gradients. Therefore it is recommended to determine the lateral OD variation per film type and scanner.

  8. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  9. PET/CT scanner instrumentation, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Adam M; Kinahan, Paul E; Cheng, Phillip M; Vesselle, Hubert; Karp, Joel S

    2004-11-01

    PET/CT scanners offer a hardware solution for aligning and viewing functional and anatomic images that is immune to many of the errors in strictly software registration techniques. Moreover, PET attenuation-corrected emission scans benefit from the use of the onboard CT for fast, low-noise attenuation correction. Along with the significant improved localization and reduced acquisition time, PET/CT scanners also introduce new instrumentation challenges ranging from patient movement to quantitative attenuation correction. This article provides an overview of current PET/CT scanner technology, a discussion of challenges faced by these systems, and pending solutions.

  10. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  11. LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

  12. [Innovation and Future Technologies for PET Scanners].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays important roles in cancer diagnosis, neuroimaging and molecular imaging research; but potential points remain for which big improvements could be made, including spatial resolution, sensitivity and manufacturing costs. Higher spatial resolution is essential to enable earlier diagnosis, and improved sensitivity results in reduced radiation exposure and shortened measurement time. Therefore, research on next generation PET technologies remains a hot topic worldwide. In this paper, innovation and future technologies for the next generation PET scanners, such as time-of-flight measurement and simultaneous PET/MRI measurement, are described. Among them, depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement in the radiation sensor will be a key technology to get any significant improvement in sensitivity while maintaining high spatial resolution. DOI measurement also has a potential to expand PET application fields because it allows for more flexible detector arrangement. As an example, the world's first, open-type PET geometry "OpenPET", which is expected to lead to PET imaging during treatment, is under development. The DOI detector itself continues to evolve with the help of recently developed semiconductor photodetectors, often referred to as silicon photomultipliers. PMID:26753392

  13. Meteorological waves (by Ocean Color Scanner Data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdoshenko, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Data of normalized water leaving radiance at a wavelength 859 nm Lwn(859) of 250-m spatial resolution obtained from Moderate Ocean Color Scanners (MODIS) installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used to study meteorological waves. These waves are caused by atmospheric internal gravity waves at the expense of a change of atmospheric pressure impacting the sea surface and bringing a change in its level; they are observable everywhere in the ocean. Examples of meteorological waves were considered for the eastern part of the Black Sea, where they appeared as stripes of alternate brightness on Lwn(859) images. It is shown that meteorological waves at one and the same place can be totally generated by atmospheric waves spreading at different heights of the lower troposphere. The 3D characteristics of meteorological waves were evaluated including the direction of wave propagation, crest length reaching more than one hundred kilometers, wavelength of several tens centimeters, and wave amplitude of several tens of centimeters. For conditions of intermittent cloudiness, imposition in a difference mode of the level L1b radiance image with the signature of atmospheric waves in a cloud and of the level L2 water leaving the radiance image with the signature of meteorological waves enabled us to examine the phase structure of waves and to reveal the existence of resonance.

  14. Performance evaluation and calibration of the neuro-pet scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Sank, V.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Cascio, H.E.; Di Chiro, G.; Friauf, W.S.; Leighton, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The Neuro-PET is a circular ring seven-slice positron emission tomograph designed for imaging human heads and small animals. The scanner uses 512 bismuth germanate detectors 8.25 mm wide packed tightly together in four layers to achieve high spatial resolution (6-7 mm FWHM) without the use of beam blockers. Because of the small 38 cm ring diameter, the sensitivity is also very high: 70,000 c/s per true slice with medium energy threshold (375 keV) for a 20 cm diameter phantom containing 1 ..mu..Ci/cc of positron-emitting activity, according to a preliminary measurement. There are three switch-selectable thresholds, and the sensitivity will be higher in the low threshold setting. The Neuro-PET is calibrated with a round or elliptical phantom that approximates a patient's head; this method eliminates the effects of scatter and self-attenuation to first order. Further software corrections for these artifacts are made in the reconstruction program, which reduce the measured scatter to zero, as determined with a 5 cm cold spot. With a 1 cm cold spot, the apparent activity at the center of the cold spot is 18% of the surrounding activity, which is clearly a consequence of the limits of spatial resolution, rather than scatter. The Neuro-PET has been in clinical operation since June 1982, and approximately 30 patients have been scanned to date.

  15. An evaluation of a prototype proton CT scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plautz, Tia Elizabeth

    Since the 1990s, the number of clinical proton therapy facilities around the world has been growing exponentially. Because of this, and the lack of imaging support for proton therapy in the treatment room, a renewed interest in proton radiography and computed tomography (CT) has emerged. This imaging modality was largely abandoned in the 1970s and '80s in favor of the already successful x-ray CT, for reasons including long acquisition times and inadequate spatial resolution. Protons are particularly useful for radiotherapy because of their well-defined range in matter and their favorable energy profile which facilitates greater conformality than other radiotherapies; however, in order to realize the full potential of proton radiotherapy, the range of protons in the patient must be precisely known. Presently, proton therapy treatment planning is accomplished by taking x-ray CTs of the patient and converting each voxel into proton relative stopping power with respect to water (RSP) via a stoichiometrically-acquired calibration curve. However, since there is no unique relationship between Hounsfield values and RSP, this procedure has inherent uncertainties of a few percent in the proton range, requiring additional distal uncertainty margins in proton treatment plans. In contrast to x-ray CT, proton CT measures the RSP of an object directly, eliminating the need for Hounsfield-value-to-RSP conversion. In the prototype proton CT scanner that we have developed, a low-intensity beam of 200 MeV protons traverses a patient, entirely, and stops in a downstream energy/range detector. The entry and exit vectors of each proton are measured in order to determine a most-likely path of the proton through the object, and the response of the energy/range detector is converted to the water-equivalent path length of each proton in the object. These measurements are made at many angles between 0 and 360 degrees in order to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of proton RSP in the object

  16. Correlation analysis between S3T and SFT/MTK vector magnetograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. F.; Sin, S. A.; Ma, L.

    2008-07-01

    Three components of the vector magnetic field, flux density B, inclination γ and azimuth χ of the active region NOAA10507 are derived from the two-dimensional Stokes spectral data obtained by the S3T at the Yunnan Observatory. The distributions of the longitudinal magnetic field and the transverse magnetic field are contoured on the basis of the three components. The distributions indicate that the active region is a very complicated sunspot group which is mainly composed of five sunspots, including one of negative polarity and four positive ones. Comparing the vector magnetograms obtained by S3T and the SFT/MTK, it is found that there is basic agreement on the longitudinal fields of S3T and SFT/MTK magnetograms with a correlation coefficient ρ=0.842, and the two distributions of transverse magnetic field obtained by S3T and SFT/MTK have correlation coefficients, ρ=0.423 and ρ=0.72.

  17. Determination of noise equivalent reflectance for a multispectral scanner: A scanner sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Richard, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    The methods used to calculate the sensitivity parameter noise equivalent reflectance of a remote-sensing scanner are explored, and the results are compared with values measured over calibrated test sites. Data were acquired on four occasions covering a span of 4 years and providing various atmospheric conditions. One of the calculated values was based on assumed atmospheric conditions, whereas two others were based on atmospheric models. Results indicate that the assumed atmospheric conditions provide useful answers adequate for many purposes. A nomograph was developed to indicate sensitivity variations due to geographic location, time of day, and season.

  18. Regulatory T Cells in Melanoma Revisited by a Computational Clustering of FOXP3+ T Cell Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hiroko; Josse, Julie; Tanioka, Miki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Husson, François

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells that express the transcription factor FOXP3 (FOXP3+ T cells) are commonly regarded as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). FOXP3+ T cells are reported to be increased in tumor-bearing patients or animals and are considered to suppress antitumor immunity, but the evidence is often contradictory. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that FOXP3 is induced by antigenic stimulation and that some non-Treg FOXP3+ T cells, especially memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells, produce proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, the subclassification of FOXP3+ T cells is fundamental for revealing the significance of FOXP3+ T cells in tumor immunity, but the arbitrariness and complexity of manual gating have complicated the issue. In this article, we report a computational method to automatically identify and classify FOXP3+ T cells into subsets using clustering algorithms. By analyzing flow cytometric data of melanoma patients, the proposed method showed that the FOXP3+ subpopulation that had relatively high FOXP3, CD45RO, and CD25 expressions was increased in melanoma patients, whereas manual gating did not produce significant results on the FOXP3+ subpopulations. Interestingly, the computationally identified FOXP3+ subpopulation included not only classical FOXP3high Tregs, but also memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells by manual gating. Furthermore, the proposed method successfully analyzed an independent data set, showing that the same FOXP3+ subpopulation was increased in melanoma patients, validating the method. Collectively, the proposed method successfully captured an important feature of melanoma without relying on the existing criteria of FOXP3+ T cells, revealing a hidden association between the T cell profile and melanoma, and providing new insights into FOXP3+ T cells and Tregs. PMID:26864030

  19. Fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hayato; Hosokawa, Masashi; Sashima, Tokutake; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-07-01

    Fucoxanthin is a major carotenoid found in edible seaweed such as Undaria pinnatifida and Hijikia fusiformis. We investigated the suppressive effects of fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. Fucoxanthin inhibited intercellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, fucoxanthin was converted to fucoxanthinol in 3T3-L1 cells. Fucoxanthinol also exhibited suppressive effects on lipid accumulation and decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of adipocyte differentiation. The suppressive effect of fucoxanthinol was stronger than that of fucoxanthin. In addition, in 3T3-L1 cells treated with fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which regulates adipogenic gene expression, was down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol inhibit the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells through down-regulation of PPARgamma. Fucoxanthinol had stronger suppressive effects than fucoxanthin on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:16786166

  20. Transformation and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel-smelting fumes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan-Tao; Wu, Yong-Hui; Hu, Fu-Lan; Hu, Xue-Ying

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the transformation and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel (Ni) smelting fumes. Cytotoxicity of NIH/3T3 cells was detected with a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. The cell translation model was established by cell focus translation using two types of Ni-smelting fumes from a Ni smelting plant in China. The transformed focus was determined by soft agar culture assay. The apoptotic characteristics of NIH/3T3 cells treated with Ni-smelting fumes were detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and PI as markers. The DNA fragment of apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel smelting fumes was detected by observing agarose electrophoresis and morphological characteristics of cells under electron microscopy. With increase in exposure time, growth of NIH/3T3 cells was inhibited. The NIH/3T3 cell transformation model was established successfully using two Ni-smelting fumes, and the transformed cells grow in soft agar. No apoptosis peak was detected by flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells characterized by necrosis were observed using electron microscopy. There was no apparent "ladder" observed by DNA fragment analysis. Data indicated that Ni-smelting fumes produced cytotoxicity by mechanisms associated with necrosis but not apoptosis. PMID:19492236

  1. Mitigative Effect of Erythromycin on PMMA Challenged Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Weili; Li, Xiaomiao; Markel, David C.; Ren, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Aseptic loosening (AL) is a major complication of total joint replacement. Recent approaches to limiting AL have focused on inhibiting periprosthetic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Questions/Purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of erythromycin (EM) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-challenged MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells. Methods. MC3T3 cells were pretreated with EM (0–10 μg/mL) and then stimulated with PMMA (1 mg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by both a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and cell counts. Cell differentiation was determined by activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Gene expression was measured via real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. We found that exposure to PMMA particles reduced cellular viability and osteogenetic potential in MC3T3 cell line. EM treatment mitigated the effects of PMMA particles on the proliferation, viability and differentiation of MC3T3 cells. PMMA decreased the gene expression of Runx2, osterix and osteocalcin, which can be partially restored by EM treatment. Furthermore, EM suppressed PMMA- induced increase of NF-κB gene expression. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that EM mitigates the effects of PMMA on MC3T3 cell viability and differentiation, in part through downregulation of NF-κB pathway. EM appeared to represent an anabolic agent on MC3T3 cells challenged with PMMA particles. PMID:25110723

  2. Transformation and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel-smelting fumes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan-Tao; Wu, Yong-Hui; Hu, Fu-Lan; Hu, Xue-Ying

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the transformation and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel (Ni) smelting fumes. Cytotoxicity of NIH/3T3 cells was detected with a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. The cell translation model was established by cell focus translation using two types of Ni-smelting fumes from a Ni smelting plant in China. The transformed focus was determined by soft agar culture assay. The apoptotic characteristics of NIH/3T3 cells treated with Ni-smelting fumes were detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and PI as markers. The DNA fragment of apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells treated with nickel smelting fumes was detected by observing agarose electrophoresis and morphological characteristics of cells under electron microscopy. With increase in exposure time, growth of NIH/3T3 cells was inhibited. The NIH/3T3 cell transformation model was established successfully using two Ni-smelting fumes, and the transformed cells grow in soft agar. No apoptosis peak was detected by flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells characterized by necrosis were observed using electron microscopy. There was no apparent "ladder" observed by DNA fragment analysis. Data indicated that Ni-smelting fumes produced cytotoxicity by mechanisms associated with necrosis but not apoptosis.

  3. [Envelope protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious expressed in NIH3T3 cells promotes cell proliferation].

    PubMed

    DU, Fangyuan; Chen, Dayong; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Xiaolin; Guo, Wenqing; Liu, Shuying

    2016-09-01

    Objective To explore the influence of the exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovious (exJSRV) envelope protein (Env) on NIH3T3 cell proliferation. Methods A recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env carrying exJSRV- env gene was constructed, and then the correctness of the recombinant plasmid was identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA4/myc-His/exJSRV- env was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells by Lipofectamine(TM) LTX. After the transfection of the recombinant plasmid, the expression of exJSRV- env was detected by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. The effect of Env on cell proliferation was investigated by CCK-8 assay and plate colony formation assay. Results The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing exJSRV- env was successfully constructed as identified by PCR, restriction enzyme identification and sequencing. After the recombinant plasmid was transiently transfected into NIH3T3 cells, reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting showed the expression of exJSRV- env , and Env promoted NIH3T3 cell proliferation significantly. Conclusion JSRV Env was expressed successfully in the NIH3T3 cells and promoted the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. PMID:27609573

  4. A variable-resolution rotate-only computed tomography scanner.

    PubMed

    Hangartner, T N

    1994-10-01

    The Rotoscan is a computed tomography scanner that combines the advantages of variable geometric resolution and adjustable size of measurement diameter of translate-rotate scanners with the improved speed of rotate-only scanners. Because of the small number of only 26 detectors used for this scanner, a special data collection scheme of multiple rotations with interleaved detector positions was employed. In order to avoid angular data interpolation after reordering of the projections from the fan- to a parallel-beam geometry, the detectors were incrementally moved at a right angle to the centerline of the fan rather than rotated about the source. The measurement time of 40 s for one cross-section is comparable to that of second-generation systems. However, for longer measurement diameters, the measurement time for second-generation systems increases, whereas that of the Rotoscan remains constant.

  5. Scanning properties of a resonant fiber-optic piezoelectric scanner.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhe; Fu, Ling

    2011-12-01

    We develop a resonant fiber-optic scanner using four piezoelectric elements arranged as a square tube, which is efficient to manufacture and drive. Using coupled-field model based on finite element method, scanning properties of the scanner, including vibration mode, resonant frequency, and scanning range, are numerically studied. We also physically measure the effects of geometry sizes and drive signals on the scanning properties, thus providing a foundation for general purpose designs. A scanner adopted in a prototype of imaging system, with a diameter of ~2 mm and driven by a voltage of 10 V (peak to peak), demonstrates the scanning performance by obtaining an image of resolution target bars. The proposed fiber-optic scanner can be applied to micro-endoscopy that requires two-dimensional scanning of fibers. PMID:22225224

  6. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  7. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in the body by means of a detector (or detectors) whose position moves in two directions with respect...

  8. Superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2004-05-01

    A superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner is presented that has the potential to provide 4 pi-sr coverage. As a proof-of-concept experiment, an angular scan range of 288 degrees for six randomly distributed beams is demonstrated. The proposed scanner achieves its superwide coverage by exploiting a combination of phase-encoded transmission and reflection holography within an in-line hologram recording-retrieval geometry. The basic scanner unit consists of one phase-only digital mode spatial light modulator for code entry (i.e., beam scan control) and a holographic material from which we obtained what we believe is the first-of-a-kind extremely wide coverage, low component count, high speed (e.g., microsecond domain), and large aperture (e.g., > 1-cm diameter) scanner.

  9. Geometric theory of horizon scanners. [onboard spacecraft for attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    The note presents a general geometrical theory of spacecraft horizon scanners for the purpose of actual attitude determination, as opposed to just attitude stabilization. Analysis is carried out in terms of the scanning angles and three sets of auxiliary axes: the scanner axes, the nonscanning axes, and the orbital axes. Euler angles (yaw, pitch, and roll) transform the orbital axes to the nonscanning axes, and spacecraft attitude is determined directly from the attitude of the nonscanning axes relative to the orbital axes. In most applications the scanning speed is fast, so that it can be assumed that the attitude of the spacecraft does not change during a scan; however, a perturbation analysis is provided for errors committed by neglecting attitude changes. The analysis is valid for all types of scanners; in addition, the case where two scanners with different half-cone angles are used is considered.

  10. Superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2004-05-01

    A superwide-angle coverage code-multiplexed optical scanner is presented that has the potential to provide 4 pi-sr coverage. As a proof-of-concept experiment, an angular scan range of 288 degrees for six randomly distributed beams is demonstrated. The proposed scanner achieves its superwide coverage by exploiting a combination of phase-encoded transmission and reflection holography within an in-line hologram recording-retrieval geometry. The basic scanner unit consists of one phase-only digital mode spatial light modulator for code entry (i.e., beam scan control) and a holographic material from which we obtained what we believe is the first-of-a-kind extremely wide coverage, low component count, high speed (e.g., microsecond domain), and large aperture (e.g., > 1-cm diameter) scanner. PMID:15143655

  11. High-performance horizontal side scanner using holographic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Charles C. K.

    1998-06-01

    A new holographic technique has been used to make a compact, accurate and reliable POS scanner. The holo-window technology permits compact POS scanner optical scanning in horizontal plan while maintaining excellent performance in changing the scan direction, equalizing the scan velocity and collecting the signal light. The holo-window design and fabrication in the holographic optical element (HOE) for such a compact POS scanner are described in this paper. Additionally this new horizontal side scanning possesses large depth of field (greater than 10 inches), allows the grocery items to be scanned horizontally thus eliminating the commonly experienced carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) hand injuries of the checkers. This newly designed POS scanner has been recognized by industry as the standard for the future POS scanning configuration.

  12. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  13. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  14. 47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. MFP scanner motion characterization using self-printed target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minwoong; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry K.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional printers (MFP) are products that combine the functions of a printer, scanner, and copier. Our goal is to help customers to be able to easily diagnose scanner or print quality issues with their products by developing an automated diagnostic system embedded in the product. We specifically focus on the characterization of scanner motions, which may be defective due to irregular movements of the scan-head. The novel design of our test page and two-stage diagnostic algorithm are described in this paper. The most challenging issue is to evaluate the scanner performance properly when both printer and scanner units contribute to the motion errors. In the first stage called the uncorrected-print-error-stage, aperiodic and periodic motion behaviors are characterized in both the spatial and frequency domains. Since it is not clear how much of the error is contributed by each unit, the scanned input is statistically analyzed in the second stage called the corrected-print-error-stage. Finally, the described diagnostic algorithms output the estimated scan error and print error separately as RMS values of the displacement of the scan and print lines, respectively, from their nominal positions in the scanner or printer motion direction. We validate our test page design and approaches by ground truth obtained from a high-precision, chrome-on-glass reticle manufactured using semiconductor chip fabrication technologies.

  16. Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlow, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

  17. Performance comparison of two commercial BGO-based PET/CT scanners using NEMA NU 2-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bolard, Gregory; Prior, John O.; Modolo, Luca; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Kosinski, Marek; Wastiel, Claude; Malterre, Jerome; Bulling, Shelley; Bochud, Francois; Verdun, Francis R.

    2007-07-15

    Combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners play a major role in medicine for in vivo imaging in an increasing number of diseases in oncology, cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry. With the advent of short-lived radioisotopes other than {sup 18}F and newer scanners, there is a need to optimize radioisotope activity and acquisition protocols, as well as to compare scanner performances on an objective basis. The Discovery-LS (D-LS) was among the first clinical PET/CT scanners to be developed and has been extensively characterized with older National Electrical Manufacturer Association (NEMA) NU 2-1994 standards. At the time of publication of the latest version of the standards (NU 2-2001) that have been adapted for whole-body imaging under clinical conditions, more recent models from the same manufacturer, i.e., Discovery-ST (D-ST) and Discovery-STE (D-STE), were commercially available. We report on the full characterization both in the two- and three-dimensional acquisition mode of the D-LS according to latest NEMA NU 2-2001 standards (spatial resolution, sensitivity, count rate performance, accuracy of count losses, and random coincidence correction and image quality), as well as a detailed comparison with the newer D-ST widely used and whose characteristics are already published.

  18. Liraglutide attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by modulating AMPK/mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiong-Ke; Yin, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Guo, Chao-Feng; Tang, Ming-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Liraglutide, a synthetic analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1, is utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Liraglutide has been previously demonstrated to prevent osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in the slowing of arterial calcification, however, its effect on bone formation remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation using Alizarin Red S staining, and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect by western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that protein expression levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) were downregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblastic differentiation in commercial osteogenic differentiation medium, whereas protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) increased. Liraglutide was subsequently demonstrated to dose-dependently attenuate the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, to upregulate p-AMPK, and downregulate p-mTOR and TGF-β protein expression levels. Treatment with an AMPK-specific inhibitor, Compound C, eradicated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation, and p-mTOR and TGF-β downregulation. An mTOR activator, MHY1485, also abolished the inhibitory effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation, and resulted in p-mTOR and TGF-β downregulation, but did not attenuate the liraglutide-induced increase in p-AMPK protein expression levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that liraglutide attenuates osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. The present study revealed a novel function of liraglutide, which contributes to the understanding of its pharmacological and physiological effects in clinical settings. PMID:27600753

  19. Development and performance evaluation of an experimental fine pitch detector multislice CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Yasuhiro; Nukui, Masatake; Ishihara, Yotaro; Fujishige, Takashi; Ogata, Kentaro; Moritake, Masahiro; Kurochi, Haruo; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Yahata, Mitsuru; Tang Xiangyang

    2009-04-15

    The authors have developed an experimental fine pitch detector multislice CT scanner with an ultrasmall focal spot x-ray tube and a high-density matrix detector through current CT technology. The latitudinal size of the x-ray tube focal spot was 0.4 mm. The detector dimension was 1824 channels (azimuthal direction)x32 rows (longitudinal direction) at row width of 0.3125 mm, in which a thinner reflected separator surrounds each detector cell coupled with a large active area photodiode. They were mounted on a commercial 64-slice CT scanner gantry while the scan field of view (50 cm) and gantry rotation speed (0.35 s) can be maintained. The experimental CT scanner demonstrated the spatial resolution of 0.21-0.22 mm (23.8-22.7 lp/cm) with the acrylic slit phantom and in-plane 50%-MTF 9.0 lp/cm and 10%-MTF 22.0 lp/cm. In the longitudinal direction, it demonstrated the spatial resolution of 0.24 mm with the high-resolution insert of the CATPHAN phantom and 0.34 mm as the full width at half maximum of the slice sensitivity profile. In low-contrast detectability, 3 mm at 0.3% was visualized at the CTDI{sub vol} of 47.2 mGy. Two types of 2.75 mm diameter vessel phantoms with in-stent stenosis at 25%, 50%, and 75% stair steps were scanned, and the reconstructed images can clearly resolve the stenosis at each case. The experimental CT scanner provides high-resolution imaging while maintaining low-contrast detectability, demonstrating the potentiality for clinical applications demanding high spatial resolution, such as imaging of inner ear, lung, and bone, or low-contrast detectability, such as imaging of coronary artery.

  20. Activated mutant of Galpha(12) enhances the hyperosmotic stress response of NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Dermott, J M; Wadsworth, S J; van Rossum, G D; Dhanasekaran, N

    2001-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein G12 stimulates diverse physiological responses including the activities of Na+/H+ exchangers and Jun kinases. We have observed that the expression of the constitutively activated, GTPase-deficient mutant of Galpha(12) (Galpha(12)QL) accelerates the hyperosmotic response of NIH3T3 cells as monitored by the hyperosmotic stress-stimulated activity of JNK1. The accelerated response appears to be partly due to the increased basal activity of JNK since cell lines-such as NIH3T3 cells expressing JNK1-in which JNK activity is elevated, show a similar response. NIH3T3 cells expressing Galpha(12)QL also display heightened sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress. This is in contrast to JNK1-NIH3T3 cells that failed to enhance sensitivity although they do exhibit an accelerated hyperosmotic response. Reasoning that the increased sensitivity seen in Galpha(12)QL cells is due to a signaling component other than JNK, the effect of dimethyamiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger in this response, was assessed. Treatment of vector control NIH3T3 cells with 50 microM dimethylamiloride potently inhibited their hyperosmotic response whereas the response was only partially inhibited in Galpha(12)QL-NIH3T3 cells. These results, for the first time, identify that NHEs are upstream of the JNK module in the hyperosmotic stress-signaling pathway and that Galpha(12) can enhance this response by modulating either or both of these components namely, JNKs and NHEs in NIH3T3 cells. PMID:11180393

  1. The effect of myostatin on proliferation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui Juan; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Xu Zhe; Li, Nai Shi; Wang, Lin Jie; Yang, Hong Bo; Gong, Feng Ying

    2015-06-01

    Myostatin is a critical negative regulator of skeletal muscle development, and has been reported to be involved in the progression of obesity and diabetes. In the present study, we explored the effects of myostatin on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, intracellular triglyceride (TG) assays, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods. The results indicated that recombinant myostatin significantly promoted the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the expression of proliferation-related genes, including Cyclin B2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, Pcna, and c-Myc, and IGF1 levels in the medium of 3T3-L1 were notably upregulated by 35.2, 30.5, 20.5, 33.4, 51.2, and 179% respectively (all P<0.01) in myostatin-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, the intracellular lipid content of myostatin-treated cells was notably reduced as compared with the non-treated cells. Additionally, the mRNA levels of Pparγ, Cebpα, Gpdh, Dgat, Acs1, Atgl, and Hsl were significantly downregulated by 22-76% in fully differentiated myostatin-treated adipocytes. Finally, myostatin regulated the mRNA levels and secretion of adipokines, including Adiponectin, Resistin, Visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (all P<0.001). Above all, myostatin promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation by increasing the expression of cell-proliferation-related genes and by stimulating IGF1 secretion. Myostatin inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by suppressing Pparγ and Cebpα expression, which consequently deceased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells by inhibiting the expression of critical lipogenic enzymes and by promoting the expression of lipolytic enzymes. Finally, myostatin modulated the expression and secretion of adipokines in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25878062

  2. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. )

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  3. Epac, not PKA catalytic subunit, is required for 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhenyu; Mei, Fang C.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic AMP plays a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and maturation. However, it is not clear which of the two intracellular cAMP receptors, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor or protein kinase A/cAMP-dependent protein kinase, is essential for cAMP-mediated adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized a well-defined adipose differentiation model system, the murine preadipocyte line 3T3-L1, to address this issue. We showed that knocking down Epac expression in 3T3-L1 cells using lentiviral based small hairpin RNAs down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and dramatically inhibited adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells while inhibiting PKA catalytic subunit activity by two mechanistically distinct inhibitors, heat stable protein kinase inhibitor and H89, had no effect on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, cAMP analog selectively activating Epac was not able to stimulate adipogenic conversion. Our study demonstrated that while PKA catalytic activity is dispensable, activation of Epac is necessary but not sufficient for adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:20036887

  4. Microinjected pBR322 stimulates cellular DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, J K; Hirschhorn, R R; Avignolo, C; Mercer, W E; Ohta, M; Galanti, N; Jonak, G J; Baserga, R

    1984-01-01

    When pBR322 is manually microinjected into the nuclei of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells it stimulates the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. The evidence clearly shows that this increased incorporation that is detected by in situ autoradiography in microinjected cells represents cellular DNA synthesis and not DNA repair or plasmid replication. The effect is due to pBR322 and not due to impurities, mechanical perturbances due to the microinjection technique, or aspecific effects. This stimulation is striking in Swiss 3T3 cells. Some NIH 3T3 cells show a slight stimulation, but hamster cells, derived from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, are not stimulated when microinjected with pBR322. The preliminary evidence seems to indicate that the integrity of the pBR322 genome is important for the stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. These results, although of a preliminary nature, are of interest because they indicate that a prokaryotic genome may alter the cell cycle of mammalian cells. From a practical point of view the stimulatory effect of microinjected pBR322 on cellular DNA synthesis has a more immediate interest, because pBR322 is the vector most commonly used for molecular cloning and 3T3 cells are very frequently used for gene transfer experiments. Images PMID:6582497

  5. Human milk and infant formula can induce in vitro adipocyte differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lyle, R E; Corley, J D; McGehee, R E

    1998-11-01

    The potential of infant diet to influence fat cell development has largely been examined in clinical studies with conflicting results. In this study, the direct effects of two standard infant formulas, Enfamil and Similac, as well as human milk were examined using a well characterized model of adipocyte differentiation, the 3T3-L1 murine preadipocyte cell line. After exposure to a hormonal regimen of insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutylmethylxanthine, these cells undergo a mitotic expansion phase followed by terminal differentiation. On d 4 of hormonal exposure, greater than 95% of 3T3-L1 cells exhibit the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of mature adipocytes. In this study, cells were exposed to control medium, or control medium supplemented with either 10% Enfamil, 10% Similac, 10% human milk (skim or whole), or the standard hormonal regimen. Oil Red O-detectable lipid accumulation, immunocytochemical cell proliferation assays, and activated expression of adipocyte differentiation-specific mRNAs by Northern blot analysis were used to assess the effects of treatment on adipocyte differentiation. Results from each level of assessment revealed that both Enfamil and human milk were as effective as the standard hormonal regimen at stimulating adipocyte differentiation. In contrast, results from treatment with Similac or human skim milk were indistinguishable from control unstimulated cells. This study, demonstrating that Enfamil and human milk are capable of independently inducing in vitro adipocyte differentiation, suggests that diet during infancy could influence body fat development.

  6. CT scanner x-ray spectrum estimation from transmission measurements

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In diagnostic CT imaging, multiple important applications depend on the knowledge of the x-ray spectrum, including Monte Carlo dose calculations and dual-energy material decomposition analysis. Due to the high photon flux involved, it is difficult to directly measure spectra from the x-ray tube of a CT scanner. One potential method for indirect measurement involves estimating the spectrum from transmission measurements. The expectation maximization (EM) method is an accurate and robust method to solve this problem. In this article, this method was evaluated in a commercial CT scanner. Methods: Two step-wedges (polycarbonate and aluminum) were used to produce different attenuation levels. Transmission measurements were performed on the scanner and the measured data from the scanner were exported to an external computer to calculate the spectra. The EM method was applied to solve the equations that represent the attenuation processes of polychromatic x-ray photons. Estimated spectra were compared to the spectra simulated using a software provided by the manufacturer of the scanner. To test the accuracy of the spectra, a verification experiment was performed using a phantom containing different depths of water. The measured transmission data were compared to the transmission values calculated using the estimated spectra. Results: Spectra of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp from a dual-source CT scanner were estimated. The estimated and simulated spectra were well matched. The differences of mean energies were less than 1 keV. In the verification experiment, the measured and calculated transmission values were in excellent agreement. Conclusions: Spectrum estimation using transmission data and the EM method is a quantitatively accurate and robust technique to estimate the spectrum of a CT system. This method could benefit studies relying on accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra from CT scanner. PMID:21452736

  7. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  8. Transformation of human cells by DNAs ineffective in transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.B.; Freeman, A.G.; Moore, S.P.; Strickland, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    Neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts can be transformed to anchorage-independent growth by transfection with DNAs inefficient in transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Human cells transfected with DNA from GM 1312, a multiple myeloma cell line, or MOLT-4, a permanent lymphoblast line, grow without anchorage at a much higher frequency than do the parental cells and their DNAs can transform human cell recipients to anchorage-independent growth; they have extended but not indefinite life spans and are nontumorigenic. Human fibroblasts are also transformed by DNAs from two multiple myeloma lines that also transform 3T3 cells; however, restriction analysis suggests that different transforming genes in this DNA are acting in the human and murine systems. These results indicate that the human cell transfection system allows detection of transforming genes not effective in the 3T3 system and points out the possibility of detection of additional transforming sequences even in DNAs that do transform murine cells.

  9. DNA Methylation Suppresses Leptin Gene in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Masashi; Tominaga, Ayako; Nakagawa, Kasumi; Nishiguchi, Misa; Sebe, Mayu; Miyatake, Yumiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a key regulator of energy intake and expenditure. This peptide hormone is expressed in mouse white adipose tissue, but hardly expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using bisulfite sequencing, we found that CpG islands in the leptin promoter are highly methylated in 3T3-L1cells. 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, markedly increased leptin expression as pre-adipocytes matured into adipocytes. Remarkably, leptin expression was stimulated by insulin in adipocytes derived from precursor cells exposed to 5-azacytidine, but suppressed by thiazolidinedione and dexamethasone. In contrast, adipocytes derived from untreated precursor cells were unresponsive to both 5-azacytidine and hormonal stimuli, although lipid accumulation was sufficient to boost leptin expression in the absence of demethylation. Taken together, the results suggest that leptin expression in 3T3-L1 cells requires DNA demethylation prior to adipogenesis, transcriptional activation during adipogenesis, and lipid accumulation after adipogenesis. PMID:27494408

  10. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2014-04-01

    Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) are a valuable source of bioactive substances with high antioxidant potential and well documented beneficial health properties. In the present study, the activity of cranberries, in terms of the inhibiting effects of adipogenesis, was investigated using the 3T3-L1 cell line. The obtained results showed that cranberries reduced proliferation and viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with cranberries decreased the number of adipocytes and reduced lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. Moreover, it was found that cranberries directly induced lipolysis in adipocytes and down-regulated the expression of major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1. These findings indicate that cranberries are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation.

  11. Effect of Biodegradable Shape-Memory Polymers on Proliferation of 3T3 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Ying-Ming

    2011-07-01

    This article evaluates the in vitro biocompatibility for biodegradable shape-memory polymers (BSMP) invented by the authors. 3T3 cells (3T3-Swiss albino GNM 9) of primary and passaged cultures were inoculated into two kinds of carriers: the BSMP carrier and the control group carrier. Viability, proliferation, and DNA synthesis (the major biocompatibility parameters), were measured and evaluated for both the BSMP and naked carrier via cell growth curve analysis, MTT colorimetry and addition of 3H-TdR to culture media. The results showed that there was no difference between the BSMP carrier and the control dish in terms of viability, proliferation, and metabolism of the 3T3 cells. Overall, the BSMP carrier provides good biocompatibility and low toxicity to cells in vitro, and could indicate future potential for this medium as a biological material for implants in vivo.

  12. A comparison of the precision of three-dimensional images acquired by 2 digital intraoral scanners: effects of tooth irregularity and scanning direction

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Ji-won; Park, Ji-Man; Chun, Youn-Sic; Kim, Miae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the precision of three-dimensional (3D) images acquired using iTero® (Align Technology Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) and Trios® (3Shape Dental Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark) digital intraoral scanners, and to evaluate the effects of the severity of tooth irregularities and scanning sequence on precision. Methods Dental arch models were fabricated with differing degrees of tooth irregularity and divided into 2 groups based on scanning sequence. To assess their precision, images were superimposed and an optimized superimposition algorithm was employed to measure any 3D deviation. The t-test, paired t-test, and one-way ANOVA were performed (p < 0.05) for statistical analysis. Results The iTero® and Trios® systems showed no statistically significant difference in precision among models with differing degrees of tooth irregularity. However, there were statistically significant differences in the precision of the 2 scanners when the starting points of scanning were different. The iTero® scanner (mean deviation, 29.84 ± 12.08 µm) proved to be less precise than the Trios® scanner (22.17 ± 4.47 µm). Conclusions The precision of 3D images differed according to the degree of tooth irregularity, scanning sequence, and scanner type. However, from a clinical standpoint, both scanners were highly accurate regardless of the degree of tooth irregularity. PMID:26877977

  13. Performance assessment of a pendant-geometry CT scanner for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, John M.; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Shah, Nikula; Burkett, George; Seibert, J. A.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Roos, Gerhardt

    2005-04-01

    While mammography is the gold standard for breast cancer screening worldwide, it is widely recognized that mammography has limitations, especially in women with dense breasts. In response to the need for a more sensitive approach to breast cancer screening, a CT scanner specifically for breast imaging in the pendant geometry was designed, fabricated, and is currently in clinical evaluation. The spatial resolution and noise properties are discussed, and breast images from a normal volunteer and a patient with breast cancer demonstrate very promising breast CT image quality from a qualitative perspective.

  14. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  15. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  16. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  17. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  18. 26 CFR 1.956-3T - Certain trade or service receivables acquired from United States persons (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from United States persons (temporary). 1.956-3T Section 1.956-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Corporations § 1.956-3T Certain trade or service receivables acquired from United States persons (temporary). (a) In general. For purposes of section 956(a) and § 1.956-1, the term “United States property”...

  19. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-3T - Treatment of transfers of stock or securities to foreign corporations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of transfers of stock or securities to foreign corporations (temporary). 1.367(a)-3T Section 1.367(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(a)-3T Treatment...

  20. Trophic effect of a methanol yeast extract on 3T3 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Dominique; Dillemans, Monique; Allardin, David; Priem, Fabian; Van Nedervelde, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    With regard to the increase of human life expectancy, interest for topical treatments aimed to counteract skin aging is still growing. Hence, research for bioactive compounds able to stimulate skin fibroblast activity is an attractive topic. Having previously described the effects of a new methanol yeast extract on growth and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied its effects on 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate its potential antiaging property. This investigation demonstrates that this extract increases proliferation as well as migration of 3T3 cells and decreases their entrance in senescence and apoptosis phases. Altogether, these results open new perspectives for the formulation of innovative antiaging topical treatments.

  1. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  2. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  3. Aviation focused eddy current and ultrasonic scanner assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    Ultrasonic and eddy current C-scan images have been produced for non-destructive inspection (NDI) with laboratory scanners for over 25 years. In the last five years, portable mechanical scanner designs have been improved and modified so that they are suitable for application on aircraft structures. Eddy current and ultrasonic C-scan inspections are significant because they can be used for early detection of hidden damage. As an aid to the airline inspection industry, an evaluation of commercially available portable scanner systems and methodologies used for C-scan imaging of eddy current and ultrasonic inspection data was performed. Eight basic scanner designs were identified and scanner systems from eleven different companies were evaluated. Vendors of the equipment provided hands-on demonstrations on actual aircraft samples in the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC). From observations and information recorded during the demonstrations, capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software were tabulated.

  4. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  5. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  6. Effects of Lipophilic Extract of Viscum album L. and Oleanolic Acid on Migratory Activity of NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts and on HaCat Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuonen, R.; Weissenstein, U.; Urech, K.; Kunz, M.; Hostanska, K.; Estko, M.; Heusser, P.; Baumgartner, S.

    2013-01-01

    Viscum album L. lipophilic extract (VALE) contains pharmacologically active pentacyclic triterpenes that are known to exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, and wound healing activity. Preliminary clinical observations indicate that VALE was able to influence cutaneous wound healing in vivo. The objective of this study was to investigate wound closure related properties of VALE in vitro. As measured in a wound healing assay, VALE and its predominant triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) significantly and dose dependently promoted the migration of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in vitro, thereby leading to an enhanced wound closure. Compared to the negative control, maximal stimulation by 26.1% and 26.2%, respectively, was attained with 10 μg/mL VALE and 1 μg/mL OA. Stimulation of proliferation in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts by VALE and OA could be excluded. At higher concentrations both substances affected proliferation and viability of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and HaCat keratinocytes. In the toxic range of concentrations of VALE and OA, migration of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts was suppressed. The extent of the stimulatory effect on cell migration of VALE quite closely corresponded to the effect expected by the concentrations of OA contained in the crude extract VALE. These data support the casual observation that Viscum album L. lipophilic extract might modulate wound healing related processes in vivo. PMID:24379890

  7. High Bandwidth Electro-optic Scanner for Optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jinhui; Huang, Yuhong; Schroeck, Steve; Messner, W.; Stancil, Daniel D.; Schlesinger, T. E.

    2000-02-01

    Beam deflectors can be used as fine tracking actuators to improve track access time and data rate in future high performance optical disk drives. In this paper we report on the use of an electro-optic (EO) scanner for optical data storage. Track following has been accomplished using this EO actuator with a servo bandwidth of 200 kHz, and single-stage high-speed track switching/following has been demonstrated in a new optical head tracking system with reduced offset. A fine tracking experiment has also been demonstrated using an EO actuator with a voice coil motor (VCM) actuator to extend the fine tracking range. A new compensator design method, the PQ method, has been used for this scanner/VCM compound actuator system. Significant improvements in track switching/following speed are demonstrated with the scanner/VCM compound actuator as compared to tracking with the VCM actuator alone.

  8. Calibration procedure for a laser triangulation scanner with uncertainty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genta, Gianfranco; Minetola, Paolo; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    Most of low cost 3D scanning devices that are nowadays available on the market are sold without a user calibration procedure to correct measurement errors related to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, there is no specific international standard defining a procedure to check the performance of a 3D scanner along time. This paper aims at detailing a thorough methodology to calibrate a 3D scanner and assess its measurement uncertainty. The proposed procedure is based on the use of a reference ball plate and applied to a triangulation laser scanner. Experimental results show that the metrological performance of the instrument can be greatly improved by the application of the calibration procedure that corrects systematic errors and reduces the device's measurement uncertainty.

  9. Determining density of maize canopy. 2: Airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Cipra, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Multispectral scanner data were collected in two flights over a light colored soil background cover plot at an altitude of 305 m. Energy in eleven reflective wavelength band from 0.45 to 2.6 microns was recorded. Four growth stages of maize (Zea mays L.) gave a wide range of canopy densities for each flight date. Leaf area index measurements were taken from the twelve subplots and were used as a measure of canopy density. Ratio techniques were used to relate uncalibrated scanner response to leaf area index. The ratios of scanner data values for the 0.72 to 0.92 micron wavelength band over the 0.61 to 0.70 micron wavelength band were calculated for each plot. The ratios related very well to leaf area index for a given flight date. The results indicated that spectral data from maize canopies could be of value in determining canopy density.

  10. Spectral reflectance estimation using a six-color scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Kohno, Satoshi; Kakinuma, Hirokazu; Nohara, Fuminori; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the spectral reflectance function of an object surface by using a six-color scanner. The scanner is regarded as a six-band spectral imaging system, since it captures six color channels in total from two separate scans using two difference lamps. First, we describe the basic characteristics of the imaging systems for a HP color scanner and a multiband camera used for comparison. Second, we describe a computational method for recovering surface-spectral reflectances from the noisy sensor outputs. A LMMSE estimator is presented as an optimal estimator. We discuss the reflectance estimation for non-flat surfaces with shading effect. A solution method is presented for the reliable reflectance estimation. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is examined in detail on experiments using the Macbeth Color Checker and non-flat objects.

  11. Design and performance of HEAD PENN-PET scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S. . Dept. of Radiology); Geagan, M.; Muehllehner, G. )

    1994-08-01

    A new PET scanner for brain imaging (and animals) has been designed with very high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The design is an evolution of the PENN-PET scanner, which uses large position-sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors, with Anger-type positioning logic, and which allows 3-D volume imaging, without septa. The new design is built with a single annular crystal coupled to 180 photomultiplier tubes, and uses local triggering electronics to subdivide the detector into small zones and to determine coincident events within the detector. The axial acceptance angle of [+-] 27 deg, with a field-of-view of 25.6 cm, is larger than any currently operating PET scanner. Performance measurements are presented.

  12. Fast resonant target vibrating wire scanner for photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutunian, S. G.; Chung, M.; Harutyunyan, G. S.; Margaryan, A. V.; Lazareva, E. G.; Lazarev, L. M.; Shahinyan, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new type of wire scanner for beam profile measurements, based on the use of a vibrating wire as a scattering target. Synchronous measurements with the wire oscillation allow to detect only the signal coming from the scattering of the beam on the wire. This resonant method enables fast beam profiling in the presence of a high level of background. The developed wire scanner, called resonant target vibrating wire scanner, is applied to photon beam profiling, in which the photons reflected on the wire are measured by a fast photodiode. In addition, the proposed measurement principle is expected to monitor other types of beams as well, such as neutrons, protons, electrons, and ions.

  13. Fast resonant target vibrating wire scanner for photon beam.

    PubMed

    Arutunian, S G; Chung, M; Harutyunyan, G S; Margaryan, A V; Lazareva, E G; Lazarev, L M; Shahinyan, L A

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new type of wire scanner for beam profile measurements, based on the use of a vibrating wire as a scattering target. Synchronous measurements with the wire oscillation allow to detect only the signal coming from the scattering of the beam on the wire. This resonant method enables fast beam profiling in the presence of a high level of background. The developed wire scanner, called resonant target vibrating wire scanner, is applied to photon beam profiling, in which the photons reflected on the wire are measured by a fast photodiode. In addition, the proposed measurement principle is expected to monitor other types of beams as well, such as neutrons, protons, electrons, and ions. PMID:26931835

  14. Incorporation of a two metre long PET scanner in STIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumpas, C.; Brain, C.; Dyke, T.; Gold, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Explorer project aims to investigate the potential benefits of a total-body 2 metre long PET scanner. The following investigation incorporates this scanner in STIR library and demonstrates the capabilities and weaknesses of existing reconstruction (FBP and OSEM) and single scatter simulation algorithms. It was found that sensible images are reconstructed but at the expense of high memory and processing time demands. FBP requires 4 hours on a core; OSEM: 2 hours per iteration if ran in parallel on 15-cores of a high performance computer. The single scatter simulation algorithm shows that on a short scale, up to a fifth of the scanner length, the assumption that the scatter between direct rings is similar to the scatter between the oblique rings is approximately valid. However, for more extreme cases this assumption is not longer valid, which illustrates that consideration of the oblique rings within the single scatter simulation will be necessary, if this scatter correction is the method of choice.

  15. Dental impressions using 3D digital scanners: virtual becomes reality.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Nathan S; Aaronson, Heidi B

    2008-10-01

    The technologies that have made the use of three-dimensional (3D) digital scanners an integral part of many industries for decades have been improved and refined for application to dentistry. Since the introduction of the first dental impressioning digital scanner in the 1980s, development engineers at a number of companies have enhanced the technologies and created in-office scanners that are increasingly user-friendly and able to produce precisely fitting dental restorations. These systems are capable of capturing 3D virtual images of tooth preparations, from which restorations may be fabricated directly (ie, CAD/CAM systems) or fabricated indirectly (ie, dedicated impression scanning systems for the creation of accurate master models). The use of these products is increasing rapidly around the world and presents a paradigm shift in the way in which dental impressions are made. Several of the leading 3D dental digital scanning systems are presented and discussed in this article.

  16. Event-related dynamics of glutamate and BOLD effects measured using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) at 3T in a repetition suppression paradigm.

    PubMed

    Apšvalka, Dace; Gadie, Andrew; Clemence, Matthew; Mullins, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    Proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) complements other brain research methods by providing measures of neurometabolites noninvasively in a localized brain area. Improvements in MR scanner technologies, and data acquisition and analysis methods should allow functional (1)H-MRS (fMRS) to measure neurometabolite concentration changes during task-induced brain activation. The aim of the current study was to further develop event-related fMRS at 3T to investigate glutamate dynamics in response to repetition suppression. A secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses and glutamate dynamics in the same paradigm at the same time. A novel approach of interleaved water-suppressed (metabolite) and unsuppressed (water) fMRS was used to simultaneously detect the event-related dynamics of glutamate and BOLD signal to repetition suppression in the lateral occipital cortex of thirteen (N=13) volunteers. On average, (1)H-MRS-visible glutamate increased after novel visual stimuli presentations by 12% and decreased by 11-13% on repeated compared to novel presentations. The BOLD signal, as measured by water peak amplitude changes, showed significant difference between Task and Rest trials, and, on a GLM based analysis of the time series, demonstrated a significant difference between the novel and repeated trials, however appeared to be decoupled from the glutamate response as no correlation was found between the two. These results are the first demonstration that reductions in neuronal activity typical of repetition suppression effects are reflected by reduced glutamatergic and BOLD measures, that glutamate and BOLD responses may not be coupled as previously thought, and that these changes and relationships can be measured simultaneously using event-related fMRS at 3T.

  17. Resistin regulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hama, Susumu; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Kogure, Kentaro

    2014-05-30

    Resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are adipokines, which are secreted from adipocytes. Increased plasma resistin and PAI-1 levels aggravate metabolic syndrome through exacerbation of insulin resistance and induction of chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between resistin and PAI-1 gene expression remains unclear. Previously, we found that resistin regulates lipid metabolism via carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) during adipocyte maturation (Ikeda et al., 2013) [6]. In this study, to clarify the relationship between expression of resistin and PAI-1, PAI-1 expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes was measured after transfection with anti-resistin siRNA. We found that PAI-1 gene expression and secreted PAI-1 protein were significantly decreased by resistin knockdown. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Akt, which can inhibit PAI-1 expression, was accelerated and the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was suppressed in resistin knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, the expression of glucose transporter type 4, a ChREBP target gene, was reduced and was associated with inhibition of PP2A. The addition of culture medium collected from COS7 cells transfected with a resistin expression plasmid rescued the suppression of PAI-1 expression in resistin knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that resistin regulates PAI-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via Akt phosphorylation.

  18. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its business operation and discovers that a window in one of the apartments is broken. Assume that the building, including its windows, is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3T(e) and the window is not a... delivery of a new window to replace the broken window. In the same taxable year, the new window...

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its business operation and discovers that a window in one of the apartments is broken. Assume that the building, including its windows, is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3T(e) and the window is not a... delivery of a new window to replace the broken window. In the same taxable year, the new window...

  20. 26 CFR 1.954-3T - Foreign base company sales income (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign base company sales income (temporary... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.954-3T Foreign base... foreign corporation will be treated as separate corporations for purposes of determining foreign...

  1. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1248(f)-3T - Reasonable cause and effective/applicability dates (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable cause and effective/applicability... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1248(f)-3T Reasonable cause and effective/applicability dates (temporary). (a) Reasonable cause for failure to comply—(1) Request for relief. If an 80-percent...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1248(f)-3T - Reasonable cause and effective/applicability dates (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable cause and effective/applicability... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1248(f)-3T Reasonable cause and effective/applicability dates (temporary). (a) Reasonable cause for failure to comply—(1) Request for relief. If an 80-percent...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6402-3T - Special rules applicable to income tax (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules applicable to income tax... Refunds Procedure in General § 301.6402-3T Special rules applicable to income tax (temporary). (a) through... individual or foreign corporation, the appropriate income tax return on which the claim for refund or...

  5. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water... surface is not originally free from the defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to... of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water compressed to the specified test pressure....

  6. Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2010-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry. The dietary administration of RK to male mice has been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes. To elucidate a possible mechanism for the antiobesity action of RK, its effects on the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 were investigated. Treatment with 10 µM of RK increased lipolysis significantly in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. An immunoassay showed that RK increased both the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, an adipocytokine mainly expressed and secreted by adipose tissue. In addition, treatment with 10 µM of RK increased the fatty acid oxidation and suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest that RK holds great promise as an herbal medicine since its biological activities alter the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Fucoidan in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ja; Chang, Un-Jae; Lee, Jin-Sil

    2009-01-01

    Fucoidan is a group of sulfated fucose-containing polysaccharides that derived from non-mammalian origin such as marine brown algae, the jelly coat from sea urchin eggs, and the sea cucumber body wall. However, potential biological activities against obesity from fucoidan were not reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate protective effect of fucoidan in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Preadipocyte 3T3-L1 was treated with 100 and 200 microg/ml fucoidan during adipogenesis. Adipogenesis was determined through Oil Red O staining method and the expression of adipogenic genes aP2, ACC, and PPARgamma. Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 treated with 100 and 200 microg/ml fucoidan were significantly inhibited at 32.8% and 39.7% using Oil Red O staining method, respectively (P < 0.05). Treating the 3T3-L1 cells with 100 and 200 microg/ml fucoidan significantly decreased the expression of aP2 gene by 6.2% and 27.2%, respectively, of ACC gene by 22.2% and 38.2%, respectively, and of PPARgamma gene by 44.2% and 69.4%, respectively, compared to adipocyte controls (P < 0.05). The results suggest that fucoidan could be used for inhibiting fat accumulation, which is mediated by decreasing aP2, ACC, and PPARgamma gene expression.

  8. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26770918

  9. 26 CFR 1.181-3T - Qualified film or television production (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified film or television production... (continued) § 1.181-3T Qualified film or television production (temporary). (a) In general. The term qualified film or television production means any production (as defined in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

  11. PET/CT scanners: a hardware approach to image fusion.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David W; Beyer, Thomas; Blodgett, Todd M

    2003-07-01

    New technology that combines positron tomography with x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) is available from all major vendors of PET imaging equipment: CTI, Siemens, GE, Philips. Although not all vendors have made the same design choices as those described in this review all have in common that their high performance design places a commercial CT scanner in tandem with a commercial PET scanner. The level of physical integration is actually less than that of the original prototype design where the CT and PET components were mounted on the same rotating support. There will undoubtedly be a demand for PET/CT technology with a greater level of integration, and at a reduced cost. This may be achieved through the design of a scanner specifically for combined anatomical and functional imaging, rather than a design combining separate CT and PET scanners, as in the current approaches. By avoiding the duplication of data acquisition and image reconstruction functions, for example, a more integrated design should also allow cost savings over current commercial PET/CT scanners. The goal is then to design and build a device specifically for imaging the function and anatomy of cancer in the most optimal and effective way, without conceptualizing it as combined PET and CT. The development of devices specifically for imaging a particular disease (eg, cancer) differs from the conventional approach of, for example, an all-purpose anatomical imaging device such as a CT scanner. This new concept targets more of a disease management approach rather than the usual division into the medical specialties of radiology (anatomical imaging) and nuclear medicine (functional imaging). PMID:12931321

  12. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  13. D Super-Resolution Approach for Sparse Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Yilmaz, A.

    2015-08-01

    Laser scanner point cloud has been emerging in Photogrammetry and computer vision to achieve high level tasks such as object tracking, object recognition and scene understanding. However, low cost laser scanners are noisy, sparse and prone to systematic errors. This paper proposes a novel 3D super resolution approach to reconstruct surface of the objects in the scene. This method works on sparse, unorganized point clouds and has superior performance over other surface recovery approaches. Since the proposed approach uses anisotropic diffusion equation, it does not deteriorate the object boundaries and it preserves topology of the object.

  14. 30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  16. Impact of lighting and attire on 3D scanner performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajjimaporn, Pann; Feist, Dakota; Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers the impact of lighting and attire on the performance of a previously created low-cost 3D scanning system. It considers the effect of adjusting the lighting configuration and of the subject's clothing on the quality of the scans and the number and types of objects that can be scanned. The experimentation performed tested different types (colors and textures) of clothing to assess which produced the best scans and multiple lighting configurations. This paper presents the results from this experimentation and, from this, make generalizations about optimizing visible light scanner performance before concluding with a discussion of scanner efficacy.

  17. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  18. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam. PMID:18364951

  19. A low-cost and versatile system for projecting wide-field visual stimuli within fMRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Greco, V.; Frijia, F.; Mikellidou, K.; Montanaro, D.; Farini, A.; D’Uva, M.; Poggi, P.; Pucci, M.; Sordini, A.; Morrone, M. C.; Burr, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a custom-made magnetic-imaging-compatible visual projection system designed to project on a very wide visual field (~80°). A standard projector was modified with a coupling lens, projecting images into the termination of an image fiber. The other termination of the fiber was placed in the 3-T scanner room with a projection lens, which projected the images relayed by the fiber onto a screen over the head coil, viewed by a participant wearing magnifying goggles. To validate the system, wide-field stimuli were presented in order to identify retinotopic visual areas. The results showed that this low-cost and versatile optical system may be a valuable tool to map visual areas in the brain that process peripheral receptive fields. PMID:26092392

  20. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jessica C; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2005-06-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a member of the gp130 cytokine family and signals through the receptor complex of gp130 and the LIF receptor (LIFR) to activate the JAK/STAT signaling cascade. Since LIF activates STATs 1 and 3 in adipocytes, we examined the effects of LIF on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies clearly demonstrate that LIF treatment had minimal effects on adipocyte differentiation as judged by marker gene expression, but did inhibit triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation during adipogenesis. Acute treatment with LIF resulted in increased expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-delta (C/EBPdelta) mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the upregulation of C/EBPdelta correlated with binding to three sites in the C/EBPdelta promoter by LIF-activated protein complexes that contained STAT1 and not STAT3. Chronic treatment with LIF resulted in decreased protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), but had no effect on the expression of other adipocyte marker proteins or on TAG levels in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. LIF had a small effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but did not cause insulin resistance following chronic treatment. These findings indicate that LIF has similar and distinct effects in comparison with the effects of other gp130 cytokines on cultured fat cells. In summary, our results support a role for LIF in the regulation of proteins involved in lipid synthesis and in the modulation of signal transduction pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  1. Human c-fgr induces a monocyte-specific enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Kazushi; Akiyama, Tetsu; Toyoshima, Kumao ); Wongsasant, Budsaba )

    1991-12-01

    The mutant c-fgr protein (p58{sup c-fgr/F523}) containing Phe-523 instead of Tyr-523 exhibited transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells like other protein-tyrosine kinases of the src family, but normal p58{sup c-fgr} (p58{sup c-fgr/wt}) did not. The mutant protein showed tyrosine kinase activity threefold higher than that of the normal protein in vitro. Surprisingly, transfection of the normal c-fgr gene into NIH 3T3 cells resulted in induction of sodium fluoride (NaF)-sensitive {alpha}-naphthyl butyrate esterase ({alpha}-NBE), marker enzyme of cells of monocytic origin, which was not induced in v-src-, v-fgr-, or lyn-transfected NIH 3T3 cells. The NaF-sensitive {alpha}-NBE induced in c-fgr transfectants was shown by isoelectric focusing to have a pI of 5.2 to 5.4, a range which was the same as those for thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and 1{alpha}, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-treated WEHI-3B cells. Immunoblotting studies with antophosphotyrosine antibodies revealed that 58-, 62-, 75-, 120-, 200-, and 230-kDa proteins were commonly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with normal and mutated c-fgr, while 95-kDa protein was significantly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with normal and mutated c-fgr, while 95-kDa protein was significantly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in cells transfected with the mutated c-fgr. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of specific cellular substrate proteins is important in induction of NaF-sensitive {alpha}-NBE and cell transformation by p58{sup c-fgr}.

  2. CLOCK promotes 3T3-L1 cell proliferation via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Xu, Lirong; Yuan, Gongsheng; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Lu, Chao; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-07-01

    Circadian genes control most of the physiological functions including cell cycle. Cell proliferation is a critical factor in the differentiation of progenitor cells. However, the role of Clock gene in the regulation of cell cycle via wingless-type (Wnt) pathway and the relationship between Clock and adipogenesis are unclear. We found that the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) regulated the proliferation and the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We found that Clock attenuation inhibited the viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the cell counting kit 8. The expression of c-Myc and Cyclin D1 decreased dramatically in 3T3-L1 when Clock was silenced with short interfering RNA and was also decreased in fat tissue and adipose tissue-derived stem cells of Clock(Δ19) mice. Clock directly controls the expression of the components of Wnt signal transduction pathway, which was verified by serum shock, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, IWR-1, a Wnt signal pathway inhibitor, inhibited the cell cycle promotion by CLOCK, which was detected by cell viability assay, flow cytometry, and qRT-PCR. Therefore, CLOCK transcription control of Wnt signaling promotes cell cycle progression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Clock inhibited the adipogenesis on day 2 in 3T3-L1 cells via Oil Red O staining and qRT-PCR detection and probably related to cellular differentiation. These data provide evidence that the circadian gene Clock regulates the proliferation of preadipocytes and affects adipogenesis. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):557-568, 2016. PMID:27194636

  3. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore. PMID

  4. High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor MR Imaging for Evaluating Myocardial Anisotropy and Fiber Tracking at 3T: the Effect of the Number of Diffusion-Sensitizing Gradient Directions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Il; Kang, Joon-Won; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Seong Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Objective We wanted to evaluate the effect of the number of diffusion-sensitizing gradient directions on the image quality for evaluating myocardial anisotropy and fiber tracking by using in vitro diffusion tensor MR imaging (DT-MRI). Materials and Methods The DT-MR images, using a SENSE-based echoplanar imaging technique, were acquired from ten excised porcine hearts by using a 3T MR scanner. With a b-value of 800 s/mm2, the diffusion tensor images were obtained for 6, 15 and 32 diffusion-sensitizing gradient directions at the midventricular level. The number of tracked fibers, the fractional anisotropy (FA), and the length of the tracked fibers were measured for the quantitative analysis. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the fiber tractography for the qualitative analysis. Results By increasing the number of diffusion-sensitizing gradient directions from 6 to 15, and then to 32, the FA and standard deviation were significantly reduced (p < 0.01), and the number of tracked fibers and the length of the tracked fibers were significantly increased (p < 0.01). The image quality of the fiber tractography was significantly increased with the increased number of diffusion-sensitizing gradient directions (p < 0.01). Conclusion The image quality of in vitro DT-MRI is significantly improved as the number of diffusion-sensitizing gradient directions is increased. PMID:20046495

  5. Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners with time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE).

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael; Behler, Russell; Lanning, Justin; Wang, Michael; Urban, Matthew; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James; Chen, Shigao

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography presents 2-D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2-D shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging because of the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. Although some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane-wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2-D shear-wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) method for shear-wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high-PRF shear-wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave SNR and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2-D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner. A phantom study showed that the shear-wave speed measurements from the conventional ultrasound scanner were in good agreement with the values measured from other 2-D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the conventional ultrasound scanner had comparable performance to a state-of-the-art shear-wave imaging system in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the conventional ultrasound

  6. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Rondinoni, C.; Amaro, E.; Cendes, F.; Santos, A.C.dos; Salmon, C.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state’ fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs). Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent) counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal), while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors. PMID:23579634

  7. Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Jermey N. A.

    2010-07-15

    Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

  8. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Peck, Konan

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent scanner for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier including a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from said volume to provide a display of the separated sample.

  9. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  10. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  11. OCR Scanners Facilitate WP Training in Business Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition Scanners (OCR) scan typed text and feed it directly into word processing systems, saving input time. OCRs are valuable in word processing training programs because they allow more students access to classes and more time for skill training. (MD)

  12. Prototype active scanner for nighttime oil spill mapping and classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandness, G. A.; Ailes, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype, active, aerial scanner system was constructed for nighttime water pollution detection and nighttime multispectral imaging of the ground. An arc lamp was used to produce the transmitted light and four detector channels provided a multispectral measurement capability. The feasibility of the design concept was demonstrated by laboratory and flight tests of the prototype system.

  13. 9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 106 showing passageway links to other buildings east and west, and DR 3 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. 10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of back side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing passageway links to other building to east and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  15. Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

  16. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  17. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  18. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  19. LANSCE wire scanner AFE: analysis, design, and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Mike; Chacon, Phillip; Gilpatrick, John D; Martinez, Derwin; Power, John F; Smith, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the design LANSCE-R Wire-Scanner Analog Front-end Electronics is to develop a high-performance, dual-axis wire-scanner analog front-end system implemented in a single cRIO module. This new design accommodates macropulse widths as wide as 700 {mu}s at a maximum pulse rate of 120Hz. A lossey integrator is utilized as the integration element to eliminate the requirement for providing gating signals to each wire scanner. The long macropulse and the high repetition rate present conflicting requirements for the design of the integrator. The long macropulse requires a long integration time constant to assure minimum integrator droop for accurate charge integration, and the high repetition rate requires a short time constant to assure adequate integrator reset between macropulses. Also, grounding is a serious concern due to the small signal levels. This paper reviews the basic Wire Scanner AFE system design implemented in the cRIO-module form factor to capture the charge information from the wire sensors and the grounding topology to assure minimum noise contamination of the wire signals.

  20. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively. PMID:12224780

  1. Testing PEPT Algorithm on a Medical PET Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrmomtaz, Alireza

    The basis of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the detection of the photons produced, when a positron annihilates with an electron. Conservation of energy and momentum then require that two 511 keV gamma rays are emitted almost back to back (180° apart). This method is used to determine the spatial distribution of a positron emitting fluid. Verifying the position of a single emitting particle in an object instead of determining the distribution of a positron emitting fluid is the basis of another technique, which has been named positron emitting particle tracking PEPT and has been developed in Birmingham University. Birmingham University has recently obtained the PET scanner from Hammersmith Hospital which was installed there in 1987. This scanner consists of 32 detector buckets, each includes 128 bismuth germanate detection elements, which are configured in 8 rings. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry and will be used for PEPT studies. Testing the PEPT algorithm on ECAT scanner gives a high data rate, can track approximately accurate at high speed and also has the possibility of making measurements on large vessels.

  2. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  3. Inguinal Hernia and Airport Scanners: An Emerging Indication for Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The use of advanced imaging technology at international airports is increasing in popularity as a corollary to heightened security concerns across the globe. Operators of airport scanners should be educated about common medical disorders such as inguinal herniae in order to avoid unnecessary harassment of travelers since they will encounter these with increasing frequency. PMID:24368923

  4. 20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View from northeast to southwest side of scanner building 104 showing two waveguide termination faces (fiberglass light bands on left of photograph). - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. 21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View from south to southerly face of scanner building 104 showing building radius. Radius of building face matches radius of DR antenna systems. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Impact of topographic mask models on scanner matching solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminski, Jacek K.; Pomplun, Jan; Renwick, Stephen P.

    2014-03-01

    Of keen interest to the IC industry are advanced computational lithography applications such as Optical Proximity Correction of IC layouts (OPC), scanner matching by optical proximity effect matching (OPEM), and Source Optimization (SO) and Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) used as advanced reticle enhancement techniques. The success of these tasks is strongly dependent on the integrity of the lithographic simulators used in computational lithography (CL) optimizers. Lithographic mask models used by these simulators are key drivers impacting the accuracy of the image predications, and as a consequence, determine the validity of these CL solutions. Much of the CL work involves Kirchhoff mask models, a.k.a. thin masks approximation, simplifying the treatment of the mask near-field images. On the other hand, imaging models for hyper-NA scanner require that the interactions of the illumination fields with the mask topography be rigorously accounted for, by numerically solving Maxwell's Equations. The simulators used to predict the image formation in the hyper-NA scanners must rigorously treat the masks topography and its interaction with the scanner illuminators. Such imaging models come at a high computational cost and pose challenging accuracy vs. compute time tradeoffs. Additional complication comes from the fact that the performance metrics used in computational lithography tasks show highly non-linear response to the optimization parameters. Finally, the number of patterns used for tasks such as OPC, OPEM, SO, or SMO range from tens to hundreds. These requirements determine the complexity and the workload of the lithography optimization tasks. The tools to build rigorous imaging optimizers based on first-principles governing imaging in scanners are available, but the quantifiable benefits they might provide are not very well understood. To quantify the performance of OPE matching solutions, we have compared the results of various imaging optimization trials obtained

  7. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu . E-mail: jwdai@genetics.ac.cn

    2005-12-16

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion.

  8. Genome sequence of the organohalide-respiring Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens type strain (IP3-3(T)).

    PubMed

    Key, Trent A; Richmond, Dray P; Bowman, Kimberly S; Cho, Yong-Joon; Chun, Jongsik; da Costa, Milton S; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2016-01-01

    Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens IP3-3(T) is a strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, Gram negative staining bacterium that grows by organohalide respiration, coupling the oxidation of H2 to the reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated alkanes. Growth has not been observed with any non-polyhalogenated alkane electron acceptors. Here we describe the features of strain IP3-3(T) together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 1,849,792 bp high-quality-draft genome contains 1936 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small unit rRNA (16S) locus. The genome contains 29 predicted reductive dehalogenase genes, a large majority of which lack cognate genes encoding membrane anchoring proteins. PMID:27340512

  9. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

  10. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  11. Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junyi

    Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

  12. A COST EFFECTIVE MULTI-SPECTRAL SCANNER FOR NATURAL GAS DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan

    2004-10-25

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at En'Urga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind DoE study at RMOTC. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind DoE study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, a rugged prototype scanner will be developed and evaluated, both at En'Urga Inc. and any potential field sites.

  13. Mobile large area confocal scanner for imaging tumor margins: initial testing in the pathology department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-03-01

    Surgical oncology is guided by examining pathology that is prepared during or after surgery. The preparation time for Mohs surgery in skin is 20-45 minutes, for head-and-neck and breast cancer surgery is hours to days. Often this results in incomplete tumor removal such that positive margins remain. However, high resolution images of excised tissue taken within few minutes can provide a way to assess the margins for residual tumor. Current high resolution imaging methods such as confocal microscopy are limited to small fields of view and require assembling a mosaic of images in two dimensions (2D) to cover a large area, which requires long acquisition times and produces artifacts. To overcome this limitation we developed a confocal microscope that scans strips of images with high aspect ratios and stitches the acquired strip-images in one dimension (1D). Our "Strip Scanner" can image a 10 x 10 mm2 area of excised tissue with sub-cellular detail in about one minute. The strip scanner was tested on 17 Mohs excisions and the mosaics were read by a Mohs surgeon blinded to the pathology. After this initial trial, we built a mobile strip scanner that can be moved into different surgical settings. A tissue fixture capable of scanning up to 6 x 6 cm2 of tissue was also built. Freshly excised breast and head-and-neck tissues were imaged in the pathology lab. The strip-images were registered and displayed simultaneously with image acquisition resulting in large, high-resolution confocal mosaics of fresh surgical tissue in a clinical setting.

  14. Digital dental surface registration with laser scanner for orthodontics set-up planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Albalat, Salvador E.; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos A.

    1997-05-01

    We present an optical measuring system based on laser structured light suitable for its diary use in orthodontics clinics that fit four main requirements: (1) to avoid use of stone models, (2) to automatically discriminate geometric points belonging to teeth and gum, (3) to automatically calculate diagnostic parameters used by orthodontists, (4) to make use of low cost and easy to use technology for future commercial use. Proposed technique is based in the use of hydrocolloids mould used by orthodontists for stone model obtention. These mould of the inside of patient's mouth are composed of very fluent materials like alginate or hydrocolloids that reveal fine details of dental anatomy. Alginate mould are both very easy to obtain and very low costly. Once captured, alginate moulds are digitized by mean of a newly developed and patented 3D dental scanner. Developed scanner is based in the optical triangulation method based in the projection of a laser line on the alginate mould surface. Line deformation gives uncalibrated shape information. Relative linear movements of the mould with respect to the sensor head gives more sections thus obtaining a full 3D uncalibrated dentition model. Developed device makes use of redundant CCD in the sensor head and servocontrolled linear axis for mould movement. Last step is calibration to get a real and precise X, Y, Z image. All the process is done automatically. The scanner has been specially adapted for 3D dental anatomy capturing in order to fulfill specific requirements such as: scanning time, accuracy, security and correct acquisition of 'hidden points' in alginate mould. Measurement realized on phantoms with known geometry quite similar to dental anatomy present errors less than 0,1 mm. Scanning of global dental anatomy is 2 minutes, and generation of 3D graphics of dental cast takes approximately 30 seconds in a Pentium-based PC.

  15. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  16. Magnitude and effects of x-ray scatter in a 256-slice CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Masahiro; Mori, Shinichiro; Tsunoo, Takanori; Miyazaki, Hiroaki

    2006-09-15

    We developed a prototype 256-slice CT scanner that employs continuous rotation of a cone-beam with a larger cone angle than conventional multidetector CTs (MDCT) to ensure a wide field of view. However, a larger cone angle may result in image deterioration due to increased x-ray scatter. Scattered radiation causes the detected signals to deviate from the true measurement of primary x-ray intensity and may result in artifacts (e.g., cupping and streak artifacts), quantitative inaccuracy in reconstructed CT number, and degradation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). To reduce the effects of scatter, the 256-slice scanner incorporates an antiscatter collimator. Here, we estimated the magnitude of x-ray scatter in the prototype 256-slice CT scanner under clinical scan conditions and quantified the effects of this scatter on CT number accuracy, image noise, uniformity, and low contrast detectability. Although most experiments were performed with the antiscatter collimator, we also estimated the magnitude of x-ray scatter without the collimator to evaluate the scatter rejection efficiency of the collimator. The scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratio (SPR) without the collimator increased as cone angle increased, with estimated values of 49.7% for a 138 mm beam width with a phantom of 200 mm diameter, and 78.5% for a 320 mm diameter phantom. Estimated SPR was drastically decreased with the collimator, with an SPR reduction rate (ratio of SPR with and without the collimator) of 12.7% and 16.8% for the 200 and 320 mm diameter phantoms, respectively. The reduction in x-ray scatter by the collimator resulted in a considerable reduction in scatter effects. The measured uniformity was good and was independent of scatter amount. Although scatter still affected CT number accuracy, this could be corrected by rescaling. Further, although the CNR was decreased, in theory at least, the change was so subtle that it had no substantial effect on low-contrast detectability.

  17. Workflow assessment of 3T MRI-guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy using a robotic needle guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tuncali, Kemal; Tokuda, Junichi; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fennessy, Fiona; Tempany, Clare; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Magill, John; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy has become a valuable instrument for detection of prostate cancer in patients with continuing suspicion for aggressive cancer after transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) guided biopsy. The MRI-guided procedures are performed using mechanical targeting devices or templates, which suffer from limitations of spatial sampling resolution and/or manual in-bore adjustments. To overcome these limitations, we developed and clinically deployed an MRI-compatible piezoceramic-motor actuated needle guidance device, Smart Template, which allows automated needle guidance with high targeting resolution for use in a wide closed-bore 3-Tesla MRI scanner. One of the main limitations of the MRI-guided procedure is the lengthy procedure time compared to conventional TRUS-guided procedures. In order to optimize the procedure, we assessed workflow of 30 MRI-guided biopsy procedures using the Smart Template with focus on procedure time. An average of 3.4 (range: 2~6) targets were preprocedurally selected per procedure and 2.2 ± 0.8 biopsies were performed for each target with an average insertion attempt of 1.9 ± 0.7 per biopsy. The average technical preparation time was 14 ± 7 min and the in-MRI patient preparation time was 42 ± 7 min. After 21 ± 7 min of initial imaging, 64 ± 12 min of biopsy was performed yielding an average of 10 ± 2 min per tissue sample. The total procedure time occupying the MRI suite was 138 ± 16 min. No noticeable tendency in the length of any time segment was observed over the 30 clinical cases.

  18. Effects of modified Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction combined with anastrozole on osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Han, Shuyan; Zhou, Ning; Zheng, Wenxian; Li, Pingping

    2015-03-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely used in the treatment of hormone‑dependent breast cancer and as a result, aromatase inhibitor‑associated bone loss (AIBL) has become a major concern amongst patients receiving AI treatment. Modified Shu‑Gan‑Liang‑Xue decoction (mSGLXD), a clinical prescription, has been used for ameliorating AIBL in patients with breast cancer for decades and has achieved good clinical efficacy. However, the mechanism underlying how mSGLXD influences bone homeostasis and alleviates AIBL has remained elusive. In the present study, mSGLXD was supplemented with Rhizoma Drynariae containing phytoestrogens, and the safety of mSGLXD was evaluated. mSGLXD did not possess estrogenic activity and significantly inhibited the proliferation of estrogen receptor‑positive breast cancer cell line MCF‑7, which suggested that mSGLXD was safe for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Subsequently, the effects of mSGLXD alone or in combination with anastrozole on osteoblastic MC3T3‑E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated. Cell counting kit‑8, reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and biochemical methods, such as ELISA and alizarin red S staining, were used in the present study. It was revealed that mSGLXD not only stimulated MC3T3‑E1 cell proliferation, but also upregulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene and protein expression levels. High concentrations of anastrozole (10 or 100 µmol/l) markedly inhibited MC3T3‑E1 cell proliferation, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by mSGLXD. Furthermore, mSGLXD increased MC3T3‑E1 cell mineralization following β‑glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid induction. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that mSGLXD may be a promising adjuvant therapy, with high safety and efficacy, for the prevention and treatment of AIBL in patients with breast cancer who receive AI treatment.

  19. Sclerostin Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ukita, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Ohata, Noboru; Tamura, Masato

    2016-06-01

    Sclerostin, a secreted protein encoded by the Sost gene, is produced by osteocytes and is inhibited by osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Recently, a functional association between bone and fat tissue has been suggested, and a correlation between circulating sclerostin levels and lipid metabolism has been reported in humans. However, the effects of sclerostin on adipogenesis remain unexplored. In the present study, we examined the role of sclerostin in regulating adipocyte differentiation using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In these cells, sclerostin enhanced adipocyte-specific gene expression and the accumulation of lipid deposits. Sclerostin also upregulated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β expression but not cell proliferation and caspase-3/7 activities. Sclerostin also attenuated canonical Wnt3a-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Recently, the transcriptional modulator TAZ has been involved in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Sclerostin reduced TAZ-responsive transcriptional activity and TAZ-responsive gene expression. Transfection of 3T3-L1 cells with TAZ siRNA increased the lipid deposits and adipogenic gene expression. These results show that sclerostin upregulates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting a possible role for the osteocyte-derived sclerostin as a regulator of fat metabolism and as a reciprocal regulator of bone and adipose tissues metabolism.

  20. Alteration of glycolipids in ras-transfected NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, G.R.; Aaronson, S.A.; Brady, R.O.; Fishman, P.H.

    1987-09-01

    Glycosphingolipid alterations upon viral transformation are well documented. Transformation of mouse 3T3 cells with murine sarcoma viruses results in marked decreases in the levels of gangliosides GM1 and GD1a and an increase in gangliotriaosylceramide. The transforming oncogenes of these viruses have been identified as members of the ras gene family. The authors analyzed NIH 3T3 cells transfected with human H-, K- and N-ras oncogenes for their glycolipid composition and expression of cell surface gangliosides. Using conventional thin-layer chromatographic analysis, they found that the level of GM3 was increased and that of GD1a was slightly decreased or unchanged, and GM1 was present but not in quantifiable levels. Cell surface levels of GM1 were determined by /sup 125/I-labeled cholera toxin binding to intact cells. GD1a was determined by cholera toxin binding to cells treated with sialidase prior to toxin binding. All ras-transfected cells had decreased levels of surface GM1 and GD1 as compared to logarithmically growing normal NIH 3T3 cells. Levels of GM1 and, to a lesser extent, GD1a increased as the latter cells became confluent. Using a monoclonal antibody assay, they found that gangliotriaosylceramide was present in all ras-transfected cells studied but not in logarithmically growing untransfected cells. These results indicated that ras oncogenes derived form human tumors are capable of inducing alterations in glycolipid composition.

  1. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Xuan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wei, Ciao-Han; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway.

  2. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Xuan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wei, Ciao-Han; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway. PMID:26413119

  3. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Liu, Gexiu; Yan, Guoyao; He, Dongmei; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Shengting

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  5. ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF MURINE SARCOMA VIRUS-TRANSFORMED BALB/3T3 NONPRODUCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, John R.; Aaronson, Stuart A.

    1972-01-01

    The isolation of clonal lines of murine sarcoma virus-transformed, non-producer BALB/3T3 cells has provided a model system for determining whether RNA tumor virus-transformed cells possess virus-specific transplantation antigens. MSV nonproducer cells (K-234) were clonally derived from an inbred mouse cell line, BALB/3T3. A parallel virus-producing cell line was obtained by infection of the MSV nonproducer cells with Rauscher leukemia virus. K-234 was much more tumorigenic than K-234(R). Preimmunization of syngeneic mice with either K-234(R) or with UV-inactivated Rauscher leukemia virus induced transplantation resistance to subsequent challenge with K-234(R), but not with K-234. In contrast, mice preimmunized with nonproducer cells were not made resistant to subsequent challenge with the homologous cells. Antisera prepared from mice immunized with K-234(R) were specifically cytotoxic and positive by fluorescent antibody staining for K-234(R) target cells, but not to either BALB/3T3 or K-234. The results show that MSV nonproducer cells lack detectable transplantation antigens and suggest that the transplantation resistance to the producing cells is attributable to maturing virus at the cell surface. PMID:4550769

  6. Enhanced survival of short-range magnetic correlations and frustrated interactions in R3T intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Nikolai; Proshkin, Aleksei; Gubkin, Andrey; Cervellino, A.; Michor, H.; Hilsher, G.; Gerasimov, E.G.; Ehlers, Georg; Frontzek, Matthias D; Podlesnyak, Andrey A

    2012-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization measurements have been used to study peculiarities of the magnetic state in R{sub 3}T compounds (R=Gd, Er, Tb; T=Ni, Co) below and above magnetic ordering temperatures. A pronounced non-Brillouin shape of the magnetization curves observed in the antiferromagnetic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni and Tb{sub 3}Ni above their magnetic ordering temperatures together with earlier reported data about the retention of the magnetic contribution to the total specific heat of Gd{sub 3}T and anomalous behavior of the electrical resistivity above magnetic ordering temperatures are ascribed to the existence of short-range magnetic correlations in the wide temperature range in the paramagnetic state. The persistence of short-range magnetic order up to temperatures greater than 5-6 times the Neel temperature has been revealed by powder neutron diffraction measurements performed for Tb{sub 3}Ni and Tb{sub 3}Co. On the other hand, results from inelastic neutron scattering show that the low temperature magnetic excitations are strongly suppressed in both Tb{sub 3}Co and Er{sub 3}Co. It is suggested that the extended short-range magnetic correlations, which turn out to be an inherent feature of R{sub 3}T type compounds, are due to the layered crystal structure and to the difference between geometrically frustrated intra-layer exchange interactions and inter-layer exchange.

  7. Exogenous MC3T3 preosteoblasts migrate systemically and mitigate the adverse effects of wear particles.

    PubMed

    Fritton, Kate; Ren, Pei-Gen; Gibon, Emmanuel; Rao, Allison J; Ma, Ting; Biswal, Sandip; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Goodman, Stuart B

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how relevant cell types respond to wear particles will reveal new avenues for treating osteolysis following joint replacements. In this study, we investigate the effects of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles on preosteoblast migration and function. We infused UHMWPE particles or saline into the left femur of mice and injected luciferase-expressing preosteoblasts (MC3T3 cells) into each left ventricle. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed systemic administration of MC3T3 cells. BLI throughout the 28-day experiment showed greater MC3T3 migration to the site of particle infusion than to the site of saline infusion, with significant differences on days 0, 4, and 6 (p≤0.055). Immunostaining revealed a greater number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the particle-infused femora, indicating greater bone turnover. The bone mineralization of the particle-infused femora increased significantly when compared to saline-infused femora (an increase of 146.4±27.9 vs. 12.8±8.7 mg/mL, p=0.008). These results show that infused preosteoblasts can migrate to the site of wear particles. Additionally, as the migrated cells were associated with increased bone mineralization in spite of the presence of particles, increasing osteoblast recruitment is a potential strategy for combating bone loss due to increased osteoclast/macrophage number and decreased osteoblast function.

  8. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2013-01-01

    Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10-100  μ g/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPK α siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPAR γ , C/EBP α , and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  9. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  10. Ramie Leaf Extracts Suppresses Adipogenic Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and Pig Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joomin; Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of different concentrations of extracts of hot air-dried ramie leaf (HR) and freeze-dried ramie leaf (FR) in 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes. To analyze the effect on cell proliferation, cells were treated with 25 μg/mL or 100 μg/mL HR or FR extract for 2 days. Cell differentiation was evaluated by measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities and intracellular triglyceride content. Treatment with either HR or FR extracts inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. HR extract treatment inhibited the differentiation of both cell types more effectively than FR treatment. The extent of triglyceride accumulation decreased significantly in both cells following either HR or FR treatment. Furthermore, LPL activity significantly decreased after treatment with HR or FR extract. These results indicated that HR and FR extracts may inhibit proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and pig preadipocytes. Further studies are needed to explore the anti-obesity effect of HR and FR extracts. PMID:26954122

  11. Exogenous MC3T3 Preosteoblasts Migrate Systemically and Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Wear Particles

    PubMed Central

    Fritton, Kate; Ren, Pei-Gen; Gibon, Emmanuel; Rao, Allison J.; Ma, Ting; Biswal, Sandip; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how relevant cell types respond to wear particles will reveal new avenues for treating osteolysis following joint replacements. In this study, we investigate the effects of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles on preosteoblast migration and function. We infused UHMWPE particles or saline into the left femur of mice and injected luciferase-expressing preosteoblasts (MC3T3 cells) into each left ventricle. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) confirmed systemic administration of MC3T3 cells. BLI throughout the 28-day experiment showed greater MC3T3 migration to the site of particle infusion than to the site of saline infusion, with significant differences on days 0, 4, and 6 (p≤0.055). Immunostaining revealed a greater number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the particle-infused femora, indicating greater bone turnover. The bone mineralization of the particle-infused femora increased significantly when compared to saline-infused femora (an increase of 146.4±27.9 vs. 12.8±8.7 mg/mL, p=0.008). These results show that infused preosteoblasts can migrate to the site of wear particles. Additionally, as the migrated cells were associated with increased bone mineralization in spite of the presence of particles, increasing osteoblast recruitment is a potential strategy for combating bone loss due to increased osteoclast/macrophage number and decreased osteoblast function. PMID:22741555

  12. Rb regulates C/EBPbeta-DNA-binding activity during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kathryn A; Harmon, Anne W; Harp, Joyce B; Patel, Yashomati M

    2004-02-01

    Two pathways are initiated upon 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation: the reentry of cells into the cell cycle and the initiation of a cascade of transcriptional events that "prime" the cell for differentiation. The "priming" event involves the synthesis of members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. However, the relationship between these two pathways is unknown. Here we report that in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced to differentiate, cell cycle progression and the initiation of differentiation are linked by a cell cycle-dependent Rb-C/EBPbeta interaction. Cell cycle arrest in G1 by l-mimosine inhibited differentiation-induced C/EBPbeta-DNA-binding activity and Rb phosphorylation. However, cell cycle arrest after the G1/S transition by aphidicolin or nocodazole did not prevent C/EBPbeta-DNA-binding activity or Rb phosphorylation. Furthermore, hypophosphorylated Rb and C/EBPbeta coimmunoprecipitated, whereas phosphorylated Rb and C/EBPbeta did not. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that recombinant hypophosphorylated Rb decreased C/EBPbeta-DNA-binding activity and that Rb overexpression inhibited C/EBPbeta-induced transcriptional activation of a C/EBPalpha-promoter-luciferase reporter gene. We conclude that C/EBPbeta-DNA-binding activity is regulated by its interaction with hypophosphorylated Rb, thereby linking the progression of the cell cycle to the initiation of differentiation during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. PMID:14576085

  13. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test: practical experience and implications for phototoxicity testing--the report of an ECVAM-EFPIA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ceridono, Mara; Tellner, Pär; Bauer, Daniel; Barroso, João; Alépée, Nathalie; Corvi, Raffaella; De Smedt, Ann; Fellows, Mick D; Gibbs, Neil K; Heisler, Eckhard; Jacobs, Abigail; Jirova, Dagmar; Jones, David; Kandárová, Helena; Kasper, Peter; Akunda, Jacqueline Kinyamu; Krul, Cyrille; Learn, Douglas; Liebsch, Manfred; Lynch, Anthony M; Muster, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Nash, J Frank; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Phillips, Gareth; Robles, Catherine; Rogiers, Vera; Van De Water, Femke; Liminga, Ulla Wändel; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Wattrelos, Olivier; Woods, Julie; Zuang, Valérie; Kreysa, Joachim; Wilcox, Phil

    2012-08-01

    Test Guideline (TG 432) with the protocols used in testing laboratories, data from EFPIA and JPMA 'surveys' were presented and possible reasons for the outcomes were discussed. Experts from cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries reported on their experience with the 3T3 NRU-PT and evidence was presented for phototoxic clinical symptoms that could be linked to certain relevant molecules. Brainstorming sessions discussed if the 3T3 NRU-PT needed to be improved and whether alternatives to the 3T3 NRU-PT exist. Finally, the viewpoint from EU and US regulators was presented. In the final session, the conclusions of the meeting were summarized, with action points. It was concluded that the 3T3 NRU-PT identifies phototoxicological hazards with a 100% sensitivity, and thus is accepted as the tier one test that correctly identifies the absence of phototoxic potential. Consequently, positive results in the 3T3 NRU-PT often do not translate into a clinical phototoxicity risk. Possible ways to improve the practical use of this assay include: (i) adaptation of changed UV/vis-absorption criteria as a means to reduce the number of materials tested, (ii) reduction of the highest concentration to be tested, and (iii) consideration of modifying the threshold criteria for the prediction of a positive call in the test. PMID:22687423

  14. The 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test: practical experience and implications for phototoxicity testing--the report of an ECVAM-EFPIA workshop.

    PubMed

    Ceridono, Mara; Tellner, Pär; Bauer, Daniel; Barroso, João; Alépée, Nathalie; Corvi, Raffaella; De Smedt, Ann; Fellows, Mick D; Gibbs, Neil K; Heisler, Eckhard; Jacobs, Abigail; Jirova, Dagmar; Jones, David; Kandárová, Helena; Kasper, Peter; Akunda, Jacqueline Kinyamu; Krul, Cyrille; Learn, Douglas; Liebsch, Manfred; Lynch, Anthony M; Muster, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Nash, J Frank; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Phillips, Gareth; Robles, Catherine; Rogiers, Vera; Van De Water, Femke; Liminga, Ulla Wändel; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Wattrelos, Olivier; Woods, Julie; Zuang, Valérie; Kreysa, Joachim; Wilcox, Phil

    2012-08-01

    Test Guideline (TG 432) with the protocols used in testing laboratories, data from EFPIA and JPMA 'surveys' were presented and possible reasons for the outcomes were discussed. Experts from cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries reported on their experience with the 3T3 NRU-PT and evidence was presented for phototoxic clinical symptoms that could be linked to certain relevant molecules. Brainstorming sessions discussed if the 3T3 NRU-PT needed to be improved and whether alternatives to the 3T3 NRU-PT exist. Finally, the viewpoint from EU and US regulators was presented. In the final session, the conclusions of the meeting were summarized, with action points. It was concluded that the 3T3 NRU-PT identifies phototoxicological hazards with a 100% sensitivity, and thus is accepted as the tier one test that correctly identifies the absence of phototoxic potential. Consequently, positive results in the 3T3 NRU-PT often do not translate into a clinical phototoxicity risk. Possible ways to improve the practical use of this assay include: (i) adaptation of changed UV/vis-absorption criteria as a means to reduce the number of materials tested, (ii) reduction of the highest concentration to be tested, and (iii) consideration of modifying the threshold criteria for the prediction of a positive call in the test.

  15. Image reconstruction for PET/CT scanners: past achievements and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shan; Alessio, Adam M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    PET is a medical imaging modality with proven clinical value for disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The integration of PET and CT on modern scanners provides a synergy of the two imaging modalities. Through different mathematical algorithms, PET data can be reconstructed into the spatial distribution of the injected radiotracer. With dynamic imaging, kinetic parameters of specific biological processes can also be determined. Numerous efforts have been devoted to the development of PET image reconstruction methods over the last four decades, encompassing analytic and iterative reconstruction methods. This article provides an overview of the commonly used methods. Current challenges in PET image reconstruction include more accurate quantitation, TOF imaging, system modeling, motion correction and dynamic reconstruction. Advances in these aspects could enhance the use of PET/CT imaging in patient care and in clinical research studies of pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21339831

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a1-3(T) - Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities. 240.11a1-3(T) Section 240.11a1-3(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-3(T) Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities. A bona fide...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  2. High-Permittivity Thin Dielectric Padding Improves Fresh Blood Imaging of Femoral Arteries at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) method for assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5T, 3T enables higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and/or spatio-temporal resolution in FBI, as demonstrated successfully for the calf station. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of one thigh only due to the radial symmetry in transmit radio-frequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T using high permittivity dielectric padding. Materials and Methods We performed FBI of the thigh station in 13 human subjects at 3T to compare the following 3 settings: no padding, commercially available thick (~ 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (~2 cm) dielectric padding. B1+ mapping was also performed in the common femoral arteries to characterize the radial symmetry in B1+ variation and quantify the improvement in B1+ excitation. We characterized the impact of radial symmetry in B1+ variation on the FBI signal and FBI MRA of the right common femoral artery using quantitative (i.e., contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and qualitative (i.e., conspicuity) analyses. Results The radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates signal in the right common femoral artery, which can be partially improved with commercial padding and improved further with high permittivity padding. Averaging the results over 13 subjects, the B1+, CNR and conspicuity scores in the right common femoral artery were significantly better with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that high-permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T. PMID:25329606

  3. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

  4. The reproducibility of fetal crown rump length measurements obtained with real time ultrasound systems compared with those of a conventional B-scanner.

    PubMed

    Parker, A J; Docker, M F; Davies, P; Newton, J R

    1981-07-01

    Comparison of the reproducibility of fetal crown rump length measurements (CRL) obtained in a resting state by sonar with a phase focused linear array real time scanner, a real time mechanical sector scanner, and a static B-scanner did not show any significant differences between machines. Maternal movement was found to produce a change in fetal intrauterine position and to induce fetal movement. Examination following maternal movement was felt to be more representative of clinical conditions and produced greater variability of CRL measurement, shown by all machines to a differing extent, although the differences between machines were not substantial. There is some evidence that the discernment of fetal movement and the quality of fetal echoes obtained with different machines affects the reproducibility of CRL measurement. Thus variability of CRL measurement with every machine is small in terms of gestational age and justifies the use of real time machines to establish gestational age.

  5. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  6. CT imaging of the internal human ear: Test of a high resolution scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Morigi, M. P.; Gallo, A.; Strolin, S.; Casali, F.; Lamanna, Ernesto; Ariù, Marilù

    2011-08-01

    endoscopy and judged particularly useful for clinical pre-surgery diagnostics. The experimentation proceeds with a faster scanner now under development in our laboratories. We believe this work could be of a certain interest for the medical imaging world.

  7. Implementation and characterization of a 320-slice volumetric CT scanner for simulation in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Coolens, C.; Breen, S.; Purdie, T. G.; Owrangi, A.; Publicover, J.; Bartolac, S.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Effective target definition and broad employment of treatment response assessment with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT in radiation oncology requires increased speed and coverage for use within a single bolus injection. To this end, a novel volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion One, Toshiba, Tochigi Pref., Japan) has been installed at the Princess Margaret Hospital for implementation into routine CT simulation. This technology offers great advantages for anatomical and functional imaging in both scan speed and coverage. The aim of this work is to investigate the system's imaging performance and quality as well as CT quantification accuracy which is important for radiotherapy dose calculations. Methods: The 320-slice CT scanner uses a 160 mm wide-area (2D) solid-state detector design which provides the possibility to acquire a volumetric axial length of 160 mm without moving the CT couch. This is referred to as ''volume'' and can be scanned with a rotation speed of 0.35-3 s. The scanner can also be used as a 64-slice CT scanner and perform conventional (axial) and helical acquisitions with collimation ranges of 1-32 and 16-32 mm, respectively. Commissioning was performed according to AAPM Reports TG 66 and 39 for both helical and volumetric imaging. Defrise and other cone-beam image analysis tests were performed. Results: Overall, the imaging spatial resolution and geometric efficiency (GE) were found to be very good (>10 lp/mm, <1 mm spatial integrity and GE{sub 160mm}=85%) and within the AAPM guidelines as well as IEC recommendations. Although there is evidence of some cone-beam artifacts when scanning the Defrise phantom, image quality was found to be good and sufficient for treatment planning (soft tissue noise <10 HU). Measurements of CT number stability and contrast-to-noise values across the volume indicate clinically acceptable scan accuracy even at the field edge. Conclusions: Initial experience with this exciting new technology confirms its accuracy for

  8. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses.

  9. pSCANNER: patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Agha, Zia; Bell, Douglas S; Dahm, Lisa; Day, Michele E; Doctor, Jason N; Gabriel, Davera; Kahlon, Maninder K; Kim, Katherine K; Hogarth, Michael; Matheny, Michael E; Meeker, Daniella; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the patient-centered Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (pSCANNER), which is part of the recently formed PCORnet, a national network composed of learning healthcare systems and patient-powered research networks funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). It is designed to be a stakeholder-governed federated network that uses a distributed architecture to integrate data from three existing networks covering over 21 million patients in all 50 states: (1) VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), with data from Veteran Health Administration's 151 inpatient and 909 ambulatory care and community-based outpatient clinics; (2) the University of California Research exchange (UC-ReX) network, with data from UC Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego; and (3) SCANNER, a consortium of UCSD, Tennessee VA, and three federally qualified health systems in the Los Angeles area supplemented with claims and health information exchange data, led by the University of Southern California. Initial use cases will focus on three conditions: (1) congestive heart failure; (2) Kawasaki disease; (3) obesity. Stakeholders, such as patients, clinicians, and health service researchers, will be engaged to prioritize research questions to be answered through the network. We will use a privacy-preserving distributed computation model with synchronous and asynchronous modes. The distributed system will be based on a common data model that allows the construction and evaluation of distributed multivariate models for a variety of statistical analyses. PMID:24780722

  10. Quality assurance for ultrasound scanners using a durable tissue-mimicking phantom and radial MTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaar, Marcus; Semturs, Friedrich; Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Hummel, Johann

    2014-03-01

    For the use in routine technical quality assurance (TQA) we developed a tissue-mimicking phantom and an evaluation algorithm. Key properties of US phantom materials are sound velocity and acoustic attenuation. For daily clinical use the material also has to be nontoxic, durable and easy in handling and maintenance. The base material of our phantom is Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a synthetic polymer. By freezing the phantom body during the production process, it changes its sound velocity to closely match the one of the human body. The phantom's base form is a cuboid containing a large anechoic cylindric target. In routine QA it is required to gain comparable and reproducible results from a single image. To determine spatial resolution of phantom images, we calculate a modulation transfer function (MTF). We developed an algorithm, that calculates a radial MTF from a circular structure representing spatial resolution averaged across all directions. For evaluation of the algorithm, we created a set of synthetic images. A comparison of the results from a traditional slanted edge algorithm and our solution showed a close correlation. The US phantom was imaged with a commercial US-scanner at different sound frequencies. The computed MTFs of higher frequency images show higher transfer percentages in all spatial frequencies than the MTFs of lower frequency images. The results suggest that the proposed method produces clear statements about the spatial resolution of evaluated imaging devices. We therefore consider the method as suitable for application in technical quality assurance of diagnostic ultrasound scanners.

  11. Grey and White Matter Magnetisation Transfer Ratio Measurements in the Lumbosacral Enlargement: A Pilot In Vivo Study at 3T.

    PubMed

    Ugorji, Chinyere O; Samson, Rebecca S; Liechti, Martina D; Panicker, Jalesh N; Miller, David H; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Yiannakas, Marios C

    2015-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging of the central nervous system has provided further insight into the pathophysiology of neurological disease. However, the use of this method to study the lower spinal cord has been technically challenging, despite the important role of this region, not only for motor control of the lower limbs, but also for the neural control of lower urinary tract, sexual and bowel functions. In this study, the feasibility of obtaining reliable grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) measurements within the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE) was investigated in ten healthy volunteers using a clinical 3T MRI system. The mean cross-sectional area of the LSE (LSE-CSA) and the mean GM area (LSE-GM-CSA) were first obtained by means of image segmentation and tissue-specific (i.e. WM and GM) MTR measurements within the LSE were subsequently obtained. The reproducibility of the segmentation method and MTR measurements was assessed from repeated measurements and their % coefficient of variation (%COV). Mean (± SD) LSE-CSA across 10 healthy subjects was 59.3 (± 8.4) mm2 and LSE-GM-CSA was 17.0 (± 3.1) mm2. The mean intra- and inter-rater % COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 0.8% and 2.3%, respectively and for the LSE-GM-CSA were 3.8% and 5.4%, respectively. Mean (± SD) WM-MTR was 43.2 (± 4.4) and GM-MTR was 40.9 (± 4.3). The mean scan-rescan % COV for measuring WM-MTR was 4.6% and for GM-MTR was 3.8%. Using a paired t-test, a statistically significant difference was identified between WM-MTR and GM-MTR in the LSE (p<0.0001). This pilot study has shown that it is possible to obtain reliable tissue-specific MTR measurements within the LSE using a clinical MR system at 3T. The MTR acquisition and analysis protocol presented in this study can be used in future investigations of intrinsic spinal cord diseases that affect the LSE.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging using an 8-beam Fabry-Perot scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Nam; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward; Cox, Ben; Beard, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The planar Fabry Perot (FP) photoacoustic scanner has been shown to provide exquisite high resolution 3D images of soft tissue structures in vivo to depths up to approximately 10mm. However a significant limitation of current embodiments of the concept is low image acquisition speed. To increase acquisition speed, a novel multi-beam scanner architecture has been developed. This enables a line of equally spaced 8 interrogation beams to be scanned simultaneously across the FP sensor and the photoacoustic signals detected in parallel. In addition, an excitation laser operating at 200Hz was used. The combination of parallelising the detection and the high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the excitation laser has enabled dramatic reductions in image acquisition time to be achieved. A 3D image can now be acquired in 10 seconds and 2D images at video rates are now possible.

  13. The airborne infrared scanner as a geophysical research tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jules D.

    1970-01-01

    The infrared scanner is proving to be an effective anomaly-mapping tool, albeit one which depicts surface emission directly and heat mass transfer from depths only indirectly and at a threshold level 50 to 100 times the normal conductive heat flow of the earth. Moreover, successive terrain observations are affected by time-dependent variables such as the diurnal and seasonal warming and cooling cycle of a point on the earth's surface. In planning precise air borne surveys of radiant flux from the earth's surface, account must be taken of background noise created by variations in micrometeorological factors and emissivity of surface materials, as well as the diurnal temperature cycle. The effect of the diurnal cycle may be minimized by planning predawn aerial surveys. In fact, the diurnal change is very small for most water bodies and the emissivity factor for water (e) =~ 1 so a minimum background noise is characteristic of scanner records of calm water surfaces.

  14. THE LASER EMITTANCE SCANNER FOR 1 GEV H- BEAM

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Dong-O; Pogge, James R; Menshov, Alexander A; Nesterenko, Igor N; Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Webster, Anthony W; Grice, Warren P

    2009-01-01

    A transverse phase space laser emittance scanner is proposed [1] and under development for the 1-GeV H- SNS linac, using a laser beam as a slit. For a 1-GeV H- beam, it is difficult to build a slit because the stopping distance is more than 50 cm in copper. We propose a Laser Emittance Scanner (LES) to use a laser beam as an effective slit by stripping off the outer electron of the H- (making it neutral) upstream of a bend magnet and measuring the stripped component downstream of the bend magnet. The design and modeling of the system will be discussed. We are expecting to make a preliminary measurement in 2009.

  15. Acoustic noise reduction in a 4 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Mechefske, Chris K; Geris, Ryan; Gati, Joseph S; Rutt, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    High-field, high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate high levels of noise. There is ongoing concern in the medical and imaging research communities regarding the detrimental effects of high acoustic levels on auditory function, patient anxiety, verbal communication between patients and health care workers and ultimately MR image quality. In order to effectively suppress the noise levels inside MRI scanners, the sound field needs to be accurately measured and characterized. This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound radiation from a gradient coil cylinder within a 4 T MRI scanner under a variety of conditions. These measurement results show: (1) that noise levels can be significantly reduced through the use of an appropriately designed passive acoustic liner; and (2) the true noise levels that are experienced by patients during echo planar imaging.

  16. Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2004-12-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

  17. Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R.F.

    2005-04-06

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates.

  18. Boresight Calibration of Mobile Laser Scanner Using an External Fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhenxiang; Ravani, Bahram

    2016-09-01

    The boresight misalignment of a mobile laser scanning system is a major source of error for point cloud data and cannot be measured directly. This paper presents a new boresight calibration method for a mobile laser scanner system that uses an external fixture with a simple checkerboard pattern. The boresight angles are determined by minimizing the differences between the measured relative distances of the intersection points of the squares in a checkerboard fixture with the corresponding actual distances in the fixture. Experimental results from scanning the checkerboard pattern on the fixture show that the calibrated values of the boresight angles match the manufacturer's values within 0.22 cm. Using this simple checkerboard fixture in the field prevents surveyors from having to rely on roadway features or setting control targets and provides for an alternative approach for the boresight calibration of a mobile laser scanner system.

  19. Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

  20. Modification of a medical PET scanner for PEPT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrmomtaz, Alireza; Parker, D. J.; Byars, L. G.

    2007-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has developed as the most powerful functional imaging modality in medicine. Over the same period the University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has applied PET to study engineering processes and developed the alternative technique of positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) in which a single radioactively labelled tracer particle is tracked by detecting simultaneously the pairs of back-to-back photons arising from positron/electron annihilation. Originally PEPT was performed using a pair of multiwire detectors, and more recently using a pair of digital gamma camera heads. In 2002 the Positron Imaging Centre acquired a medical PET scanner, an ECAT 931/08, previously used at Hammersmith Hospital. This scanner has been rebuilt in a flexible geometry for use in PEPT studies. This paper presents initial results from this system. Fast moving tracer particles can be rapidly and accurately located.

  1. Acoustic noise reduction in a 4 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Mechefske, Chris K; Geris, Ryan; Gati, Joseph S; Rutt, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    High-field, high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate high levels of noise. There is ongoing concern in the medical and imaging research communities regarding the detrimental effects of high acoustic levels on auditory function, patient anxiety, verbal communication between patients and health care workers and ultimately MR image quality. In order to effectively suppress the noise levels inside MRI scanners, the sound field needs to be accurately measured and characterized. This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound radiation from a gradient coil cylinder within a 4 T MRI scanner under a variety of conditions. These measurement results show: (1) that noise levels can be significantly reduced through the use of an appropriately designed passive acoustic liner; and (2) the true noise levels that are experienced by patients during echo planar imaging. PMID:11755093

  2. Robust object segmentation using a multi-layer laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations.

  3. Tea catechins modulate the glucose transport system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Manabu; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Yamada, Kayo; Aoki, Yukiko; Sakane, Iwao; Fukuda, Itsuko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of tea catechins on the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the ethyl acetate fraction of green tea extract, containing abundant catechins, most decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. When the cells were treated with 50 μM catechins in the absence or presence of insulin for 30 min, nongallate-type catechins increased glucose uptake activity without insulin, whereas gallate-type catechins decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity. (-)-Epicatechin (EC) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), nongallate-type catechins, increased glucose uptake activity in the dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas (-)-catechin 3-gallate (Cg) and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCg), gallate-type catechins, decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity in the dose- and time-dependent manner. When the cells were treated with 50 μM catechins for 30 min, EC and EGC promoted GLUT4 translocation, whereas Cg and EGCg decreased the insulin-induced translocation in the cells. EC and EGC increased phosphorylation of PKCλ/ζ without phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and Akt. Wortmannin and LY294002, inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), decreased EC- and EGC-induced glucose uptake activity in the cells. Cg and EGCg decreased phosphorylation of PKCλ/ζ in the presence of insulin without affecting insulin-induced phosphorylation of IR, and Akt. Therefore, EC and EGC promote the translocation of GLUT4 through activation of PI3K, and Cg and EGCg inhibit insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 by the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells.

  4. Evaluation of chylomicron effect on ASP production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Gauvreau, Danny; Cui, Wei; Lapointe, Marc; Paglialunga, Sabina; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-02-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the production and physiological role of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), identical to C3adesArg, a product of the alternative complement pathway generated through C3 cleavage. Recent studies in C3 (-/-) mice that are ASP deficient have demonstrated a role for ASP in postprandial triglyceride clearance and fat storage. The aim of the present study was to establish a cell model and sensitive ELISA assay for the evaluation of ASP production using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, then cultured in different media such as serum-free (SF), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 + 10% fetal calf serum (FBS), and at varying concentrations of chylomicrons and insulin + chylomicrons up to 48 h. ASP production in SF and DMEM/F12 + 10% FBS was compared. Chylomicrons stimulated ASP production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, chylomicron treatment had no effect on the production of C3, the precursor protein of ASP, which was constant over 48 h. Addition of insulin (100 nM) to a low-dose of chylomicrons (100 µg TG/ml) significantly increased ASP production compared with chylomicrons alone at 48 h (P < 0.001). Furthermore, addition of insulin significantly increased C3 secretion at both 18 and 48 h of incubation (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Overall, the proportion of ASP to C3 remained constant, indicating no change in the ratio of C3 cleaved to generate ASP. This study demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocyte is a useful model for the evaluation of C3 secretion and ASP production by using a sensitive mouse-specific ELISA assay. The stimulation of ASP production with chylomicrons demonstrates a physiologically relevant response, and provides a strategy for further studies on ASP production and function.

  5. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Nebivolol may act as a partial agonist of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR). •Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial DNA replication and protein expression. •Nebivolol promotes mitochondrial synthesis via activation of eNOS by β3-AR. -- Abstract: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol’s role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24 h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and β3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1α, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of β3-AR receptors.

  6. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Croissandeau, Gilles; Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu

    2002-01-01

    When mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced to differentiate into adipocytes, they change from an extended fibroblast-like morphology to a rounded one. This change most likely occurs through extracellular matrix remodelling, a process known to be mediated in part by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we have shown by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, zymographic and immunoblot analysis that MMP-2, MMP-9 and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP are regulated during adipose conversion. To assess the importance of MMPs for adipocytic differentiation we have used MMP-specific inhibitors as well as neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the broad MMP inhibitor Ilomastat or the more restricted MMP-2 Inhibitor I prevented their differentiation into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by absence of triglyceride accumulation. Inhibitor treatment prevented the fibronectin-network degradation, as well as the induction of the genes for peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipsin, two adipocyte phenotype markers. Inhibitor treatment was effective when applied during the early stages of adipocytic conversion, whereas inhibitor treatment during later stages had little effect. Inhibitor treatment did not inhibit clonal mitotic expansion; nor did it affect the expression pattern of the adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) or its nuclear translocation. It did, however, markedly reduce C/EBPbeta DNA-binding capacity. Taken together, these results suggest that MMPs, and notably MMP-2 and MMP-9, may be necessary mediators of adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:12049638

  7. 3T diffusion-weighted MRI of the thyroid gland with reduced distortion: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Nagala, S; Priest, A N; McLean, M A; Jani, P; Graves, M J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single-shot diffusion-weighted (DW) echo planar imaging (EPI), which is commonly used for imaging the thyroid, is characterised by severe blurring and distortion. The objectives of this work were: 1, to show that a reduced-field of view (r-FOV) DW EPI technique can improve image quality; and 2, to investigate the effect of different reconstruction strategies on the resulting apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Methods: We implemented a single-shot, r-FOV DW EPI technique with a two-dimensional radiofrequency excitation pulse for DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T. Images were reconstructed using root sum of squares (SOS) and an optimal-B1 reconstruction (OBR). Phantom and in vivo experiments were performed to compare r-FOV and conventional full-FOV DW EPI with root SOS and OBR. Results: r-FOV with OBR substantially improved image quality at 3T. In phantoms, r-FOV gave more accurate ADCs than full-FOV. In vivo r-FOV always gave lower ADC values with respect to the full-FOV technique irrespective of the reconstruction used and whether only two or multiple b-values were used to compute the ADCs. Conclusion: r-FOV DW EPI can reduce image blurring and distortion at the expense of a low signal-to-noise ratio. OBR is a promising reconstruction technique for accurate ADC measurements in lower signal-to-noise ratio regimes, although further studies are needed to characterise its performance. Advances in knowledge: DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T could potentially benefit from r-FOV acquisition strategies, such as the r-FOV DW EPI technique proposed in this paper. PMID:23770539

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  9. Occurrence and control of sporadic proliferation in growth arrested Swiss 3T3 feeder cells.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Rishi Man; Chaturvedi, Madhusudan; Yerneni, Lakshmana Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrested Swiss mouse embryonic 3T3 cells are used as feeders to support the growth of epidermal keratinocytes and several other target cells. The 3T3 cells have been extensively subcultured owing to their popularity and wide distribution in the world and, as a consequence selective inclusion of variants is a strong possibility in them. Inadvertently selected variants expressing innate resistance to mitomycin C may continue to proliferate even after treatment with such growth arresting agents. The failure of growth arrest can lead to a serious risk of proliferative feeder contamination in target cell cultures. In this study, we passaged Swiss 3T3 cells (CCL-92, ATCC) by different seeding densities and incubation periods. We tested the resultant cultures for differences in anchorage-independent growth, resumption of proliferation after mitomycin C treatment and occurrence of proliferative feeder contaminants in an epidermal keratinocyte co-culture system. The study revealed subculture dependent differential responses. The cultures of a particular subculture procedure displayed unique cell size distribution and disintegrated completely in 6 weeks following mitomycin C treatment, but their repeated subculture resulted in feeder regrowth as late as 11 weeks after the growth arrest. In contrast, mitomycin C failed to inhibit cell proliferation in cultures of the other subculture schemes and also in a clone that was established from a transformation focus of super-confluent culture. The resultant proliferative feeder cells contaminated the keratinocyte cultures. The anchorage-independent growth appeared in late passages as compared with the expression of mitomycin C resistance in earlier passages. The feeder regrowth was prevented by identifying a safe subculture protocol that discouraged the inclusion of resistant variants. We advocate routine anchorage-independent growth assay and absolute confirmation of feeder disintegration to qualify feeder batches and

  10. ADP of multispectral scanner data for land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various remote sensing instrumentation and analysis techniques are reviewed. The use of multispectral scanner data and the automatic data processing techniques are considered. A computer-aided analysis system for remote sensor data is described with emphasis on the image display, statistics processor, wavelength band selection, classification processor, and results display. Advanced techniques in using spectral and temporal data are also considered.

  11. SNS LINAC Wire Scanner System : Signal Levels and Accuracy.

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M. A.; Christensen, W.; Myer, R. E.; Rose, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    The linac wire scanner system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, TN, USA, calls for 5 units in the medium energy beam transport (MEBT), 5 in the drift tube linac (DTL), and 10 in the coupled cavity linac (CCL). In this paper we present expected signal levels and an analysis of the error in the beam size measurement as functions of wire position and electrical signal errors.

  12. 11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of south side of radar scanner building no. 104 showing personnel exit door at side building, showing DR 1 antenna from oblique angle on foundation berm with DR 2 and DR 3 antennae in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. 90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of scanner building no. 104 showing emplacement process for one-half of upper radar switch housing body. RCA Services Company 6 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. a-1163. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. Metrological verification of 3D scanners: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchini, R.; Di Leo, G.; Liguori, C.; Paolillo, A.; Pietrosanto, A.; Strazzullo, G.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the metrological characterization of 3D scanners, and proposes a procedure for their experimental verification in accord with the suggestions of the ISO GUM. The procedure is based on the application of a statistical method for the evaluation of the standard uncertainty to the results of a comparison with a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Finally the results of the experimental verification of a fringe pattern system are reported and discussed in detail.

  15. Dynamic 3D computed tomography scanner for vascular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mark K.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2000-04-01

    A 3D dynamic computed-tomography (CT) scanner was developed for imaging objects undergoing periodic motion. The scanner system has high spatial and sufficient temporal resolution to produce quantitative tomographic/volume images of objects such as excised arterial samples perfused under physiological pressure conditions and enables the measurements of the local dynamic elastic modulus (Edyn) of the arteries in the axial and longitudinal directions. The system was comprised of a high resolution modified x-ray image intensifier (XRII) based computed tomographic system and a computer-controlled cardiac flow simulator. A standard NTSC CCD camera with a macro lens was coupled to the electro-optically zoomed XRII to acquire dynamic volumetric images. Through prospective cardiac gating and computer synchronized control, a time-resolved sequence of 20 mm thick high resolution volume images of porcine aortic specimens during one simulated cardiac cycle were obtained. Performance evaluation of the scanners illustrated that tomographic images can be obtained with resolution as high as 3.2 mm-1 with only a 9% decrease in the resolution for objects moving at velocities of 1 cm/s in 2D mode and static spatial resolution of 3.55 mm-1 with only a 14% decrease in the resolution in 3D mode for objects moving at a velocity of 10 cm/s. Application of the system for imaging of intact excised arterial specimens under simulated physiological flow/pressure conditions enabled measurements of the Edyn of the arteries with a precision of +/- kPa for the 3D scanner. Evaluation of the Edyn in the axial and longitudinal direction produced values of 428 +/- 35 kPa and 728 +/- 71 kPa, demonstrating the isotropic and homogeneous viscoelastic nature of the vascular specimens. These values obtained from the Dynamic CT systems were not statistically different (p less than 0.05) from the values obtained by standard uniaxial tensile testing and volumetric measurements.

  16. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  17. Twist-3 T-odd fragmentation functions G⊥ and G˜⊥ in a spectator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Lu, Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    We present a calculation of the twist-3 T-odd chiral-even fragmentation functions G⊥ and G˜⊥ using a spectator model. We consider the effect gluon exchange to calculate all necessary one-loop diagrams for the quark-quark and quark-gluon-quark correlation functions. We find that the gluon loops corrections generate non-zero contribution to these two fragmentation function. We numerically calculate their half-kT moments by integrating over the transverse momentum and also verify the equation of motion relation among G⊥, G˜⊥ and the Collins function.

  18. Multi-tensor tractography of the motor pathway at 3T: a volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Akter, Masuma; Hirai, Toshinori; Sasao, Akira; Nishimura, Shinichiro; Uetani, Hiroyuki; Iwashita, Koya; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Conventional single-tensor tractography cannot depict the entire motor tract of the corticospinal tract because of fiber-crossing and other factors. Using a 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) unit, we compared single- and multi-tensor methods for the tract ratio of the 5 major components of the motor pathway, the lower extremity, trunk, hand, face, and tongue, in 5 healthy volunteers. Multi-tensor tractography is better than single-tensor tractography at 3T in depicting more fibers of non-trunk areas from the primary motor cortex.

  19. Changes in laser-induced fluorescence responses of 3T3 fibroblasts to repetitive thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, J.; Dressler, C.; Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2009-04-01

    The combined experimental use of laser-induced autofluorescence of cellular metabolites and methodological fundamentals of systems biology will provide access to biological thermal stress analysis on a sub cellular level. A test setup incorporating a pulsed nitrogen laser was realized with which autofluorescence of the coenzyme NADH could be measured in living 3T3 cells. The cells were subjected to different temperature stress at repetitive time intervals. When subjected to a simple mathematical analysis, the NADH concentration change measured through autofluorescence in biological cells exhibited approximate concentration-equivalent balance curves. These results add up to the fundamental know-how about the dosimetry of thermally therapeutic methods.

  20. Development of a 3D CT scanner using cone beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masahiro; Kamagata, Nozomu; Sato, Kazumasa; Hattori, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Mizuno, Shinichi; Jimbo, Masao; Kusakabe, Masahiro

    1995-05-01

    In order to acquire 3D data of high contrast objects such as bone, lung and vessels enhanced by contrast media for use in 3D image processing, we have developed a 3D CT-scanner using cone beam x ray. The 3D CT-scanner consists of a gantry and a patient couch. The gantry consists of an x-ray tube designed for cone beam CT and a large area two-dimensional detector mounted on a single frame and rotated around an object in 12 seconds. The large area detector consists of a fluorescent plate and a charge coupled device video camera. The size of detection area was 600 mm X 450 mm capable of covering the total chest. While an x-ray tube was rotated around an object, pulsed x ray was exposed 30 times a second and 360 projected images were collected in a 12 second scan. A 256 X 256 X 256 matrix image (1.25 mm X 1.25 mm X 1.25 mm voxel) was reconstructed by a high-speed reconstruction engine. Reconstruction time was approximately 6 minutes. Cylindrical water phantoms, anesthetized rabbits with or without contrast media, and a Japanese macaque were scanned with the 3D CT-scanner. The results seem promising because they show high spatial resolution in three directions, though there existed several point to be improved. Possible improvements are discussed.