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Sample records for 3t mri scanner

  1. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Andrew; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Pavlicek, William; Thunberg, Christopher A; Seamans, David

    2015-01-01

    Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment.

  2. Ag/AgCl electrodes in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Cengiz; Kepceoğlu, Abdullah

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the comparison of two different types of EEG electrodes (the first B10-S-150 Ag/AgCl sintered ring electrode with 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket and 150 cm heavy-duty lead wire and the second, B12-LS-100 Ag/AgCl sintered FE-electrode with 100 cm light-duty lead wire and 1, 5 mm touch proof safety socket with 5 kΩ resistor near sensor) used in the EEG/fMRI method in 3T MRI scanner. We compared these electrodes by their specific absorption rate (SAR) simulation values and the temperature change calculated by PRF method. The experimental setup of the study is described as follows: a phantom is prepared and the electrodes are placed on it. Then, a simulation for SAR values is realized. The temperature change is calculated by MR thermometer. As a result of this study, Ag/AgCl pin electrode is better to be use in EEG/fMRI; because the measured temperature change is expected to be low.

  3. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:26398500

  4. Superparamagnetic MRI probes for in vivo tracking of dendritic cell migration with a clinical 3 T scanner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Wu, Changqiang; Zhu, Wencheng; Xia, Chunchao; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Houbin; Wu, Jun; Lin, Gan; Wu, Bing; Gong, Qiyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines have shown promising results in the immunotherapy of cancers and other diseases. How to track the in vivo fate of DC vaccines will provide important insights to the final therapeutic results. In this study, we chose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track murine DCs migration to the draining lymph node under a clinical 3 T scanner. Different from labeling immature DCs usually reported in literature, this study instead labeled matured DC with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle based imaging probes. The labeling process did not show negative impacts on cell viability, morphology, and surface biomarker expression. To overcome the imaging challenges brought by the limitations of the scanner, the size of lymph node, and the number of labeled cell, we optimized MRI pulse sequences. As a result, the signal reduction, caused either by gelatin phantoms containing as low as 12 SPIO-laden cells in each voxel or by the homing SPIO-laden DCs within the draining nodes after footpad injection of only 1 × 10(5) cells, can be clearly depicted under a 3 T MR scanner. Overall, the MRI labeling probes offer a low-toxic and high-efficient MR imaging platform for the assessment of DC-based immunotherapies.

  5. Computational dosimetry of induced electric fields during realistic movements in the vicinity of a 3 T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Kännälä, Sami; Jokela, Kari

    2013-04-01

    Medical staff working near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed both to the static magnetic field itself and also to electric currents that are induced in the body when the body moves in the magnetic field. However, there are currently limited data available on the induced electric field for realistic movements. This study computationally investigates the movement induced electric fields for realistic movements in the magnetic field of a 3 T MRI scanner. The path of movement near the MRI scanner is based on magnetic field measurements using a coil sensor attached to a human volunteer. Utilizing realistic models for both the motion of the head and the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, the induced fields are computationally determined using the finite-element method for five high-resolution numerical anatomical models. The results show that the time-derivative of the magnetic flux density (dB/dt) is approximately linearly proportional to the induced electric field in the head, independent of the position of the head with respect to the magnet. This supports the use of dB/dt measurements for occupational exposure assessment. For the path of movement considered herein, the spatial maximum of the induced electric field is close to the basic restriction for the peripheral nervous system and exceeds the basic restriction for the central nervous system in the international guidelines. The 99th percentile electric field is a considerably less restrictive metric for the exposure than the spatial maximum electric field; the former is typically 60-70% lower than the latter. However, the 99th percentile electric field may exceed the basic restriction for dB/dt values that can be encountered during tasks commonly performed by MRI workers. It is also shown that the movement-induced eddy currents may reach magnitudes that could electrically stimulate the vestibular system, which could play a significant role in the generation of vertigo-like sensations reported

  6. Computational dosimetry of induced electric fields during realistic movements in the vicinity of a 3 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Kännälä, Sami; Jokela, Kari

    2013-04-21

    Medical staff working near magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed both to the static magnetic field itself and also to electric currents that are induced in the body when the body moves in the magnetic field. However, there are currently limited data available on the induced electric field for realistic movements. This study computationally investigates the movement induced electric fields for realistic movements in the magnetic field of a 3 T MRI scanner. The path of movement near the MRI scanner is based on magnetic field measurements using a coil sensor attached to a human volunteer. Utilizing realistic models for both the motion of the head and the magnetic field of the MRI scanner, the induced fields are computationally determined using the finite-element method for five high-resolution numerical anatomical models. The results show that the time-derivative of the magnetic flux density (dB/dt) is approximately linearly proportional to the induced electric field in the head, independent of the position of the head with respect to the magnet. This supports the use of dB/dt measurements for occupational exposure assessment. For the path of movement considered herein, the spatial maximum of the induced electric field is close to the basic restriction for the peripheral nervous system and exceeds the basic restriction for the central nervous system in the international guidelines. The 99th percentile electric field is a considerably less restrictive metric for the exposure than the spatial maximum electric field; the former is typically 60-70% lower than the latter. However, the 99th percentile electric field may exceed the basic restriction for dB/dt values that can be encountered during tasks commonly performed by MRI workers. It is also shown that the movement-induced eddy currents may reach magnitudes that could electrically stimulate the vestibular system, which could play a significant role in the generation of vertigo-like sensations reported

  7. A fast multiparameter MRI approach for acute stroke assessment on a 3T clinical scanner: preliminary results in a non-human primate model with transient ischemic occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank; Li, Chun-Xia; Yan, Yumei; Nair, Govind; Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yoji; Zola, Stuart; Howell, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Many MRI parameters have been explored and demonstrated the capability or potential to evaluate acute stroke injury, providing anatomical, microstructural, functional, or neurochemical information for diagnostic purposes and therapeutic development. However, the application of multiparameter MRI approach is hindered in clinic due to the very limited time window after stroke insult. Parallel imaging technique can accelerate MRI data acquisition dramatically and has been incorporated in modern clinical scanners and increasingly applied for various diagnostic purposes. In the present study, a fast multiparameter MRI approach including structural T1-weighted imaging (T1W), T2-weighted imaging (T2W), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), T2-mapping, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, was implemented and optimized for assessing acute stroke injury on a 3T clinical scanner. A macaque model of transient ischemic stroke induced by a minimal interventional approach was utilized for evaluating the multiparameter MRI approach. The preliminary results indicate the surgical procedure successfully induced ischemic occlusion in the cortex and/or subcortex in adult macaque monkeys (n=4). Application of parallel imaging technique substantially reduced the scanning duration of most MRI data acquisitions, allowing for fast and repeated evaluation of acute stroke injury. Hence, the use of the multiparameter MRI approach with up to five quantitative measures can provide significant advantages in preclinical or clinical studies of stroke disease. PMID:24834423

  8. MR Spectroscopic Imaging of Peripheral Zone in Prostate Cancer Using a 3T MRI Scanner: Endorectal versus External Phased Array Coils.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Margolis, Daniel Ja; Raman, Steven S; Ouellette, David; Sarma, Manoj K; Reiter, Robert E; Thomas, M Albert

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) detects alterations in major prostate metabolites, such as citrate (Cit), creatine (Cr), and choline (Ch). We evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of three-dimensional MRSI of prostate using an endorectal compared to an external phased array "receive" coil on a 3T MRI scanner. Eighteen patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent endorectal MR imaging and proton (1H) MRSI were included in this study. Immediately after the endorectal MRSI scan, the PCa patients were scanned with the external phased array coil. The endorectal coil-detected metabolite ratio [(Ch+Cr)/Cit] was significantly higher in cancer locations (1.667 ± 0.663) compared to non-cancer locations (0.978 ± 0.420) (P < 0.001). Similarly, for the external phased array, the ratio was significantly higher in cancer locations (1.070 ± 0.525) compared to non-cancer locations (0.521 ± 0.310) (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and accuracy of cancer detection were 81% and 78% using the endorectal 'receive' coil, and 69% and 75%, respectively using the external phased array 'receive' coil.

  9. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Di; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average

  10. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Edelstein, William A.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B{sub 1}) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on

  11. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  12. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  13. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  14. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-09-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior-inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet.

  15. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    and robot control. The functions of the device will be tested in phantom studies at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital.  Demonstrated integrated...system in 3T MRI at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. See Reference [3].  Demonstrated needle placement in phantoms under real-time MR image guidance...workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the

  16. Philips 3T Intera Magnetic Resonance Imaging System and Upgrade of existing MRI equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Evanochko, William T

    2004-05-14

    The objective of this proposal was twofold. First, upgrade existing MRI equipment, specifically a research 4.1T whole-body system. Second, purchase a clinical, state-of-the-art 3T MRI system tailored specifically to cardiovascular and neurological applications. This project was within the guidelines of ''Medical Applications and Measurement Science''. The goals were: [1] to develop beneficial applications of magnetic resonance imaging; [2] discover new applications of MR strategies for medical research; and [2] apply them for clinical diagnosis. Much of this proposal searched for breakthroughs in this noninvasive and nondestructive imaging technology. Finally, this proposal's activities focused on research in the basic science of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and engineering as applied to bioengineering. The centerpiece of this grant was our 4.1T ultra-high field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance system and the newly acquired state-of-the-art, heart and head dedicated 3T clinical MRI system. We have successfully upgraded the equipment for the 4.1T system so that it is now state-of-the-art with new gradient and radio frequency amplifiers. We also purchase a unique In Vivo EKG monitoring unit that will permit tracking clinical quality EKG signals while the patient is in a high field MR scanner. Important upgrades of a peripheral vascular coil and a state-of-the-art clinical workstation for processing complex heart images were implemented. The most recent acquisition was the purchase of a state-of-the-art Philips 3T Intera clinical MRI system. This system is unique in that the magnet is only 5 1/2 feet long compare to over 12 feet long magnet of our 4.1T MRI system. The 3T MRI system is fully functional and its use and applications are already greatly benefiting the UAB with 200-300 micron resolution brain images and diagnostic quality MR angiography of coronary arteries in less than 5 minutes.

  17. In-bore setup and Software for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with Z-frame that give a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allow performance of MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning, and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP, and superior-inferior axes were 0.8 ± 1.0 degrees, 1.7 ± 1.6 degrees, and 0.0 ± 0.0 degrees respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle placement error was 3.0 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop set up and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. PMID:22951350

  18. Quest for an open MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Bertora, Franco; Borceto, Alice; Viale, Andrea; Sandini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A study of the motor cortex during the programming, execution and mental representation of voluntary movement is of great relevance; its evaluation in conditions close to reality is necessary, given the close integration of the visuomotor, sensory feedback and proprioceptive systems, as of yet, a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner allowing a human subject to maintain erect stance, observe the surroundings and conserve limb freedom is still a dream. The need for high field suggests a solenoid magnet geometry that forces an unnatural posture that affects the results, particularly when the motor cortex is investigated. In contrast in a motor functional study, the scanner should allow the subject to sit or stand, with unobstructed sight and unimpeded movement. Two approaches are presented here to solve this problem. In the first approach, an increased field intensity in an open magnet is obtained lining the "back wall" of the cavity with a sheet of current: this boosts the field intensity at the cost of the introduction of a gradient, which has to be canceled by the introduction of an opposite gradient; The second approach is an adaptation of the "double doughnut" architecture, in which the cavity widens at the center to provide additional room for the subject. The detailed design of this kind of structure has proven the feasibility of the solution.

  19. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Kännälä, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Alanko, Tommi; Jokela, Kari

    2009-04-07

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s(-1) for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s(-1) for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s(-1)) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  20. Continuous Rapid Quantification of Stroke Volume using Magnetohydrodynamic Voltages in 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Oshinski, John; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Stevenson, William G.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background To develop a technique to non-invasively estimate Stroke Volume (SV) in real-time during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided procedures, based on induced Magnetohydrodynamic Voltages (VMHD) that occur in Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during MRI exams, leaving the MRI scanner free to perform other imaging tasks. Due to the relationship between blood-flow (BF) and VMHD, we hypothesized that a method to obtain SV could be derived from extracted VMHD vectors in the Vectorcardiogram frame-of-reference (VMHDVCG). Methods and Results To estimate a subject-specific BF-VMHD model, VMHDVCG was acquired during a 20-second breath-hold and calibrated versus aortic BF measured using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (PCMR) in 10 subjects (n=10) and one subject diagnosed with Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs). Beat-to-Beat validation of VMHDVCG derived BF was performed using Real-Time Phase Contrast (RTPC) imaging in 7 healthy subjects (n=7) during a 15 minute cardiac exercise stress tests and 30 minutes after stress relaxation in 3T MRIs. Subject-specific equations were derived to correlate VMHDVCG to BF at rest, and validated using RTPC. An average error of 7.22% and 3.69% in SV estimation, respectively, was found during peak stress, and after complete relaxation. Measured beat-to-beat blood flow time-history derived from RTPC and VMHD were highly correlated using a Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient during stress tests (0.89) and after stress relaxation (=0.86). Conclusions Accurate beat-to-beat SV and BF were estimated using VMHDVCG extracted from intra-MRI 12-lead ECGs, providing a means to enhance patient monitoring during MR imaging and MR-guided interventions. PMID:26628581

  1. Image quality and signal distribution in 1.5-T and 3-T MRI in mild traumatic brain injury patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maija E.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Ylinen, Aarne; Öhman, Juha; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Clear standards are lacking in the imaging modalities of the deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality by signal distribution between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI in turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) images in normal hospital settings and to find preferences for which field to use in MTBI patients. We studied 40 MTBI patients with TSE and GRE; 20 patients were imaged at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T. The imaging parameters were optimized separately for the two scanners. Histograms of the signal distribution in 22 ROIs were fitted to a 1-peak Gaussian model and the resulting peak positions were scaled in respect to the peak positions of genu of the corpus callosum and the caudate nuclei. Correlation of the contrast of the ROIs in reference to genu of the corpus callosum between both the two scanners and the two imaging sequences was good. Image contrast was similar at both in the TSE images; in the GRE images contrast improved from 1.5 T to 3 T. However, based on peak positions and widths, a slight drawback in the separability between the ROIs was observed when 1.5 T MRI was replaced by 3 T. No clear improvement in tissue contrast or separability of 3 T was found compared to 1.5 T. Imaging of MTBI with 3 T should therefore be based on other advantages of high-field imaging, such as improved SNR and spatial resolution.

  2. A Novel Method for Quantifying Scanner Instability in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Douglas N.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Liu, Thomas; Turner, Jessica A.; Voyvodic, James; Yetter, Elizabeth; Diaz, Michele; McCarthy, Gregory; Wallace, Stuart; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judy M.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Potkin, Stephen G.; Glover, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to quantify the effect of scanner instability on fMRI data by comparing the instability noise to endogenous noise present when scanning a human. The instability noise was computed from agar phantom data collected with two flip angles, allowing for a separation of the instability from the background noise. This method was used on human data collected at four 3T scanners, allowing the physiological noise level to be extracted from the data. In a “well-operating” scanner, the instability noise is generally less than 10% of physiological noise in white matter and only about 2% of physiological noise in cortex. This indicates that instability in a well-operating scanner adds very little noise to fMRI results. This new method allows researchers to make informed decisions about the maximum instability level a scanner can have before it is taken off line for maintenance or rejected from a multisite consortium. This method also provides information about the background noise, which is generally larger in magnitude than the instability noise. PMID:21413069

  3. Speech Perception in MRI Scanner Noise by Persons with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eric W.; Moser, Dana C.; Morrow-Odom, K. Leigh; Hall, Deborah A.; Fridriksson, Julius

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine reductions in performance on auditory tasks by aphasic and neurologically intact individuals as a result of concomitant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner noise. Method: Four tasks together forming a continuum of linguistic complexity were developed. They included complex-tone pitch discrimination, same-different…

  4. Acoustic noise reduction in a 4 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Mechefske, Chris K; Geris, Ryan; Gati, Joseph S; Rutt, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    High-field, high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate high levels of noise. There is ongoing concern in the medical and imaging research communities regarding the detrimental effects of high acoustic levels on auditory function, patient anxiety, verbal communication between patients and health care workers and ultimately MR image quality. In order to effectively suppress the noise levels inside MRI scanners, the sound field needs to be accurately measured and characterized. This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound radiation from a gradient coil cylinder within a 4 T MRI scanner under a variety of conditions. These measurement results show: (1) that noise levels can be significantly reduced through the use of an appropriately designed passive acoustic liner; and (2) the true noise levels that are experienced by patients during echo planar imaging.

  5. A 64-channel 3T array coil for accelerated brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Blau, James N.; Biber, Stephan; Hoecht, Philipp; Tountcheva, Veneta; Setsompop, Kawin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    A 64-channel brain array coil was developed and compared to a 32-channel array constructed with the same coil former geometry in order to precisely isolate the benefit of the two-fold increase in array coil elements. The constructed coils were developed for a standard clinical 3T MRI scanner and used a contoured head-shape curved former around the occipital pole and tapered in at the neck to both improve sensitivity and patient comfort. Additionally, the design is a compact, split-former design intended for robust daily use. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification (G-factor) for parallel imaging were quantitatively evaluated in human imaging and compared to a size and shape-matched 32-channel array coil. For unaccelerated imaging, the 64-channel array provided similar SNR in the brain center to the 32-channel array and 1.3-fold more SNR in the brain cortex. Reduced noise amplification during highly parallel imaging of the 64-channel array provided the ability to accelerate at approximately one unit higher at a given noise amplification compared to the sized-matched 32-channel array. For example, with a 4-fold acceleration rate, the central brain and cortical SNR of the 64-channel array was 1.2 and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, compared to the 32-channel array. The characteristics of the coil are demonstrated in accelerated brain imaging. PMID:22851312

  6. New Clinically-Feasible 3-T MRI Protocol to Discriminate Internal Brain Stem Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Michael J.; Chung, Sohae; Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Bruno, Mary T.; Fatterpekar, Girish M.; Shepherd, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two new 3-T MRI contrast methods, track density imaging and echo modulation curve T2 mapping were combined with simultaneous multislice acquisition to reveal exquisite anatomical detail at 7 canonical levels of the brainstem. Compared to conventional MRI contrasts, many individual brainstem tracts and nuclear groups were directly visualized for the first time at 3-T. This new approach is clinically practical and feasible (total scan time = 20 min) allowing better brainstem anatomical localization and characterization. PMID:26869471

  7. Visual stimulus presentation using fiber optics in the MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Sereno, Martin I

    2008-03-30

    Imaging the neural basis of visuomotor actions using fMRI is a topic of increasing interest in the field of cognitive neuroscience. One challenge is to present realistic three-dimensional (3-D) stimuli in the subject's peripersonal space inside the MRI scanner. The stimulus generating apparatus must be compatible with strong magnetic fields and must not interfere with image acquisition. Virtual 3-D stimuli can be generated with a stereo image pair projected onto screens or via binocular goggles. Here, we describe designs and implementations for automatically presenting physical 3-D stimuli (point-light targets) in peripersonal and near-face space using fiber optics in the MRI scanner. The feasibility of fiber-optic based displays was demonstrated in two experiments. The first presented a point-light array along a slanted surface near the body, and the second presented multiple point-light targets around the face. Stimuli were presented using phase-encoded paradigms in both experiments. The results suggest that fiber-optic based displays can be a complementary approach for visual stimulus presentation in the MRI scanner.

  8. fMRI Scanner Noise Interaction with Affective Neural Processes

    PubMed Central

    Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=34, 19 female) were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier) and emotion (fear, neutral, joy) were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus). Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes. PMID:24260420

  9. 3-T MRI safety assessments of magnetic dental attachments and castable magnetic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, K; Abe, Y; Ishii, T; Ishigami, T; Ohtani, K; Nagai, E; Ohyama, T; Umekawa, Y; Nakabayashi, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety of different magnetic dental attachments during 3-T MRI according to the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 and F2052-06e1 standard testing methods and to develop a method to determine MRI compatibility by measuring magnetically induced torque. Methods: The temperature elevations, magnetically induced forces and torques of a ferromagnetic stainless steel keeper, a coping comprising a keeper and a cast magnetic alloy coping were measured on MRI systems. Results: The coping comprising a keeper demonstrated the maximum temperature increase (1.42 °C) for the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate and was calculated as 2.1 W kg−1 with the saline phantom. All deflection angles exceeded 45°. The cast magnetic alloy coping had the greatest deflection force (0.33 N) during 3-T MRI and torque (1.015 mN m) during 0.3-T MRI. Conclusions: The tested devices showed minimal radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in a 3-T MR environment, but the cast magnetic alloy coping showed a magnetically induced deflection force and torque approximately eight times that of the keepers. For safety, magnetic dental attachments should be inspected before and after MRI and large prostheses containing cast magnetic alloy should be removed. Although magnetic dental attachments may pose no great risk of RF-induced heating or magnetically induced torque during 3-T MRI, their magnetically induced deflection forces tended to exceed acceptable limits. Therefore, the inspection of such devices before and after MRI is important for patient safety. PMID:25785821

  10. A comparison of distributional considerations with statistical analysis of resting state fMRI at 3T and 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Holmes, Martha J.; Newton, Allen T.; Morgan, Victoria L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-high field 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers potentially unprecedented spatial resolution of functional activity within the human brain through increased signal and contrast to noise ratios over traditional 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. However, the effects physiological and imaging artifacts are also greatly increased. Traditional statistical parametric mapping theories based on distributional properties representative of data acquired at lower fields may be inadequate for new 7T data. Herein, we investigate the model fitting residuals based on two 7T and one 3T protocols. We find that model residuals are substantively more non-Gaussian at 7T relative to 3T. Imaging slices that passed through regions with peak inhomogeneity problems (e.g., mid-brain acquisitions for the 7T hippocampus) exhibited visually higher degrees of distortion along with spatially correlated and extreme values of kurtosis (a measure of non- Gaussianity). The impacts of artifacts have been previously addressed for 3T data by estimating the covariance matrix of the regression errors. We further extend the robust estimation approach for autoregressive models and evaluate the qualitative impacts of this technique relative to traditional inference. Clear differences in statistical significance are shown between inferences based on classical versus robust assumptions, which suggest that inferences based on Gaussian assumptions are subject to practical (as well as theoretical) concerns regarding their power and validity. Hence, modern statistical approaches, such as the robust autoregressive model posed herein, are appropriate and suitable for inference with ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF Radiometry in the MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Sotiriadis, Paul P.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Atalar, Ergin

    2007-01-01

    Temperature detection using microwave radiometry has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C–40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF radiometry offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562

  12. MR images of mouse brain using clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Eun Mi; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Junghyun; Han, Bo Mi; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Lee, Su Bin

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Although small-bore high-field magnets are useful for research in small rodent models,this technology, however, has not been easily accessible to most researchers. This current study, thus,tried to evaluate the usability of 4CH-Mouse coil (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) forpreclinical investigations in clinical 3T MR scan environment. We evaluated the effects of ischemicpreconditioning (IP) in the mouse stroke model with clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice that either received the IP or sham operation (control). Three different MR sequences including diffusion weighted images (DWI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were performed on the mouse brains following 24, 72 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and analyzed for infarct lesions. Results: The images showed that the IP-treated mouse brains had significantly smaller infarct volumes compared to the control group. Of the MR sequences employed, the T2WI showed the highest level of correlations with postmortem infarct volume measurements. Conclusions: The clinical 3T MR scanner turned out to have a solid potential as a practical tool for imaging small animal brains. MR sequences including DWI, T2WI, FLAIR were obtained with acceptable resolution and in a reasonable time constraint in evaluating a mouse stroke model brain.

  13. MRI-derived measurements of human subcortical, ventricular and intracranial brain volumes: Reliability effects of scan sessions, acquisition sequences, data analyses, scanner upgrade, scanner vendors and field strengths.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Czanner, Silvester; Han, Xiao; Salat, David; van der Kouwe, Andre; Quinn, Brian; Pacheco, Jenni; Albert, Marilyn; Killiany, Ronald; Blacker, Deborah; Maguire, Paul; Rosas, Diana; Makris, Nikos; Gollub, Randy; Dale, Anders; Dickerson, Bradford C; Fischl, Bruce

    2009-05-15

    Automated MRI-derived measurements of in-vivo human brain volumes provide novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about measurement reliability. Here we assess the impact of image acquisition variables (scan session, MRI sequence, scanner upgrade, vendor and field strengths), FreeSurfer segmentation pre-processing variables (image averaging, B1 field inhomogeneity correction) and segmentation analysis variables (probabilistic atlas) on resultant image segmentation volumes from older (n=15, mean age 69.5) and younger (both n=5, mean ages 34 and 36.5) healthy subjects. The variability between hippocampal, thalamic, caudate, putamen, lateral ventricular and total intracranial volume measures across sessions on the same scanner on different days is less than 4.3% for the older group and less than 2.3% for the younger group. Within-scanner measurements are remarkably reliable across scan sessions, being minimally affected by averaging of multiple acquisitions, B1 correction, acquisition sequence (MPRAGE vs. multi-echo-FLASH), major scanner upgrades (Sonata-Avanto, Trio-TrioTIM), and segmentation atlas (MPRAGE or multi-echo-FLASH). Volume measurements across platforms (Siemens Sonata vs. GE Signa) and field strengths (1.5 T vs. 3 T) result in a volume difference bias but with a comparable variance as that measured within-scanner, implying that multi-site studies may not necessarily require a much larger sample to detect a specific effect. These results suggest that volumes derived from automated segmentation of T1-weighted structural images are reliable measures within the same scanner platform, even after upgrades; however, combining data across platform and across field-strength introduces a bias that should be considered in the design of multi-site studies, such as clinical drug trials. The results derived from the young groups (scanner upgrade effects and B1 inhomogeneity correction effects) should be considered as preliminary and in

  14. Validation of radiocarpal joint contact models based on images from a clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joshua E; McIff, Terence E; Lee, Phil; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiocarpal surface contact models of functional loading in a clinical MRI scanner for future in vivo studies, by comparison with experimental measures from three cadaver forearm specimens. Experimental data were acquired using a Tekscan sensor during simulated light grasp. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to obtain model geometry and kinematics (image registration). Peak contact pressures (PPs) and average contact pressures (APs), contact forces and contact areas were determined in the radiolunate and radioscaphoid joints. Contact area was also measured directly from MR images acquired with load and compared with model data. Based on the validation criteria (within 25% of experimental data), out of the six articulations (three specimens with two articulations each), two met the criterion for AP (0%, 14%); one for peak pressure (20%); one for contact force (5%); four for contact area with respect to experiment (8%, 13%, 19% and 23%), and three contact areas met the criterion with respect to direct measurements (14%, 21% and 21%). Absolute differences between model and experimental PPs were reasonably low (within 2.5 MPa). Overall, the results indicate that MRI-based models generated from 3T clinical MR scanner appear sufficient to obtain clinically relevant data.

  15. SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Wronski, M; Kim, A; Stanisz, G; Sarfehnia, A; Keller, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode prior to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.

  16. Occupational exposure levels of static magnetic field during routine MRI examination in 3T MR system.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu; Imai, Shinya; Izawa, Shuhei; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to the high static magnetic fields (SMFs) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations raises concerns of adverse health effects. In this study, personal exposure monitoring of the magnetic fields during routine examinations in two 3 T MRI systems was carried out. A three-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's chest during monitoring. Data acquisition started every time the subject entered the scanner room and ended when the subject exited the room. Four radiologic technologists from two different institutes participated in this study. The maximum exposed field ranged from 0 to 1250 mT and the average peak magnetic field (B) was 428 ± 231 mT (mean ± standard deviation (SD): number of samples (N) = 103). Then, the relationship between exposure levels and work duties was analyzed. The MRI examination of the head or neck showed the highest average peak B among four work categories. These results provide information of real exposure levels for 3 T MRI system operators and can also improve the current practical training advice for preventing extra occupational field exposure.

  17. A 22-channel receive array with Helmholtz transmit coil for anesthetized macaque MRI at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Keil, Boris; Serano, Peter; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; Wald, Lawrence L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-11-01

    The macaque monkey is an important model for cognitive and sensory neuroscience that has been used extensively in behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular and, more recently, neuroimaging studies. However, macaque MRI has unique technical differences relative to human MRI, such as the geometry of highly parallel receive arrays, which must be addressed to optimize imaging performance. A 22-channel receive coil array was constructed specifically for rapid high-resolution anesthetized macaque monkey MRI at 3 T. A local Helmholtz transmit coil was used for excitation. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared with those of single- and four-channel receive coils routinely used for macaque MRI. The 22-channel coil yielded significant improvements in SNR throughout the brain. Using this coil, the SNR in peripheral brain was 2.4 and 1.7 times greater than that obtained with single- or four-channel coils, respectively. In the central brain, the SNR gain was 1.5 times that of both the single- and four-channel coils. Finally, the performance of the array for functional, anatomical and diffusion-weighted imaging was evaluated. For all three modalities, the use of the 22-channel array allowed for high-resolution and accelerated image acquisition.

  18. The impact of MRI scanner environment on perceptual decision-making.

    PubMed

    van Maanen, Leendert; Forstmann, Birte U; Keuken, Max C; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Despite the widespread use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have addressed scanner effects on performance. The studies that have examined this question show a wide variety of results. In this article we report analyses of three experiments in which participants performed a perceptual decision-making task both in a traditional setting as well as inside an MRI scanner. The results consistently show that response times increase inside the scanner. Error rates also increase, but to a lesser extent. To reveal the underlying mechanisms that drive the behavioral changes when performing a task inside the MRI scanner, the data were analyzed using the linear ballistic accumulator model of decision-making. These analyses show that, in the scanner, participants exhibit a slow down of the motor component of the response and have less attentional focus on the task. However, the balance between focus and motor slowing depends on the specific task requirements.

  19. Comparing 3 T and 1.5 T MRI for Tracking Alzheimer's Disease Progression with Tensor-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Ho, April J.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Leow, Alex D.; Yanovsky, Igor; Gutman, Boris; Dinov, Ivo D.; Leporé, Natasha; Stein, Jason L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    A key question in designing MRI-based clinical trials is how the main magnetic field strength of the scanner affects the power to detect disease effects. In 110 subjects scanned longitudinally at both 3.0 and 1.5 T, including 24 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) [74.8 ± 9.2 years, MMSE: 22.6 ± 2.0 at baseline], 51 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [74.1 ± 8.0 years, MMSE: 26.6 ± 2.0], and 35 controls [75.9 ± 4.6 years, MMSE: 29.3 ± 0.8], we assessed whether higher-field MR imaging offers higher or lower power to detect longitudinal changes in the brain, using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to reveal the location of progressive atrophy. As expected, at both field strengths, progressive atrophy was widespread in AD and more spatially restricted in MCI. Power analysis revealed that, to detect a 25% slowing of atrophy (with 80% power), 37 AD and 108 MCI subjects would be needed at 1.5 T versus 49 AD and 166 MCI subjects at 3 T; however, the increased power at 1.5 T was not statistically significant (α = 0.05) either for TBM, or for SIENA, a related method for computing volume loss rates. Analysis of cumulative distribution functions and false discovery rates showed that, at both field strengths, temporal lobe atrophy rates were correlated with interval decline in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), mini-mental status exam (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes (CDR-SB) scores. Overall, 1.5 and 3 T scans did not significantly differ in their power to detect neurodegenerative changes over a year. PMID:19780044

  20. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only coil array for 3 T, which can be placed between the subject's head and the TMS, is presented. Interactions between the devices are investigated and the performance of the new setup is evaluated in comparison to the state‐of‐the‐art setup. Results MR sensitivity obtained at the depth of the TMS stimulation is increased by a factor of five. Parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of two is feasible with low g‐factors. Possible interactions between TMS and the novel hardware were investigated and were found negligible. Conclusion The novel coil array is safe, strongly improves signal‐to‐noise ratio in concurrent TMS/fMRI experiments, enables parallel imaging, and allows for flexible positioning of the TMS on the head while ensuring efficient TMS stimulation due to its ultraslim design. Magn Reson Med 74:1492–1501, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:25421603

  1. Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.

    PubMed

    Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety.

  2. Time Efficient 3D Radial UTE Sampling with Fully Automatic Delay Compensation on a Clinical 3T MR Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2016-01-01

    This work’s aim was to minimize the acquisition time of a radial 3D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequence and to provide fully automated, gradient delay compensated, and therefore artifact free, reconstruction. The radial 3D UTE sequence (echo time 60 μs) was implemented as single echo acquisition with center-out readouts and improved time efficient spoiling on a clinical 3T scanner without hardware modifications. To assess the sequence parameter dependent gradient delays each acquisition contained a quick calibration scan and utilized the phase of the readouts to detect the actual k-space center. This calibration scan does not require any user interaction. To evaluate the robustness of this automatic delay estimation phantom experiments were performed and 19 in vivo imaging data of the head, tibial cortical bone, feet and lung were acquired from 6 volunteers. As clinical application of this fast 3D UTE acquisition single breath-hold lung imaging is demonstrated. The proposed sequence allowed very short repetition times (TR~1ms), thus reducing total acquisition time. The proposed, fully automated k-phase based gradient delay calibration resulted in accurate delay estimations (difference to manually determined optimal delay −0.13 ± 0.45 μs) and allowed unsupervised reconstruction of high quality images for both phantom and in vivo data. The employed fast spoiling scheme efficiently suppressed artifacts caused by incorrectly refocused echoes. The sequence proved to be quite insensitive to motion, flow and susceptibility artifacts and provides oversampling protection against aliasing foldovers in all directions. Due to the short TR, acquisition times are attractive for a wide range of clinical applications. For short T2* mapping this sequence provides free choice of the second TE, usually within less scan time as a comparable dual echo UTE sequence. PMID:26975051

  3. Time Efficient 3D Radial UTE Sampling with Fully Automatic Delay Compensation on a Clinical 3T MR Scanner.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krämer, Martin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2016-01-01

    This work's aim was to minimize the acquisition time of a radial 3D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) sequence and to provide fully automated, gradient delay compensated, and therefore artifact free, reconstruction. The radial 3D UTE sequence (echo time 60 μs) was implemented as single echo acquisition with center-out readouts and improved time efficient spoiling on a clinical 3T scanner without hardware modifications. To assess the sequence parameter dependent gradient delays each acquisition contained a quick calibration scan and utilized the phase of the readouts to detect the actual k-space center. This calibration scan does not require any user interaction. To evaluate the robustness of this automatic delay estimation phantom experiments were performed and 19 in vivo imaging data of the head, tibial cortical bone, feet and lung were acquired from 6 volunteers. As clinical application of this fast 3D UTE acquisition single breath-hold lung imaging is demonstrated. The proposed sequence allowed very short repetition times (TR~1ms), thus reducing total acquisition time. The proposed, fully automated k-phase based gradient delay calibration resulted in accurate delay estimations (difference to manually determined optimal delay -0.13 ± 0.45 μs) and allowed unsupervised reconstruction of high quality images for both phantom and in vivo data. The employed fast spoiling scheme efficiently suppressed artifacts caused by incorrectly refocused echoes. The sequence proved to be quite insensitive to motion, flow and susceptibility artifacts and provides oversampling protection against aliasing foldovers in all directions. Due to the short TR, acquisition times are attractive for a wide range of clinical applications. For short T2* mapping this sequence provides free choice of the second TE, usually within less scan time as a comparable dual echo UTE sequence.

  4. [Experimental evaluation of the occupational exposure to static magnetic fields on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner].

    PubMed

    Moro, Luca; Alabiso, Francesco; Parisoli, Francesco; Frigerio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The recent postponement until 31 October 2013 of the deadline for transposition of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, concerning the minimum health requirementsfor the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields between 0 and 300 GHz, keeps on suspending the Italian law which was aimed to implement the EU regulations on the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, including those generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) units. Waiting for the revision of the exposure limits proposed by the EU Directive taking into account results from new studies and evolution of knowledge, the time-weighted values of static magnetic field proposed by the Italian Ministry of Health (D.M 02/08/91) still survive as limits for worker's exposure. The comparison between the proposed thresholds and the time required to position patients allows to calculate how long the MRI staff can stay at different values of static magnetic field, i.e. the maximum workload of each worker. In order to evaluate more accurately how many time the members of MRI staff are near the magnet bore and the real value of worker's exposure to the static magnetic field during the handling of patients, a teslameter Metrolab THM1176-PDA was used. Personal exposure measurements on the radiologists and the radiographers who worked on a 3 T GE Healthcare Discovery 750 MR were carried out during the positioning of self-sufficient and collaborative patients. The sensor was worn at the chest level on the side that was nearest to the magnet bore. Results show wide variations occurring between individual working procedures concerning the handling of patients, especially during the initial position phase. The mean values of the time spent by radiographers inside the magnet room (B > 0.5 mT) to place the patient and to take him outside at the end of the exam were respectively 220 and 127 seconds. The mean value of the time spent by radiologists was 162 seconds when they had to insert a peripheral

  5. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mendrik, Adriënne M.; Vincken, Koen L.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H.; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R.; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A.; Vrooman, Henri A.; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65–80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand. PMID:26759553

  6. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans.

    PubMed

    Mendrik, Adriënne M; Vincken, Koen L; Kuijf, Hugo J; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Persson, Mikael; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A; Vrooman, Henri A; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65-80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand.

  7. Neuronal correlates of gastric pain induced by fundus distension: a 3T-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-L; Wu, Y-T; Yeh, T-C; Chen, L-F; Chang, F-Y; Lee, S-D; Ho, L-T; Hsieh, J-C

    2004-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity in gastric fundus is a possible pathogenesis for functional dyspepsia. The cortical representation of gastric fundus is still unclear. Growing evidence shows that the insula, but not the primary or secondary somatosensory region (SI or SII), may be the cortical target for visceral pain. Animal studies have also demonstrated that amygdala plays an important role in processing visceral pain. We used fMRI to study central projection of stomach pain from fundus balloon distension. We also tested the hypothesis that there will be neither S1 nor S2 activation, but amygdala activation with the fundus distension. A 3T-fMRI was performed on 10 healthy subjects during baseline, fullness (12.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) and moderate gastric pain (17.0 +/- 0.8 mmHg). fMRI signal was modelled by convolving the predetermined psychophysical response. Statistical comparisons were performed between conditions on a group level. Gastric pain activated a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures, including thalamus and insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, basal ganglia, caudate nuclei, amygdala, brain stem, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex (P < 0.001). A subset of these neuronal substrates was engaged in the central processing of fullness sensation. SI and SII were not activated during the fundus stimulation. In conclusion, the constellation of neuronal structures activated by fundus distension overlaps the pain matrices induced musculocutaneous pain, with the exception of the absence of SI or SII activation. This may account for the vague nature of visceral sensation/pain. Our data also confirms that the insula and amygdala may act as the central role in visceral sensation/pain, as well as in the proposed sensory-limbic model of learning and memory of pain.

  8. Amyloidoma Involving the Orbit, Meckel's Cave and Infratemporal Fossa: 3T MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Menetti, F; Bartolomei, I; Ambrosini-Spaltro, A; Salvi, F; Agati, R; Leonardi, M

    2009-03-23

    Amyloidoma is a rare lesion characterized by tissue deposition of an abnormal fibrillary protein (amyloid). It is the focal and localized counterpart of systemic amyloidosis, where the deposition of amyloid diffusely involves several organs. The few literature reports of intracranial amyloidomas include lesions involving the pituitary gland, orbit, cerebral hemispheres, temporal bone, cerebellopontine angle and jugular foramen. We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman presenting with painless slowly progressive proptosis of the right eye. The patient underwent a contrast-enhanced CT study of the head, followed by 3T MRI which disclosed a homogeneous mass in the right Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus, extending through an enlarged foramen ovale to the infratemporal fossa. The right optic nerve and ocular muscles were enlarged and infiltrated along with the retrobulbar fat by contrast-enhancing tissue. Thin contrast-enhanced MRI scans through the area of interest showed the mass to extend posterior to the gasserian ganglion, involving the cerebellopontine angle cistern, where the intracisternal parts of the III, V, and VI nerves bilaterally appeared enlarged and showed perineural enhancement. The lesion closely mimicked a malignant tumor with perineural tumor infiltration, so we performed fine needle biopsy of the portion of the lesion near the right foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance. Histopathology revealed that the lesion was an amyloidoma. Further clinical and blood examinations, serum chemistry, followed by biopsy of the periumbilical fat showed no signs of systemic amyloidosis or an underlying inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. No further treatment was instituted, follow-up MRI six months later showed no enlargement of the mass.

  9. Normal-appearing brain tissue analysis in radiologically isolated syndrome using 3 T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Labiano-Fontcuberta, Andrés; Mato-Abad, Virginia; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Ginés, María Luisa; Aladro, Yolanda; Ayuso, Lucía; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Benito-León, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To date, it remains largely unknown whether there is in radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) brain damage beyond visible T2 white matter lesions. We used single- voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging (3 T MRI) to analyze normal-appearing brain tissue regions in 18 RIS patients and 18 matched healthy controls. T2-hyperintense lesion volumes and structural brain volumes were also measured. The absolute metabolite concentrations and ratios of total N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartyl glutamate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, myoinositol, and glutamine-glutamate complex to creatine were calculated. Spectral analysis was performed by LCModel. Voxelwise morphometry analysis was performed to localize regions of brain tissue showing significant changes of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity. Compared with healthy controls, RIS patients did not show any significant differences in either the absolute concentration of NAA or NAA/Cr ratio in mid-parietal gray matter. A trend toward lower NAA concentrations (–3.35%) was observed among RIS patients with high risk for conversion to multiple sclerosis. No differences in the other metabolites or their ratios were observed. RIS patients showed lower fractional anisotropy only in clusters overlapping lesional areas, namely in the cingulate gyrus bilaterally and the frontal lobe subgyral bilaterally (P < 0.001). Normalized brain and cortical volumes were significantly lower in RIS patients than in controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Our results suggest that in RIS, global brain and cortical atrophy are not primarily driven by significant occult microstructural normal appearing brain damage. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to better understand the pathological processes underlying this novel entity. PMID:27399108

  10. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore.

  11. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  12. Improved reliability in skeletal age assessment using a pediatric hand MR scanner with a 0.3T permanent magnet.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yasuhiko; Kono, Saki; Uchiumi, Tomomi; Kose, Katsumi; Miyagi, Ryo; Yamabe, Eiko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the reliability and validity of skeletal age assessment using an open and compact pediatric hand magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner. We used such a scanner with 0.3-tesla permanent magnet to image the left hands of 88 healthy children (aged 3.4 to 15.7 years, mean 8.8 years), and 3 raters (2 orthopedic specialists and a radiologist) assessed skeletal age using those images. We measured the strength of agreement in ratings by values of weighted Cohen's κ and the proportion of cases excluded from rating because of motion artifact and inappropriate positioning. We compared the current results with those of a previous study in which 93 healthy children (aged 4.1 to 16.4 years, mean 9.7 years) were examined with an adult hand scanner. The κ values between raters exceeded 0.80, which indicates almost perfect agreement, and most were higher than those of the previous study. The proportion of cases excluded from rating because of motion artifact or inappropriate positioning was also reduced. The results indicate that use of the compact pediatric hand scanner improved the reliability and validity of skeletal age assessments.

  13. MR Scanner Systems Should Be Adequately Characterized in Diffusion-MRI of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Marco; Sghedoni, Roberto; Iacconi, Chiara; Iori, Mauro; Traino, Antonio Claudio; Guerrisi, Maria; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola; Diciotti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Breast imaging represents a relatively recent and promising field of application of quantitative diffusion-MRI techniques. In view of the importance of guaranteeing and assessing its reliability in clinical as well as research settings, the aim of this study was to specifically characterize how the main MR scanner system-related factors affect quantitative measurements in diffusion-MRI of the breast. In particular, phantom acquisitions were performed on three 1.5 T MR scanner systems by different manufacturers, all equipped with a dedicated multi-channel breast coil as well as acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast. We assessed the accuracy, inter-scan and inter-scanner reproducibility of the mean apparent diffusion coefficient measured along the main orthogonal directions () as well as of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI)-derived mean diffusivity (MD) measurements. Additionally, we estimated spatial non-uniformity of (NU) and MD (NUMD) maps. We showed that the signal-to-noise ratio as well as overall calibration of high strength diffusion gradients system in typical acquisition sequences for diffusion-MRI of the breast varied across MR scanner systems, introducing systematic bias in the measurements of diffusion indices. While and MD values were not appreciably different from each other, they substantially varied across MR scanner systems. The mean of the accuracies of measured and MD was in the range [−2.3%,11.9%], and the mean of the coefficients of variation for and MD measurements across MR scanner systems was 6.8%. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of both and MD was < 1%, while NU and NUMD values were <4%. Our results highlight that MR scanner system-related factors can substantially affect quantitative diffusion-MRI of the breast. Therefore, a specific quality control program for assessing and monitoring the performance of MR scanner systems for diffusion-MRI of the breast is

  14. Who gets afraid in the MRI-scanner? Neurogenetics of state-anxiety changes during an fMRI experiment.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Isabella; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Meyer, Andrea H; Schweizer, Tina; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich; Ball, Tonio

    2014-11-07

    Experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) play a fundamental role in affective neuroscience. When placed in an MR scanner, some volunteers feel safe and relaxed in this situation, while others experience uneasiness and fear. Little is known about the basis and consequences of such inter-individually different responses to the general experimental fMRI setting. In this study emotional stimuli were presented during fMRI and subjects' state-anxiety was assessed at the onset and end of the experiment while they were within the scanner. We show that Val/Val but neither Met/Met nor Val/Met carriers of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism-a prime candidate for anxiety vulnerability-became significantly more anxious during the fMRI experiment (N=97 females: 24 Val/Val, 51 Val/Met, and 22 Met/Met). Met carriers demonstrated brain responses with increased stability over time in the right parietal cortex and significantly better cognitive performances likely mediated by lower levels of anxiety. Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met did not significantly differ in state-anxiety at the beginning of the experiment. The exposure of a control group (N=56 females) to the same experiment outside the scanner did not cause a significant increase in state-anxiety, suggesting that the increase we observe in the fMRI experiment may be specific to the fMRI setting. Our findings reveal that genetics may play an important role in shaping inter-individual different emotional, cognitive and neuronal responses during fMRI experiments.

  15. Small PET scanner based on MRI-compatible light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, J.; Balkay, L.; Berenyi, E.

    2015-03-01

    Improving the quality of life of elderly people requires diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for diseases of the central nervous system, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and epilepsy which have a rapidly growing impact on society. Minimallyinvasive imaging technologies such as PET and MRI allow for monitoring and tracking these illnesses, starting from their preliminary manifestations.

  16. Workflow assessment of 3T MRI-guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy using a robotic needle guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tuncali, Kemal; Tokuda, Junichi; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fennessy, Fiona; Tempany, Clare; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Magill, John; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy has become a valuable instrument for detection of prostate cancer in patients with continuing suspicion for aggressive cancer after transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) guided biopsy. The MRI-guided procedures are performed using mechanical targeting devices or templates, which suffer from limitations of spatial sampling resolution and/or manual in-bore adjustments. To overcome these limitations, we developed and clinically deployed an MRI-compatible piezoceramic-motor actuated needle guidance device, Smart Template, which allows automated needle guidance with high targeting resolution for use in a wide closed-bore 3-Tesla MRI scanner. One of the main limitations of the MRI-guided procedure is the lengthy procedure time compared to conventional TRUS-guided procedures. In order to optimize the procedure, we assessed workflow of 30 MRI-guided biopsy procedures using the Smart Template with focus on procedure time. An average of 3.4 (range: 2~6) targets were preprocedurally selected per procedure and 2.2 ± 0.8 biopsies were performed for each target with an average insertion attempt of 1.9 ± 0.7 per biopsy. The average technical preparation time was 14 ± 7 min and the in-MRI patient preparation time was 42 ± 7 min. After 21 ± 7 min of initial imaging, 64 ± 12 min of biopsy was performed yielding an average of 10 ± 2 min per tissue sample. The total procedure time occupying the MRI suite was 138 ± 16 min. No noticeable tendency in the length of any time segment was observed over the 30 clinical cases.

  17. Evaluation of Fat Suppression of Diffusion-weighted Imaging Using Section Select Gradient Reversal Technique on 3 T Breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Daichi; Kimura, Daisuke; Yamada, Eiji; Higashida, Mitsuji

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates fat suppression of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using section select gradient reversal (SSGR) technique in clinical images on 3 T breast MRI. A total of 20 patients with breast cancer were examined at a Philips Ingenia 3 T MRI. We acquired DWI with SPAIR, SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, and SSGR-STIR. We evaluated contrast between the fat region and lesion, the coefficient of variance (CV) of the fat region and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal breast tissue and lesion. The contrast between the fat region and lesion was improved with SSGR technique. The CV of the fattest region did not have any significant difference in SPAIR technique (p>0.05), but it was significantly decreased in the STIR technique using SSGR technique (p<0.05). Positive correlation was observed in ADC value between SPAIR and other fat suppression techniques (SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, SSGR-STIR). DWI using SSGR technique was suggested to be effective on 3 T breast MRI.

  18. Simulation Study on Active Noise Control for a 4 Tesla MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfeng; Lim, Teik C.; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study computationally the possibility of the application of a hybrid active noise control technique for MRI acoustic noise reduction. A hybrid control system combined with both feedforward and feedback loops embedded is proposed for potential application on active MRI noise reduction. A set of computational simulation studies were performed. Sets of MRI acoustic noise emissions measured at the patient's left ear location were recorded and used in the simulation study. By comparing three different control systems, namely the feedback, the feedforward and the hybrid control, our results revealed that the hybrid control system is the most effective. The hybrid control system achieved approximately a 20 dB reduction at the principal frequency component. We concluded that the proposed hybrid active control scheme could have a potential application for MRI scanner noise reduction. PMID:18060719

  19. Simulation study on active noise control for a 4-T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfeng; Lim, Teik C; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study computationally the possibility of the application of a hybrid active noise control technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acoustic noise reduction. A hybrid control system combined with both feedforward and feedback loops embedded is proposed for potential application on active MRI noise reduction. A set of computational simulation studies were performed. Sets of MRI acoustic noise emissions measured at the patient's left ear location were recorded and used in the simulation study. By comparing three different control systems, namely, the feedback, the feedforward and the hybrid control, our results revealed that the hybrid control system is the most effective. The hybrid control system achieved approximately a 20-dB reduction at the principal frequency component. We concluded that the proposed hybrid active control scheme could have a potential application for MRI scanner noise reduction.

  20. Inter-site and inter-scanner diffusion MRI data harmonization.

    PubMed

    Mirzaalian, H; Ning, L; Savadjiev, P; Pasternak, O; Bouix, S; Michailovich, O; Grant, G; Marx, C E; Morey, R A; Flashman, L A; George, M S; McAllister, T W; Andaluz, N; Shutter, L; Coimbra, R; Zafonte, R D; Coleman, M J; Kubicki, M; Westin, C F; Stein, M B; Shenton, M E; Rathi, Y

    2016-07-15

    We propose a novel method to harmonize diffusion MRI data acquired from multiple sites and scanners, which is imperative for joint analysis of the data to significantly increase sample size and statistical power of neuroimaging studies. Our method incorporates the following main novelties: i) we take into account the scanner-dependent spatial variability of the diffusion signal in different parts of the brain; ii) our method is independent of compartmental modeling of diffusion (e.g., tensor, and intra/extra cellular compartments) and the acquired signal itself is corrected for scanner related differences; and iii) inter-subject variability as measured by the coefficient of variation is maintained at each site. We represent the signal in a basis of spherical harmonics and compute several rotation invariant spherical harmonic features to estimate a region and tissue specific linear mapping between the signal from different sites (and scanners). We validate our method on diffusion data acquired from seven different sites (including two GE, three Philips, and two Siemens scanners) on a group of age-matched healthy subjects. Since the extracted rotation invariant spherical harmonic features depend on the accuracy of the brain parcellation provided by Freesurfer, we propose a feature based refinement of the original parcellation such that it better characterizes the anatomy and provides robust linear mappings to harmonize the dMRI data. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method by statistically comparing diffusion measures such as fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and generalized fractional anisotropy across multiple sites before and after data harmonization. We also show results using tract-based spatial statistics before and after harmonization for independent validation of the proposed methodology. Our experimental results demonstrate that, for nearly identical acquisition protocol across sites, scanner-specific differences can be accurately removed using the

  1. Can MRI accurately detect pilon articular malreduction? A quantitative comparison between CT and 3T MRI bone models

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Shairah; Dlaska, Constantin Edmond; Cowin, Gary; Robinson, Mark; Pratap, Jit; Schuetz, Michael Andreas; Mishra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Pilon fracture reduction is a challenging surgery. Radiographs are commonly used to assess the quality of reduction, but are limited in revealing the remaining bone incongruities. The study aimed to develop a method in quantifying articular malreductions using 3D computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) models. Methods CT and MRI data were acquired using three pairs of human cadaveric ankle specimens. Common tibial pilon fractures were simulated by performing osteotomies to the ankle specimens. Five of the created fractures [three AO type-B (43-B1), and two AO type-C (43-C1) fractures] were then reduced and stabilised using titanium implants, then rescanned. All datasets were reconstructed into CT and MRI models, and were analysed in regards to intra-articular steps and gaps, surface deviations, malrotations and maltranslations of the bone fragments. Results Initial results reveal that type B fracture CT and MRI models differed by ~0.2 (step), ~0.18 (surface deviations), ~0.56° (rotation) and ~0.4 mm (translation). Type C fracture MRI models showed metal artefacts extending to the articular surface, thus unsuitable for analysis. Type C fracture CT models differed from their CT and MRI contralateral models by ~0.15 (surface deviation), ~1.63° (rotation) and ~0.4 mm (translation). Conclusions Type B fracture MRI models were comparable to CT and may potentially be used for the postoperative assessment of articular reduction on a case-to-case basis. PMID:28090442

  2. Development of a PET Scanner for Simultaneously Imaging Small Animals with MRI and PET

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher J; Goertzen, Andrew L; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Bishop, Daryl; Stortz, Greg; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Zhang, Xuezhu; Sossi, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being explored in many sites. Combining PET and MRI has presented many challenges since the photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) in PET do not function in high magnetic fields, and conventional PET detectors distort MRI images. Solid state light sensors like avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) and more recently silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are much less sensitive to magnetic fields thus easing the compatibility issues. This paper presents the results of a group of Canadian scientists who are developing a PET detector ring which fits inside a high field small animal MRI scanner with the goal of providing simultaneous PET and MRI images of small rodents used in pre-clinical medical research. We discuss the evolution of both the crystal blocks (which detect annihilation photons from positron decay) and the SiPM array performance in the last four years which together combine to deliver significant system performance in terms of speed, energy and timing resolution. PMID:25120157

  3. EEG-MRI co-registration and sensor labeling using a 3D laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Koessler, L; Cecchin, T; Caspary, O; Benhadid, A; Vespignani, H; Maillard, L

    2011-03-01

    This paper deals with the co-registration of an MRI scan with EEG sensors. We set out to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3D handheld laser scanner, a device that is not widely used for co-registration, applying a semi-automatic procedure that also labels EEG sensors. The scanner acquired the sensors' positions and the face shape, and the scalp mesh was obtained from the MRI scan. A pre-alignment step, using the position of three fiducial landmarks, provided an initial value for co-registration, and the sensors were automatically labeled. Co-registration was then performed using an iterative closest point algorithm applied to the face shape. The procedure was conducted on five subjects with two scans of EEG sensors and one MRI scan each. The mean time for the digitization of the 64 sensors and three landmarks was 53 s. The average scanning time for the face shape was 2 min 6 s for an average number of 5,263 points. The mean residual error of the sensors co-registration was 2.11 mm. These results suggest that the laser scanner associated with an efficient co-registration and sensor labeling algorithm is sufficiently accurate, fast and user-friendly for longitudinal and retrospective brain sources imaging studies.

  4. Silent speechreading in the absence of scanner noise: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    MacSweeney, M; Amaro, E; Calvert, G A; Campbell, R; David, A S; McGuire, P; Williams, S C; Woll, B; Brammer, M J

    2000-06-05

    In a previous study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate activation in auditory cortex during silent speechreading. Since image acquisition during fMRI generates acoustic noise, this pattern of activation could have reflected an interaction between background scanner noise and the visual lip-read stimuli. In this study we employed an event-related fMRI design which allowed us to measure activation during speechreading in the absence of acoustic scanner noise. In the experimental condition, hearing subjects were required to speechread random numbers from a silent speaker. In the control condition subjects watched a static image of the same speaker with mouth closed and were required to subvocally count an intermittent visual cue. A single volume of images was collected to coincide with the estimated peak of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to these stimuli across multiple baseline and experimental trials. Silent speechreading led to greater activation in lateral temporal cortex relative to the control condition. This indicates that activation of auditory areas during silent speechreading is not a function of acoustic scanner noise and confirms that silent speechreading engages similar regions of auditory cortex as listening to speech.

  5. Subtle In-Scanner Motion Biases Automated Measurement of Brain Anatomy From In Vivo MRI

    PubMed Central

    Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv; Stockman, Michael; Ronan, Lisa; Lalonde, Francois; Giedd, Jay; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    While the potential for small amounts of motion in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans to bias the results of functional neuroimaging studies is well appreciated, the impact of in-scanner motion on morphological analysis of structural MRI is relatively under-studied. Even among “good quality” structural scans, there may be systematic effects of motion on measures of brain morphometry. In the present study, the subjects’ tendency to move during fMRI scans, acquired in the same scanning sessions as their structural scans, yielded a reliable, continuous estimate of in-scanner motion. Using this approach within a sample of 127 children, adolescents, and young adults, significant relationships were found between this measure and estimates of cortical gray matter volume and mean curvature, as well as trend-level relationships with cortical thickness. Specifically, cortical volume and thickness decreased with greater motion, and mean curvature increased. These effects of subtle motion were anatomically heterogeneous, were present across different automated imaging pipelines, showed convergent validity with effects of frank motion assessed in a separate sample of 274 scans, and could be demonstrated in both pediatric and adult populations. Thus, using different motion assays in two large non-overlapping sets of structural MRI scans, convergent evidence showed that in-scanner motion—even at levels which do not manifest in visible motion artifact—can lead to systematic and regionally specific biases in anatomical estimation. These findings have special relevance to structural neuroimaging in developmental and clinical datasets, and inform ongoing efforts to optimize neuroanatomical analysis of existing and future structural MRI datasets in non-sedated humans. PMID:27004471

  6. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300 g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0 T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12 ± 0.04 cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28 ± 34.61% and 26.45 ± 5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents.

  7. Simultaneous and interleaved acquisition of NMR signals from different nuclei with a clinical MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Arthur W.; Kuehne, Andre; Gruetter, Rolf; Moser, Ewald; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Modification of a clinical MRI scanner to enable simultaneous or rapid interleaved acquisition of signals from two different nuclei. Methods A device was developed to modify the local oscillator signal fed to the receive channel(s) of an MRI console. This enables external modification of the frequency at which the receiver is sensitive and rapid switching between different frequencies. Use of the device was demonstrated with interleaved and simultaneous 31P and 1H spectroscopic acquisitions, and with interleaved 31P and 1H imaging. Results Signal amplitudes and signal‐to‐noise ratios were found to be unchanged for the modified system, compared with data acquired with the MRI system in the standard configuration. Conclusion Interleaved and simultaneous 1H and 31P signal acquisition was successfully demonstrated with a clinical MRI scanner, with only minor modification of the RF architecture. While demonstrated with 31P, the modification is applicable to any detectable nucleus without further modification, enabling a wide range of simultaneous and interleaved experiments to be performed within a clinical setting. Magn Reson Med 76:1636–1641, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26608834

  8. 3T diffusion-weighted MRI of the thyroid gland with reduced distortion: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Nagala, S; Priest, A N; McLean, M A; Jani, P; Graves, M J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single-shot diffusion-weighted (DW) echo planar imaging (EPI), which is commonly used for imaging the thyroid, is characterised by severe blurring and distortion. The objectives of this work were: 1, to show that a reduced-field of view (r-FOV) DW EPI technique can improve image quality; and 2, to investigate the effect of different reconstruction strategies on the resulting apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Methods: We implemented a single-shot, r-FOV DW EPI technique with a two-dimensional radiofrequency excitation pulse for DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T. Images were reconstructed using root sum of squares (SOS) and an optimal-B1 reconstruction (OBR). Phantom and in vivo experiments were performed to compare r-FOV and conventional full-FOV DW EPI with root SOS and OBR. Results: r-FOV with OBR substantially improved image quality at 3T. In phantoms, r-FOV gave more accurate ADCs than full-FOV. In vivo r-FOV always gave lower ADC values with respect to the full-FOV technique irrespective of the reconstruction used and whether only two or multiple b-values were used to compute the ADCs. Conclusion: r-FOV DW EPI can reduce image blurring and distortion at the expense of a low signal-to-noise ratio. OBR is a promising reconstruction technique for accurate ADC measurements in lower signal-to-noise ratio regimes, although further studies are needed to characterise its performance. Advances in knowledge: DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T could potentially benefit from r-FOV acquisition strategies, such as the r-FOV DW EPI technique proposed in this paper. PMID:23770539

  9. Can T2-weighted 3-T breast MRI predict clinically occult inflammatory breast cancer before pathological examination? A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    Occult inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is defined as an invasive cancer without any clinical inflammatory signs but with pathologically proven dermal lymphovascular invasion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of 3-T breast MRI to predict occult IBC before pathological examination and compare its effectiveness with that of mammography (MMG) and ultrasound (US). A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and pathological records of 460 consecutive breast cancers revealed five proved occult IBCs. We analyzed the findings of 3-T MRI, MMG, and US for these five occult IBCs. Primary breast lesions were detected by 3-T MRI, MMG, and US in all five breasts with occult IBCs. 3-T MRI revealed 40% mass type lesions and 60% non-mass-like type lesions. Kinetic curve analysis of the primary breast lesions showed a rapid initial kinetic phase in 80% of lesions and a delayed washout pattern in 60% of lesions. 3-T MRI showed slight skin thickness in 60% of breasts, whereas MMG and US showed slight skin thickness in 40 and 20% of breasts, respectively. Subcutaneous and prepectoral edema, as evaluated on T2-weighted images, was present in all five breasts with occult IBCs. The presence of subcutaneous and prepectoral edema on T2-weighted 3-T breast MRI is an important finding that should suggest the diagnosis of occult IBC before pathological examination.

  10. 2D Imaging in a Lightweight Portable MRI Scanner without Gradient Coils

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Clarissa Zimmerman; Stockmann, Jason P.; Armstrong, Brandon D.; Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lev, Michael H.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose As the premiere modality for brain imaging, MRI could find wider applicability if lightweight, portable systems were available for siting in unconventional locations such as Intensive Care Units, physician offices, surgical suites, ambulances, emergency rooms, sports facilities, or rural healthcare sites. Methods We construct and validate a truly portable (<100kg) and silent proof-of-concept MRI scanner which replaces conventional gradient encoding with a rotating lightweight cryogen-free, low-field magnet. When rotated about the object, the inhomogeneous field pattern is used as a rotating Spatial Encoding Magnetic field (rSEM) to create generalized projections which encode the iteratively reconstructed 2D image. Multiple receive channels are used to disambiguate the non-bijective encoding field. Results The system is validated with experimental images of 2D test phantoms. Similar to other non-linear field encoding schemes, the spatial resolution is position dependent with blurring in the center, but is shown to be likely sufficient for many medical applications. Conclusion The presented MRI scanner demonstrates the potential for portability by simultaneously relaxing the magnet homogeneity criteria and eliminating the gradient coil. This new architecture and encoding scheme shows convincing proof of concept images that are expected to be further improved with refinement of the calibration and methodology. PMID:24668520

  11. Correlating quantitative tractography at 3T MRI and cognitive tests in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Reginold, William; Itorralba, Justine; Tam, Angela; Luedke, Angela C; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Reginold, Jennifer; Islam, Omar; Garcia, Angeles

    2016-12-01

    This study used diffusion tensor imaging tractography at 3 T MRI to relate cognitive function to white matter tracts in the brain. Brain T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery-weighted and diffusion tensor 3 T MRI scans were acquired in thirty-three healthy participants without mild cognitive impairment or dementia. They completed a battery of neuropsychological tests including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Stroop test, Trail Making Test B, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Longest span forward, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Longest span backward, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, California Verbal Learning Test Version II Long Delay Free Recall, and Letter Number Sequencing. Tractography was generated by the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking method. The corpus callosum, cingulum, long association fibers, corticospinal/bulbar tracts, thalamic projection fibers, superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and inferior cerebellar peduncle were manually segmented. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of these tracts were quantified. We studied the association between cognitive test scores and the MD and FA of tracts while controlling for age and total white matter hyperintensities volume. Worse scores on the Stroop test was associated with decreased FA of the corpus callosum, corticospinal/bulbar tract, and thalamic projection tracts. Scores on the other cognitive tests were not associated with either the FA or MD of measured tracts. In healthy persons the Stroop test appears to be a better predictor of the microstructural integrity of white matter tracts measured by DTI tractography than other cognitive tests.

  12. An implanted 8-channel array coil for high-resolution macaque MRI at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, T.; Keil, B.; Farivar, R.; McNab, J.A.; Polimeni, J. R.; Gerits, A.; Arsenault, J.T.; Wald, L. L.; Vanduffel, W.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-channel receive coil array was constructed and implanted adjacent to the skull in a male rhesus monkey in order to improve the sensitivity of (functional) brain imaging. The permanent implant was part of an acrylic headpost assembly and only the coil element loop wires were implanted. The tuning, matching, and preamplifier circuitry was connected via a removable external assembly. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared to a single-, 4-, and 8-channel external receive-only coil routinely used for macaque fMRI. In vivo measurements showed significantly improved SNR within the brain for the implanted versus the external coils. Within a region-of-interest covering the cerebral cortex, we observed a 5.4-, 3.6-fold, and 3.4-fold increase in SNR compared to the external single-, 4-, and 8-channel coil, respectively. In the center of the brain, the implanted array maintained a 2.4×, 2.5×, and 2.1× higher SNR, respectively compared to the external coils. The array performance was evaluated for anatomical, diffusion tensor and functional brain imaging. This study suggests that a stable implanted phased-array coil can be used in macaque MRI to substantially increase the spatial resolution for anatomical, diffusion tensor, and functional imaging. PMID:22609793

  13. Physiological brainstem mechanisms of trigeminal nociception: An fMRI study at 3T.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Laura H; Sprenger, Christian; May, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The brainstem is a major site of processing and modulation of nociceptive input and plays a key role in the pathophysiology of various headache disorders. However, human imaging studies on brainstem function following trigeminal nociceptive stimulation are scarce as brainstem specific imaging approaches have to address multiple challenges such as magnetic field inhomogeneities and an enhanced level of physiological noise. In this study we used a viable protocol for brainstem fMRI of standardized trigeminal nociceptive stimulation to achieve detailed insight into physiological brainstem mechanisms of trigeminal nociception. We conducted a study of 21 healthy participants using a nociceptive ammonia stimulation of the left nasal mucosa with an optimized MR acquisition protocol for high resolution brainstem echoplanar imaging in combination with two different noise correction techniques. Significant BOLD responses to noxious ammonia stimulation were observed in areas typically involved in trigeminal nociceptive processing such as the spinal trigeminal nuclei (sTN), thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex and cerebellum as well as in a pain modulating network including the periaqueductal gray area, hypothalamus (HT), locus coeruleus and cuneiform nucleus (CNF). Activations of the left CNF were positively correlated with pain intensity ratings. Employing psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis we found enhanced functional connectivity of the sTN with the contralateral sTN and HT following trigeminal nociception. We also observed enhanced functional connectivity of the CNF with the RVM during painful stimulation thus implying an important role of these two brainstem regions in central pain processing. The chosen approach to study trigeminal nociception with high-resolution fMRI offers new insight into human pain processing and might thus lead to a better understanding of headache pathophysiology.

  14. A 20-Channel Receive-Only Mouse Array Coil for a 3T Clinical MRI System

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.; Meise, Florian M.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Klose, Klaus J.; Heverhagen, Johannes T.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-channel phased-array coil for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of mice has been designed, constructed and validated with bench measurements and high resolution accelerated imaging. The technical challenges of designing a small, high density array have been overcome using individual small-diameter coil elements arranged on a cylinder in a hexagonal overlapping design with adjacent low impedance preamplifiers to further decouple the array elements. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification in accelerated imaging were simulated and quantitatively evaluated in phantoms and in vivo mouse images. Comparison between the 20-channel mouse array and a length-matched quadrature driven small animal birdcage coil showed an SNR increase at the periphery and in the center of the phantom of 3-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. Comparison to a shorter but SNR-optimized birdcage coil (aspect ratio 1:1 and only half mouse coverage) showed an SNR gain of 2-fold at the edge of the phantom and similar SNR in the center. G-factor measurements indicate that the coil is well suited to acquire highly accelerated images. PMID:21433066

  15. Preliminary studies of a simultaneous PET/MRI scanner based on the RatCAP small animal tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Schlyer, D.; Vaska, P.; Tomasi, D.; Solis-Najera, S.; Rooney, W.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Stoll, S.; Master, Z.; Purschke, M.; Park, S.-J.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.

    2007-02-01

    We are developing a scanner that will allow simultaneous acquisition of high resolution anatomical data using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological data using positron emission tomography (PET). The approach is based on the technology used for the RatCAP conscious small animal PET tomograph which utilizes block detectors consisting of pixelated arrays of LSO crystals read out with matching arrays of avalanche photodiodes and a custom-designed ASIC. The version of this detector used for simultaneous PET/MRI imaging will be constructed out of all nonmagnetic materials and will be situated inside the MRI field. We have demonstrated that the PET detector and its electronics can be operated inside the MRI, and have obtained MRI images with various detector components located inside the MRI field. The MRI images show minimal distortion in this configuration even where some components still contain traces of certain magnetic materials. We plan to improve on the image quality in the future using completely non-magnetic components and by tuning the MRI pulse sequences. The combined result will be a highly compact, low mass PET scanner that can operate inside an MRI magnet without distorting the MRI image, and can be retrofitted into existing MRI instruments.

  16. Brain morphometry reproducibility in multi-center 3T MRI studies: a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal segmentations.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Marizzoni, Moira; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Wiltfang, Jens; Roccatagliata, Luca; Nobili, Flavio; Hensch, Tilman; Tränkner, Anja; Schönknecht, Peter; Leroy, Melanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Chanoine, Valérie; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Blin, Olivier; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale longitudinal multi-site MRI brain morphometry studies are becoming increasingly crucial to characterize both normal and clinical population groups using fully automated segmentation tools. The test-retest reproducibility of morphometry data acquired across multiple scanning sessions, and for different MR vendors, is an important reliability indicator since it defines the sensitivity of a protocol to detect longitudinal effects in a consortium. There is very limited knowledge about how across-session reliability of morphometry estimates might be affected by different 3T MRI systems. Moreover, there is a need for optimal acquisition and analysis protocols in order to reduce sample sizes. A recent study has shown that the longitudinal FreeSurfer segmentation offers improved within session test-retest reproducibility relative to the cross-sectional segmentation at one 3T site using a nonstandard multi-echo MPRAGE sequence. In this study we implement a multi-site 3T MRI morphometry protocol based on vendor provided T1 structural sequences from different vendors (3D MPRAGE on Siemens and Philips, 3D IR-SPGR on GE) implemented in 8 sites located in 4 European countries. The protocols used mild acceleration factors (1.5-2) when possible. We acquired across-session test-retest structural data of a group of healthy elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) and compared the across-session reproducibility of two full-brain automated segmentation methods based on either longitudinal or cross-sectional FreeSurfer processing. The segmentations include cortical thickness, intracranial, ventricle and subcortical volumes. Reproducibility is evaluated as absolute changes relative to the mean (%), Dice coefficient for volume overlap and intraclass correlation coefficients across two sessions. We found that this acquisition and analysis protocol gives comparable reproducibility results to previous studies that used longer acquisitions without acceleration. We also show that

  17. In vivo electric conductivity of cervical cancer patients based on B_{1}^{+} maps at 3T MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balidemaj, E.; de Boer, P.; van Lier, A. L. H. M. W.; Remis, R. F.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Westerveld, G. H.; Nederveen, A. J.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Crezee, J.

    2016-02-01

    The in vivo electric conductivity (σ) values of tissue are essential for accurate electromagnetic simulations and specific absorption rate (SAR) assessment for applications such as thermal dose computations in hyperthermia. Currently used σ-values are mostly based on ex vivo measurements. In this study the conductivity of human muscle, bladder content and cervical tumors is acquired non-invasively in vivo using MRI. The conductivity of 20 cervical cancer patients was measured with the MR-based electric properties tomography method on a standard 3T MRI system. The average in vivo σ-value of muscle is 14% higher than currently used in human simulation models. The σ-value of bladder content is an order of magnitude higher than the value for bladder wall tissue that is used for the complete bladder in many models. Our findings are confirmed by various in vivo animal studies from the literature. In cervical tumors, the observed average conductivity was 13% higher than the literature value reported for cervical tissue. Considerable deviations were found for the electrical conductivity observed in this study and the commonly used values for SAR assessment, emphasizing the importance of acquiring in vivo conductivity for more accurate SAR assessment in various applications.

  18. Voxel-based morphometry at ultra-high fields. A comparison of 7T and 3T MRI data

    PubMed Central

    Seiger, Rene; Hahn, Andreas; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Ganger, Sebastian; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Sladky, Ronald; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological progress enables MRI recordings at ultra-high fields of 7 Tesla and above leading to brain images of higher resolution and increased signal-to-noise ratio. Despite these benefits, imaging at 7T exhibits distinct challenges due to B1 field inhomogeneities, causing decreased image quality and problems in data analysis. Although several strategies have been proposed, a systematic investigation of bias-corrected 7T data for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is still missing and it is an ongoing matter of debate if VBM at 7T can be carried out properly. Here, an optimized VBM study was conducted, evaluating the impact of field strength (3T vs 7T) and pulse sequence (MPRAGE vs MP2RAGE) on gray matter volume (GMV) estimates. More specifically, twenty-two participants were measured under the conditions 3T MPRAGE, 7T MPRAGE and 7T MP2RAGE. Due to the fact that 7T MPRAGE data exhibited strong intensity inhomogeneities, an alternative preprocessing pipeline was proposed and applied for that data. VBM analysis revealed higher GMV estimates for 7T predominantly in superior cortical areas, caudate nucleus, cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. On the other hand, 3T yielded higher estimates especially in inferior cortical areas of the brain, cerebellum, thalamus and putamen compared to 7T. Besides minor exceptions, these results were observed for 7T MPRAGE as well for the 7T MP2RAGE measurements. Results gained in the inferior parts of the brain should be taken with caution, as native GM segmentations displayed misclassifications in these regions for both 7T sequences. This was supported by the test-retest measurements showing highest variability in these inferior regions of the brain for 7T also for the advanced MP2RAGE sequence. Hence, our data support the use of 7T MRI for VBM analysis in cortical areas, but direct comparison between field strengths and sequences requires careful assessment. Similarly, analysis of inferior cortical regions, cerebellum and

  19. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  20. Feasibility study using MRI and two optical CT scanners for readout of polymer gel and PresageTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, H.; Skyt, P. S.; Ceberg, S.; Doran, S.; Muren, L. P.; Balling, P.; Petersen, J. B. B.; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the conventional combination of three-dimensional dosimeter (nPAG gel) and readout method (MRI) with other combinations of three-dimensional dosimeters (nPAG gel/PresageTM) and readout methods (optical CT scanners). In the first experiment, the dose readout of a gel irradiated with a four field-box technique was performed with both an Octopus IQ scanner and MRI. It was seen that the MRI readout agreed slightly better to the TPS. In another experiment, a gel and a PresageTM sample were irradiated with a VMAT field and read out using MRI and a fast laser scanner, respectively. A comparison between the TPS and the volumes revealed that the MRI/gel readout had closer resemblance to the TPS than the optical CT/PresageTM readout. There are clearly potential in the evaluated optical CT scanners, but more time has to be invested in the particular scanning scenario than was possible in this study.

  1. The registration of signals from the nuclei other than protons at 0.5 T MRI scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, N.; Volkov, D.; Gulyaev, M.; Pavlova, O.; Pirogov, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The practical aspects of the adaptation of the medical MRI scanner for multinuclear applications are considered. Examples of high resolution NMR spectra for nuclei 19F, 31P, 23Na, 11B, 13C, 2H, and also NQR spectrum for 35Cl are given. Possibilities of MRI for nuclei 19F, 31P, 23Na, 11B are shown. Experiments on registration of signals 19F from the fluorocarbons injected in laboratory animals are described.

  2. Hobbs 3T MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    and LV remodeling.    Related findings this year:  Association between soluble receptor for  advanced   glycation   end   products  (sRAGE) and atherosclerosis...The  receptor  for  advanced   glycation   end   products   (RAGE)  is a  transmembrane  receptor expressed on a variety of  cells.  It modulates activity...Receptor for  advanced  gylcosylation  end   products Inverse association with CAC. Revision in  review at Diabetes Care.  BNP 3‐108   Unprocessed proBNP

  3. Analysis of the role of lead resistivity in specific absorption rate for deep brain stimulator leads at 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Angelone, Leonardo M; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patients with implanted deep brain stimulators (DBSs) can be hazardous because of the antenna-effect of leads exposed to the incident radio-frequency field. This study evaluated electromagnetic field and specific absorption rate (SAR) changes as a function of lead resistivity on an anatomically precise head model in a 3T system. The anatomical accuracy of our head model allowed for detailed modeling of the path of DBS leads between epidermis and the outer table. Our electromagnetic finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis showed significant changes of 1 g and 10 g averaged SAR for the range of lead resistivity modeled, including highly conductive leads up to highly resistive leads. Antenna performance and whole-head SAR were sensitive to the presence of the DBS leads only within 10%, while changes of over one order of magnitude were observed for the peak 10 g averaged SAR, suggesting that local SAR values should be considered in DBS guidelines. With rho(lead) = rho(copper) , and the MRI coil driven to produce a whole-head SAR without leads of 3.2 W/kg, the 1 g averaged SAR was 1080 W/kg and the 10 g averaged SAR 120 W/kg at the tip of the DBS lead. Conversely, in the control case without leads, the 1 g and 10 g averaged SAR were 0.5 W/kg and 0.6 W/kg, respectively, in the same location. The SAR at the tip of lead was similar with electrically homogeneous and electrically heterogeneous models. Our results show that computational models can support the development of novel lead technology, properly balancing the requirements of SAR deposition at the tip of the lead and power dissipation of the system battery.

  4. Analysis of the Role of Lead Resistivity in Specific Absorption Rate for Deep Brain Stimulator Leads at 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Angelone, Leonardo M.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patients with implanted deep brain stimulators (DBSs) can be hazardous because of the antenna-effect of leads exposed to the incident radio-frequency field. This study evaluated electromagnetic field and specific absorption rate (SAR) changes as a function of lead resistivity on an anatomically precise head model in a 3T system. The anatomical accuracy of our head model allowed for detailed modeling of the path of DBS leads between epidermis and the outer table. Our electromagnetic finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis showed significant changes of 1 g and 10 g averaged SAR for the range of lead resistivity modeled, including highly conductive leads up to highly resistive leads. Antenna performance and whole-head SAR were sensitive to the presence of the DBS leads only within 10%, while changes of over one order of magnitude were observed for the peak 10 g averaged SAR, suggesting that local SAR values should be considered in DBS guidelines. With ρlead = ρcopper, and the MRI coil driven to produce a whole-head SAR without leads of 3.2 W/kg, the 1 g averaged SAR was 1080 W/kg and the 10 g averaged SAR 120 W/kg at the tip of the DBS lead. Conversely, in the control case without leads, the 1 g and 10 g averaged SAR were 0.5 W/kg and 0.6 W/kg, respectively, in the same location. The SAR at the tip of lead was similar with electrically homogeneous and electrically heterogeneous models. Our results show that computational models can support the development of novel lead technology, properly balancing the requirements of SAR deposition at the tip of the lead and power dissipation of the system battery. PMID:20335090

  5. In Situ Active Control of Noise in a 4-Tesla MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfeng; Rudd, Brent; Lim, Teik C.; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed active noise control (ANC) system for the reduction of the acoustic noise emission generated by a 4 T MRI scanner during operation and to assess the feasibility of developing an ANC device that can be deployed in situ. Materials and Methods Three typical scanning sequences, namely EPI (echo planar imaging), GEMS (gradient echo multi-slice) and MDEFT (Modified Driven Equilibrium Fourier Transform), were used for evaluating the performance of the ANC system, which was composed of a magnetic compatible headset and a multiple reference feedforward filtered-x least mean square controller. Results The greatest reduction, about 55 dB, was achieved at the harmonic at a frequency of 1.3 kHz in the GEMS case. Approximately 21 dB and 30 dBA overall reduction was achieved for GEMS noise across the entire audible frequency range. For the MDEFT sequence, the control system achieved 14 dB and 14 dBA overall reduction in the audible frequency range, while 13 dB and 14 dBA reduction was obtained for the EPI case. Conclusion The result is highly encouraging because it shows great potential for treating MRI noise with an ANC application during real time scanning. PMID:21751284

  6. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  7. Numerical evaluation of E-fields induced by body motion near high-field MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Crozier, S; Liu, F

    2004-01-01

    In modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both patients and radiologists are exposed to strong, nonuniform static magnetic fields inside or outside of the scanner, in which the body movement may be able to induce electric currents in tissues which could be possibly harmful. This paper presents theoretical investigations into the spatial distribution of induced E-fields in the human model when moving at various positions around the magnet. The numerical calculations are based on an efficient, quasistatic, finite-difference scheme and an anatomically realistic, full-body, male model. 3D field profiles from an actively-shielded 4 T magnet system are used and the body model projected through the field profile with normalized velocity. The simulation shows that it is possible to induce E-fields/currents near the level of physiological significance under some circumstances and provides insight into the spatial characteristics of the induced fields. The results are easy to extrapolate to very high field strengths for the safety evaluation at a variety of field strengths and motion velocities.

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of an ultrasonic motor actuated needle guide for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Image guided prostate interventions have been accelerated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and robotic technologies in the past few years. However, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided procedure still remains as vast majority in clinical practice due to engineering and clinical complexity of the MRI-guided robotic interventions. Subsequently, great advantages and increasing availability of MRI have not been utilized at its maximum capacity in clinic. To benefit patients from the advantages of MRI, we developed an MRI-compatible motorized needle guide device "Smart Template" that resembles a conventional prostate template to perform MRI-guided prostate interventions with minimal changes in the clinical procedure. The requirements and specifications of the Smart Template were identified from our latest MRI-guided intervention system that has been clinically used in manual mode for prostate biopsy. Smart Template consists of vertical and horizontal crossbars that are driven by two ultrasonic motors via timing-belt and mitergear transmissions. Navigation software that controls the crossbar position to provide needle insertion positions was also developed. The software can be operated independently or interactively with an open-source navigation software, 3D Slicer, that has been developed for prostate intervention. As preliminary evaluation, MRI distortion and SNR test were conducted. Significant MRI distortion was found close to the threaded brass alloy components of the template. However, the affected volume was limited outside the clinical region of interest. SNR values over routine MRI scan sequences for prostate biopsy indicated insignificant image degradation during the presence of the robotic system and actuation of the ultrasonic motors.

  9. Design of a loop resonator with a split-ring-resonator (SRR) for a human-body coil in 3 T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2016-04-01

    A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.

  10. Comprehensive Small Animal Imaging Strategies on a Clinical 3 T Dedicated Head MR-Scanner; Adapted Methods and Sequence Protocols in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Deepu R.; Heidemann, Robin M.; Lanz, Titus; Dittmar, Michael S.; Sandner, Beatrice; Beier, Christoph P.; Weidner, Norbert; Greenlee, Mark W.; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Background Small animal models of human diseases are an indispensable aspect of pre-clinical research. Being dynamic, most pathologies demand extensive longitudinal monitoring to understand disease mechanisms, drug efficacy and side effects. These considerations often demand the concomitant development of monitoring systems with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. Methodology and Results This study attempts to configure and optimize a clinical 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner to facilitate imaging of small animal central nervous system pathologies. The hardware of the scanner was complemented by a custom-built, 4-channel phased array coil system. Extensive modification of standard sequence protocols was carried out based on tissue relaxometric calculations. Proton density differences between the gray and white matter of the rodent spinal cord along with transverse relaxation due to magnetic susceptibility differences at the cortex and striatum of both rats and mice demonstrated statistically significant differences. The employed parallel imaging reconstruction algorithms had distinct properties dependent on the sequence type and in the presence of the contrast agent. The attempt to morphologically phenotype a normal healthy rat brain in multiple planes delineated a number of anatomical regions, and all the clinically relevant sequels following acute cerebral ischemia could be adequately characterized. Changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability following ischemia-reperfusion were also apparent at a later time. Typical characteristics of intra-cerebral haemorrhage at acute and chronic stages were also visualized up to one month. Two models of rodent spinal cord injury were adequately characterized and closely mimicked the results of histological studies. In the employed rodent animal handling system a mouse model of glioblastoma was also studied with unequivocal results. Conclusions The implemented customizations including extensive sequence protocol

  11. Quantitative planar and volumetric cardiac measurements using 64 MDCT and 3T MRI versus standard 2D and M-mode echocardiography: Does anesthetic protocol matter?

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Rio, Alejandro Munoz Del; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P=1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  12. Superficial amygdala and hippocampal activity during affective music listening observed at 3 T but not 1.5 T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 T and 1.5 T fMRI results during emotional music listening. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced instrumental musical pieces, with three different affective expressions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=32) were split into two groups, one subjected to fMRI scanning using 3 T and another group scanned using 1.5 T. Whole brain t-tests (corrected for multiple comparisons) compared joy and fear in each of the two groups. The 3 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral superficial amygdala, bilateral hippocampus and bilateral auditory cortex. The 1.5 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral auditory cortex and cuneus. This is the first study to compare results obtained under different field strengths with regard to affective processes elicited by means of auditory/musical stimulation. The findings raise concern over false negatives in the superficial amygdala and hippocampus in affective studies conducted under 1.5 T and caution that imaging improvements due to increasing magnetic field strength can be influenced by region-specific characteristics.

  13. Development of 1.45-mm resolution four-layer DOI-PET detector for simultaneous measurement in 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tachibana, Atsushi; Obata, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Suga, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of PET-MRI systems have been developed by a number of research groups. However, almost all of the PET detectors used in these PET-MRI systems have no depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. The DOI detector can reduce the parallax error and lead to improvement of the performance. We are developing a new PET-MRI system which consists of four-layer DOI detectors positioned close to the measured object to achieve high spatial resolution and high scanner sensitivity. As a first step, we are investigating influences the PET detector and the MRI system have on each other using a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector. This prototype detector consists of a lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal block and a 4 × 4 multi-pixel photon counter array. The size of each crystal element is 1.45 mm × 1.45 mm × 4.5 mm, and the crystals are arranged in 6 × 6 elements × 4 layers with reflectors. The detector and some electric components are packaged in an aluminum shielding box. Experiments were carried out with 3.0 T MRI (GE, Signa HDx) and a birdcage-type RF coil. We demonstrated that the DOI-PET detector was normally operated in simultaneous measurements with no influence of the MRI measurement. A slight influence of the PET detector on the static magnetic field of the MRI was observed near the PET detector. The signal-to-noise ratio was decreased by presence of the PET detector due to environmental noise entering the MRI room through the cables, even though the PET detector was not powered up. On the other hand, no influence of electric noise from the PET detector in the simultaneous measurement on the MRI images was observed, even though the PET detector was positioned near the RF coil.

  14. Force and torque effects of a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner on cardiac pacemakers and ICDs.

    PubMed

    Luechinger, R; Duru, F; Scheidegger, M B; Boesiger, P; Candinas, R

    2001-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely accepted tool for the diagnosis of a variety of disease states. However, the presence of an implanted pacemaker is considered to be a strict contraindication to MRI in a vast majority of centers due to safety concerns. In phantom studies, the authors investigated the force and torque effects of the static magnetic field of MRI on pacemakers and ICDs. Thirty-one pacemakers (15 dual chamber and 16 single chamber units) from eight manufacturers and 13 ICDs from four manufacturers were exposed to the static magnetic field of a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner. Magnetic force and acceleration measurements were obtained quantitatively, and torque measurements were made qualitatively. For pacemakers, the measured magnetic force was in the range of 0.05-3.60 N. Pacemakers released after 1995 had low magnetic force values as compared to the older devices. For these devices, the measured acceleration was even lower than the gravity of the earth (< 9.81 N/kg). Likewise, the torque levels were significantly reduced in newer generation pacemakers (< or = 2 from a scale of 6). ICD devices, except for one recent model, showed higher force (1.03-5.85 N), acceleration 9.5-34.2 N/kg), and torque (5-6 out of 6) levels. In conclusion, modern pacemakers present no safety risk with respect to magnetic force and torque induced by the static magnetic field of a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner. However, ICD devices, despite considerable reduction in size and weight, may still pose problems due to strong magnetic force and torque.

  15. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  16. Integrating a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a 6 MV accelerator: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W; Overweg, J; Kok, J G M; Raaijmakers, A J E; Kerkhof, E M; van der Put, R W; Meijsing, I; Crijns, S P M; Benedosso, F; van Vulpen, M; de Graaff, C H W; Allen, J; Brown, K J

    2009-06-21

    At the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, we have constructed a prototype MRI accelerator. The prototype is a modified 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) accelerator next to a modified 1.5 T Philips Achieva (Best, The Netherlands) MRI system. From the initial design onwards, modifications to both systems were aimed to yield simultaneous and unhampered operation of the MRI and the accelerator. Indeed, the simultaneous operation is shown by performing diagnostic quality 1.5 T MRI with the radiation beam on. No degradation of the performance of either system was found. The integrated 1.5 T MRI system and radiotherapy accelerator allow simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging. The full diagnostic imaging capacities of the MRI can be used; dedicated sequences for MRI-guided radiotherapy treatments will be developed. This proof of concept opens the door towards a clinical prototype to start testing MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) in the clinic.

  17. Volumetric Analysis of the Hypothalamus in Huntington Disease Using 3T MRI: The IMAGE-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Gabery, Sanaz; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Lundh, Sofia Hult; Cheong, Rachel Y.; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C.; Egan, Gary F.; Kirik, Deniz; Petersén, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Non-motor symptoms and signs such as psychiatric disturbances, sleep problems and metabolic dysfunction are part of the disease manifestation. These aspects may relate to changes in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain involved in the regulation of emotion, sleep and metabolism. Neuropathological and imaging studies using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as positron emission tomography (PET) have demonstrated pathological changes in the hypothalamic region during early stages in symptomatic HD. In this investigation, we aimed to establish a robust method for measurements of the hypothalamic volume in MRI in order to determine whether the hypothalamic dysfunction in HD is associated with the volume of this region. Using T1-weighted imaging, we describe a reproducible delineation procedure to estimate the hypothalamic volume which was based on the same landmarks used in histologically processed postmortem hypothalamic tissue. Participants included 36 prodromal HD (pre-HD), 33 symptomatic HD (symp-HD) and 33 control participants who underwent MRI scanning at baseline and 18 months follow-up as part of the IMAGE-HD study. We found no evidence of cross-sectional or longitudinal changes between groups in hypothalamic volume. Our results suggest that hypothalamic pathology in HD is not associated with volume changes. PMID:25659157

  18. Spatial distortion correction and crystal identification for MRI-compatible position-sensitive avalanche photodiode-based PET scanners

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Joshi, Anand A.; Wu, Yibao; Leahy, Richard M.; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2009-01-01

    Position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) are gaining widespread acceptance in modern PET scanner designs, and owing to their relative insensitivity to magnetic fields, especially in those that are MRI-compatible. Flood histograms in PET scanners are used to determine the crystal of annihilation photon interaction and hence, for detector characterization and routine quality control. For PET detectors that use PSAPDs, flood histograms show a characteristic pincushion distortion when Anger logic is used for event positioning. A small rotation in the flood histogram is also observed when the detectors are placed in a magnetic field. We first present a general purpose automatic method for spatial distortion correction for flood histograms of PSAPD-based PET detectors when placed both inside and outside a MRI scanner. Analytical formulae derived for this scheme are based on a hybrid approach that combines desirable properties from two existing event positioning schemes. The rotation of the flood histogram due to the magnetic field is determined iteratively and is accounted for in the scheme. We then provide implementation details of a method for crystal identification we have previously proposed and evaluate it for cases when the PET detectors are both outside and in a magnetic field. In this scheme, Fourier analysis is used to generate a lower-order spatial approximation of the distortion-corrected PSAPD flood histogram, which we call the ‘template’. The template is then registered to the flood histogram using a diffeomorphic iterative intensity-based warping scheme. The calculated deformation field is then applied to the segmentation of the template to obtain a segmentation of the flood histogram. A manual correction tool is also developed for exceptional cases. We present a quantitative assessment of the proposed distortion correction scheme and crystal identification method against conventional methods. Our results indicate that our proposed methods lead

  19. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Eric R; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19-90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  20. Evoked Potentials and Memory/Cognition Tests Validate Brain Atrophy as Measured by 3T MRI (NeuroQuant) in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Hussman, Karl L.; Han, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Marin, Gabriela; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Smayda, Richard; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating relationships between 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and P300 and memory/cognitive tests in the literature. The 3T MRI using NeuroQuant has an increased resolution 15 times that of 1.5T MRI. Utilizing NeuroQuant 3T MRI as a diagnostic tool in primary care, subjects (N=169; 19–90 years) displayed increased areas of anatomical atrophy: 34.62% hippocampal atrophy (N=54), 57.14% central atrophy (N=88), and 44.52% temporal atrophy (N=69). A majority of these patients exhibited overlap in measured areas of atrophy and were cognitively impaired. These results positively correlated with decreased P300 values and WMS-III (WMS-III) scores differentially across various brain loci. Delayed latency (p=0.0740) was marginally associated with temporal atrophy; reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in frontal lobes correlated with aging, delayed P300 latency, and decreased visual and working memory (p=0.0115). Aging and delayed P300 latency correlated with lower FA. The correlation between working memory and reduced FA in frontal lobes is marginally significant (p=0.0787). In the centrum semiovale (CS), reduced FA correlated with visual memory (p=0.0622). Lower demyelination correlated with higher P300 amplitude (p=0.0002). Compared to males, females have higher demyelination (p=0.0064). Along these lines, the higher the P300 amplitude, the lower the bilateral atrophy (p=0.0165). Hippocampal atrophy correlated with increased auditory memory and gender, especially in males (p=0.0087). In considering temporal lobe atrophy correlations: delayed P300 latency and high temporal atrophy (p=0.0740); high auditory memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0417); and high working memory and low temporal atrophy (p=0.0166). Central atrophy correlated with aging and immediate memory (p=0.0294): the higher the immediate memory, the lower the central atrophy. Generally, the validation of brain atrophy by P300 and WMS-III could lead to cost

  1. [Prospects of the use of mobile MRI scanner in medical service of the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Troyan, V N; Dydykin, A V; Rikun, A O; Filisteev, P A; Zayats, V V; Zhigalov, A A

    2015-10-01

    Computed tomography is currently one of the most informative methods of diagnostics of a broad range of injuries and diseases, as well as an effective additional mean for various surgical interventions thank to intraoperative use. In this regard, the question of the necessity of the use of this diagnostic technology in mobile hospitals is one of the current tasks. The article analyses the experience of the use of mobile CT scanners at the medical service of the armed forces of foreign states and provides calculations indicating the necessity of the introduction of mobile CT scanners into the hospital link. The review and classification of mobile CT scanners have allowed to formulate technical requirements for their hardware capabilities, as well as to draw conclusions about the conditions of their effective use.

  2. A Workspace-oriented Needle Guiding Robot for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Intervention: Evaluation of In-bore Workspace and MRI Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare; Tokuda, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided prostate interventions have been introduced to enhance the cancer detection. For accurate needle positioning, in-bore operated robotic systems have been developed and optimal use of the confined in-bore space become a critical engineering challenge. Methods As preliminary evaluation of our prostate intervention robot, we conducted a workspace design analysis using a new evaluation method that we developed for in-bore operated robots for transperineal prostate interventions, and an MRI compatibility study. Results The workspace analysis resulted in the effective workspace (VW) of 0.32, which is greater than that of our early prototype despite that the current robot is approximately 50% larger than the early prototype in sectional space. The MRI compatibility study resulted in less than 15% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction. Conclusions The new workspace evaluation method quantifies the workspace utilization of the in-bore operated robots for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions, providing a useful tool for evaluation and new robot design. The robot creates insignificant electromagnetic noise during typical prostate imaging sequences. PMID:22492680

  3. High responsivity to threat during the initial stage of perception in repression: a 3 T fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Victoria Gabriele; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Kugel, Harald; ter Horst, Lena; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Ohrmann, Patricia; Lindner, Christian; Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Egloff, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Repression designates coping strategies such as avoidance, or denial that aim to shield the organism from threatening stimuli. Derakshan et al. have proposed the vigilance–avoidance theory of repressive coping. It is assumed that repressors have an initial rapid vigilant response triggering physiological responses to threat stimuli. In the following second stage repressors manifest avoidant cognitive biases. Functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T was used to study neural correlates of repressive coping during the first stages of perception of threat. Pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, happy and neutral expressions were briefly presented masked by neutral faces. Forty study participants (20 repressive and 20 sensitizing individuals) were selected from a sample of 150 female students on the basis of their scores on the Mainz Coping Inventory. Repressors exhibited stronger neural activation than sensitizers primarily in response to masked threatening faces (vs neutral baseline) in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex as well as in the cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia and insula. There was no brain region in which sensitizers showed increased activation to emotion expression compared to repressors. The present results are in line with the vigilance–avoidance theory which predicts heightened automatic responsivity to threatening stimuli in repression. PMID:22133562

  4. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate

    PubMed Central

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior. PMID:28145525

  5. Impact of the use of an endorectal coil for 3 T prostate MRI on image quality and cancer detection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlitza, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Thörmer, Gregor; Schaudinn, Alexander; Linder, Nicolas; Garnov, Nikita; Horn, Lars-Christian; Minh, Do Hoang; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to assess the impact of an additional endorectal coil on image quality and cancer detection rate within the same patients. At a single academic medical center, this transversal study included 41 men who underwent T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 T using surface coils only or in combination with an endorectal coil in the same session. Two blinded readers (A and B) randomly evaluated all image data in separate sessions. Image quality with respect to localization and staging was rated on a five-point scale. Lesions were classified according to their prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) score version 1. Standard of reference was provided by whole-mount step-section analysis. Mean image quality scores averaged over all localization-related items were significantly higher with additional endorectal coil for both readers (p < 0.001), corresponding staging-related items were only higher for reader B (p < 0.001). With an endorectal coil, the rate of correctly detecting cancer per patient was significantly higher for reader B (p < 0.001) but not for reader A (p = 0.219). The numbers of histologically confirmed tumor lesions were rather similar for both settings. The subjectively rated 3-T image quality was improved with an endorectal coil. In terms of diagnostic performance, the use of an additional endorectal coil was not superior.

  6. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  7. Experimental MRI-SPECT insert system with Hybrid Semiconductor detectors Timepix for MR animal scanner Bruker 47/20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajicek, J.; Burian, M.; Soukup, P.; Novak, V.; Macko, M.; Jakubek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal medical imaging based on Magnetic Resonance is mainly combinated with one of the scintigraphic method like PET or SPECT. These methods provide functional information whereas magnetic resonance imaging provides high spatial resolution of anatomical information or complementary functional information. Fusion of imaging modalities allows researchers to obtain complimentary information in a single measurement. The combination of MRI with SPECT is still relatively new and challenging in many ways. The main complication of using SPECT in MRI systems is the presence of a high magnetic field therefore (ferro)magnetic materials have to be eliminated. Furthermore the application of radiofrequency fields within the MR gantry does not allow for the use of conductive structures such as the common heavy metal collimators. This work presents design and construction of an experimental MRI-SPECT insert system and its initial tests. This unique insert system consists of an MR-compatible SPECT setup with CdTe pixelated sensors Timepix tungsten collimators and a radiofrequency coil. Measurements were performed on a gelatine and tissue phantom with an embedded radioisotopic source (57Co 122 keV γ ray) inside the RF coil by the Bruker BioSpec 47/20 (4.7 T) MR animal scanner. The project was performed in the framework of the Medipix Collaboration.

  8. Wavelet based characterization of ex vivo vertebral trabecular bone structure with 3T MRI compared to microCT

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, R; Carballido-Gamio, J; Burghardt, A; Haase, S; Sedat, J W; Moss, W C; Majumdar, S

    2005-04-11

    Trabecular bone structure and bone density contribute to the strength of bone and are important in the study of osteoporosis. Wavelets are a powerful tool to characterize and quantify texture in an image. In this study the thickness of trabecular bone was analyzed in 8 cylindrical cores of the vertebral spine. Images were obtained from 3 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography ({micro}CT). Results from the wavelet based analysis of trabecular bone were compared with standard two-dimensional structural parameters (analogous to bone histomorphometry) obtained using mean intercept length (MR images) and direct 3D distance transformation methods ({micro}CT images). Additionally, the bone volume fraction was determined from MR images. We conclude that the wavelet based analyses delivers comparable results to the established MR histomorphometric measurements. The average deviation in trabecular thickness was less than one pixel size between the wavelet and the standard approach for both MR and {micro}CT analysis. Since the wavelet based method is less sensitive to image noise, we see an advantage of wavelet analysis of trabecular bone for MR imaging when going to higher resolution.

  9. A low-cost and versatile system for projecting wide-field visual stimuli within fMRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Greco, V.; Frijia, F.; Mikellidou, K.; Montanaro, D.; Farini, A.; D’Uva, M.; Poggi, P.; Pucci, M.; Sordini, A.; Morrone, M. C.; Burr, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a custom-made magnetic-imaging-compatible visual projection system designed to project on a very wide visual field (~80°). A standard projector was modified with a coupling lens, projecting images into the termination of an image fiber. The other termination of the fiber was placed in the 3-T scanner room with a projection lens, which projected the images relayed by the fiber onto a screen over the head coil, viewed by a participant wearing magnifying goggles. To validate the system, wide-field stimuli were presented in order to identify retinotopic visual areas. The results showed that this low-cost and versatile optical system may be a valuable tool to map visual areas in the brain that process peripheral receptive fields. PMID:26092392

  10. A low-cost and versatile system for projecting wide-field visual stimuli within fMRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Greco, V; Frijia, F; Mikellidou, K; Montanaro, D; Farini, A; D'Uva, M; Poggi, P; Pucci, M; Sordini, A; Morrone, M C; Burr, D C

    2016-06-01

    We have constructed and tested a custom-made magnetic-imaging-compatible visual projection system designed to project on a very wide visual field (~80°). A standard projector was modified with a coupling lens, projecting images into the termination of an image fiber. The other termination of the fiber was placed in the 3-T scanner room with a projection lens, which projected the images relayed by the fiber onto a screen over the head coil, viewed by a participant wearing magnifying goggles. To validate the system, wide-field stimuli were presented in order to identify retinotopic visual areas. The results showed that this low-cost and versatile optical system may be a valuable tool to map visual areas in the brain that process peripheral receptive fields.

  11. Evaluation of a 32-channel versus a 12-channel head coil for high-resolution post-contrast MRI in giant cell arteritis (GCA) at 3T.

    PubMed

    Franke, Philipp; Markl, Michael; Heinzelmann, Sonja; Vaith, Peter; Bürk, Jonas; Langer, Mathias; Geiger, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a 32-channel head coil for the characterization of mural inflammation patterns in the superficial cranial arteries in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) compared to a standard 12-channel coil at 3T MRI. 55 patients with suspected GCA underwent high resolution T1-weighted post-contrast MRI at 3T to detect inflammation related vessel wall enhancement using both coils. To account for different time delays between contrast agent injection and sequence acquisition, the patients were divided into two cohorts: 27 patients were examined with the 32-channel coil first and 28 patients with the 12-channel coil first. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers with regard to image quality, artifact level and arteries' inflammation according to a standardized ranking scale; furthermore signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements were performed at three locations. Identification of arteries' inflammation was achieved with both coils with excellent inter-observer agreement (κ=0.89 for 12-channel and κ=0.96 for 32-channel coil). Regarding image grading, the inter-observer variability was moderate for the 12-channel (κ=0.5) and substantial for the 32-channel coil (κ=0.63). Significantly higher SNR and improved image quality (p<0.01) were obtained with the 32-channel coil in either coil order. Image quality for depiction of the superficial cranial arteries was superior for the 32-channel coil. For standardized GCA diagnosis, the 12-channel coil was sufficient.

  12. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  13. New shielding configurations for a simultaneous PET/MRI scanner at 7T

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo J.; Wu, Yibao; Cherry, Simon R.; Walton, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sources of electromagnetic interference are important in designing any electronic system. This is especially true when combining positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a multimodality system as coupling between the subsystems can degrade the performance of either modality. For this reason, eliminating radio frequency (RF) interference and gradient-induced eddy currents have been major challenges in building simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI systems. MRI requires negligible RF interference at the Larmor resonance frequency, while RF interference at almost any frequency may corrupt PET data. Moreover, any scheme that minimizes these interactions would, ideally, not compromise the performance of either subsystem. This paper lays out a plan to resolve these problems. A carbon fiber composite material is found to be a good RF shield at the Larmor frequency (300 MHz in this work) while introducing negligible gradient eddy currents. This carbon fiber composite also provides excellent structural support for the PET detector components. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation (81 kHz here) from the switching power supplies of the gradient amplifiers was also found to interfere with the PET detector. Placing the PET detector module between two carbon fiber tubes and grounding the inner carbon fiber tube to the PET detector module ground reduced this interference. Further reductions were achieved by adding thin copper (Cu) foil on the outer carbon fiber case and electrically grounding the PET detector module so that all 3 components had a common ground, i.e. with the PET detector in an electrostatic cage. Finally, gradient switching typical in MRI sequences can result in count losses in the particular PET detector design studied. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect depends on the location of the detector within the magnet bore and which MRI gradient is being switched. These findings have a bearing on future designs of PET/MRI

  14. 3T MRI investigation of cardiac left ventricular structure and function in a UK population: The tayside screening for the prevention of cardiac events (TASCFORCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Gandy, Stephen J.; Lambert, Matthew; Belch, Jill; Cavin, Ian; Crowe, Elena; Littleford, Roberta; MacFarlane, Jennifer A.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Nicholas, R. Stephen; Struthers, Allan; Sullivan, Frank; Waugh, Shelley A.; White, Richard D.; Weir‐McCall, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To scan a volunteer population using 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI of the left ventricular (LV) structure and function in healthy volunteers has been reported extensively at 1.5T. Materials and Methods A population of 1528 volunteers was scanned. A standardized approach was taken to acquire steady‐state free precession (SSFP) LV data in the short‐axis plane, and images were quantified using commercial software. Six observers undertook the segmentation analysis. Results Mean values (±standard deviation, SD) were: ejection fraction (EF) = 69 ± 6%, end diastolic volume index (EDVI) = 71 ± 13 ml/m2, end systolic volume index (ESVI) = 22 ± 7 ml/m2, stroke volume index (SVI) = 49 ± 8 ml/m2, and LV mass index (LVMI) = 55 ± 12 g/m2. The mean EF was slightly larger for females (69%) than for males (68%), but all other variables were smaller for females (EDVI 68v77 ml/m2, ESVI 21v25 ml/m2, SVI 46v52 ml/m2, LVMI 49v64 g/m2, all P < 0.05). The mean LV volume data mostly decreased with each age decade (EDVI males: –2.9 ± 1.3 ml/m2, females: –3.1 ± 0.8 ml/m2; ESVI males: –1.3 ± 0.7 ml/m2, females: –1.7 ± 0.5 ml/m2; SVI males: –1.7 ± 0.9 ml/m2, females: –1.4 ± 0.6 ml/m2; LVMI males: –1.6 ± 1.1 g/m2, females: –0.2 ± 0.6 g/m2) but the mean EF was virtually stable in males (0.6 ± 0.6%) and rose slightly in females (1.2 ± 0.5%) with age. Conclusion LV reference ranges are provided in this population‐based MR study at 3.0T. The variables are similar to those described at 1.5T, including variations with age and gender. These data may help to support future population‐based MR research studies that involve the use of 3.0T MRI scanners. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1186–1196. PMID:27143317

  15. Functional Laterality of Task-Evoked Activation in Sensorimotor Cortex of Preterm Infants: An Optimized 3 T fMRI Study Employing a Customized Neonatal Head Coil

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Collins, Adam PR; Müller, Nicole; Stegmann-Woessner, Gaby; Jankowski, Jacob; Gieseke, Jürgen; Born, Mark; Seitz, Hermann; Bartmann, Peter; Schild, Hans H.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Boecker, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level. Patients / methods Here, we employed a custom-designed neonatal MR-coil adapted and optimized to the head size of a newborn in order to improve robustness, reliability and validity of neonatal sensorimotor fMRI. Thirteen preterm infants with a median gestational age of 26 weeks were scanned at term-corrected age using a prototype 8-channel neonatal head coil at 3T (Achieva, Philips, Best, NL). Sensorimotor stimulation was elicited by passive extension/flexion of the elbow at 1 Hz in a block design. Analysis of temporal signal to noise ratio (tSNR) was performed on the whole brain and the SMC, and was compared to data acquired with an ‘adult’ 8 channel head coil published previously. Task-evoked activation was determined by single-subject SPM8 analyses, thresholded at p < 0.05, whole-brain FWE-corrected. Results Using a custom-designed neonatal MR-coil, we found significant positive BOLD responses in contralateral SMC after unilateral passive sensorimotor stimulation in all neonates (analyses restricted to artifact-free data sets = 8/13). Improved imaging characteristics of the neonatal MR-coil were evidenced by additional phantom and in vivo tSNR measurements: phantom studies revealed a 240% global increase in tSNR; in vivo studies revealed a 73% global and a 55% local (SMC) increase in tSNR, as compared to the ‘adult’ MR

  16. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer.

    PubMed

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R

    2012-07-21

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (²³Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (²³Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a ²³Na resonator was constructed for whole body ²³Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B₁-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body ²³Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm³ and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the ²³Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, ²³Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  17. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rehim, S.; Bagirathan, S.; Al-Benna, S.; O’Boyle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries. PMID:26336370

  18. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, S; Bagirathan, S; Al-Benna, S; O'Boyle, C

    2014-12-31

    Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries.

  19. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns using the time-spatial labeling inversion pulse technique with 3T MRI: early clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kayoko; Ono, Yuko; Yoneyama, Hiroko; Nishina, Yu; Aihara, Yasuo; Okada, Yoshikazu; Sakai, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    CSF imaging using the time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) technique at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. The study population comprised 15 healthy volunteers and five patients with MR findings showing expansive dilation of the third and lateral ventricles suggesting aqueductal stenosis (AS). Signal intensity changes were evaluated in the tag-labeled CSF, untagged brain parenchyma, and untagged CSF of healthy volunteers by changing of black-blood time-inversion pulse (BBTI). CSF flow from the aqueduct to the third ventricle, the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle, and the foramen of Monro to the lateral ventricle was clearly rendered in all healthy volunteers with suitable BBTI. The travel distance of CSF flow as demonstrated by the time-SLIP technique was compared with the distance between the aqueduct and the fourth ventricle. The distance between the foramen of Monro and the lateral ventricle was used to calculate the CSF flow/distance ratio (CD ratio). The CD ratio at each level was significantly reduced in patients suspected to have AS compared to healthy volunteers. CSF flow was not identified at the aqueductal level in most of the patients. Two patients underwent time-SLIP assessments before and after endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETVs). CSF flow at the ETV site was confirmed in each patient. With the time-SLIP technique, CSF imaging is sensitive enough to detect kinetic changes in CSF flow due to AS and ETV.

  20. Combined MRI-PET scanner: A Monte Carlo evaluation of the improvements in PET resolution due to the effects of a static homogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, R.R.; Hammer, B.E.; Christensen, N.L.

    1996-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) relies upon the detection of photons resulting from the annihilation of positrons emitted by a radiopharmaceutical. The combination of images obtained with PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have begun to greatly enhance the study of many physiological processes. A combined MRI-PET scanner could alleviate much of the spatial and temporal coregistration difficulties currently encountered in utilizing images from these complementary imaging modalities. In addition, the resolution of the PET scanner could be improved by the effects of the magnetic field. In this computer study, the utilization of a strong static homogeneous magnetic field to increase PET resolution by reducing the effects of positron range and photon noncollinearity was investigated. The results reveal that significant enhancement of resolution can be attained. For example, an approximately 27% increase in resolution is predicted for a PET scanner incorporating a 10-Tesla magnetic field. Most of this gain in resolution is due to magnetic confinement of the emitted positrons. Although the magnetic field does mix some positronium states resulting in slightly less photon noncollinearity, this reduction does not significantly affect resolution. Photon noncollinearity remains as the fundamental limiting factor of large PET scanner resolution.

  1. Feasibility of imaging superficial palmar arch using micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pruzan, Alison N; Kaufman, Audrey E; Calcagno, Claudia; Zhou, Yu; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate feasibility of vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch using high frequency micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Four subjects (ages 22-50 years) were scanned on a micro-ultrasound system with a 45-MHz transducer (Vevo 2100, VisualSonics). Subjects’ hands were then imaged on a 3T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Biograph MMR) using an 8-channel special purpose phased array carotid coil. Lastly, subjects’ hands were imaged on a 7T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Magnetom 7T Whole Body Scanner) using a custom built 8-channel transmit receive carotid coil. All three imaging modalities were subjectively analyzed for image quality and visualization of the vessel wall. RESULTS Results of this very preliminary study indicated that vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch was feasible with a whole body 7T and 3T MRI in comparison with micro-ultrasound. Subjective analysis of image quality (1-5 scale, 1: poorest, 5: best) from B mode, ultrasound, 3T SPACE MRI and 7T SPACE MRI indicated that the image quality obtained at 7T was superior to both 3T MRI and micro-ultrasound. The 3D SPACE sequence at both 7T and 3T MRI with isotropic voxels allowed for multi-planar reformatting of images and allowed for less operator dependent results as compared to high frequency micro-ultrasound imaging. Although quantitative analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the three methods, the 7T Tesla trended to have better visibility of the vessel and its wall. CONCLUSION Imaging of smaller arteries at the 7T is feasible for evaluating atherosclerosis burden and may be of clinical relevance in multiple diseases. PMID:28298968

  2. Added value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared to mammography, ultrasound and 3-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seymer, A; Keinrath, P; Holzmannhofer, J; Pirich, C; Hergan, K; Meissnitzer, M W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively analyse the diagnostic value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared with that of mammography (MG), breast ultrasound and MRI of the breast. Methods: Within a 15-month period, 67 patients with 92 breast lesions rated as Category IV or V according to the breast imaging reporting and data system detected with MG and/or ultrasound were included into the study. After the injection of 740–1110 MBq of Technetium-99m (99mTc) SestaMIBI intravenously, scintigrams were obtained in two projections comparable to MG. The BSGI was analysed visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating a relative uptake factor (X). With the exception of two patients with cardiac pacemakers, all patients underwent 3-T breast MRI. Biopsy results were obtained as the reference standard in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values, accuracy and area under the curve were calculated for each modality. Results: Among the 92 lesions, 67 (72.8%) were malignant. 60 of the 67 cancers of any size were detected by BSGI with an overall sensitivity of 90%, only exceeded by ultrasound with a sensitivity of 99%. The sensitivity of BSGI for lesions <1 cm declined significantly to 60%. Overall specificity of ultrasound was only 20%. Specificity, accuracy and positive-predictive value were the highest for BSGI (56%, 80% and 85%, respectively). X was significantly higher for malignant lesions (mean, 4.27) and differed significantly between ductal types (mean, 4.53) and the other histopathological entities (mean, 3.12). Conclusion: Semi-quantitative BSGI with calculation of the relative uptake factor (X) can help to characterize breast lesions. BSGI negativity may obviate the need for biopsy of breast lesions >1 cm with low or intermediate prevalence for malignancy. Advances in knowledge: Compared with morphological imaging modalities, specificity, positive

  3. Exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields from working in the static magnetic stray fields of MRI scanners: a comprehensive survey in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Crozier, Stuart; De Vocht, Frank; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Clinical and research staff who work around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are exposed to the static magnetic stray fields of these scanners. Although the past decade has seen strong developments in the assessment of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from MRI scanners, there is insufficient insight into the exposure variability that characterizes routine MRI work practice. However, this is an essential component of risk assessment and epidemiological studies. This paper describes the results of a measurement survey of shift-based personal exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) (B) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (dB/dt) among workers at 15 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. With the use of portable magnetic field dosimeters, >400 full-shift and partial shift exposure measurements were collected among various jobs involved in clinical and research MRI. Various full-shift exposure metrics for B and motion-induced dB/dt exposure were calculated from the measurements, including instantaneous peak exposure and time-weighted average (TWA) exposures. We found strong correlations between levels of static (B) and time-varying (dB/dt) exposure (r = 0.88-0.92) and between different metrics (i.e. peak exposure, TWA exposure) to express full-shift exposure (r = 0.69-0.78). On average, participants were exposed to MRI-related SMFs during only 3.7% of their work shift. Average and peak B and dB/dt exposure levels during the work inside the MRI scanner room were highest among technical staff, research staff, and radiographers. Average and peak B exposure levels were lowest among cleaners, while dB/dt levels were lowest among anaesthesiology staff. Although modest exposure variability between workplaces and occupations was observed, variation between individuals of the same occupation was substantial, especially among research staff. This relatively large variability between workers with the same job suggests that exposure classification

  4. A job interview in the MRI scanner: How does indirectness affect addressees and overhearers?

    PubMed

    Bašnáková, Jana; van Berkum, Jos; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In using language, people not only exchange information, but also navigate their social world - for example, they can express themselves indirectly to avoid losing face. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the neural correlates of interpreting face-saving indirect replies, in a situation where participants only overheard the replies as part of a conversation between two other people, as well as in a situation where the participants were directly addressed themselves. We created a fictional job interview context where indirect replies serve as a natural communicative strategy to attenuate one's shortcomings, and asked fMRI participants to either pose scripted questions and receive answers from three putative job candidates (addressee condition) or to listen to someone else interview the same candidates (overhearer condition). In both cases, the need to evaluate the candidate ensured that participants had an active interest in comprehending the replies. Relative to direct replies, face-saving indirect replies increased activation in medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle temporal gyrus, in active overhearers and active addressees alike, with similar effect size, and comparable to findings obtained in an earlier passive listening study (Bašnáková et al., 2014). In contrast, indirectness effects in bilateral anterior insula and pregenual ACC, two regions implicated in emotional salience and empathy, were reliably stronger in addressees than in active overhearers. Our findings indicate that understanding face-saving indirect language requires additional cognitive perspective-taking and other discourse-relevant cognitive processing, to a comparable extent in active overhearers and addressees. Furthermore, they indicate that face-saving indirect language draws upon affective systems more in addressees than in overhearers, presumably because the addressee

  5. Reproducibility of pulmonary blood flow measurements by phase-contrast MRI using different 1.5 T MR scanners at two institutions

    PubMed Central

    Iraha, Rin; Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Iwasawa, Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be beneficial for diagnosis of disease by offering quantitative information. However, reproducibility can be a major problem when there is a numerical threshold in multi-institution, multi-vendor situations. Purpose To measure pulmonary blood flow with phase-contrast (PC) imaging using two different MR scanners (1.5 T) at different institutions in the same participants and to examine the reproducibility of the measurements. Material and Methods Participants were 10 healthy volunteers (5 men; age range, 27–36 years). The measurements included the mean and maximal blood velocities, the mean blood flow volume, and the acceleration time and volume (AT and AV), derived from the time-flow curve of the PC-MRI. Simultaneously obtained maximal, minimal, and mean areas from regions of interest set in the pulmonary artery were also calculated. In order to calculate the reproducibility of the quantitative variables, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were employed. When an adequate ICC was obtained, Bland–Altman analysis was conducted to identify any systematic bias. Results The ICCs were almost perfect for the mean blood flow volume and the AV (r = 0.82 and 0.80), and were substantial in the mean and maximal areas, and the AT (r = 0.63, 0.74, and 0.64, respectively). However, there was a fixed bias in the area measurement between the two scanners. Also, the AV had a proportional bias. Conclusion Our results reveal that various indices derived from PC-MRI on different MR scanners are promising as common indices for pulmonary flow assessment. Research and clinical use of PC-MRI for the pulmonary artery is expected to extend to multi-institution situations. PMID:28210495

  6. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    PubMed

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures.

  7. Gd-AAZTA-MADEC, an improved blood pool agent for DCE-MRI studies on mice on 1 T scanners.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dario Livio; Arena, Francesca; Consolino, Lorena; Minazzi, Paolo; Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Giovenzana, Giovanni Battista; Aime, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    A novel MRI blood-pool contrast agent (Gd-AAZTA-MADEC) has been compared with established blood pool agents for tumor contrast enhanced images and angiography. Synthesis, relaxometric properties, albumin binding affinity and pharmacokinetic profiles are reported. For in vivo studies, angiographic images and tumor contrast enhanced images were acquired on mice with benchtop 1T-MRI scanners and compared with MS-325, B22956/1 and B25716/1. The design of this contrast agent involved the elongation of the spacer between the targeting deoxycholic acid moiety and the Gd-AAZTA imaging reporting unit that drastically changed either the binding affinity to albumin (KA(HSA) = 8.3 × 10(5) M(-1)) and the hydration state of the Gd ion (q = 2) in comparison to the recently reported B25716/1. The very markedly high binding affinity towards mouse and human serum albumins resulted in peculiar pharmacokinetics and relaxometric properties. The NMRD profiles clearly indicated that maximum efficiency is attainable at magnetic field strength of 1 T. In vivo studies showed high enhancement of the vasculature and a prolonged accumulation inside tumor. The herein reported pre-clinical imaging studies show that a great benefit arises from the combination of a benchtop MRI scanner operating at 1 T and the albumin-binding Gd-AAZTA-MADEC complex, for pursuing enhanced angiography and improved characterization of tumor vascular microenvironment.

  8. NOTE: Integrating a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a 6 MV accelerator: proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaymakers, B. W.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Overweg, J.; Kok, J. G. M.; Raaijmakers, A. J. E.; Kerkhof, E. M.; van der Put, R. W.; Meijsing, I.; Crijns, S. P. M.; Benedosso, F.; van Vulpen, M.; de Graaff, C. H. W.; Allen, J.; Brown, K. J.

    2009-06-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, we have constructed a prototype MRI accelerator. The prototype is a modified 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) accelerator next to a modified 1.5 T Philips Achieva (Best, The Netherlands) MRI system. From the initial design onwards, modifications to both systems were aimed to yield simultaneous and unhampered operation of the MRI and the accelerator. Indeed, the simultaneous operation is shown by performing diagnostic quality 1.5 T MRI with the radiation beam on. No degradation of the performance of either system was found. The integrated 1.5 T MRI system and radiotherapy accelerator allow simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging. The full diagnostic imaging capacities of the MRI can be used; dedicated sequences for MRI-guided radiotherapy treatments will be developed. This proof of concept opens the door towards a clinical prototype to start testing MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) in the clinic.

  9. Dynamic 1.5-T vs 3-T true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP)-MRI sequences for assessment of velopharyngeal function

    PubMed Central

    Sinko, K; Czerny, C; Jagsch, R; Baumann, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the image quality of MRI scans produced with 1.5- and 3.0-T devices during functional test condition. Methods: 65 MRI scans obtained with 1.5- (n = 43) or 3.0-T (n = 22) true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) sequences from patients with a history of a cleft palate were evaluated. Two experts assessed the MRI scans, independently of each other, and blinded to the MRI technique used. Subjective ratings were entered on a five-point Likert scale. The median planes of three anatomical structures (velum, tongue and pharyngeal wall) were assessed in three functional states (at rest, during phonation of sustained “e” and during articulation of “kkk”). In addition, MRI scans taken during velopharyngeal closure were evaluated. Results: Under blinded conditions, both observers (radiologist and orthodontist) independently rated the quality of 1.5-T scans higher than that of 3.0 T. Statistical analysis of pooled data showed that the differences were highly significant (p < 0.009) in 4 out of 10 test conditions. The greatest differences in favour of 1.5 T were observed for MRI scans of the velum. Conclusions: 1.5 T used with trueFISP may be preferable over 3.0-T trueFISP for the evaluation of the velopharyngeal structures in the clinical routine. PMID:26090932

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a monolithic detector module for integrated PET/MRI scanner with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Bettiol, M.; Fabbri, A.; Cinti, M. N.; Preziosi, E.; Borrazzo, C.; Conde, P.; Pellegrini, R.; Di Castro, E.; Majewski, S.

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of Mindview European Project concerns with the development of a very high resolution and high efficiency brain dedicated PET scanner simultaneously working with a Magnetic Resonance scanner, that expects to visualize neurotransmitter pathways and their disruptions in the quest to better diagnose schizophrenia. On behalf of this project, we propose a low cost PET module for the first prototype, based on monolithic crystals, suitable to be integrated with a head Radio Frequency (RF) coil. The aim of the suggested module is to achieve high performances in terms of efficiency, planar spatial resolution (expected about 1 mm) and discrimination of gamma Depth Of Interaction (DOI) in order to reduce the parallax error. Our preliminary results are very promising: a DOI resolution of about 3 mm, a spatial resolution ranging from about 1 to 1.5 mm and a good position linearity.

  11. A multichannel, real-time MRI RF power monitor for independent SAR determination

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Qian Di; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurements of the RF power delivered during clinical MRI are essential for safety and regulatory compliance, avoiding inappropriate restrictions on clinical MRI sequences, and for testing the MRI safety of peripheral and interventional devices at known RF exposure levels. The goal is to make independent RF power measurements to test the accuracy of scanner-reported specific absorption rate (SAR) over the extraordinary range of operating conditions routinely encountered in MRI. Methods: A six channel, high dynamic range, real-time power profiling system was designed and built for monitoring power delivery during MRI up to 440 MHz. The system was calibrated and used in two 3 T scanners to measure power applied to human subjects during MRI scans. The results were compared with the scanner-reported SAR. Results: The new power measurement system has highly linear performance over a 90 dB dynamic range and a wide range of MRI duty cycles. It has about 0.1 dB insertion loss that does not interfere with scanner operation. The measurements of whole-body SAR in volunteers showed that scanner-reported SAR was significantly overestimated by up to about 2.2 fold. Conclusions: The new power monitor system can accurately and independently measure RF power deposition over the wide range of conditions routinely encountered during MRI. Scanner-reported SAR values are not appropriate for setting exposure limits during device or pulse sequence testing.

  12. An Approach for Preoperative Planning and Performance of MR-guided Interventions Demonstrated With a Manual Manipulator in a 1.5T MRI Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Seimenis, Ioannis; Tsekos, Nikolaos V.; Keroglou, Christoforos; Eracleous, Eleni; Pitris, Constantinos; Christoforou, Eftychios G.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop and test a general methodology for the planning and performance of robot-assisted, MR-guided interventions. This methodology also includes the employment of software tools with appropriately tailored routines to effectively exploit the capabilities of MRI and address the relevant spatial limitations. Methods: The described methodology consists of: (1) patient-customized feasibility study that focuses on the geometric limitations imposed by the gantry, the robotic hardware, and interventional tools, as well as the patient; (2) stereotactic preoperative planning for initial positioning of the manipulator and alignment of its end-effector with a selected target; and (3) real-time, intraoperative tool tracking and monitoring of the actual intervention execution. Testing was performed inside a standard 1.5T MRI scanner in which the MR-compatible manipulator is deployed to provide the required access. Results: A volunteer imaging study demonstrates the application of the feasibility stage. A phantom study on needle targeting is also presented, demonstrating the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed preoperative and intraoperative stages of the methodology. For this purpose, a manually actuated, MR-compatible robotic manipulation system was used to accurately acquire a prescribed target through alternative approaching paths. Conclusions: The methodology presented and experimentally examined allows the effective performance of MR-guided interventions. It is suitable for, but not restricted to, needle-targeting applications assisted by a robotic manipulation system, which can be deployed inside a cylindrical scanner to provide the required access to the patient facilitating real-time guidance and monitoring.

  13. [MRI of the prostate: optimization of imaging protocols].

    PubMed

    Rouvière, O

    2006-02-01

    This article details the imaging protocols for prostate MRI and the influence on image quality of each particular setting: type of coils to be used (endorectal or external phased-array coils?), patient preparation, type of sequences, spatial resolution parameters. The principle and technical constraints of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI are also presented, as well as the predictable changes due to the introduction of high-field strength (3T) scanners.

  14. Cerebral correlates of heart rate variations during a spontaneous panic attack in the fMRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Hornyak, Magdolna; Kyle, Simon David; Paul, Dominik; Blechert, Jens; Seifritz, Erich; Hennig, Jürgen; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    We report the first published case study of a suddenly occurring panic attack in a patient with no prior history of panic disorder during combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 1.5 Tesla) and electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The single case was a 46-year-old woman who developed a panic attack near the planned end of the fMRI acquisition session, which therefore had to be aborted. Correlational analysis of heart rate fluctuations and fMRI data revealed a significant negative association in the left middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, regions-of-interest (ROI) analyses indicated significant positive associations in the left amygdala, and trends towards significance in the right amygdala and left insula.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging for anatomical localization of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei in pontine lesions: initial experiences with 3T-MRI.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Nils H; Ahmadli, Uzeyir; Woernle, Christoph M; Alzarhani, Yahea A; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Kollias, Spyros S

    2014-11-01

    With continuous refinement of neurosurgical techniques and higher resolution in neuroimaging, the management of pontine lesions is constantly improving. Among pontine structures with vital functions that are at risk of being damaged by surgical manipulation, cranial nerves (CN) and cranial nerve nuclei (CNN) such as CN V, VI, and VII are critical. Pre-operative localization of the intrapontine course of CN and CNN should be beneficial for surgical outcomes. Our objective was to accurately localize CN and CNN in patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and estimate its input in surgical planning for avoiding unintended loss of their function during surgery. DTI of the pons obtained pre-operatively on a 3Tesla MR scanner was analyzed prospectively for the accurate localization of CN and CNN V, VI and VII in seven patients with intra-axial lesions in the pons. Anatomical sections in the pons were used to estimate abnormalities on color-coded fractional anisotropy maps. Imaging abnormalities were correlated with CN symptoms before and after surgery. The course of CN and the area of CNN were identified using DTI pre- and post-operatively. Clinical associations between post-operative improvements and the corresponding CN area of the pons were demonstrated. Our results suggest that pre- and post-operative DTI allows identification of key anatomical structures in the pons and enables estimation of their involvement by pathology. It may predict clinical outcome and help us to better understand the involvement of the intrinsic anatomy by pathological processes.

  16. The impact of simulated MRI scanner background noise on visual attention processes as measured by the EEG.

    PubMed

    Kobald, S Oliver; Getzmann, Stephan; Beste, Christian; Wascher, Edmund

    2016-06-21

    Environmental noise is known to affect personal well-being as well as cognitive processes. Besides daily life, environmental noise can also occur in experimental research settings, e.g. when being in a magnetic resonance scanner. Scanner background noise (SBN) might pose serious confounds for experimental findings, even when non-auditory settings are examined. In the current experiment we tested if SBN alters bottom-up and top-down related processes of selective visual attention mechanisms. Participants completed two blocks of a visual change detection task, one block in silence and one block under SBN exposure. SBN was found to decrease accuracy in measures of visual attention. This effect was modulated by the temporal occurrence of SBN. When SBN was encountered in the first block, it prevented a significant improvement of accuracy in the second block. When SBN appeared in the second block, it significantly decreased accuracy. Neurophysiological findings showed a strong frontal positivity shift only when SBN was present in the first block, suggesting an inhibitory process to counteract the interfering SBN. Common correlates of both top-down and bottom-up processes of selective visual attention were not specifically affected by SBN exposure. Further research appears necessary to entirely rule out confounds of SBN in assessing visual attention.

  17. The impact of simulated MRI scanner background noise on visual attention processes as measured by the EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kobald, S. Oliver; Getzmann, Stephan; Beste, Christian; Wascher, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise is known to affect personal well-being as well as cognitive processes. Besides daily life, environmental noise can also occur in experimental research settings, e.g. when being in a magnetic resonance scanner. Scanner background noise (SBN) might pose serious confounds for experimental findings, even when non-auditory settings are examined. In the current experiment we tested if SBN alters bottom-up and top-down related processes of selective visual attention mechanisms. Participants completed two blocks of a visual change detection task, one block in silence and one block under SBN exposure. SBN was found to decrease accuracy in measures of visual attention. This effect was modulated by the temporal occurrence of SBN. When SBN was encountered in the first block, it prevented a significant improvement of accuracy in the second block. When SBN appeared in the second block, it significantly decreased accuracy. Neurophysiological findings showed a strong frontal positivity shift only when SBN was present in the first block, suggesting an inhibitory process to counteract the interfering SBN. Common correlates of both top-down and bottom-up processes of selective visual attention were not specifically affected by SBN exposure. Further research appears necessary to entirely rule out confounds of SBN in assessing visual attention. PMID:27324456

  18. 3T MRI and 128-slice dual-source CT cisternography images of the cranial nerves a brief pictorial review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Martinez-Anda, Jaime J; Corona-Cedillo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    There is a broad community of health sciences professionals interested in the anatomy of the cranial nerves (CNs): specialists in neurology, neurosurgery, radiology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, radiation oncology, and emergency medicine, as well as other related fields. Advances in neuroimaging using high-resolution images from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have made highly-detailed visualization of brain structures possible, allowing normal findings to be routinely assessed and nervous system pathology to be detected. In this article we present an integrated perspective of the normal anatomy of the CNs established by radiologists and neurosurgeons in order to provide a practical imaging review, which combines 128-slice dual-source multiplanar images from CT cisternography and 3T MR curved reconstructed images. The information about the CNs includes their origin, course (with emphasis on the cisternal segments and location of the orifices at the skull base transmitting them), function, and a brief listing of the most common pathologies affecting them. The scope of the article is clinical anatomy; readers will find specialized texts presenting detailed information about particular topics. Our aim in this article is to provide a helpful reference for understanding the complex anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  19. Probabilistic atlas-based segmentation of combined T1-weighted and DUTE MRI for calculation of head attenuation maps in integrated PET/MRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Poynton, Clare B; Chen, Kevin T; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Gollub, Randy L; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present a new MRI-based attenuation correction (AC) approach for integrated PET/MRI systems that combines both segmentation- and atlas-based methods by incorporating dual-echo ultra-short echo-time (DUTE) and T1-weighted (T1w) MRI data and a probabilistic atlas. Segmented atlases were constructed from CT training data using a leave-one-out framework and combined with T1w, DUTE, and CT data to train a classifier that computes the probability of air/soft tissue/bone at each voxel. This classifier was applied to segment the MRI of the subject of interest and attenuation maps (μ-maps) were generated by assigning specific linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to each tissue class. The μ-maps generated with this “Atlas-T1w-DUTE” approach were compared to those obtained from DUTE data using a previously proposed method. For validation of the segmentation results, segmented CT μ-maps were considered to the “silver standard”; the segmentation accuracy was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively through calculation of the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Relative change (RC) maps between the CT and MRI-based attenuation corrected PET volumes were also calculated for a global voxel-wise assessment of the reconstruction results. The μ-maps obtained using the Atlas-T1w-DUTE classifier agreed well with those derived from CT; the mean DSCs for the Atlas-T1w-DUTE-based μ-maps across all subjects were higher than those for DUTE-based μ-maps; the atlas-based μ-maps also showed a lower percentage of misclassified voxels across all subjects. RC maps from the atlas-based technique also demonstrated improvement in the PET data compared to the DUTE method, both globally as well as regionally. PMID:24753982

  20. Probabilistic atlas-based segmentation of combined T1-weighted and DUTE MRI for calculation of head attenuation maps in integrated PET/MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Poynton, Clare B; Chen, Kevin T; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Gollub, Randy L; Gerstner, Elizabeth R; Batchelor, Tracy T; Catana, Ciprian

    2014-01-01

    We present a new MRI-based attenuation correction (AC) approach for integrated PET/MRI systems that combines both segmentation- and atlas-based methods by incorporating dual-echo ultra-short echo-time (DUTE) and T1-weighted (T1w) MRI data and a probabilistic atlas. Segmented atlases were constructed from CT training data using a leave-one-out framework and combined with T1w, DUTE, and CT data to train a classifier that computes the probability of air/soft tissue/bone at each voxel. This classifier was applied to segment the MRI of the subject of interest and attenuation maps (μ-maps) were generated by assigning specific linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) to each tissue class. The μ-maps generated with this "Atlas-T1w-DUTE" approach were compared to those obtained from DUTE data using a previously proposed method. For validation of the segmentation results, segmented CT μ-maps were considered to the "silver standard"; the segmentation accuracy was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively through calculation of the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Relative change (RC) maps between the CT and MRI-based attenuation corrected PET volumes were also calculated for a global voxel-wise assessment of the reconstruction results. The μ-maps obtained using the Atlas-T1w-DUTE classifier agreed well with those derived from CT; the mean DSCs for the Atlas-T1w-DUTE-based μ-maps across all subjects were higher than those for DUTE-based μ-maps; the atlas-based μ-maps also showed a lower percentage of misclassified voxels across all subjects. RC maps from the atlas-based technique also demonstrated improvement in the PET data compared to the DUTE method, both globally as well as regionally.

  1. A novel method to decrease electric field and SAR using an external high dielectric sleeve at 3 T head MRI: numerical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Park, Bu S; Rajan, Sunder S; Guag, Joshua W; Angelone, Leonardo M

    2015-04-01

    Materials with high dielectric constant (HDC) have been used in high field MRI to decrease specific absorption rate (SAR), increase magnetic field intensity, and increase signal-to-noise ratio. In previous studies, the HDC materials were placed inside the RF coil decreasing the space available. This study describes an alternative approach that considers an HDC-based sleeve placed outside the RF coil. The effects of an HDC on the electromagnetic (EM) field were studied using numerical simulations with a coil unloaded and loaded with a human head model. In addition, experimental EM measurements at 128 MHz were performed inside a custom-made head coil, fitted with a distilled water sleeve. The numerical simulations showed up to 40% decrease in maximum 10 g-avg. SAR on the surface of the head model with an HDC material of barium titanate. Experimental measurements also showed up to 20% decrease of maximum electric field using an HDC material of distilled water. The proposed method can be incorporated in the design of high field transmit RF coils.

  2. Semi-Quantitative vs. Volumetric Determination of Endolymphatic Space in Menière’s Disease Using Endolymphatic Hydrops 3T-HR-MRI after Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Georg; Vieth, Volker; Weiss, Daniel; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Heindel, Walter; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Böckenfeld, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging enhances the clinical diagnosis of Menière's disease. This is accomplished by in vivo detection of endolymphatic hydrops, which are graded using different semi-quantitative grading systems. We evaluated an established, semi-quantitative endolymphatic hydrops score and with a quantitative method for volumetric assessment of the endolymphatic size. 11 patients with Menière's disease and 2 healthy subjects underwent high resolution endolymphatic hydrops 3 Tesla MRI with highly T2 weighted FLAIR and T2DRIVE sequences. The degree of endolymphatic hydrops was rated semi-quantitatively and compared to the results of 3D-volumetry. Moreover, the grade of endolymphatic hydrops was correlated with pure tone audiometry. Semi-quantitative grading and volumetric evaluation of the endolymphatic hydrops are in accordance (r = 0.92) and the grade of endolymphatic hydrops correlates with pure tone audiometry. Patients with a sickness duration of ≥ 30 months showed a significant higher total labyrinth fluid volume (p = 0.03). Fast, semi-quantitative evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops is highly reliable compared to quantitative/volumetric assessment. Endolymphatic space is significantly higher in patients with longer sickness duration. PMID:25768940

  3. Mechanisms and prevention of thermal injury from gamma radiosurgery headframes during 3T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marcus C; Wiant, David B; Gersh, Jacob A; Dolesh, Wendy; Ding, X; Best, Ryan C M; Bourland, J D

    2012-07-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regularly used for stereotactic imaging of Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery patients for GK treatment planning. MRI-induced thermal injuries have occurred and been reported for GK patients with attached metallic headframes. Depending on the specific MR imaging and headframe conditions, a skin injury from MRI-induced heating can potentially occur where the four headframe screws contact the skin surface of the patient's head. Higher MR field strength has a greater heating potential. Two primary heating mechanisms, electromagnetic induction and the antenna effect, are possible. In this study, MRI-induced heating from a 3T clinical MRI scanner was investigated for stereotactic headframes used in gamma radiosurgery and neurosurgery. Using melons as head phantoms, optical thermometers were used to characterize the temperature profile at various points of the melon headframe composite as a function of two 3T MR pulse sequence protocols. Different combinations of GK radiosurgery headframe post and screw designs were tested to determine best and worst combinations for MRI-induced heating. Temperature increases were measured for all pulse sequences tested, indicating that the potential exists for MRI-induced skin heating and burns at the headframe attachment site. This heating originates with electromagnetic induction caused by the RF fields inducing current in a loop formed by the headframe, mounting screws, and the region of the patient's head located between any of the two screws. This induced current is then resistively dissipated, with the regions of highest resistance, located at the headframe screw-patient head interface, experiencing the most heating. Significant heating can be prevented by replacing the metallic threads holding the screw with electrically insulated nuts, which is the heating prevention and patient safety recommendation of the GK manufacturer. Our results confirm that the manufacturer's recommendation to use

  4. Induced magnetic moment in stainless steel components of orthodontic appliances in 1.5 T MRI scanners

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Nancy K.; Liang, Hui; Park, Yong Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most orthodontic appliances are made of stainless steel materials and induce severe magnetic susceptibility artifacts in brain MRI. In an effort for correcting these artifacts, it is important to know the value of induced magnetic moments in all parts of orthodontic appliances. In this study, the induced magnetic moment of stainless steel orthodontic brackets, molar bands, and arch-wires from several vendors is measured. Methods: Individual stainless steel brackets, molar bands, and short segments of arch-wire were positioned in the center of spherical flask filled with water through a thin plastic rod. The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was determined by fitting the B0 map to the z-component of the magnetic dipole field using a computer routine. Results: The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was dominated by the longitudinal component mz, with a small contribution from the transverse components. The mz was insensitive to the orientation of the metal parts. The orthodontic brackets collectively dominated the magnetic dipole moment in orthodontic appliances. In brackets from six vendors, the total induced mz from 20 brackets for nonmolar teeth ranged from 0.108 to 0.158 (median 0.122) A ⋅ m2. The mz in eight molar bands with bracket attachment from two vendors ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0166 (median 0.0035) A ⋅ m2. Several full length arch wires had induced magnetic moment in the range of 0.006–0.025 (median 0.015) A ⋅ m2. Conclusions: Orthodontic brackets collectively contributed most to the total magnetic moment. Different types of brackets, molar bands, and arch wires all exhibit substantial variability in the induced magnetic moment. PMID:26429261

  5. Response competition and response inhibition during different choice-discrimination tasks: evidence from ERP measured inside MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier J; Inuggi, Alberto; Blasi, Valeria; Cursi, Marco; Annovazzi, Pietro; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the neural correlates underlying response inhibition and conflict detection processes using ERPs and source localization analyses simultaneously acquired during fMRI scanning. ERPs were elicited by a simple reaction time task (SRT), a Go/NoGo task, and a Stroop-like task (CST). The cognitive conflict was thus manipulated in order to probe the degree to which information processing is shared across cognitive systems. We proposed to dissociate inhibition and interference conflict effects on brain activity by using identical Stroop-like congruent/incongruent stimuli in all three task contexts and while varying the response required. NoGo-incongruent trials showed a larger N2 and enhanced activations of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas Go-congruent trials showed a larger P3 and increased parietal activations. Congruent and incongruent conditions of the CST task also elicited similar N2, P3 and late negativity (LN) ERPs, though CST-incongruent trials revealed a larger LN and enhanced prefrontal and ACC activations. Considering the stimulus probability and experimental manipulation of our study, current findings suggest that NoGo N2 and frontal NoGo P3 appear to be more associated to response inhibition rather than a specific conflict monitoring, whereas occipito-parietal P3 of Go and CST conditions may be more linked to a planned response competition between the prepared and required response. LN, however, appears to be related to higher level conflict monitoring associated with response choice-discrimination but not when the presence of cognitive conflict is associated with response inhibition.

  6. Can the Neural Basis of Repression Be Studied in the MRI Scanner? New Insights from Two Free Association Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Henrik; Do Lam, Anne T. A.; Fell, Juergen; Schmidt, Anna-Christine; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Background The psychodynamic theory of repression suggests that experiences which are related to internal conflicts become unconscious. Previous attempts to investigate repression experimentally were based on voluntary, intentional suppression of stimulus material. Unconscious repression of conflict-related material is arguably due to different processes, but has never been studied with neuroimaging methods. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in addition with skin conductance recordings during two free association paradigms to identify the neural mechanisms underlying forgetting of freely associated words according to repression theory. Results In the first experiment, free association to subsequently forgotten words was accompanied by increases in skin conductance responses (SCRs) and reaction times (RTs), indicating autonomic arousal, and by activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these associations were repressed because they elicited internal conflicts. To test this idea more directly, we conducted a second experiment in which participants freely associated to conflict-related sentences. Indeed, these associations were more likely to be forgotten than associations to not conflict-related sentences and were accompanied by increases in SCRs and RTs. Furthermore, we observed enhanced activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and deactivation of hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex during association to conflict-related sentences. Conclusions These two experiments demonstrate that high autonomic arousal during free association predicts subsequent memory failure, accompanied by increased activation of conflict-related and deactivation of memory-related brain regions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that during repression, explicit memory systems are down-regulated by the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:23638050

  7. Ratiometric MRI sensors based on core-shell nanoparticles for quantitative pH imaging.

    PubMed

    Okada, Satoshi; Mizukami, Shin; Sakata, Takao; Matsumura, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2014-05-21

    Ratiometric MRI sensors consist of paramagnetic cores and pH-sensitive polymer shells. The core-shell nanostructure enables the coexistence of two incompatible NMR relaxation properties in one particle. The sensors show pH sensitivity in transverse relaxivity (r2 ), but not in longitudinal relaxivity (r1 ). Quantitative pH imaging is achieved by measuring the r2 /r1 value with a clinical 3 T MRI scanner.

  8. Scanner Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Joy; Murphy, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they incorporated environmental awareness into their art curriculum. Here, they describe a digital photography project in which their students used flatbed scanners as cameras. Their students composed their objects directly on the scanner. The lesson enabled students to realize that artists have voices…

  9. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  10. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in an increase of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13C-CO2 (13C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of 13C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of 13C-pyruvate to 13C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with 18F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq 18F-FDG. 13C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Peak heights of 13C-pyruvate and 13C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic 1H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased 13C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high 18F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high 18F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high 13C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly demonstrates how the Warburg Effect directly

  11. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq (18)F-FDG. (13)C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Peak heights of (13)C-pyruvate and (13)C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic (1)H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased (13)C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high (18)F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high (13)C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly

  12. Molecular imaging probes spy on the body's inner workings: miniaturized microscopes, microbubbles, 7- and 15-T scanners, diffusion-tensor MRI, and other molecular-imaging technologies are pushing molecular imaging into the future.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging is one of the hot-button areas within medical imaging. This technology employs imaging techniques in concert with molecular probes, or biomarkers, that together noninvasively spy on cellular function and molecular processes. In some cases, this technology may be able to detect the very earliest stages of diseases and eliminate them on the spot. This paper discusses how miniaturized microscopes, microbubbles, 7T and 15T scanners, diffusion-tensor MRI and other molecular imaging technologies are pushing molecular imaging into the future.

  13. The pattern of exposure to static magnetic field of nurses involved in activities related to contrast administration into patients diagnosed in 1.5 T MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) and time-varying electromagnetic fields exposure is necessary to obtain the diagnostic information regarding the structure of patient's tissues, by the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A diagnostic procedure may also include the administration of pharmaceuticals called contrast, which are to be applied to a patient during the examination. The nurses involved in administering contrast into a patient during the pause in examination are approaching permanently active magnets of MRI scanners and are exposed to SMF. There were performed measurements of spatial distribution of SMF in the vicinity of MRI magnets and parameters of personal exposure of nurses (i.e. individual exposimetric profiles of variability in time of SMF affecting the nurse who is performing tasks in the vicinity of magnet, characterized by statistical parameters of recorded magnetic flux density affecting the nurse). The SMF exposure in the vicinity of various MRI magnets depends on both magnetic flux density of the main field B 0 (applicable to a patient) and the construction of the scanner, but the most important factor determining the workers' exposure is the work practice. In the course of a patient's routine examination in scanners of B₀ = 1.5 T, the nurses are present over ∼0.4-2.9 min in SMF exceeding 0.03% of B₀ (i.e. 0.5 mT), but only sometimes they are present in SMF exceeding 5% of B 0 (i.e. 75 mT). When patients need more attention because of their health status/condition, the nurses' exposure may be significantly longer--it may even exceed 10 min and 30% of B 0 (i.e. 500 mT). We have found that the level of exposure of nurses to SMF may vary from < 5% of the main field (a median value: 0.5-1.5%; inter-quartile range: 0.04-8.8%; max value: 1.3-12% of B₀) when a patient is moved from the magnets bore before contrast administration, up to the main field level (B₀) when a patient stays in the magnets bore and nurse is crawling into the

  14. Cylindrical Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Thomas E.

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to send data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) in a glioma model of the rat brain using a conventional receive-only surface coil with a inner diameter of 47 mm at a clinical 1.5 T scanner.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Stephan; Reeh, Matthias; Krause, Joerg; Herdegen, Thomas; Heldt-Feindt, Janka; Jansen, Olav; Rohr, Axel

    2008-07-30

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in animal models is usually performed in expensive dedicated small bore animal scanners of limited availability. In the present study a standard clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was used for morphometric and dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted MR imaging (DSC-MRI) of a glioma model of the rat brain. Ten male Wistar rats were examined with coronal T2-weighted, and T1-weighted images (matrix 128 x 128, FOV 64 mm) after implantation of an intracerebral tumor xenografts (C6) using a conventional surface coil. For DSC-MRI a T2*-weighted sequence (TR/TE=30/14 ms, matrix 64 x 64, FOV 90 mm; slice thickness of 1.5mm) was performed. Regions of interest were defined within the tumor and the non-affected contralateral hemisphere and the mean transit time (MTT) was determined. Tumor dimensions in MR predicted well its real size as proven by histology. The MTT of contrast agent passing through the brain was significantly decelerated in the tumor compared to the unaffected hemisphere (p<0.001, paired t-test), which is most likely due to the leakage of contrast agent through the disrupted blood brain barrier. This setup offers advanced MR imaging of small animals without the need for dedicated animal scanners or dedicated custom-made coils.

  16. Monitoring fractional anisotropy in developing rabbit brain using MR diffusion tensor imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Yang, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factional anisotropy (FA) in various regions of developing rabbit brain using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) at 3 T. A whole-body clinical MR imaging (MRI) scanner with a 15-channel high resolution knee coil was used. An echo-planar-imaging (EPI)-DTI pulse sequence was performed. Five 5 week-old New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits underwent MRI once per week for 24 weeks. After scanning, FA maps were obtained. ROIs (regions of interests) in the frontal lobe, parietal & temporal lobe, and occipital lobe were measured. FA changes with time were evaluated with a linear regression analysis. The results show that the FA values in all lobes of the brain increased linearly with age. The ranking of FA values was FA(frontal lobe) < FA(parietal & temporal lobe) > FA(occipital lobe). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) among these lobes. FA values are associated with the nerve development and brain functions. The FA change rate could be a biomarker to monitor the brain development. Understanding the FA values of various lobes during development could provide helpful information to diagnosis the abnormal syndrome earlier and have a better treatment and prognosis. This study established a brain MR-DTI protocol for rabbits to investigate the brain anatomy during development using clinical MRI. This technique can be further applied to the pre-clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow-up of brain lesions.

  17. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (<70 dB) small-scale animal imager. Results serve as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  18. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K.; Sendhil Velan, S.; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D.

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  19. MRI renaissance.

    PubMed

    Hensley, S

    1997-12-01

    A few years ago, magnetic resonance imaging was healthcare's version of a foreign sports car-flashy, expensive and impractical. Now, after years in the doldrums, sales of MRI systems are roaring back. An aging fleet of MRI scanners due for replacement and a hearty increase in doctors' use of the versatile imaging tools are combining to fuel the surge in demand, vendors and customers say.

  20. Multi-centre reproducibility of diffusion MRI parameters for clinical sequences in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Hales, Patrick W; Miyazaki, Keiko; Raschke, Felix; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wilson, Martin; Gill, Simrandip K; Banks, Tina; Saunders, Dawn E; Clayden, Jonathan D; Gwilliam, Matt N; Barrick, Thomas R; Morgan, Paul S; Davies, Nigel P; Rossiter, James; Auer, Dorothee P; Grundy, Richard; Leach, Martin O; Howe, Franklyn A; Peet, Andrew C; Clark, Chris A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. An ice–water phantom and nine healthy volunteers were scanned across fives centres on eight scanners (four Siemens 1.5T, four Philips 3T). The mean ADC, IVIM parameters (diffusion coefficient D and perfusion fraction f) and DTI parameters (mean diffusivity MD and fractional anisotropy FA), were measured in grey matter, white matter and specific brain sub-regions. A mixed effect model was used to measure the intra- and inter-scanner coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the five parameters. ADC, D, MD and FA had a good intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility in both grey and white matter, with a CV ranging between 1% and 7.4%; mean 2.6%. Other brain regions also showed high levels of reproducibility except for small structures such as the choroid plexus. The IVIM parameter f had a higher intra-scanner CV of 8.4% and inter-scanner CV of 24.8%. No major difference in the inter-scanner CV for ADC, D, MD and FA was observed when analysing the 1.5T and 3T scanners separately. ADC, D, MD and FA all showed good intra-scanner reproducibility, with the inter-scanner reproducibility being comparable or faring slightly worse, suggesting that using data from multiple scanners does not have an adverse effect compared with using data from the same scanner. The IVIM parameter f had a poorer inter-scanner CV when scanners of different field strengths were combined, and the parameter was also affected by the scan acquisition resolution. This study shows that the majority of diffusion MRI derived parameters are robust across 1.5T and 3T scanners and suitable for use in multi-centre clinical studies and trials. © 2015 The Authors NMR in

  1. Multi-centre reproducibility of diffusion MRI parameters for clinical sequences in the brain.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Hales, Patrick W; Miyazaki, Keiko; Raschke, Felix; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wilson, Martin; Gill, Simrandip K; Banks, Tina; Saunders, Dawn E; Clayden, Jonathan D; Gwilliam, Matt N; Barrick, Thomas R; Morgan, Paul S; Davies, Nigel P; Rossiter, James; Auer, Dorothee P; Grundy, Richard; Leach, Martin O; Howe, Franklyn A; Peet, Andrew C; Clark, Chris A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. An ice-water phantom and nine healthy volunteers were scanned across fives centres on eight scanners (four Siemens 1.5T, four Philips 3T). The mean ADC, IVIM parameters (diffusion coefficient D and perfusion fraction f) and DTI parameters (mean diffusivity MD and fractional anisotropy FA), were measured in grey matter, white matter and specific brain sub-regions. A mixed effect model was used to measure the intra- and inter-scanner coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the five parameters. ADC, D, MD and FA had a good intra- and inter-scanner reproducibility in both grey and white matter, with a CV ranging between 1% and 7.4%; mean 2.6%. Other brain regions also showed high levels of reproducibility except for small structures such as the choroid plexus. The IVIM parameter f had a higher intra-scanner CV of 8.4% and inter-scanner CV of 24.8%. No major difference in the inter-scanner CV for ADC, D, MD and FA was observed when analysing the 1.5T and 3T scanners separately. ADC, D, MD and FA all showed good intra-scanner reproducibility, with the inter-scanner reproducibility being comparable or faring slightly worse, suggesting that using data from multiple scanners does not have an adverse effect compared with using data from the same scanner. The IVIM parameter f had a poorer inter-scanner CV when scanners of different field strengths were combined, and the parameter was also affected by the scan acquisition resolution. This study shows that the majority of diffusion MRI derived parameters are robust across 1.5T and 3T scanners and suitable for use in multi-centre clinical studies and trials.

  2. Optimized magnetic resonance diffusion protocol for ex-vivo whole human brain imaging with a clinical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides a novel insight into the brain to facilitate our understanding of the brain connectivity and microstructure. While in-vivo DW-MRI enables imaging of living patients and longitudinal studies of brain changes, post-mortem ex-vivo DW-MRI has numerous advantages. Ex-vivo imaging benefits from greater resolution and sensitivity due to the lack of imaging time constraints; the use of tighter fitting coils; and the lack of movement artifacts. This allows characterization of normal and abnormal tissues with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, facilitating our ability to investigate anatomical structures that are inaccessible in-vivo. This also offers the opportunity to develop today novel imaging biomarkers that will, with tomorrow's MR technology, enable improved in-vivo assessment of the risk of disease in an individual. Post-mortem studies, however, generally rely on the fixation of specimen to inhibit tissue decay which starts as soon as tissue is deprived from its blood supply. Unfortunately, fixation of tissues substantially alters tissue diffusivity profiles. In addition, ex-vivo DW-MRI requires particular care when packaging the specimen because the presence of microscopic air bubbles gives rise to geometric and intensity image distortion. In this work, we considered the specific requirements of post-mortem imaging and designed an optimized protocol for ex-vivo whole brain DW-MRI using a human clinical 3T scanner. Human clinical 3T scanners are available to a large number of researchers and, unlike most animal scanners, have a bore diameter large enough to image a whole human brain. Our optimized protocol will facilitate widespread ex-vivo investigations of large specimen.

  3. Optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, Mitchell W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for imaging lines in an object plane onto a linear array in a focal plane either continuously or discretely is described. The scanner consists of a set of four mutually perpendicularly oriented plane corner mirrors which provide a reflecting path that describes a parallelogram. In addition, there is a plane parallel scanning mirror with a front and back reflecting surface located midway between the first and fourth corner mirrors. It is oriented so that in the mid-scan position it is parallel to the first corner mirror, and therefore perpendicular to the fourth corner mirror. As the scan mirror rotates, rays incident from a plurality of lines in the object plane are selectively directed through the optical system arriving at a common intersection on the back surface of the scanning mirror where the rays are colinearly directed toward a lens and then imaged onto the linear array in the focal plane. A set of compensating mirrors may be introduced just before the imaging lens to compensate for a small and generally negligible path difference delta sub l between the axial and marginal rays.

  4. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Parameters as Biomarkers in Assessing Head and Neck Lesions After Chemoradiotherapy Using a Wide-Bore 3 Tesla Scanner.

    PubMed

    Lerant, Gergely; Sarkozy, Peter; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polony, Gabor; Tamas, Laszlo; Toth, Erika; Boer, Andras; Javor, Laszlo; Godeny, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Pilot studies have shown promising results in characterizing head and neck tumors (HNT) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), differentiating between malignant and benign lesions and evaluating changes in response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Our aim was to find DCE-MRI parameters, biomarkers in evaluating the post-CRT status. Two hundred and five patients with head and neck lesions were examined with DCE-MRI sequences. The time intensity curves (TIC) were extracted and processed to acquire time-to-peak (TTP), relative maximum enhancement (RME), relative wash-out (RWO), and two new parameters attack and decay. These parameters were analyzed using univariate tests in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 17, SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) to identify parameters that could be used to infer tumor malignancy and post-CRT changes. Multiple parameters of curve characteristics were significantly different between malignant tumors after CRT (MACRT) and changes caused by CRT. The best-performing biomarkers were the attack and the decay. We also found multiple significant (p < 0.05) parameters for both the benign and malignant status as well as pre- and post-CRT status. Our large cohort of data supports the increasing role of DCE-MRI in HNT differentiation, particularly for the assessment of post-CRT status along with accurate morphological imaging.

  5. Multichannel Compressive Sensing MRI Using Noiselet Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Egan, Gary; Zhang, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS). In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS) framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding. PMID:25965548

  6. Multichannel compressive sensing MRI using noiselet encoding.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kamlesh; Egan, Gary; Zhang, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP) of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS). In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS) framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding.

  7. Comparisons between the 35 mm Quadrature Surface Resonator at 300 K and the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting Surface Resonator at 77 K in a 3T MRI Imager

    PubMed Central

    Song, Manli; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chen, Ji; Lin, In-Tsang

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to compare the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 40 mm High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) surface resonator at 77 K and the 35 mm commercial quadrature (QD) surface resonator at 300 K in a 3 Tesla (T) MRI imager. To aquire images for the comparison, we implemented a phantom experiment using the 40 mm diameter Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) HTS surface resonator, the 35 mm commercial QD surface resonator and the 40 mm professionally-made copper surface resonator. The HTS surface resonator at 77 K provided a 1.43-fold SNR gain over the QD surface resonator at 300 K and provided a 3.84-fold SNR gain over the professionally-made copper surface resonator at 300 K on phantom images. The results agree with the predictions, and the difference between the predicted SNR gains and measured SNR gains is 1%. Although the geometry of the HTS surface resonator is different from the QD surface resonator, its SNR is still higher. The results demonstrate that a higher image quality can be obtained with the HTS surface resonator at 77 K. With the HTS surface resonator, the SNR can be improved, suggesting that the HTS surface resonator is a potentially helpful diagnostic tool for MRI imaging in various applications. PMID:25812124

  8. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-13

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  9. Minimum Field Strength Simulator for Proton Density Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiyi; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a framework for simulating low-field proton-density weighted MRI acquisitions based on high-field acquisitions, which could be used to predict the minimum B0 field strength requirements for MRI techniques. This framework would be particularly useful in the evaluation of de-noising and constrained reconstruction techniques. Materials and Methods Given MRI raw data, lower field MRI acquisitions can be simulated based on the signal and noise scaling with field strength. Certain assumptions are imposed for the simulation and their validity is discussed. A validation experiment was performed using a standard resolution phantom imaged at 0.35 T, 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T. This framework was then applied to two sample proton-density weighted MRI applications that demonstrated estimation of minimum field strength requirements: real-time upper airway imaging and liver proton-density fat fraction measurement. Results The phantom experiment showed good agreement between simulated and measured images. The SNR difference between simulated and measured was ≤ 8% for the 1.5T, 3T, and 7T cases which utilized scanners with the same geometry and from the same vendor. The measured SNR at 0.35T was 1.8- to 2.5-fold less than predicted likely due to unaccounted differences in the RF receive chain. The predicted minimum field strength requirements for the two sample applications were 0.2 T and 0.3 T, respectively. Conclusions Under certain assumptions, low-field MRI acquisitions can be simulated from high-field MRI data. This enables prediction of the minimum field strength requirements for a broad range of MRI techniques. PMID:27136334

  10. MR-Guided Freehand Biopsy of Liver Lesions With Fast Continuous Imaging Using a 1.0-T Open MRI Scanner: Experience in 50 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbach, Frank; Bunke, Juergen; Thormann, Markus; Gaffke, Gunnar; Jungnickel, Kerstin; Smink, Jouke; Ricke, Jens

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess a new open system with a field-strength of 1.0 T for the feasibility of liver biopsy using the freehand technique with fast continuous imaging. Fifty patients with focal liver lesions measuring 5 to 30 mm in diameter were included in the study. Guidance and monitoring was performed using a 1.0-T open magnetic resonance (MR) scanner (Panorama HFO; Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). With fast continuous imaging using a T1-weighted (T1W) gradient echo (GRE) sequence after administration of gadolinium (Gd)-EOB-DTPA, the needle was placed into the lesion. An interface for interactive dynamic viewing in two perpendicular planes prevented needle deviations T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) fat-suppressed sequence was added to rule out postinterventional hematoma or biloma. All lesions were visible on the interventional images. Biopsy was technically successful, and solid specimens were obtained in all cases. Forty-six patients showed a histopathologic pattern other than native liver tissue, thus confirming correct position of the needle. Time between determination of the lesion and performance of the control scan was on average 18 min. No major complications were recorded. MR guidance with the new 1-T open system must be considered an attractive alternative for liver punction. An interface for dynamic imaging of needle guidance and T1W-GRE imaging with administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast enhancement allows the pinpoint puncture of liver lesions.

  11. Measurement of creatine kinase reaction rate in human brain using magnetization transfer image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (MT-ISIS) and a volume ³¹P/¹H radiofrequency coil in a clinical 3-T MRI system.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun-Kee; Sung, Young-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Eun; Zuo, Chun; Shi, Xianfeng; Mellon, Eric A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-08-01

    High-energy phosphate metabolism, which allows the synthesis and regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is a vital process for neuronal survival and activity. In particular, creatine kinase (CK) serves as an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering of ATP levels. Altered CK enzyme activity, reflecting compromised high-energy phosphate metabolism or mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain, can be assessed using magnetization transfer (MT) MRS. MT (31)P MRS has been used to measure the forward CK reaction rate in animal and human brain, employing a surface radiofrequency coil. However, long acquisition times and excessive radiofrequency irradiation prevent these methods from being used routinely for clinical evaluations. In this article, a new MT (31)P MRS method is presented, which can be practically used to measure the CK forward reaction rate constant in a clinical MRI system employing a volume head (31)P coil for spatial localization, without contamination from the scalp muscle, and an acquisition time of 30 min. Other advantages associated with the method include radiofrequency homogeneity within the regions of interest of the brain using a volume coil with image-selected in vivo spectroscopy localization, and reduction of the specific absorption rate using nonadiabatic radiofrequency pulses for MT saturation. The mean value of k(f) was measured as 0.320 ± 0.075 s(-1) from 10 healthy volunteers with an age range of 18-40 years. These values are consistent with those obtained using earlier methods, and the technique may be used routinely to evaluate energetic processes in the brain on a clinical MRI system.

  12. Objective Bayesian fMRI analysis—a pilot study in different clinical environments

    PubMed Central

    Magerkurth, Joerg; Mancini, Laura; Penny, William; Flandin, Guillaume; Ashburner, John; Micallef, Caroline; De Vita, Enrico; Daga, Pankaj; White, Mark J.; Buckley, Craig; Yamamoto, Adam K.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Yousry, Tarek; Thornton, John S.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) used for neurosurgical planning delineates functionally eloquent brain areas by time-series analysis of task-induced BOLD signal changes. Commonly used frequentist statistics protect against false positive results based on a p-value threshold. In surgical planning, false negative results are equally if not more harmful, potentially masking true brain activity leading to erroneous resection of eloquent regions. Bayesian statistics provides an alternative framework, categorizing areas as activated, deactivated, non-activated or with low statistical confidence. This approach has not yet found wide clinical application partly due to the lack of a method to objectively define an effect size threshold. We implemented a Bayesian analysis framework for neurosurgical planning fMRI. It entails an automated effect-size threshold selection method for posterior probability maps accounting for inter-individual BOLD response differences, which was calibrated based on the frequentist results maps thresholded by two clinical experts. We compared Bayesian and frequentist analysis of passive-motor fMRI data from 10 healthy volunteers measured on a pre-operative 3T and an intra-operative 1.5T MRI scanner. As a clinical case study, we tested passive motor task activation in a brain tumor patient at 3T under clinical conditions. With our novel effect size threshold method, the Bayesian analysis revealed regions of all four categories in the 3T data. Activated region foci and extent were consistent with the frequentist analysis results. In the lower signal-to-noise ratio 1.5T intra-operative scanner data, Bayesian analysis provided improved brain-activation detection sensitivity compared with the frequentist analysis, albeit the spatial extents of the activations were smaller than at 3T. Bayesian analysis of fMRI data using operator-independent effect size threshold selection may improve the sensitivity and certainty of information available to guide neurosurgery

  13. Real-time motion- and B0-correction for LASER-localized spiral-accelerated 3D-MRSI of the brain at 3T.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Wolfgang; Hess, Aaron T; Gagoski, Borjan; Tisdall, M Dylan; van der Kouwe, Andre J W; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rosen, Bruce; Andronesi, Ovidiu C

    2014-03-01

    The full potential of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is often limited by localization artifacts, motion-related artifacts, scanner instabilities, and long measurement times. Localized adiabatic selective refocusing (LASER) provides accurate B1-insensitive spatial excitation even at high magnetic fields. Spiral encoding accelerates MRSI acquisition, and thus, enables 3D-coverage without compromising spatial resolution. Real-time position- and shim/frequency-tracking using MR navigators correct motion- and scanner instability-related artifacts. Each of these three advanced MRI techniques provides superior MRSI data compared to commonly used methods. In this work, we integrated in a single pulse sequence these three promising approaches. Real-time correction of motion, shim, and frequency-drifts using volumetric dual-contrast echo planar imaging-based navigators were implemented in an MRSI sequence that uses low-power gradient modulated short-echo time LASER localization and time efficient spiral readouts, in order to provide fast and robust 3D-MRSI in the human brain at 3T. The proposed sequence was demonstrated to be insensitive to motion- and scanner drift-related degradations of MRSI data in both phantoms and volunteers. Motion and scanner drift artifacts were eliminated and excellent spectral quality was recovered in the presence of strong movement. Our results confirm the expected benefits of combining a spiral 3D-LASER-MRSI sequence with real-time correction. The new sequence provides accurate, fast, and robust 3D metabolic imaging of the human brain at 3T. This will further facilitate the use of 3D-MRSI for neuroscience and clinical applications.

  14. B1 homogeneity of breast MRI using RF shimming with individual specific values in volunteers simulating patients after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3-T MRI scanner is now widely used for clinical examinations. However, B1 inhomogeneity becomes larger with MRI scanners using 3-T and higher. It especially becomes a problem in the breast. To improve B1 homogeneity, a RF shimming technique has been developed. Purpose To evaluate the B1 homogeneity of breast MRI using RF shimming with individual specific values for subjects after mastectomy. Material and Methods The subjects are healthy female volunteers who underwent normal breast imaging, followed by imaging of one breast while the other breast was bound tightly to the chest by bleached cotton cloths (simulating volunteers after mastectomy). B1 mappings were performed with RF shimming using two techniques: (i) optimized fixed value; and (ii) individual specific values using a 3-T MRI scanner. The means and standard deviations of the B1 maps for all slices in the breast were measured and compared between the fixed value and the individual specific value cases. Results For normal volunteers, the breast B1 variation was not statistically significantly different between the RF shimming techniques. For volunteers after simulated surgery, the breast B1 variation was (1.02 ± 0.29) with the fixed value and (0.98 ± 0.22) with the individual specific value ( P < 0.01). With the individual specific optimization, B1 variation for all slices in the breast was improved for volunteers after simulated surgery. Conclusion RF shimming with individual specific values has the potential to improve the B1 homogeneity of breast MRI in patients after mastectomy.

  15. An MR-conditional high-torque pneumatic stepper motor for MRI-guided and robot-assisted intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800 mN m output torque is achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a 3T Siemens MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Skyra, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and a 3T GE MRI scanner (GE SignaHDx, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated for study of its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images. No observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the pneumatic motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used under MRI.

  16. In vivo conductivity imaging of canine male pelvis using a 3T MREIT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Jeong, W. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Minhas, A. S.; Lee, T. H.; Lim, C. Y.; Park, H. M.; Seo, J. K.; Woo, E. J.

    2010-04-01

    The prostate is an imaging area of growing concern related with aging. Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are the most common diseases and significant cause of death for elderly men. Hence, the conductivity imaging of the male pelvis is a challenging task with a clinical significance. In this study, we performed in vivo MREIT imaging experiments of the canine male pelvis using a 3T MRI scanner. Adopting carbon-hydrogel electrodes and a multi-echo pulse sequence, we could inject as much as 10 mA current in a form of 51 ms pulse into the pelvis. Collecting magnetic flux density data inside the pelvis subject to multiple injection currents, we reconstructed cross-sectional conductivity images using a MREIT software package CoReHA. Scaled conductivity images of the prostate show a clear contrast between the central and peripheral zones which are related with prostate diseases including cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In our future work, we will focus on prostate cancer model animal experiments.

  17. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  18. MRI Evaluation and Safety in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tocchio, Shannon; Kline-Fath, Beth; Kanal, Emanuel; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the developing brain has dramatically increased over the last decade. Faster acquisitions and the development of advanced MRI sequences such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, functional MR imaging (fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), as well as the use of higher magnetic field strengths has made MRI an invaluable tool for detailed evaluation of the developing brain. This article will provide an overview of the use and challenges associated with 1.5T and 3T static magnetic fields for evaluation of the developing brain. This review will also summarize the advantages, clinical challenges and safety concerns specifically related to MRI in the fetus and newborn, including the implications of increased magnetic field strength, logistics related to transporting and monitoring of neonates during scanning, sedation considerations and a discussion of current technologies such as MRI-conditional neonatal incubators and dedicated small-foot print neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) scanners. PMID:25743582

  19. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  20. [3 Tesla MRI: successful results with higher field strengths].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, F; Grosu, D; Mohr, C; Purdy, D; Salem, K; Scott, K T; Stoeckel, B

    2004-01-01

    The recent development of 3 Tesla MRI (3T MRI) has been fueled by promise of increased signal-to-noise ratio(SNR). Many are excited about the opportunity to not only use the increased SNR for clearer images, but also the chance to exchange it for better resolution or faster scans. These possibilities have caused a rapid increase in the market for 3T MRI, where the faster scanning tips an already advantageous economic outlook in favor of the user. As a result, the global market for 3T has grown from a research only market just a few years ago to an ever-increasing clinically oriented customer base. There are, however, significant obstacles to 3T MRI presented by the physics at higher field strengths. For example, the T1 relaxation times are prolonged with increasing magnet field strength. Further, the increased RF-energy deposition (SAR), the larger the chemical shift and the stronger susceptibility effect have to be considered as challenges. It is critical that one looks at both the advantages and disadvantages of using 3T. While there are many issues to address aand a number of different methods for doing so, to properly tackle each of these concerns will take time and effort on the part od researchers and clinicians. The optimization of 3T MRI scanning will have to be a combined effort, though much of the work to date has been in neuroimaging. Multiple applications have been explored in addition to clinical anatomical imaging, where resolution is improved showing structure in the brain never seen before in human MRI. Body and cardiac imaging provide a great challenge but are also achievable at 3T. As an example, the full range of clinical applications currently achieved on today's state-of-the-art 1.5T cardiac MR scanners has also been demonstrated at 3T. In the body, the full range of contrast is available over large fields of view allowing whole liver studies in the clinic or, as needed, one may choose a smaller field of view for high-resolution imaging of the

  1. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  2. Standardized quantitative measurements of wrist cartilage in healthy humans using 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Jean-Vincent; Souteyrand, Philippe; Guis, Sandrine; Chagnaud, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Militianu, Daniela; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Guye, Maxime; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the wrist cartilage cross-sectional area in humans from a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset and to assess the corresponding reproducibility. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 healthy volunteers (6 females and 8 males) between 30 and 58 years old and devoid of articular pain. Subjects were asked to lie down in the supine position with the right hand positioned above the pelvic region on top of a home-built rigid platform attached to the scanner bed. The wrist was wrapped with a flexible surface coil. MRI investigations were performed at 3T (Verio-Siemens) using volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) and dual echo steady state (DESS) MRI sequences. Cartilage cross sectional area (CSA) was measured on a slice of interest selected from a 3D dataset of the entire carpus and metacarpal-phalangeal areas on the basis of anatomical criteria using conventional image processing radiology software. Cartilage cross-sectional areas between opposite bones in the carpal region were manually selected and quantified using a thresholding method. RESULTS: Cartilage CSA measurements performed on a selected predefined slice were 292.4 ± 39 mm2 using the VIBE sequence and slightly lower, 270.4 ± 50.6 mm2, with the DESS sequence. The inter (14.1%) and intra (2.4%) subject variability was similar for both MRI methods. The coefficients of variation computed for the repeated measurements were also comparable for the VIBE (2.4%) and the DESS (4.8%) sequences. The carpus length averaged over the group was 37.5 ± 2.8 mm with a 7.45% between-subjects coefficient of variation. Of note, wrist cartilage CSA measured with either the VIBE or the DESS sequences was linearly related to the carpal bone length. The variability between subjects was significantly reduced to 8.4% when the CSA was normalized with respect to the carpal bone length. CONCLUSION: The ratio between wrist cartilage CSA and carpal bone length is a highly reproducible standardized

  3. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    requirements are defined, the system designed and constructed, the controller developed, and the full system evaluated in phantom models. 15...and robot control. The functions of the device will be tested in phantom studies at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. B.3. Progress Report for First...for targeting five 1cm objects in a tissue phantom proved successful. Further, the MR compatibility of the system has been thoroughly evaluated

  4. BOLD contrast on a 3 T magnet: detectability of the motor areas.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Okada, T; Moriya, T; Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Sakahara, H

    2001-01-01

    To predict the potential and the limitations of functional MRI (fMRI) with a very high field magnet, the detectability and reproducibility of activation were evaluated by comparing the activation induced by a sequential finger movement task at 1.5 T with that at 3 T. The detectability of the premotor area, supplementary motor area (SMA), and ipsilateral sensorimotor area (SM1) showed significant improvement at 3 T. On the other hand, the detectability of contralateral SM1 was not significantly different between 1.5 and 3 T. The degree of activation was proportional to task demand in the ipsilateral SM1 and SMA, whereas that in the contralateral SM1 and SMA was not. FMRI with a 3 T magnet has greater potential for detection of neuronal activation as a functional network. These observations indicated that task demand and static magnetic field strength should be considered in interpretation of fMRI data for clinical usage.

  5. Polygon scanners revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael N.

    1997-07-01

    The demands for increased throughput, pixel density, and format size in the laser beam imaging field continue to challenge opto-mechanical scanning products and the electronics that drive them. The polygon line scanner has superior scan rate and scan efficiency among candidate mechanical scanners but, historically, has had inferior cross- scan and in-scan accuracy. To date, due to cost considerations, these limitations have excluded the polygon scanner from practical use in high resolution, flat field, large format commercial applications. This paper illustrates the tradeoffs among the three most common mechanical scanners; single reflection rotary scanner, resonant galvanometric scanner, and polygon scanner. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the polygon scanner holds the best promise of advancing the state-of-art in reasonable cost, large format, high resolution, flat field imaging once the problems of cross-scan and in-scan errors are reconciled in the design of the system. Also introduced is a polygon scanning system that fulfills the requirements of an advanced flat field, large format line imaging platform.

  6. Focusing laser scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Economical laser scanner assembled from commercially available components, modulates and scans focused laser beam over area up to 5.1 by 5.1 cm. Scanner gives resolution comparable to that of conventional television. Device is highly applicable to area of analog and digital storage and retrieval.

  7. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-12-27

    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  8. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  9. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  10. A study on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiation treatment planning of intracranial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanescu, T.; Jans, H.-S.; Pervez, N.; Stavrev, P.; Fallone, B. G.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The method relies on (a) distortion correction of raw magnetic resonance (MR) images by using an adaptive thresholding and iterative technique, (b) autosegmentation of head structures relevant to dosimetric calculations (scalp, bone and brain) using an atlas-based software and (c) conversion of MR images into computed tomography (CT)-like images by assigning bulk CT values to organ contours and dose calculations performed in Eclipse (Philips Medical Systems). Standard CT + MRI-based and MRI-only plans were compared by means of isodose distributions, dose volume histograms and several dosimetric parameters. The plans were also ranked by using a tumor control probability (TCP)-based technique for heterogeneous irradiation, which is independent of radiobiological parameters. For our 3 T Intera MRI scanner (Philips Medical Systems), we determined that the total maximum image distortion corresponding to a typical brain study was about 4 mm. The CT + MRI and MRI-only plans were found to be in good agreement for all patients investigated. Following our clinical criteria, the TCP-based ranking tool shows no significant difference between the two types of plans. This indicates that the proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure is suitable for the radiotherapy of intracranial lesions.

  11. MGH-USC Human Connectome Project datasets with ultra-high b-value diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiuyun; Witzel, Thomas; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Van Horn, John D; Drews, Michelle K; Somerville, Leah H; Sheridan, Margaret A; Santillana, Rosario M; Snyder, Jenna; Hedden, Trey; Shaw, Emily E; Hollinshead, Marisa O; Renvall, Ville; Zanzonico, Roberta; Keil, Boris; Cauley, Stephen; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Tisdall, Dylan; Buckner, Randy L; Wedeen, Van J; Wald, Lawrence L; Toga, Arthur W; Rosen, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    The MGH-USC CONNECTOM MRI scanner housed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is a major hardware innovation of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 3T CONNECTOM scanner is capable of producing a magnetic field gradient of up to 300 mT/m strength for in vivo human brain imaging, which greatly shortens the time spent on diffusion encoding, and decreases the signal loss due to T2 decay. To demonstrate the capability of the novel gradient system, data of healthy adult participants were acquired for this MGH-USC Adult Diffusion Dataset (N=35), minimally preprocessed, and shared through the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Image Data Archive (LONI IDA) and the WU-Minn Connectome Database (ConnectomeDB). Another purpose of sharing the data is to facilitate methodological studies of diffusion MRI (dMRI) analyses utilizing high diffusion contrast, which perhaps is not easily feasible with standard MR gradient system. In addition, acquisition of the MGH-Harvard-USC Lifespan Dataset is currently underway to include 120 healthy participants ranging from 8 to 90 years old, which will also be shared through LONI IDA and ConnectomeDB. Here we describe the efforts of the MGH-USC HCP consortium in acquiring and sharing the ultra-high b-value diffusion MRI data and provide a report on data preprocessing and access. We conclude with a demonstration of the example data, along with results of standard diffusion analyses, including q-ball Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) reconstruction and tractography.

  12. Novel magnetomechanical MR compatible vibrational device for producing kinesthetic illusion during fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Sarah J.; Borreggine, Kristin; Heilman, Jeremiah; Griswold, Mark; Walter, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Functional MRI (fMRI) can provide insights into the functioning of the sensorimotor system, which is of particular interest in studying people with movement disorders or chronic pain conditions. This creates a demand for manipulanda that can fit and operate within the environment of a MRI scanner. Here, the authors present a magnetomechanical device that delivers a vibrotactile sensation to the skin with a force of approximately 9 N. Methods: MRI compatibility of the device was tested in a 3 T scanner using a phantom to simulate the head. Preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of the device at producing cortical and subcortical activity was also conducted with a group of seven healthy subjects. The vibration was applied to the right extensor carpi ulnaris tendon to induce a kinesthetic illusion of flexion and extension of the wrist. Results: The MRI compatibility tests showed the device did not produce image artifacts and the generated electromagnetic field did not disrupt the static magnetic field of the scanner or its operation. The subject group results showed activity in the contralateral putamen, premotor cortex, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Ipsilaterally, there was increased activity in the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Areas that activated bilaterally included the thalamus, anterior cingulate, secondary somatosensory areas (S2), temporal lobes, and visual association areas. Conclusions: This device offers an effective tool with precise control over the vibratory stimulus, delivering higher forces than some other types of devices (e.g., piezoelectric actuators). It can be useful for investigating sensory systems and sensorimotor integration. PMID:24320459

  13. Dynamic diffusion tensor measurements in muscle tissue using Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Baete, Steven H.; Cho, Gene; Sigmund, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    When diffusion biomarkers display transient changes, i.e. in muscle following exercise, traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) methods lack temporal resolution to resolve the dynamics. This paper presents an MRI method for dynamic diffusion tensor acquisitions on a clinical 3T scanner. This method, SL-MEDITATE (Single Line Multiple Echo Diffusion Tensor Acquisition Technique) achieves a high temporal resolution (4s) (1) by rapid diffusion encoding through the acquisition of multiple echoes with unique diffusion sensitization and (2) by limiting the readout to a single line volume. The method is demonstrated in a rotating anisotropic phantom, in a flow phantom with adjustable flow speed, and in in vivo skeletal calf muscle of healthy volunteers following a plantar flexion exercise. The rotating and flow-varying phantom experiments show that SL-MEDITATE correctly identifies the rotation of the first diffusion eigenvector and the changes in diffusion tensor parameter magnitudes, respectively. Immediately following exercise, the in vivo mean diffusivity (MD) time-courses show, before the well-known increase, an initial decrease which is not typically observed in traditional DTI. In conclusion, SL-MEDITATE can be used to capture transient changes in tissue anisotropy in a single line. Future progress might allow for dynamic DTI when combined with appropriate k-space trajectories and compressed sensing reconstruction. PMID:25900166

  14. Simultaneous dual frequency 1H and 19F open coil imaging of arthritic rabbit knee at 3T.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Franklin D; Wallace, Kirk D; Schmieder, Anne H; Caruthers, Shelton D; Pham, Christine T N; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    The combination of sensitive magnetic resonance techniques with a selective site-targeted nanoparticle contrast agent has a demonstrated utility for molecular imaging studies. By detecting a unique signature of the contrast agent, this approach can be employed to identify specific bio-molecular markers and observe cellular-level processes within a large and complex organism (e.g., in vivo rabbit). The objective of the present investigation was to design, fabricate and characterize a radio-frequency (RF) coil for the dual frequency ((1)H and (19)F) simultaneous collection of both nuclei images in a 3T field, in order to facilitate studies of arthritic knee degradation in rabbits. The coil supports both transmit and receive modes. The supporting activities included: 1) establishing a technical database for calculating the required coil parameters, 2) selection of a favorable coil geometry, and 3) adaption of existing RF measurement techniques to the design, development and electrical evaluation of the coil. The coil is used in conjunction with a Philips Medical Systems clinical MRI scanner, requiring all RF simultaneous dual frequency ((1)H and (19)F) coils to operate in both transmit and receive modes. A commercial version of SPICE (simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis) was used to estimate significant operational parameters prior to fabricating the imaging coil. Excellent images were obtained with the fabricated coil and no operational problems were observed that would limit the use of other coil geometries and field strengths.

  15. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5×5×4 cm 3. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5×2.5×15 mm 3) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ˜60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ˜85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy .

  16. A 3T Sodium and Proton Composite Array Breast Coil

    PubMed Central

    Kaggie, Joshua D.; Hadley, J. Rock; Badal, James; Campbell, John R.; Park, Daniel J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Morrell, Glen; Newbould, Rexford D.; Wood, Ali F.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether a sodium phased array would improve sodium breast MRI at 3T. The secondary objective was to create acceptable proton images with the sodium phased array in place. Methods A novel composite array for combined proton/sodium 3T breast MRI is compared to a coil with a single proton and sodium channel. The composite array consists of a 7-channel sodium receive array, a larger sodium transmit coil, and a 4-channel proton transceive array. The new composite array design utilizes smaller sodium receive loops than typically used in sodium imaging, uses novel decoupling methods between the receive loops and transmit loops, and uses a novel multi-channel proton transceive coil. The proton transceive coil reduces coupling between proton and sodium elements by intersecting the constituent loops to reduce their mutual inductance. The coil used for comparison consists of a concentric sodium and proton loop with passive decoupling traps. Results The composite array coil demonstrates a 2–5x improvement in SNR for sodium imaging and similar SNR for proton imaging when compared to a simple single-loop dual resonant design. Conclusion The improved SNR of the composite array gives breast sodium images of unprecedented quality in reasonable scan times. PMID:24105740

  17. Biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Belgovskiy, Alexander I.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  18. Portable biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Sharonov, Alexei; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  19. Liquid-explosives scanners stand trial in airports

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Jermey N. A.

    2010-07-15

    Air passengers may once more be allowed to pack beverages, lotions, and hair spray in their carry-on luggage, if imaging technologies to detect liquid explosives can prove their worth. Several competing systems, including multi-energy x-ray systems and a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, are undergoing field tests at some airports worldwide.

  20. Optimized Three Dimensional Sodium Imaging of the Human Heart on a Clinical 3T scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Neville D.; Rochitte, Carlos; Nacif, Marcelo S.; Bluemke, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Optimization of sequence and sequence parameters to allow 3D sodium imaging of the entire human heart in-vivo in a clinically reasonable time. Theory and Methods A stack of spirals pulse sequence was optimized for cardiac imaging by considering factors such as spoiling, nutation angles, repetition time, echo time, T1/T2 relaxation, off-resonance, data acquisition window, motion and segmented k-space acquisition. Simulations based on Bloch equations as well as the exact trajectory used for data acquisition provided the basis for choice of parameter combinations for sodium imaging. Sodium phantom scanning was used to validate the choice of parameters and for corroboration with simulations. In-vivo cardiac imaging in six volunteers was also done with an optimized sequence. Results Phantom studies showed good correlation with simulation results. Images obtained from human volunteers showed that the heart can be imaged with a nominal resolution of 5 × 5 × 10 mm3 and with SNR>15 (in the septum) in about 6-10 minutes. Long axis views of the reformatted human heart show true 3D imaging capability. Conclusion Optimization of the sequence and its parameters allowed in-vivo 3D sodium imaging of the entire human heart in a clinically reasonable time. PMID:24639022

  1. "Eyes Open - Eyes Closed" EEG/fMRI data set including dedicated "Carbon Wire Loop" motion detection channels.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Johan; Pampel, André; van Someren, Eus; Ramautar, Jennifer; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Gomez-Herrero, German; Lepsien, Jöran; Hellrung, Lydia; Hinrichs, Hermann; Möller, Harald; Walter, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This data set contains electroencephalography (EEG) data as well as simultaneous EEG with functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) data. During EEG/fMRI, the EEG cap was outfitted with a hardware-based add-on consisting of carbon-wire loops (CWL). These yielded six extra׳CWL׳ signals related to Faraday induction of these loops in the main magnetic field "Measurement and reduction of motion and ballistocardiogram artefacts from simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings" (Masterton et al., 2007) [1]. In this data set, the CWL data make it possible to do a direct regression approach to deal with the BCG and specifically He artifact. The CWL-EEG/fMRI data in this paper has been recorded on two MRI scanners with different Helium pump systems (4 subjects on a 3 T TIM Trio and 4 subjects on a 3T VERIO). Separate EEG/fMRI data sets have been recorded for the helium pump ON as well as the helium pump OFF conditions. The EEG-only data (same subjects) has been recorded for a motion artifact-free reference EEG signal outside of the scanner. This paper also links to an EEGlab "EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis" (Delorme and Makeig, 2004) [2] plugin to perform a CWL regression approach to deal with the He pump artifact, as published in the main paper "Carbon-wire loop based artifact correction outperforms post-processing EEG/fMRI corrections-A validation of a real-time simultaneous EEG/fMRI correction method" (van der Meer et al., 2016) [3].

  2. MRI-powered Actuators for Robotic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Qin, Lei; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel actuation technology for robotically assisted MRI-guided interventional procedures. Compact and wireless, the actuators are both powered and controlled by the MRI scanner. The design concept and performance limits are described and derived analytically. Simulation and experiments in a clinical MR scanner are used to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the capability of the approach for needle biopsies. The concepts of actuator locking mechanisms and multi-axis control are also introduced. PMID:22287082

  3. A practical introduction to the hemodynamic analysis of the cardiovascular system with 4D Flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Pineda Zapata, J A; Delgado de Bedout, J A; Rascovsky Ramírez, S; Bustamante, C; Mesa, S; Calvo Betancur, V D

    2014-01-01

    The 4D Flow MRI technique provides a three-dimensional representation of blood flow over time, making it possible to evaluate the hemodynamics of the cardiovascular system both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this article, we describe the application of the 4D Flow technique in a 3T scanner; in addition to the technical parameters, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the technique and its possible clinical applications. We used 4D Flow MRI to study different body areas (chest, abdomen, neck, and head) in 10 volunteers. We obtained 3D representations of the patterns of flow and quantitative hemodynamic measurements. The technique makes it possible to evaluate the pattern of blood flow in large and midsize vessels without the need for exogenous contrast agents.

  4. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21686038

  5. Optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1983-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

  6. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  7. Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

  8. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  9. Automatic EEG-assisted retrospective motion correction for fMRI (aE-REMCOR).

    PubMed

    Wong, Chung-Ki; Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Luo, Qingfei; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Head motions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) impair fMRI data quality and introduce systematic artifacts that can affect interpretation of fMRI results. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings performed simultaneously with fMRI provide high-temporal-resolution information about ongoing brain activity as well as head movements. Recently, an EEG-assisted retrospective motion correction (E-REMCOR) method was introduced. E-REMCOR utilizes EEG motion artifacts to correct the effects of head movements in simultaneously acquired fMRI data on a slice-by-slice basis. While E-REMCOR is an efficient motion correction approach, it involves an independent component analysis (ICA) of the EEG data and identification of motion-related ICs. Here we report an automated implementation of E-REMCOR, referred to as aE-REMCOR, which we developed to facilitate the application of E-REMCOR in large-scale EEG-fMRI studies. The aE-REMCOR algorithm, implemented in MATLAB, enables an automated preprocessing of the EEG data, an ICA decomposition, and, importantly, an automatic identification of motion-related ICs. aE-REMCOR has been used to perform retrospective motion correction for 305 fMRI datasets from 16 subjects, who participated in EEG-fMRI experiments conducted on a 3T MRI scanner. Performance of aE-REMCOR has been evaluated based on improvement in temporal signal-to-noise ratio (TSNR) of the fMRI data, as well as correction efficiency defined in terms of spike reduction in fMRI motion parameters. The results show that aE-REMCOR is capable of substantially reducing head motion artifacts in fMRI data. In particular, when there are significant rapid head movements during the scan, a large TSNR improvement and high correction efficiency can be achieved. Depending on a subject's motion, an average TSNR improvement over the brain upon the application of aE-REMCOR can be as high as 27%, with top ten percent of the TSNR improvement values exceeding 55%. The average

  10. The Safety of Using Body-Transmit MRI in Patients with Implanted Deep Brain Stimulation Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Joshua; Papadaki, Anastasia; White, Mark; Mancini, Laura; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Tom; Thornton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with movement disorders. Patients receiving chronic DBS provide a unique opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms of DBS using functional MRI. It has been shown that the main safety concern with MRI in these patients is heating at the electrode tips – which can be minimised with strict adherence to a supervised acquisition protocol using a head-transmit/receive coil at 1.5T. MRI using the body-transmit coil with a multi-channel receive head coil has a number of potential advantages including an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Study outline We compared the safety of cranial MRI in an in vitro model of bilateral DBS using both head-transmit and body-transmit coils. We performed fibre-optic thermometry at a Medtronic ActivaPC device and Medtronic 3389 electrodes during turbo-spin echo (TSE) MRI using both coil arrangements at 1.5T and 3T, in addition to gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI exposure at 1.5T. Finally, we investigated the effect of transmit-coil choice on DBS stimulus delivery during MRI. Results Temperature increases were consistently largest at the electrode tips. Changing from head- to body-transmit coil significantly increased the electrode temperature elevation during TSE scans with scanner-reported head SAR 0.2W/kg from 0.45°C to 0.79°C (p<0.001) at 1.5T, and from 1.25°C to 1.44°C (p<0.001) at 3T. The position of the phantom relative to the body coil significantly impacted on electrode heating at 1.5T; however, the greatest heating observed in any position tested remained <1°C at this field strength. Conclusions We conclude that (1) with our specific hardware and SAR-limited protocol, body-transmit cranial MRI at 1.5T does not produce heating exceeding international guidelines, even in cases of poorly positioned patients, (2) cranial MRI at 3T can readily produce heating exceeding international guidelines, (3) patients with ActivaPC Medtronic systems are safe

  11. Comparison of SNR and CNR for in vivo mouse brain imaging at 3 and 7 T using well matched scanner configurations.

    PubMed

    DiFrancesco, M W; Rasmussen, J M; Yuan, W; Pratt, R; Dunn, S; Dardzinski, B J; Holland, S K

    2008-09-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for magnetic resonance microimaging were measured using two nearly identical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners operating at field strengths of 3 and 7 T. Six mice were scanned using two imaging protocols commonly applied for in vivo imaging of small animal brain: RARE and FLASH. An accounting was made of the field dependence of relaxation times as well as a small number of hardware disparities between scanner systems. Standard methods for relaxometry were utilized to measure T1 and T2 for two white matter (WM) and two gray matter (GM) regions in the mouse brain. An average increase in T1 between 3 and 7 T of 28% was observed in the brain. T2 was found to decrease by 27% at 7 T in agreement with theoretical models. The SNR was found to be uniform throughout the mouse brain, increasing at higher field by a factor statistically indistinguishable from the ratio of Larmor frequencies when imaging with either method. The CNR between GM and WM structures was found to adhere to the expected field dependence for the RARE imaging sequence. Improvement in the CNR for the FLASH imaging sequence between 3 and 7 T was observed to be greater than the Larmor ratio, reflecting a greater susceptibility to partial volume effects at the lower SNR values at 3 T. Imaging at 7 T versus 3 T in small animals clearly provides advantages with respect to the CNR, even beyond the Larmor ratio, especially in lower SNR regimes. This careful multifaceted assessment of the benefits of higher static field is instructive for those newly embarking on small animal imaging. Currently the number of 7 T MRI scanners in use for research in human subjects is increasing at a rapid pace with approximately 30 systems deployed worldwide in 2008. The data presented in this article verify that if system performance and radio frequency uniformity is optimized at 7 T, it should be possible to realize the expected improvements in the CNR and SNR

  12. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  13. Helmholtz-pair transmit coil with integrated receive array for high-resolution MRI of trabecular bone in the distal tibia at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Alexander C.; Lemdiasov, Rostislav; Connick, Thomas J.; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Magland, Jeremy F.; Song, Hee Kwon; Toddes, Steven P.; Ludwig, Reinhold; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2011-05-01

    A Helmholtz-pair local transmit RF coil with an integrated four-element receive array RF coil and foot immobilization platform was designed and constructed for imaging the distal tibia in a whole-body 7 T MRI scanner. Simulations and measurements of the B1 field distribution of the transmit coil are described, along with SAR considerations for operation at 7 T. Results of imaging the trabecular bone of three volunteers at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T are presented, using identical 1.5 T and 3 T versions of the 7 T four-element receive array. The spatially registered images reveal improved visibility for individual trabeculae and show average gains in SNR of 2.8× and 4.9× for imaging at 7 T compared to 3 T and 1.5 T, respectively. The results thus display an approximately linear dependence of SNR with field strength and enable the practical utility of 7 T scanners for micro-MRI of trabecular bone.

  14. Contributions of EEG-fMRI to Assessing the Epileptogenicity of Focal Cortical Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Ferri, Lorenzo; Fahoum, Firas; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability of the BOLD response to EEG spikes to assess the epileptogenicity of the lesion in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Method: Patients with focal epilepsy and FCD who underwent 3T EEG-fMRI from 2006 to 2010 were included. Diagnosis of FCD was based on neuroradiology (MRI+), or histopathology in MRI-negative cases (MRI−). Patients underwent 120 min EEG-fMRI recording session. Spikes similar to those recorded outside the scanner were marked in the filtered EEG. The lesion (in MRI+) or the removed cortex (in MRI−) was marked on the anatomical T1 sequence, blindly to the BOLD response, after reviewing the FLAIR images. For each BOLD response we assessed the concordance with the spike field and with the lesion in MRI+ or the removed cortex in MRI−. BOLD responses were considered “concordant” if the maximal t-value was inside the marking. Follow-up after resection was used as gold-standard. Results: Twenty patients were included (13 MRI+, 7 MRI−), but in seven the EEG was not active or there were artifacts during acquisition. In all 13 studied patients, at least one BOLD response was concordant with the spike field; in 9/13 (69%) at least one BOLD response was concordant with the lesion: in 6/7 (86%) MRI+ and in 3/6 (50%) MRI− patients. Conclusions: Our study shows a high level of concordance between FCD and BOLD response. This data could provide useful information especially for MRI negative patients. Moreover, it shows in almost all FCD patients, a metabolic involvement of remote cortical or subcortical structures, corroborating the concept of epileptic network. PMID:28265244

  15. Investigation on Laser Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2004-09-30

    The study and purchase of a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of diverse metrology tasks at SLAC will be covered. Specifications including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution, field of view and more are discussed and the results of field tests and demonstrations by four potential vendors is covered. This will include details on the scanning of accelerator components in a now defunct ring on site and how the instruments compare.

  16. Design and Application of a New Automated Fluidic Visceral Stimulation Device for Human fMRI Studies of Interoception

    PubMed Central

    Gassert, Roger; Wanek, Johann; Michels, Lars; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping the brain centers that mediate the sensory-perceptual processing of visceral afferent signals arising from the body (i.e., interoception) is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for understanding clinical disorders related to abnormal processing of visceral sensation. Here, we report a novel closed-system, electrohydrostatically driven master–slave device that was designed and constructed for delivering controlled fluidic stimulations of visceral organs and inner cavities of the human body within the confines of a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The design concept and performance of the device in the MRI environment are described. In addition, the device was applied during a functional MRI (fMRI) investigation of visceral stimulation related to detrusor distention in two representative subjects to verify its feasibility in humans. System evaluation tests demonstrate that the device is MR-compatible with negligible impact on imaging quality [static signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss <2.5% and temporal SNR loss <3.5%], and has an accuracy of 99.68% for flow rate and 99.27% for volume delivery. A precise synchronization of the stimulus delivery with fMRI slice acquisition was achieved by programming the proposed device to detect the 5 V transistor–transistor logic (TTL) trigger signals generated by the MRI scanner. The fMRI data analysis using the general linear model analysis with the standard hemodynamic response function showed increased activations in the network of brain regions that included the insula, anterior and mid-cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices, and thalamus in response to increased distension pressure on viscera. The translation from manually operated devices to an MR-compatible and MR-synchronized device under automatic control represents a useful innovation for clinical neuroimaging studies of human interoception. PMID:27551646

  17. High throughput optical scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Basiji, David A.; van den Engh, Gerrit J.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  18. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  19. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution for in vivo microimaging of the mouse with a 1.5-T body scanner and a superconducting surface coil.

    PubMed

    Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Robert, Philippe; Darrasse, Luc

    2005-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well suited for small animal model investigations to study various human pathologies. However, the assessment of microscopic information requires a high-spatial resolution (HSR) leading to a critical problem of signal-to-noise ratio limitations in standard whole-body imager. As contrast mechanisms are field dependent, working at high field do not allow to derive MRI criteria that may apply to clinical settings done in standard whole-body systems. In this work, a contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution was used to perform in vivo tumor model imaging on the mouse at 1.5 T. The needed sensitivity is provided by the use of a 12-mm superconducting surface coil operating at 77 K. High quality in vivo images were obtained and revealed well-defined internal structures of the tumor. A 3-D HSR sequence with voxels of 59x59x300 microm3 encoded within 6.9 min and a 2-D sequence with subsecond acquisition time and isotropic in-plane resolution of 234 microm were used to analyze the contrast enhancement kinetics in tumoral structures at long and short time scales. This work is a first step to better characterize and differentiate the dynamic behavior of tumoral heterogeneities.

  20. Scanner focus metrology for advanced node scanner monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jimyung; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Taehwa; Kim, Suhyun; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il; Levinski, Vladimir; Kandel, Daniel; Feler, Yoel; Gutman, Nadav; Island-Ashwal, Eltsafon; Cooper, Moshe; Choi, DongSub; Herzel, Eitan; David, Tien; Kim, JungWook

    2015-03-01

    Scanner Focus window of the lithographic process becomes much smaller due to the shrink of the device node and multipatterning approach. Consequently, the required performance of scanner focus becomes tighter and more complicated. Focus control/monitoring methods such as "field-by-field focus control" or "intra-field focus control" is a necessity. Moreover, tight scanner focus performance requirement starts to raise another fundamental question: accuracy of the reported scanner focus. The insufficient accuracy of the reported scanner focus using the existing methods originates from: a) Focus measurement quality, which is due to low sensitivity of measured targets, especially around the nominal production focus. b) The scanner focus is estimated using special targets, e.g. large pitch target and not using the device-like structures (irremovable aberration impact). Both of these factors are eliminated using KLA-Tencor proprietary "Focus Offset" technology.

  1. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  3. 3T3 cells in adipocytic conversion.

    PubMed

    O'Shea Alvarez, M S

    1991-01-01

    3T3 are murine cells of an established heteroploid cellular line. Some clones of this cellular line, when cultured under adequate conditions differentiate into adipocytes. During the process of differentiation, the cells undergo a change from the elongated fibroblastic shape to a round or oval form and accumulate small drops of lipids within their cytoplasma. These lipid drops fuse into one large drop which displaces the nucleus towards the periphery, giving the cell the aspect of a mature adipocyte of white adipose tissue. The cells not only change their morphology, but they also present important biochemical changes. They show a simultaneous increase in triglyceride synthesis and activity of lipogenic enzymes. There is also an increase in the response of the activity of various hormones and the de novo synthesis of the receptors to such hormones, as insulin and ACTH. During the process of differentiation important changes occur in the synthesis of various proteins, such as actin, tubulin, and other proteins which also make up the cellular cytoskeleton, forming part of the lipid transportation within the adipose cell. The adipocytic differentiation of 3T3 cells depends on adipogenic serum factors used in the supplementary culture medium. These adipogenic factors seem to play an important role in the development of adipose tissue. There are hormones, chemical agents and serum factors which modulate adipocytic differentiation. The clone must be susceptible to adipocytic differentiation, it must reach a quiescent state and find itself in adipogenic conditions for the 3T3 cells to differentiate into adipocytes. It must also carry out an DNA synthesis which is an expression of the new phenotype. The differentiation of 3T3 cells in terminal. The fact that these cells present an adipocytic conversion under physiologic conditions and with adipogenic hormones which exist in the whole animal has been demonstrated. All of these characteristics show that the 3T3 cells may be

  4. Can structural MRI aid in clinical classification? A machine learning study in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Schnack, Hugo G; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Abramovic, Lucija; Scheewe, Thomas W; Brouwer, Rachel M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2014-01-01

    Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed partly non-overlapping brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it is unknown whether structural MRI scans can be used to separate individuals with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder. An algorithm capable of discriminating between these two disorders could become a diagnostic aid for psychiatrists. Here, we scanned 66 schizophrenia patients, 66 patients with bipolar disorder and 66 healthy subjects on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Three support vector machines were trained to separate patients with schizophrenia from healthy subjects, patients with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder, and patients with bipolar disorder from healthy subjects, respectively, based on their gray matter density images. The predictive power of the models was tested using cross-validation and in an independent validation set of 46 schizophrenia patients, 47 patients with bipolar disorder and 43 healthy subjects scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Schizophrenia patients could be separated from healthy subjects with an average accuracy of 90%. Additionally, schizophrenia patients and patients with bipolar disorder could be distinguished with an average accuracy of 88%.The model delineating bipolar patients from healthy subjects was less accurate, correctly classifying 67% of the healthy subjects and only 53% of the patients with bipolar disorder. In the latter group, lithium and antipsychotics use had no influence on the classification results. Application of the 1.5T models on the 3T validation set yielded average classification accuracies of 76% (healthy vs schizophrenia), 66% (bipolar vs schizophrenia) and 61% (healthy vs bipolar). In conclusion, the accurate separation of schizophrenia from bipolar patients on the basis of structural MRI scans, as demonstrated here, could be of added value in the differential diagnosis of these two disorders. The results also suggest that gray matter pathology in

  5. Analysis and correction of count rate reduction during simultaneous MR-PET measurements with the BrainPET scanner.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Christoph; Brenner, Daniel; Scheins, Jürgen; Besancon, Etienne; Tellmann, Lutz; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N Jon

    2012-07-01

    In hybrid magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) studies with the Siemens 3T MR-BrainPET scanner an instantaneous reduction of the PET sensitivity was observed during execution of certain MR sequences. This interference was investigated in detail with custom-made as well as standard clinical MR sequences. The radio-frequency pulses, the switched gradient fields and the constant magnetic field were examined as the relevant parameters of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system as well as the air temperature within the PET detectors. Our investigation comprised the analysis of the analog PET signals, the total count rates, the geometric distribution of the count rate reduction within the BrainPET detector as well as reconstructed images. The fast switching magnetic field gradients were identified to distort the analog PET detector signals. The measured count rate reduction was found to be less than 3%, but only up to 2% in the case of echo planar imaging sequences, as applied in functional MRI. For clinical sequences routinely used in hybrid MR-BrainPET measurements, a correction method has been designed, implemented, and evaluated .

  6. R1 changes in the human placenta at 3 T in response to a maternal oxygen challenge protocol.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Emma; Hawkins, Lauren; Morris, David M; Myers, Jenny; Sibley, Colin P; Johnstone, Edward D; Naish, Josephine H

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen-enhanced MRI non-invasively monitors placental oxygenation in-vivo. This technique has been demonstrated at 1.5 Tesla (T) in healthy pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings are comparable at 3T. Nine pregnant volunteers underwent MRI at 3T. Scans obtained R1 (1/T1) measures from T1 maps under air, followed by a dynamic series breathing 100% oxygen. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between dR1 and gestation (P = 0.0008, r = -0.90, Pearson correlation test). The effect of the field strength was not significant within regression analysis. Placental Oxygen-Enhanced MRI at 3T gives comparable results to those previously obtained at 1.5T.

  7. What Scanner products are available?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... and longwave estimate. ERBS covers all 24-hour local time, but only for regions between 60N and 60S. Scanner and Nonscanner ... algorithm. Because of these differences, it is best to work with these two data sets separately. ERBE/ERBS scanner operated ...

  8. An optically powered CMOS tracking system for 3 T magnetic resonance environment.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Baykal; Tumer, Murat; Cindemir, Umut; Camli, Berk; Dundar, Gunhan; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yalcinkaya, Arda D

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a fully optical Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) based catheter tracking system designed for 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) environment is presented. The system aims to solve the Radio Frequency (RF) induced heating problem present in conventional wired catheter tracking systems used in MRI. It is based on an integrated circuit, consisting of a receiver and an optical power supply unit. The optical power supply unit includes a single on-chip photodiode and a DC-DC converter that boosts the low photodiode voltage output to voltages greater than 1.5 V. Through an optically driven switch, the accumulated charge on an a storage capacitor is transferred to the rest of the system. This operation is novel in the way that it is fully optical and the switch control is done through modulation of the applied light. An on-chip local oscillator signal for the receiver is avoided by application of an RF signal that is generated by the MRI machine at the receiving period. The signals received by a micro-coil antenna are processed by the on-chip direct conversion receiver. The processed signal is then transferred, also optically, to the outside world for tracking purposes. The frequency encoding method is used for MRI tracking. Operation with various levels of external optical power does not generate noticeble temperature increase in the system. The overall system is successfully tested in a 3 T MRI machine to demonstrate its full operation.

  9. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  10. Laser Scanner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, B.

    2005-09-06

    In the Summer of 2004 a request for proposals went out to potential vendors to offer a three-dimensional laser scanner for a number of unique metrology tasks at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Specifications were established including range, accuracy, scan density, resolution and field of view in consideration of anticipated department requirements. Four vendors visited the site to present their system and they were asked to perform three unique tests with their system on a two day visit to SLAC. Two of the three tests were created to emulate real-world applications at SLAC while the third was an accuracy and resolution series of experiments. The scope of these tests is presented and some of the vendor's results are included.

  11. A character string scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enison, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program called Character String Scanner (CSS), is presented. It is designed to search a data set for any specified group of characters and then to flag this group. The output of the CSS program is a listing of the data set being searched with the specified group of characters being flagged by asterisks. Therefore, one may readily identify specific keywords, groups of keywords or specified lines of code internal to a computer program, in a program output, or in any other specific data set. Possible applications of this program include the automatic scan of an output data set for pertinent keyword data, the editing of a program to change the appearance of a certain word or group of words, and the conversion of a set of code to a different set of code.

  12. Space-multiplexed optical scanner.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2004-05-01

    A low-loss two-dimensional optical beam scanner that is capable of delivering large (e.g., > 10 degrees) angular scans along the elevation as well as the azimuthal direction is presented. The proposed scanner is based on a space-switched parallel-serial architecture that employs a coarse-scanner module and a fine-scanner module that produce an ultrahigh scan space-fill factor, e.g., 900 x 900 distinguishable beams in a 10 degrees (elevation) x 10 degrees (azimuth) scan space. The experimentally demonstrated one-dimensional version of the proposed scanner has a supercontinuous scan, 100 distinguishable beam spots in a 2.29 degrees total scan range, and 1.5-dB optical insertion loss.

  13. [High resolution (3 T) magnetic resonance neurography of the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Aguilar, M; Falcón, L; Caneo, N; Acuña, M C

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography refers to a set of techniques that enable the structure of the peripheral nerves and nerve plexuses to be evaluated optimally. New two-dimensional and three-dimensional neurographic sequences, in particular in 3T scanners, achieve excellent contrast between the nerve and perineural structures. MR neurography makes it possible to distinguish between the normal fascicular pattern of the nerve and anomalies like inflammation, trauma, and tumor that can affect nerves. In this article, we describe the structure of the sciatic nerve, its characteristics on MR neurography, and the most common diseases that affect it.

  14. A MR-conditional High-torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-guided and Robot-assisted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. This increasingly attracts attention on MRI-guided intervention; hence, MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the MRI. This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800mNm output torque can be achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated in order to study its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images and no observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used in robot-assisted surgery under MRI. PMID:24957635

  15. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Motorized Needle Guide Template for MRI-guided Targeted Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Zhang, Elizabeth; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problems of limited needle insertion accuracy and human error in the use of a conventional needle guide template in MRI-guided prostate intervention, we developed a motorized MRI-compatible needle guide template that resembles a TRUS-guided prostate template. The motorized template allows automated, gapless needle guidance in a 3T MRI scanner with minimal changes in the current clinical procedure. To evaluate the impact of the motorized template on MRI, signal-to-noise ratio and distortion were measured under various system configurations. A maximum of 44% signal-to-noise ratio decrease was found when the ultrasonic motors were running, and a maximum of 0.4% image distortion was observed due to the presence of the motorized template. To measure needle insertion accuracy, we performed four sets of five random target needle insertions mimicking four biopsy procedures, which resulted in an average in-plane targeting error of 0.94 mm with a standard deviation of 0.34 mm. The evaluation studies indicated that the presence and operation of the motorized template in the MRI bore creates insignificant image degradation, and provides submillimeter targeting accuracy. The automated needle guide that is directly controlled by navigation software eliminates human error so that the safety of the procedure can be improved. PMID:23335658

  16. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0-10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation.

  17. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0–10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation. PMID:25126153

  18. Multi-session complex averaging for high resolution high SNR 3T MR visualization of ex vivo hippocampus and insula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene M.; Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    The hippocampus and the insula are responsible for episodic memory formation and retrieval. Hence, visualization of the cytoarchitecture of such structures is of primary importance to understand the underpinnings of conscious experience. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers an opportunity to non-invasively image these crucial structures. However, current clinical MR imaging operates at the millimeter scale while these anatomical landmarks are organized into sub-millimeter structures. For instance, the hippocampus contains several layers, including the CA3-dentate network responsible for encoding events and experiences. To investigate whether memory loss is a result of injury or degradation of CA3/dentate, spatial resolution must exceed one hundred micron, isotropic, voxel size. Going from one millimeter voxels to one hundred micron voxels results in a 1000× signal loss, making the measured signal close to or even way below the precision of the receiving coils. Consequently, the signal magnitude that forms the structural images will be biased and noisy, which results in inaccurate contrast and less than optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we propose a strategy to perform high spatial resolution MR imaging of the hippocampus and insula with 3T scanners that enables accurate contrast (no systematic bias) and arbitrarily high SNR. This requires the collection of additional repeated measurements of the same image and a proper averaging of the k-space data in the complex domain. This comes at the cost of additional scan time, but long single-session scan times are not practical for obvious reasons. Hence, we also develop an approach to combine k-space data from multiple sessions, which enables the total scan time to be split into arbitrarily short sessions, where the patient is allowed to move and rest in-between. For validation, we hereby illustrate our multi-session complex averaging strategy by providing high spatial resolution 3T MR visualization

  19. Diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis: usefulness of unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR images at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Korogi, Yukunori

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one consecutive unclassified arthritis patients with polyarthralgia including wrist joint were evaluated with 3-T MRI as possible early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After prospective follow-up, 21 of 41 patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Synovitis was detected in all 21 RA patients (sensitivity=100%) with postcontrast MRI and in 14 patients (67%) with unenhanced MRI when none of them fulfilled ACR diagnostic criteria. Fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image showed high detection rate of synovitis and bone erosion, whereas FIESTA image clearly delineated joint fluid and bone trabeculae. MRI at 3 T is a potentially powerful tool for discriminating and managing early-stage RA patients.

  20. EU Directive 2004/40: field measurements of a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Riches, S F; Collins, D J; Scuffham, J W; Leach, M O

    2007-06-01

    The European Union (EU) Physical Agents (EMF) Directive [1] must be incorporated into UK law in 2008. The directive, which applies to employees working in MRI, sets legal exposure limits for two of the three types of EMF exposure employed in MRI; time-varying gradient fields and radiofrequency (RF) fields. Limits on the static field are currently not included but may be added at a later date. Conservative action values have been set for all three types of exposure including the static field. The absolute exposure limits will exclude staff from the scanner bore and adjacent areas during scanning, impacting on many clinical activities such as anaesthetic monitoring during sedated scans, paediatric scanning and interventional MRI. When the legislation comes into force, NHS Trusts, scanner companies and academic institutions will be required to show compliance with the law. We present results of initial measurements performed on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. For the static field, the proposed action value is exceeded at 40 cm from the scanner bore and would be exceeded when positioning a patient for scanning. For the RF field, the action values were only exceeded within the bore at distances of 40 cm from the scanner ends during a very RF intensive sequence; MRI employees are unlikely to be in the bore during an acquisition. For the time-varying gradient fields the action values were exceeded 52 cm out from the mouth of the bore during two clinical sequences, and estimated current densities show the exposure limit to be exceeded at 40 cm for frequencies above 333 Hz. Limiting employees to distances greater than these from the scanner during acquisition will have a severe impact on the future use and development of MRI.

  1. Multiple single-point imaging (mSPI) as a tool for capturing and characterizing MR signals and repetitive signal disturbances with high temporal resolution: the MRI scanner as a high-speed camera.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Chris J G; van Gorp, Jetse S; Verwoerd, Jan L; Westra, Albert H; Bouwman, Job G; Zijlstra, Frank; Seevinck, Peter R

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we aim to lay down and demonstrate the use of multiple single-point imaging (mSPI) as a tool for capturing and characterizing steady-state MR signals and repetitive disturbances thereof with high temporal resolution. To achieve this goal, various 2D mSPI sequences were derived from the nearest standard 3D imaging sequences by (i) replacing the excitation of a 3D slab by the excitation of a 2D slice orthogonal to the read axis, (ii) setting the readout gradient to zero, and (iii) leaving out the inverse Fourier transform in the read direction. The thus created mSPI sequences, albeit slow with regard to the spatial encoding part, were shown to result into a series of densely spaced 2D single-point images in the time domain enabling monitoring of the evolution of the magnetization with a high temporal resolution and without interference from any encoding gradients. The high-speed capabilities of mSPI were demonstrated by capturing and characterizing the free induction decays and spin echoes of substances with long T2s (>30 ms) and long and short T2*s (4 - >30 ms) and by monitoring the perturbation of the transverse magnetization by, respectively, a titanium cylinder, representing a static disturbance; a pulsed magnetic field gradient, representing a stimulus inherent to a conventional MRI experiment; and a pulsed electric current, representing an external stimulus. The results of the study indicate the potential of mSPI for assessing the evolution of the magnetization and, when properly synchronized with the acquisition, repeatable disturbances thereof with a temporal resolution that is ultimately limited by the bandwidth of the receiver, but in practice governed by the SNR of the experiment and the magnitude of the disturbance. Potential applications of mSPI can be envisaged in research areas that are concerned with MR signal behavior, MR system performance and MR evaluation of magnetically evoked responses.

  2. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  3. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  4. MR-compatibility assessment of the first preclinical PET-MRI insert equipped with digital silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, J.; Weissler, B.; Dueppenbecker, P. M.; Gebhardt, P.; Goldschmidt, B.; Schug, D.; Kiessling, F.; Schulz, V.

    2015-03-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) with its high sensitivity in combination with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) providing anatomic information with good soft-tissue contrast is considered to be a promising hybrid imaging modality. However, the integration of a PET detector into an MRI system is a challenging task since the MRI system is a sensitive device for external disturbances and provides a harsh environment for electronic devices. Consequently, the PET detector has to be transparent for the MRI system and insensitive to electromagnetic disturbances. Due to the variety of MRI protocols imposing a wide range of requirements regarding the MR-compatibility, an extensive study is mandatory to reliably assess worst-case interference phenomena between the PET detector and the MRI scanner. We have built the first preclinical PET insert, designed for a clinical 3 T MRI, using digital silicon photomultipliers (digital SiPM, type DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting). Since no thorough interference investigation with this new digital sensor has been reported so far, we present in this work such a comprehensive MR-compatibility study. Acceptable distortion of the B0 field homogeneity (volume RMS = 0.08 ppm, peak-to-peak value = 0.71 ppm) has been found for the PET detector installed. The signal-to-noise ratio degradation stays between 2-15% for activities up to 21 MBq. Ghosting artifacts were only found for demanding EPI (echo planar imaging) sequences with read-out gradients in Z direction caused by additional eddy currents originated from the PET detector. On the PET side, interference mainly between the gradient system and the PET detector occurred: extreme gradient tests were executed using synthetic sequences with triangular pulse shape and maximum slew rate. Under this condition, a relative degradation of the energy (⩽10%) and timing (⩽15%) resolution was noticed. However, barely measurable performance deterioration occurred when morphological MRI

  5. MR-compatibility assessment of the first preclinical PET-MRI insert equipped with digital silicon photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Wehner, J; Weissler, B; Dueppenbecker, P M; Gebhardt, P; Goldschmidt, B; Schug, D; Kiessling, F; Schulz, V

    2015-03-21

    PET (positron emission tomography) with its high sensitivity in combination with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) providing anatomic information with good soft-tissue contrast is considered to be a promising hybrid imaging modality. However, the integration of a PET detector into an MRI system is a challenging task since the MRI system is a sensitive device for external disturbances and provides a harsh environment for electronic devices. Consequently, the PET detector has to be transparent for the MRI system and insensitive to electromagnetic disturbances. Due to the variety of MRI protocols imposing a wide range of requirements regarding the MR-compatibility, an extensive study is mandatory to reliably assess worst-case interference phenomena between the PET detector and the MRI scanner. We have built the first preclinical PET insert, designed for a clinical 3 T MRI, using digital silicon photomultipliers (digital SiPM, type DPC 3200-22, Philips Digital Photon Counting). Since no thorough interference investigation with this new digital sensor has been reported so far, we present in this work such a comprehensive MR-compatibility study. Acceptable distortion of the B0 field homogeneity (volume RMS = 0.08 ppm, peak-to-peak value = 0.71 ppm) has been found for the PET detector installed. The signal-to-noise ratio degradation stays between 2-15% for activities up to 21 MBq. Ghosting artifacts were only found for demanding EPI (echo planar imaging) sequences with read-out gradients in Z direction caused by additional eddy currents originated from the PET detector. On the PET side, interference mainly between the gradient system and the PET detector occurred: extreme gradient tests were executed using synthetic sequences with triangular pulse shape and maximum slew rate. Under this condition, a relative degradation of the energy (⩽10%) and timing (⩽15%) resolution was noticed. However, barely measurable performance deterioration occurred when morphological MRI

  6. Strengths and weaknesses of 1.5T and 3T MRS data in brain glioma classification.

    PubMed

    Kounelakis, M G; Dimou, I N; Zervakis, M E; Tsougos, I; Tsolaki, E; Kousi, E; Kapsalaki, E; Theodorou, K

    2011-07-01

    Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods of 1.5Tesla (T) and 3T have been widely applied during the last decade for noninvasive diagnostic purposes, only a few studies have been reported on the value of the information extracted in brain cancer discrimination. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, to show that the diagnostic value of the information extracted from two different MRS scanners of 1.5T and 3T is significantly influenced in terms of brain gliomas discrimination. Second, to statistically evaluate the discriminative potential of publicly known metabolic ratio markers, obtained from these two types of scanners in classifying low-, intermediate-, and high-grade gliomas. Finally, to examine the diagnostic value of new metabolic ratios in the discrimination of complex glioma cases where the diagnosis is both challenging and critical. Our analysis has shown that although the information extracted from 3T MRS scanner is expected to provide better brain gliomas discrimination; some factors like the features selected, the pulse-sequence parameters, and the spectroscopic data acquisition methods can influence the discrimination efficiency. Finally, it is shown that apart from the bibliographical known, new metabolic ratio features such as N-acetyl aspartate/ S, Choline/ S, Creatine/ S , and myo-Inositol/ S play significant role in gliomas grade discrimination.

  7. [Exposure to static magnetic field and health hazards during the operation of magnetic resonance scanners].

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof; Politański, Piotr; Zmyślony, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners belong to the most modern imaging diagnostic devices, which involve workers' exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) during the preparation and performance of MRI examinations. This paper presents the data on workers' exposure to SMF in the vicinity of MRI scanners and the analysis of SMF-related biological effects and health hazards to find out whether softening the legislative requirements concerning protection against SMF exposure of workers involved in MRI diagnostics is justified. Measurements in the vicinity of 1.5 T MRI magnets showed that exposure to SMF by various scanners depends on both SMF of magnets and scanners design, as well as on work organization. In a routine examination of one patient the radiographer is exposed to SMF exceeding 0.5 mT for app. 1.5-7 min, and up to 1.3 min to SMF exceeding 70 mT. In examinations of patients who need more attention, the duration of exposure may be significantly longer. The mean values (B mean) of exposure to SMF are 5.6-85 mT (mean 30 +/- 19 mT, N = 16). These data demonstrate that only well designed procedures, proper organization of workplace and awareness of workers how to attend the patients without being exposed to strong SMF allow for meeting the requirements of labor law concerning workers' exposure to SMF. The analysis of the available literature on biological effects of SMF has disclosed the lack of data on health effects of many years exposure of workers and the abundance of data demonstrating the biological activity of SMF. Therefore, a radical softening of legislative requirements concerning the exposure of workers' head or trunk is premature, and what is more, it is not indispensable for the development of MRI diagnostic. Such an action should be preceded by extensive international investigations on the health status of workers exposed to electromagnetic fields by MRI scanners.

  8. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  9. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; LaPierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5–3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices. PMID:26469756

  10. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (<10 mT) will complement traditional MRI, providing clinically relevant images and setting new standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  11. Technical Note: Building a combined cyclotron and MRI facility: Implications for interference

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Mark B. M.; Kuijer, Joost P. A.; Ridder, Jan Willem de; Perk, Lars R.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: With the introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems, it has become more likely that the cyclotron and MRI systems will be located close to each other. This study considered the interference between a cyclotron and a superconducting MRI system. Methods: Interactions between cyclotrons and MRIs are theoretically considered. The main interference is expected to be the perturbation of the magnetic field in the MRI due to switching on or off the magnetic field of the cyclotron. MR imaging is distorted by a dynamic spatial gradient of an external inplane magnetic field larger than 0.5-0.04 {mu}T/m, depending on the specific MR application. From the design of a cyclotron, it is expected that the magnetic fringe field at large distances behaves as a magnetic dipolar field. This allows estimation of the full dipolar field and its spatial gradients from a single measurement. Around an 18 MeV cyclotron (Cyclone, IBA), magnetic field measurements were performed on 5 locations and compared with calculations based upon a dipolar field model. Results: At the measurement locations the estimated and measured values of the magnetic field component and its spatial gradients of the inplane component were compared, and found to agree within a factor 1.1 for the magnetic field and within a factor of 1.5 for the spatial gradients of the field. In the specific case of the 18 MeV cyclotron with a vertical magnetic field and a 3T superconducting whole body MR system, a minimum distance of 20 m has to be considered to prevent interference. Conclusions: This study showed that a dipole model is sufficiently accurate to predict the interference of a cyclotron on a MRI scanner, for site planning purposes. The cyclotron and a whole body MRI system considered in this study need to be placed more than 20 m apart, or magnetic shielding should be utilized.

  12. MRI Meets MPI: a bimodal MPI-MRI tomograph.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Patrick; Lother, Steffen; Rückert, Martin A; Kullmann, Walter H; Jakob, Peter M; Fidler, Florian; Behr, Volker C

    2014-10-01

    While magnetic particle imaging (MPI) constitutes a novel biomedical imaging technique for tracking superparamagnetic nanoparticles in vivo, unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it cannot provide anatomical background information. Until now these two modalities have been performed in separate scanners and image co-registration has been hampered by the need to reposition the sample in both systems as similarly as possible. This paper presents a bimodal MPI-MRI-tomograph that combines both modalities in a single system.MPI and MRI images can thus be acquired without moving the sample or replacing any parts in the setup. The images acquired with the presented setup show excellent agreement between the localization of the nanoparticles in MPI and the MRI background data. A combination of two highly complementary imaging modalities has been achieved.

  13. The potential of 3T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marcus C; de Graaf, Pim; Brisse, Hervé J; Galluzzi, Paolo; Göricke, Sophia L; Moll, Annette C; Munier, Francis L; Popovic, Maja Beck; Moulin, Alexandre P; Binaghi, Stefano; Castelijns, Jonas A; Maeder, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the value of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing, staging, and follow-up of retinoblastoma during eye-saving treatment. We have included informative retinoblastoma cases scanned on a 3T MRI system from a retrospective retinoblastoma cohort from 2009 through 2013. We show that high-resolution MRI has the potential to detect small intraocular seeds, hemorrhage, and metastatic risk factors not visible with fundoscopy (e.g., optic nerve invasion and choroidal invasion), and treatment response. Unfortunately, however, the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution MRI is not perfect, especially for subtle intraocular seeds or minimal postlaminar optic nerve invasion. The most important application of MRI is the detection of metastatic risk factors, as these cannot be found by fundoscopy and ultrasound.

  14. MRI and low back pain

    MedlinePlus

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  15. An MRI-Compatible Robotic System With Hybrid Tracking for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Guion, Peter; Singh, Anurag K.; Kaushal, Aradhana; Ménard, Cynthia; Pinto, Peter A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the development, evaluation, and first clinical trials of the access to the prostate tissue (APT) II system—a scanner independent system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal prostate interventions. The system utilizes novel manipulator mechanics employing a steerable needle channel and a novel six degree-of-freedom hybrid tracking method, comprising passive fiducial tracking for initial registration and subsequent incremental motion measurements. Targeting accuracy of the system in prostate phantom experiments and two clinical human-subject procedures is shown to compare favorably with existing systems using passive and active tracking methods. The portable design of the APT II system, using only standard MRI image sequences and minimal custom scanner interfacing, allows the system to be easily used on different MRI scanners. PMID:22009867

  16. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  17. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  18. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  19. Design of a Novel MRI Compatible Manipulator for Image Guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Susil, Robert C.; Ménard, Cynthia; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Atalar, Ergin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a novel remotely actuated manipulator for access to prostate tissue under magnetic resonance imaging guidance (APT-MRI) device, designed for use in a standard high-field MRI scanner. The device provides three-dimensional MRI guided needle placement with millimeter accuracy under physician control. Procedures enabled by this device include MRI guided needle biopsy, fiducial marker placements, and therapy delivery. Its compact size allows for use in both standard cylindrical and open configuration MRI scanners. Preliminary in vivo canine experiments and first clinical trials are reported. PMID:15709668

  20. Optimizing Complexity Measures for fMRI Data: Algorithm, Artifact, and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Denis; Fekete, Tomer; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Complexity in the brain has been well-documented at both neuronal and hemodynamic scales, with increasing evidence supporting its use in sensitively differentiating between mental states and disorders. However, application of complexity measures to fMRI time-series, which are short, sparse, and have low signal/noise, requires careful modality-specific optimization. Methods Here we use both simulated and real data to address two fundamental issues: choice of algorithm and degree/type of signal processing. Methods were evaluated with regard to resilience to acquisition artifacts common to fMRI as well as detection sensitivity. Detection sensitivity was quantified in terms of grey-white matter contrast and overlap with activation. We additionally investigated the variation of complexity with activation and emotional content, optimal task length, and the degree to which results scaled with scanner using the same paradigm with two 3T magnets made by different manufacturers. Methods for evaluating complexity were: power spectrum, structure function, wavelet decomposition, second derivative, rescaled range, Higuchi’s estimate of fractal dimension, aggregated variance, and detrended fluctuation analysis. To permit direct comparison across methods, all results were normalized to Hurst exponents. Results Power-spectrum, Higuchi’s fractal dimension, and generalized Hurst exponent based estimates were most successful by all criteria; the poorest-performing measures were wavelet, detrended fluctuation analysis, aggregated variance, and rescaled range. Conclusions Functional MRI data have artifacts that interact with complexity calculations in nontrivially distinct ways compared to other physiological data (such as EKG, EEG) for which these measures are typically used. Our results clearly demonstrate that decisions regarding choice of algorithm, signal processing, time-series length, and scanner have a significant impact on the reliability and sensitivity of

  1. Choosing a Scanner: Points To Consider before Buying a Scanner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Outlines ten factors to consider before buying a scanner: size of document; type of document; color; speed and volume; resolution; image enhancement; image compression; optical character recognition; scanning subsystem; and the option to use a commercial bureau service. The importance of careful analysis of requirements is emphasized. (AEF)

  2. A case study in scanner optimisation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, N J; Gibson, N M

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound scanner preset programmes are factory set or tailored to user requirements. Scanners may, therefore, have different settings for the same application, even on similar equipment in a single department. The aims of this study were: (1) to attempt to match the performance of two scanners, where one was preferred and (2) to assess differences between six scanners used for breast ultrasound within our organisation. The Nottingham Ultrasound Quality Assurance software was used to compare imaging performance. Images of a Gammex RMI 404GS test object were collected from six scanners, using default presets, factory presets and settings matched to a preferred scanner. Resolution, low contrast performance and high contrast performance were measured. The performance of two scanners was successfully matched, where one had been preferred. Default presets varied across the six scanners, three different presets being used. The most used preset differed in settings across the scanners, most notably in the use of different frequency modes. The factory preset was more consistent across the scanners, the main variation being in dynamic range (55-70 dB). Image comparisons showed significant differences, which were reduced or eliminated by adjustment of settings to match a reference scanner. It is possible to match scanner performance using the Nottingham Ultrasound Quality Assurance software as a verification tool. Ultrasound users should be aware that scanners may not behave in a similar fashion, even with apparently equivalent presets. It should be possible to harmonise presets by consensus amongst users.

  3. Ultrasonic scanner for footprint identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Scanner includes transducer, acoustical drive, acoustical receiver, X and Y position indicators, and cathode-ray tube. Transducer sends ultrasonic pulses into shoe sole or shoeprint. Reflected signals are picked up by acoustic receiver and fed to cathode-ray tube. Resulting display intensity is directly proportional to reflected signal magnitude.

  4. Scanner as a Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    Not every art department is fortunate enough to have access to digital cameras and image-editing software, but if a scanner, computer, and printer are available, students can create some imaginative and surreal work. This high-school level lesson begins with a discussion of self-portraits, and then moves to students creating images by scanning…

  5. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect

    McCaughan, Michael D.; Tiefenback, Michael G.; Turner, Dennis L.

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  6. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  7. [Innovation and Future Technologies for PET Scanners].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) plays important roles in cancer diagnosis, neuroimaging and molecular imaging research; but potential points remain for which big improvements could be made, including spatial resolution, sensitivity and manufacturing costs. Higher spatial resolution is essential to enable earlier diagnosis, and improved sensitivity results in reduced radiation exposure and shortened measurement time. Therefore, research on next generation PET technologies remains a hot topic worldwide. In this paper, innovation and future technologies for the next generation PET scanners, such as time-of-flight measurement and simultaneous PET/MRI measurement, are described. Among them, depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement in the radiation sensor will be a key technology to get any significant improvement in sensitivity while maintaining high spatial resolution. DOI measurement also has a potential to expand PET application fields because it allows for more flexible detector arrangement. As an example, the world's first, open-type PET geometry "OpenPET", which is expected to lead to PET imaging during treatment, is under development. The DOI detector itself continues to evolve with the help of recently developed semiconductor photodetectors, often referred to as silicon photomultipliers.

  8. Characterization, prediction, and correction of geometric distortion in 3 T MR images

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Lesley N.; Wachowicz, Keith; Thomas, Steven D.; Rivest, Ryan; Gino Fallone, B.

    2007-02-15

    The work presented herein describes our methods and results for predicting, measuring and correcting geometric distortions in a 3 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for the purpose of image guidance in radiation treatment planning. Geometric inaccuracies due to both inhomogeneities in the background field and nonlinearities in the applied gradients were easily visualized on the MR images of a regularly structured three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom. From a computed tomography scan, the locations of just under 10 000 control points within the phantom were accurately determined in three dimensions using a MATLAB-based computer program. MR distortion was then determined by measuring the corresponding locations of the control points when the phantom was imaged using the MR scanner. Using a reversed gradient method, distortions due to gradient nonlinearities were separated from distortions due to inhomogeneities in the background B{sub 0} field. Because the various sources of machine-related distortions can be individually characterized, distortions present in other imaging sequences (for which 3D distortion cannot accurately be measured using phantom methods) can be predicted negating the need for individual distortion calculation for a variety of other imaging sequences. Distortions were found to be primarily caused by gradient nonlinearities and maximum image distortions were reported to be less than those previously found by other researchers at 1.5 T. Finally, the image slices were corrected for distortion in order to provide geometrically accurate phantom images.

  9. IR line scanner on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-chao; Qin, Jie-xin; Qi, Hong-xing; Xiao, Gong-hai

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces the designing principle and method of the IR line scanner on UAV in three aspects of optical-mechanical system, electronics system and processing software. It makes the system achieve good results in practical application that there are many features in the system such as light weight, small size, low power assumption, wide field of view, high instantaneous field of view, high noise equivalent temperature difference, wirelessly controlled and so on. The entire system is designed as follows: Multi-element scanner is put into use for reducing the electrical noise bandwidth, and then improving SNR; Square split aperture scanner is put into use for solving the image ratation distortion, besides fit for large velocity to height ratio; DSP is put into use for non-uniformity correction and background nosie subtraction, and then improving the imagery quality; SD card is put into use as image data storage media instead of the hard disk; The image data is stored in SD card in FAT32 file system, easily playbacked by processing software on Windows and Linux operating system; wireless transceiver module is put into use for wirelessly controlled.

  10. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  11. Comparison of three-dimensional scanner systems for craniomaxillofacial imaging.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Paul G M; Beaumont, Caroline A A; Borghi, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Breakey, Richard W F; Rodgers, William; Angullia, Freida; Jeelani, N U Owase; Schievano, Silvia; Dunaway, David J

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional photographs are the standard for assessing craniofacial surgery clinical outcomes despite lacking three-dimensional (3D) depth and shape. Therefore, 3D scanners have been gaining popularity in various fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Head shapes of eight adult volunteers were acquired using four 3D scanners: 1.5T Avanto MRI, Siemens; 3dMDface System, 3dMD Inc.; M4D Scan, Rodin4D; and Structure Sensor, Occipital Inc. Accuracy was evaluated as percentage of data within a range of 2 mm from the 3DMDface System reconstruction, by surface-to-surface root mean square (RMS) distances, and with facial distance maps. Precision was determined by RMS. Relative to the 3dMDface System, accuracy was the highest for M4D Scan (90% within 2 mm; RMS of 0.71 mm ± 0.28 mm), followed by Avanto MRI (86%; 1.11 mm ± 0.33 mm) and Structure Sensor (80%; 1.33 mm ± 0.46). M4D Scan and Structure Sensor precision were 0.50 ± 0.04 mm and 0.51 ± 0.03 mm, respectively. Clinical and technical requirements govern scanner choice; however, 3dMDface System and M4D Scan provide high-quality results. It is foreseeable that compact, handheld systems will become more popular in the near future.

  12. Quantitative 3D Ultrashort Time-to-Echo (UTE) MRI and Micro-CT (μCT) Evaluation of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Condylar Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Daniel; Bae, Won C.; Statum, Sheronda; Du, Jiang; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Temporomandibular dysfunction involves osteoarthritis of the TMJ, including degeneration and morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle. Purpose of this study was to determine accuracy of novel 3D-UTE MRI versus micro-CT (μCT) for quantitative evaluation of mandibular condyle morphology. Material & Methods Nine TMJ condyle specimens were harvested from cadavers (2M, 3F; Age 85 ± 10 yrs., mean±SD). 3D-UTE MRI (TR=50ms, TE=0.05 ms, 104 μm isotropic-voxel) was performed using a 3-T MR scanner and μCT (18 μm isotropic-voxel) was performed. MR datasets were spatially-registered with μCT dataset. Two observers segmented bony contours of the condyles. Fibrocartilage was segmented on MR dataset. Using a custom program, bone and fibrocartilage surface coordinates, Gaussian curvature, volume of segmented regions and fibrocartilage thickness were determined for quantitative evaluation of joint morphology. Agreement between techniques (MRI vs. μCT) and observers (MRI vs. MRI) for Gaussian curvature, mean curvature and segmented volume of the bone were determined using intraclass correlation correlation (ICC) analyses. Results Between MRI and μCT, the average deviation of surface coordinates was 0.19±0.15 mm, slightly higher than spatial resolution of MRI. Average deviation of the Gaussian curvature and volume of segmented regions, from MRI to μCT, was 5.7±6.5% and 6.6±6.2%, respectively. ICC coefficients (MRI vs. μCT) for Gaussian curvature, mean curvature and segmented volumes were respectively 0.892, 0.893 and 0.972. Between observers (MRI vs. MRI), the ICC coefficients were 0.998, 0.999 and 0.997 respectively. Fibrocartilage thickness was 0.55±0.11 mm, as previously described in literature for grossly normal TMJ samples. Conclusion 3D-UTE MR quantitative evaluation of TMJ condyle morphology ex-vivo, including surface, curvature and segmented volume, shows high correlation against μCT and between observers. In addition, UTE MRI allows

  13. Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET–MRI system

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, H; Ojha, N; Morich, M; Griesmer, J; Hu, Z; Maniawski, P; Ratib, O; Izquierdo-Garcia, D; Fayad, Z A; Shao, L

    2014-01-01

    The Ingenuity TF PET–MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET–MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET–CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET–MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET–MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET–CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq−1, whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET–MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET–MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET–CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived

  14. Novel MRI methodology to detect human whole-brain connectivity changes after ingestion of fructose or glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Wilkins, Bryce; Page, Kathleen A.; Singh, Manbir

    2012-03-01

    A novel MRI protocol has been developed to investigate the differential effects of glucose or fructose consumption on whole-brain functional brain connectivity. A previous study has reported a decrease in the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of the hypothalamus following glucose ingestion, but due to technical limitations, was restricted to a single slice covering the hypothalamus, and thus unable to detect whole-brain connectivity. In another previous study, a protocol was devised to acquire whole-brain fMRI data following food intake, but only after restricting image acquisition to an MR sampling or repetition time (TR) of 20s, making the protocol unsuitable to detect functional connectivity above 0.025Hz. We have successfully implemented a continuous 36-min, 40 contiguous slices, whole-brain BOLD acquisition protocol on a 3T scanner with TR=4.5s to ensure detection of up to 0.1Hz frequencies for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. Human data were acquired first with ingestion of water only, followed by a glucose or fructose drink within the scanner, without interrupting the scanning. Whole-brain connectivity was analyzed using standard correlation methodology in the 0.01-0.1 Hz range. The correlation coefficient differences between fructose and glucose ingestion among targeted regions were converted to t-scores using the water-only correlation coefficients as a null condition. Results show a dramatic increase in the hypothalamic connectivity to the hippocampus, amygdala, insula, caudate and the nucleus accumben for fructose over glucose. As these regions are known to be key components of the feeding and reward brain circuits, these results suggest a preference for fructose ingestion.

  15. Fat Imaging via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Young Children (Ages 1-4 Years) without Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Shearrer, Grace E.; House, Benjamin T.; Gallas, Michelle C.; Luci, Jeffrey J.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This pilot study developed techniques to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of specific fat deposition in 18 children (age 18 months to 4 years). Methods The children engaged in a series of practice tests to become acclimated to the scanner noises, reduce claustrophobia, and rehearse holding still for a set time. The practice tests assessed if the child could remain still for two minutes while watching a video, first while lying on a blanket, second, on the blanket with headphones, and third, in the mock scanner. The children who passed the three practice tests were then scanned with a 3T Siemens Skyra magnet. Abdominal fat distribution (region of interest (ROI) from the top of the ileac crest to the bottom of the ribcage) volume was measured using 2-point DIXON technique. This region was chosen to give an indication of the body composition around the liver. Results Twelve out of eighteen participants successfully completed the actual MRI scan. Chi-squared test showed no significant difference between male and female pass-fail rates. The median age of completed scans was 36 months, whereas the median age for children unable to complete a scan was 28 months. The average total trunk fat was 240.9±85.2mL and the average total VAT was 37.7±25.9mLand liver fat was not quantifiable due to physiological motion. Several strategies (modeling, videos, and incentives) were identified to improve pediatric imaging in different age ranges. Conclusion Using an age-specific and tailored protocol, we were able to successfully use MRI for fat imaging in a majority of young children. Development of such protocols enables researchers to better understand the etiology of fat deposition in young children, which can be used to aid in the prevention and treatment of adiposity. PMID:26901881

  16. "MRI Stealth" robot for prostate interventions.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Song, Danny; Petrisor, Doru; Ursu, Daniel; Mazilu, Dumitru; Muntener, Michael; Mutener, Michael; Schar, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep 1, designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the "MRI stealth" robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager's room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  17. A novel technique for examining human brain activity associated with pedaling using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Verber, Matthew D; Wieser, Jon A; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2009-05-15

    Advances in neural imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have made it possible to obtain images of human brain activity during motor tasks. However, technical challenges have made it difficult to image the brain during multijoint lower limb movements like those involved in locomotion. We developed an MR compatible pedaling device and recorded human brain activity associated with rhythmic, alternating flexion and extension of the lower extremities. Ten volunteers pedaled at 30 RPM while recording fMRI signals in a GE 3T short bore MR scanner. We utilized a block design consisting of 3 runs of pedaling, each lasting 4 min. In a single run, subjects pedaled for 30 s and then rested for 30 s. This sequence was repeated 4 times. Conventional fMRI processing techniques, that correlate the entire BOLD signal with standard model, did not extract physiologically meaningful signal, likely due to magnetic field distortion caused by leg movement. Hence, we examined only the portion of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during movement-free periods. This technique takes advantage of the delayed nature of the BOLD signal and fits the falling portion of the signal after movement has stopped with a standard model. Using this approach, we observed physiologically plausible brain activity patterns associated with pedaling in the primary and secondary sensory and motor cortices and the cerebellum. To our knowledge, this is the first time that human brain activity associated with pedaling has been recorded with fMRI. This technique may be useful for advancing our understanding of supraspinal control of locomotor-like movements in health and disease.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy: possibilities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Beyer, Mona K.; Brix, Maiken; Ersland, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background In this article we provide an overview of the use of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We moreover provide preliminary data using these measures in cases of children with ASD and healthy controls. A hypothesis was that ASD children would show aberrant brain activation in the prefrontal and parietal cortex in an oddball stimulus situation, with predictable and unpredictable deviant tone stimuli, as an index of resistance to change in the ASD children. We also hypothesized that glutamate and GABA metabolite levels would differ between the two groups. Methods fMRI images were acquired from a GE Signa HDx 3T MR scanner, as were the MRS data. Behavioral data were acquired as response accuracy to the deviant tone stimulus. The tone stimuli were presented in a standard fMRI ON-OFF box-car paradigim. Results The fMRI results showed reduced brain activation in the ASD cases compared to the controls, preferably in the inferior and superior frontal gyrus, posterior temporal lobe, and superior and inferior parietal lobule. These areas make up an effort mode network (EMN), being activated in response to cognitive effort. The MRS results also showed differences between the groups. Discussion The results are discussed in a theoretical framework of resistance to unexpected changes in the environment in ASD children, and how this could have a neurobiological underpinning. The results are also discussed in relation to the brain-gut link, and the possibility that ASD may have a microbial link. A limitation with the study is the few cases reported and the preliminary quality of the results. PMID:23990828

  19. Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Huang, Zirui; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Dai, Rui; Northoff, Georg; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions--namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus--exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think

  20. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  1. Tracking of Magnetite Labeled Nanoparticles in the Rat Brain Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Vera, Naira P.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Langer, Klaus; Zlatev, Iavor; Wronski, Robert; Auer, Ewald; Havas, Daniel; Windisch, Manfred; von Briesen, Hagen; Wagner, Sylvia; Stab, Julia; Deutsch, Motti; Pietrzik, Claus; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the feasibility of tracing nanoparticles for drug transport in the healthy rat brain with a clinical MRI scanner. Phantom studies were performed to assess the R1 ( =  1/T1) relaxivity of different magnetically labeled nanoparticle (MLNP) formulations that were based on biodegradable human serum albumin and that were labeled with magnetite of different size. In vivo MRI measurements in 26 rats were done at 3T to study the effect and dynamics of MLNP uptake in the rat brain and body. In the brain, MLNPs induced T1 changes were quantitatively assessed by T1 relaxation time mapping in vivo and compared to post-mortem results from fluorescence imaging. Following intravenous injection of MLNPs, a visible MLNP uptake was seen in the liver and spleen while no visual effect was seen in the brain. However a histogram analysis of T1 changes in the brain demonstrated global and diffuse presence of MLNPs. The magnitude of these T1 changes scaled with post-mortem fluorescence intensity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of tracking even small amounts of magnetite labeled NPs with a sensitive histogram technique in the brain of a living rodent. PMID:24633006

  2. Lying about the Valence of Affective Pictures: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Raine, Adrian; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception. PMID:20811624

  3. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bagga, D; Singh, N; Modi, S; Kumar, P; Bhattacharya, D; Garg, M L; Khushu, S

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological studies have shown that alcohol dependence is associated with neurocognitive deficits in tasks requiring memory, perceptual motor skills, abstraction and problem solving, whereas language skills are relatively spared in alcoholics despite structural abnormalities in the language-related brain regions. To investigate the preserved mechanisms of language processing in alcohol-dependents, functional brain imaging was undertaken in healthy controls (n=18) and alcohol-dependents (n=16) while completing a lexical semantic judgment task in a 3 T MR scanner. Behavioural data indicated that alcohol-dependents took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. fMRI data analysis revealed that while performing the task, the alcoholics showed enhanced activations in left supramarginal gyrus, precuneus bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus as compared to control subjects. The extensive activations observed in alcoholics as compared to controls suggest that alcoholics recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioural demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance or decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks. However, on direct comparison of the two groups, the results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons; therefore, the present findings need further exploration.

  4. WE-G-18C-08: Real Time Tumor Imaging Using a Novel Dynamic Keyhole MRI Reconstruction Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Whelan, B; Keall, P; Greer, P; Kim, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the novel Dynamic Keyhole MRI reconstruction technique can accelerate image acquisition whilst maintaining high image quality for lung cancer patients. Methods: 18 MRI datasets from 5 lung cancer patients were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner. These datasets were retrospectively reconstructed using (A) The novel Dynamic Keyhole technique, (B) The conventional keyhole technique and (C) the conventional zero filling technique. The dynamic keyhole technique in MRI refers to techniques in which previously acquired k-space data is used to supplement under sampled data obtained in real time. The novel Dynamic Keyhole technique utilizes a previously acquired a library of kspace datasets in conjunction with central k-space datasets acquired in realtime. A simultaneously acquired respiratory signal is utilized to sort, match and combine the two k-space streams with respect to respiratory displacement. Reconstruction performance was quantified by (1) comparing the keyhole size (which corresponds to imaging speed) required to achieve the same image quality, and (2) maintaining a constant keyhole size across the three reconstruction methods to compare the resulting image quality to the ground truth image. Results: (1) The dynamic keyhole method required a mean keyhole size which was 48% smaller than the conventional keyhole technique and 60% smaller than the zero filling technique to achieve the same image quality. This directly corresponds to faster imaging. (2) When a constant keyhole size was utilized, the Dynamic Keyhole technique resulted in the smallest difference of the tumor region compared to the ground truth. Conclusion: The dynamic keyhole is a simple and adaptable technique for clinical applications requiring real-time imaging and tumor monitoring such as MRI guided radiotherapy. Based on the results from this study, the dynamic keyhole method could increase the imaging frequency by a factor of five compared with full k

  5. Pediatric whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: Intra-individual comparison of technical quality, artifacts, and fixed structure visibility at 1.5 and 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Shyam; Moineddin, Rahim; Chavhan, Govind B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) performed at 1.5 and 3 T for technical quality, artifacts, and visibility of selected fixed structures. Patients and Methods: 21 children who had WBMRI at both 1.5 and 3 T scanners within a relatively short interval (3-13 months; average-8.6 months) were included. The images were objectively compared with scores from 4 to 1 for five parameters including severity of artifacts; visibility of liver, vertebral column, and marrow in legs; and overall image quality. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using Kendall's coefficient of Concordance (W) and scores were compared using Signed Rank test. Results: There was substantial inter-observer agreement for all five categories at both field strengths. The difference between averages of mean scores of all five parameters for two field strengths was statistically significant (P < 0.05), indicating less artifact, better fixed structure visibility, and overall image quality at 1.5 T as compared to 3 T. However, scores at 3 T were also rated within a good range (around 3) indicating its feasibility for WBMRI in children. Conclusion: WBMRI at 1.5 T has significantly better image quality, fixed structure visibility, and fewer artifacts, as compared to WBMRI at 3 T in children. This difference is unlikely to significantly affect detection of pathology on 3 T WBMRI as the image quality score at 3 T was also within good range. PMID:26752815

  6. Dense, shape‐optimized posterior 32‐channel coil for submillimeter functional imaging of visual cortex at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorov, Filip; van der Kouwe, Andre J.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Keil, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Functional neuroimaging of small cortical patches such as columns is essential for testing computational models of vision, but imaging from cortical columns at conventional 3T fields is exceedingly difficult. By targeting the visual cortex exclusively, we tested whether combined optimization of shape, coil placement, and electronics would yield the necessary gains in signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) for submillimeter visual cortex functional MRI (fMRI). Method We optimized the shape of the housing to a population‐averaged atlas. The shape was comfortable without cushions and resulted in the maximally proximal placement of the coil elements. By using small wire loops with the least number of solder joints, we were able to maximize the Q factor of the individual elements. Finally, by planning the placement of the coils using the brain atlas, we were able to target the arrangement of the coil elements to the extent of the visual cortex. Results The combined optimizations led to as much as two‐fold SNR gain compared with a whole‐head 32‐channel coil. This gain was reflected in temporal SNR as well and enabled fMRI mapping at 0.75 mm resolutions using a conventional GRAPPA‐accelerated gradient echo echo planar imaging. Conclusion Integrated optimization of shape, electronics, and element placement can lead to large gains in SNR and empower submillimeter fMRI at 3T. Magn Reson Med 76:321–328, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26218835

  7. Comparison of Muscle BOLD Responses to Arterial Occlusion at 3T and 7T

    PubMed Central

    Towse, Theodore F.; Childs, Benjamin T.; Sabin, Shea A.; Bush, Emily C.; Elder, Christopher P.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of muscle BOLD (mBOLD) imaging at 7T by comparing the changes in R2* of muscle at 3 and 7T in response to a brief period of tourniquet-induced ischemia. Methods Eight subjects (3 male), aged 29.5 ± 6.1 years (mean ± standard deviation, SD), 167.0 ± 10.6 cm tall with a body mass of 62.0 ± 18.0 kg, participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab on four separate occasions including a habituation session, two MRI scans, and in a subset of subjects, a session during which changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation were quantified using Doppler ultrasound (U/S) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) respectively. For statistical comparisons between 3T and 7T, R2* rate constants were calculated as R2* = 1/T2*. Results The mean pre-occlusion R2* value was greater at 7T than at 3T (60.16 ± 2.95 vs 35.17 ± 0.35 s−1 respectively, p <0.001). Also, the mean ΔR2*END and ΔR2*POST values were greater for 7T than for 3T (−2.36 ± 0.25 vs. −1.24 ± 0.39 s−1, respectively, Table 1). Conclusion Muscle BOLD contrast at 7T is as much as six-fold greater than at 3T. In addition to providing greater SNR and CNR, 7T mBOLD studies may offer further advantages in the form of greater sensitivity to pathological changes in the muscle microcirculation. PMID:25884888

  8. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment

  9. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentationa

    PubMed Central

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B1 inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment both

  10. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI at ultra-high field: artifact prevention and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; Ipek, Özlem; Stoermer, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Figueiredo, Patrícia; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-01-15

    The simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide unique insights into the dynamics of human brain function, and the increased functional sensitivity offered by ultra-high field fMRI opens exciting perspectives for the future of this multimodal approach. However, simultaneous recordings are susceptible to various types of artifacts, many of which scale with magnetic field strength and can seriously compromise both EEG and fMRI data quality in recordings above 3T. The aim of the present study was to implement and characterize an optimized setup for simultaneous EEG-fMRI in humans at 7 T. The effects of EEG cable length and geometry for signal transmission between the cap and amplifiers were assessed in a phantom model, with specific attention to noise contributions from the MR scanner coldheads. Cable shortening (down to 12 cm from cap to amplifiers) and bundling effectively reduced environment noise by up to 84% in average power and 91% in inter-channel power variability. Subject safety was assessed and confirmed via numerical simulations of RF power distribution and temperature measurements on a phantom model, building on the limited existing literature at ultra-high field. MRI data degradation effects due to the EEG system were characterized via B0 and B1(+) field mapping on a human volunteer, demonstrating important, although not prohibitive, B1 disruption effects. With the optimized setup, simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions were performed on 5 healthy volunteers undergoing two visual paradigms: an eyes-open/eyes-closed task, and a visual evoked potential (VEP) paradigm using reversing-checkerboard stimulation. EEG data exhibited clear occipital alpha modulation and average VEPs, respectively, with concomitant BOLD signal changes. On a single-trial level, alpha power variations could be observed with relative confidence on all trials; VEP detection was more limited, although

  11. Velocity Measurement in Carotid Artery: Quantitative Comparison of Time-Resolved 3D Phase-Contrast MRI and Image-based Computational Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami-Foroushani, Ali; Nasr Esfahany, Mohsen; Nasiraei Moghaddam, Abbas; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Firouznia, Kavous; Shakiba, Madjid; Ghanaati, Hossein; Wilkinson, Iain David; Frangi, Alejandro Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding hemodynamic environment in vessels is important for realizing the mechanisms leading to vascular pathologies. Objectives: Three-dimensional velocity vector field in carotid bifurcation is visualized using TR 3D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (TR 3D PC MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study aimed to present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the velocity vector field obtained by each technique. Subjects and Methods: MR imaging was performed on a 30-year old male normal subject. TR 3D PC MRI was performed on a 3 T scanner to measure velocity in carotid bifurcation. 3D anatomical model for CFD was created using images obtained from time-of-flight MR angiography. Velocity vector field in carotid bifurcation was predicted using CFD and PC MRI techniques. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the agreement between the two methods. Results: Although the main flow patterns were the same for the both techniques, CFD showed a greater resolution in mapping the secondary and circulating flows. Overall root mean square (RMS) errors for all the corresponding data points in PC MRI and CFD were 14.27% in peak systole and 12.91% in end diastole relative to maximum velocity measured at each cardiac phase. Bland-Altman plots showed a very good agreement between the two techniques. However, this study was not aimed to validate any of methods, instead, the consistency was assessed to accentuate the similarities and differences between Time-resolved PC MRI and CFD. Conclusion: Both techniques provided quantitatively consistent results of in vivo velocity vector fields in right internal carotid artery (RCA). PC MRI represented a good estimation of main flow patterns inside the vasculature, which seems to be acceptable for clinical use. However, limitations of each technique should be considered while interpreting results. PMID:26793288

  12. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  13. Electrodynamic headphones and woofers for application in magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, F; Kaulisch, T; Tempelmann, C; Gaschler-Markefski, B; Tegeler, C; Schindler, F; Stiller, D; Scheich, H

    1998-10-01

    Electrodynamic speakers compatible with (functional) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. The speakers magnets are removed, their function is replaced by the scanner's magnetic field, resulting in an uncommon but efficient operation. The method can be used with headphones as well as woofers. Functional MRI is not associated with any known biological risks, but as a method for visualization of task-specific activation of brain regions it is undesirably noisy. Thus, it requires both noise protection and efficient sound transmission systems for delivering acoustic stimuli to subjects. Woofers could possibly be used in active noise-control systems. The speakers described in this paper can be used for either task.

  14. A novel front-end chip for a human PET scanner based on monolithic detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Cela, J. M.; Oller, J. C.; Romero, L.; Pérez, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner based on avalanche photodiodes (APD), monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and a dedicated readout chip. All these components allow operation inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with the aim of building a PET/MRI hybrid imaging system for clinical human brain studies. Previous work verified the functional performance of our first chip (VATA240) based on a leading edge comparator and the principle of operation of our radiation sensors, which are capable of providing reconstructed images of positron point sources with spatial resolutions of 2.1 mm FWHM. The new VATA241 chip presented in this work has been designed with the aim of reducing the coincidence window of our final PET scanner by implementing an on-chip constant fraction discriminator (CFD), as well as providing a better robustness for its implementation in the full-scale PET scanner. Results from the characterization of the VATA241 chip are presented, together with the first results on coincidence performance, validating the new design for our application.

  15. Evaluation of bound and pore water in cortical bone using ultrashort-TE MRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Grogan, Shawn P; Shao, Hongda; D'Lima, Darryl; Bydder, Graeme M; Wu, Zhihong; Du, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Bone water exists in different states with the majority bound to the organic matrix and to mineral, and a smaller fraction in 'free' form in the pores of cortical bone. In this study, we aimed to develop and evaluate ultrashort-TE (UTE) MRI techniques for the assessment of T2*, T1 and concentration of collagen-bound and pore water in cortical bone using a 3-T clinical whole-body scanner. UTE MRI, together with an isotope study using tritiated and distilled water (THO-H2O) exchange, as well as gravimetric analysis, were performed on ten sectioned bovine bone samples. In addition, 32 human cortical bone samples were prepared for comparison between the pore water concentration measured with UTE MRI and the cortical porosity derived from micro-computed tomography (μCT). A short T2* of 0.27 ± 0.03 ms and T1 of 116 ± 6 ms were observed for collagen-bound water in bovine bone. A longer T2* of 1.84 ± 0.52 ms and T1 of 527 ± 28 ms were observed for pore water in bovine bone. UTE MRI measurements showed a pore water concentration of 4.7-5.3% by volume and collagen-bound water concentration of 15.7-17.9% in bovine bone. THO-H2O exchange studies showed a pore water concentration of 5.9 ± 0.6% and collagen-bound water concentration of 18.1 ± 2.1% in bovine bone. Gravimetric analysis showed a pore water concentration of 6.3 ± 0.8% and collagen-bound water concentration of 19.2 ± 3.6% in bovine bone. A mineral water concentration of 9.5 ± 0.6% was derived in bovine bone with the THO-H2O exchange study. UTE-measured pore water concentration is highly correlated (R(2) = 0.72, p < 0.0001) with μCT porosity in the human cortical bone study. Both bovine and human bone studies suggest that UTE sequences could reliably measure collagen-bound and pore water concentration in cortical bone using a clinical scanner.

  16. Academic and Career Advising of Scanners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arvid J.; Tripp, Philip R.; Shaffer, Leigh S.

    2011-01-01

    "Scanners" has become a common term for a recently identified category of people who find choosing just one interest or career path difficult (Sher, 2006). Academic and career advisors who work with scanners will likely find that these students have difficulty selecting an academic major or career path and that they seem to suffer anxiety and a…

  17. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1220 - Fluorescent scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluorescent scanner. 892.1220 Section 892.1220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1220 Fluorescent scanner. (a) Identification....

  2. Discriminant analyses of Bendix scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Torline, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Flights over Weslaco, Texas are discussed, using the 9-channel Bendix scanner, providing calibrated data in the 380 to 1000 nm wavelength interval. These flights were at 2000 ft. These data gave seasonal coverage from the time signals, representing mainly the soil background. The ground truth data are provided; signature processing studies relating scanner data to ground truth were also carried out.

  3. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  4. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  5. Laser Scanner For Automatic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A.; Rebordao, Jose M.; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    The automated magazines are beeing used at industry more and more. One of the problems related with the automation of a Store House is the identification of the products envolved. Already used for stock management, the Bar Codes allows an easy way to identify one product. Applied to automated magazines, the bar codes allows a great variety of items in a small code. In order to be used by the national producers of automated magazines, a devoted laser scanner has been develloped. The Prototype uses an He-Ne laser whose beam scans a field angle of 75 degrees at 16 Hz. The scene reflectivity is transduced by a photodiode into an electrical signal, which is then binarized. This digital signal is the input of the decodifying program. The machine is able to see barcodes and to decode the information. A parallel interface allows the comunication with the central unit, which is responsible for the management of automated magazine.

  6. Spaceborne scanner imaging system errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, A.

    1982-01-01

    The individual sensor system design elements which are the priori components in the registration and rectification process, and the potential impact of error budgets on multitemporal registration and side-lap registration are analyzed. The properties of scanner, MLA, and SAR imaging systems are reviewed. Each sensor displays internal distortion properties which to varying degrees make it difficult to generate on orthophoto projection of the data acceptable for multiple pass registration or meeting national map accuracy standards and is also affected to varying degrees by relief displacements in moderate to hilly terrain. Nonsensor related distortions, associated with the accuracy of ephemeris determination and platform stability, have a major impact on local geometric distortions. Platform stability improvements expected from the new multi mission spacecraft series and improved ephemeris and ground control point determination from the NAVSTAR/global positioning satellite systems are reviewed.

  7. Phantom haptic device upgrade for use in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Ales; Koritnik, Blaz; Munih, Marko

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents an upgrade of a Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic device for use within a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) environment. A special mechanical extension that allows the haptic device to operate at a safe distance from the high-density magnetic field of an fMRI scanner has been developed. Extended haptic system was subjected to a series of tests to confirm electromagnetic compatibility with the fMRI scanner, for which key results are presented. With this fMRI compatible haptic platform a human brain activation during controlled upper limb movements can be studied. A simple virtual environment reaching task was programmed to study brain motor control functions. At the end preliminary results of an ongoing neurophysiological study are presented.

  8. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  9. MRI of neuronal plasticity in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Pelled, Galit

    2011-01-01

    Modifications in the behavior and architecture of neuronal networks are well documented to occur in association with learning and memory, as well as following injury. These plasticity mechanisms are crucial to ensure adequate processing of stimuli, and they also dictate the degree of recovery following peripheral or central nervous system injury. Nevertheless, the underlying neuronal mechanisms that determine the degree of plasticity of neuronal pathways are not fully understood. Recent developments in animal-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and related hardware afford a high spatial and temporal resolution, making functional MRI and manganese-enhanced MRI emerging tools for studying reorganization of neuronal pathways in rodent models. Many of the observed changes in neuronal functions in rodent's brains following injury discussed here agree with clinical human fMRI findings. This demonstrates that animal model imaging can have a significant clinical impact in the neuronal plasticity and rehabilitation arenas.

  10. Computed Tomography and MRI of the Hepatobiliary System and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Marolf, Angela J

    2016-05-01

    MRI and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are becoming more common in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disorders in small animals. With the advent of multislice CT scanners, sedated examinations in veterinary patients are feasible increasing the use of this imaging modality. CT and MRI provide additional information for dogs and cats with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases because of lack of superimposition of structures, operator dependence, and through intravenous contrast administration. This added value provides more information for diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning.

  11. Prostate tissue ablation with MRI guided transurethral therapeutic ultrasound and intraoperative assessment of the integrity of the neurovascular bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammet, Steffen; Partanen, Ari; Yousuf, Ambereen; Wardrip, Craig; Niekrasz, Marek; Antic, Tatjana; Razmaria, Aria; Sokka, Sham; Karczmar, Gregory; Oto, Aytekin

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the precision of prostate tissue ablation with MRI guided therapeuticultrasound by intraoperative objective assessment of the neurovascular bundle in canines in-vivo. METHODS: In this ongoing IACUC approved study, eight male canines were scanned in a clinical 3T Achieva MRI scanner (Philips) before, during, and after ultrasound therapy with a prototype MR-guided ultrasound therapy system (Philips). The system includes a therapy console to plan treatment, to calculate real-time temperature maps, and to control ultrasound exposures with temperature feedback. Atransurethral ultrasound applicator with eight transducer elements was used to ablate canine prostate tissue in-vivo. Ablated prostate tissue volumes were compared to the prescribed target volumes to evaluate technical effectiveness. The ablated volumes determined by MRI (T1, T2, diffusion, dynamic contrast enhanced and 240 CEM43 thermal dose maps) were compared to H&E stained histological slides afterprostatectomy. Potential nerve damage of the neurovascular bundle was objectively assessed intraoperativelyduring prostatectomy with a CaverMap Surgical Aid nerve stimulator (Blue Torch Medical Technologies). RESULTS: Transurethral MRI -guided ultrasound therapy can effectively ablate canine prostate tissue invivo. Coronal MR-imaging confirmed the correct placement of the HIFU transducer. MRI temperature maps were acquired during HIFU treatment, and subsequently used for calculating thermal dose. Prescribed target volumes corresponded to the 240 CEM43 thermal dose maps during HIFU treatment in all canines. Ablated volumes on high resolution anatomical, diffusion weighted, and contrast enhanced MR images matched corresponding histological slides after prostatectomy. MRI guidance with realtime temperature monitoring showed no damage to surrounding tissues, especially to the neurovascular bundle (assessed intra-operatively with a nerve stimulator) or to the rectum wall. CONCLUSIONS: Our study

  12. Monte Carlo study of the impact of a magnetic field on the dose distribution in MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy using Ir-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beld, E.; Seevinck, P. R.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Viergever, M. A.; Moerland, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the process of developing a robotic MRI-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment, the influence of the MRI scanner’s magnetic field on the dose distribution needs to be investigated. A magnetic field causes a deflection of electrons in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, and it leads to less lateral scattering along the direction parallel with the magnetic field. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to determine the influence of the magnetic field on the electron behavior and on the total dose distribution around an Ir-192 source. Furthermore, the influence of air pockets being present near the source was studied. The Monte Carlo package Geant4 was utilized for the simulations. The simulated geometries consisted of a simplified point source inside a water phantom. Magnetic field strengths of 0 T, 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T were considered. The simulation results demonstrated that the dose distribution was nearly unaffected by the magnetic field for all investigated magnetic field strengths. Evidence was found that, from a dose perspective, the HDR prostate brachytherapy treatment using Ir-192 can be performed safely inside the MRI scanner. No need was found to account for the magnetic field during treatment planning. Nevertheless, the presence of air pockets in close vicinity to the source, particularly along the direction parallel with the magnetic field, appeared to be an important point for consideration.

  13. MRI simulator: a teaching tool for radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, Debra A.; Kishore, Sheel; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    1990-08-01

    The increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a clinical modality has put an enormous burden on medical institutions to cost-effectively teach Mill scanning techniques to technologists and physicians. Since MRI scanner time is a scarce resource, it would be ideal if the teaching could be effectively performed off-line. In order to meet this goal, the Radiology Department has designed and developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Simulator. The Simulator in its current implementation mimics the General Electric Signa scanner's user-interface for image acquisition. The design is general enough to be applied to other MRI scanners. One unique feature of the simulator is its incorporation of an image-synthesis module which permits the user to derive images for any arbitrary combination of pulsing parameters for spin-echo, gradient-echo, and inversion recovery pulse sequences. These images are computed in five seconds. The development platform chosen is a standard Apple Macintosh-Il computer with no specialized hardware peripherals. The user-interface is implemented in HyperCard. All other software development including synthesis and display functions are implemented under the MPW 'C' environment. The scan parameters, demographics and images are tracked using an Oracle database. Images are currently stored on magnetic disk but could be stored on optical media with minimal effort.

  14. Hybrid Adiabatic-Rectangular Pulse Train for Effective Saturation of Magnetization within the Whole Heart at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Oesingmann, Niels; McGorty, KellyAnne

    2009-01-01

    Uniform T1-weighting is a major challenge for first-pass cardiac perfusion MRI at 3T. Previously proposed adiabatic B1-insensitive rotation (BIR-4) pulse and standard and tailored pulse trains of three non-selective pulses have been important developments but each pulse has limitations at 3T. As an extension of the tailored pulse train, we developed a hybrid pulse train by synergistically combining two non-selective rectangular RF pulses and an adiabatic half-passage pulse, in order to achieve effective saturation of magnetization within the heart, while remaining within clinically acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) limits. The standard pulse train, tailored pulse train, hybrid pulse train, and BIR-4 pulse train were evaluated through numerical, phantom, and in vivo experiments. Among the four saturation pulses, only the hybrid pulse train yielded residual magnetization < 2% of equilibrium magnetization in the heart, while remaining within clinically acceptable SAR limits for multi-slice first-pass cardiac perfusion MRI at 3T. PMID:19785021

  15. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22–40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water–N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.110, –0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: –0.054, –0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature

  16. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T.

    PubMed

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-02-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22-40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water-N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.110, -0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: -0.054, -0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature mapping was

  17. High-speed 3T MR spectroscopic imaging of prostate with flyback echo-planar encoding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Albert P; Cunningham, Charles H; Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Xu, Duan; Hurd, Ralph E; Kelley, Douglas A C; Pauly, John M; Kurhanewicz, John; Nelson, Sarah J; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2007-06-01

    Prostate MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 3T may provide two-fold higher spatial resolution over 1.5T, but this can result in longer acquisition times to cover the entire gland using conventional phase-encoding. In this study, flyback echo-planar readout trajectories were incorporated into a Malcolm Levitt's composite-pulse decoupling sequence (MLEV)-point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) to accelerate the acquisition of large array (16 x 16 x 8), high spatial (0.154 cm(3)) resolution MRSI data by eight-fold to just 8.5 minutes. Artifact free, high-quality MRSI data was obtained in nine prostate cancer patients. Easy data reconstruction and the robustness of the flyback echo-planar encoding make this technique particularly suitable for the clinical setting. The short acquisition time provided by this method reduces the 3T prostate MRI/MRSI exam time, allows longer repetition times, and/or allows the acquisition of additional MR acquisitions within the same exam.

  18. Shoulder MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  19. Knee MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  20. Shoulder MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  1. Knee MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  2. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. PMID:24961428

  3. Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John

    2013-05-28

    BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.

  4. BOLD fMRI of visual and somatosensory–motor stimulations in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Li, Jinqi; Szabó, C. Ákos; Fox, Peter T.; Leland, M. Michelle; Jones, Lisa; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Baboon, with its large brain size and extensive cortical folding compared to other non-human primates, serves as a good model for neuroscience research. This study reports the implementation of a baboon model for blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI studies (1.5 × 1.5 × 4 mm resolution) on a clinical 3 T-MRI scanner. BOLD fMRI responses to hypercapnic (5% CO2) challenge, 10 Hz flicker visual, and vibrotactile somatosensory–motor stimulations were investigated in baboons anesthetized sequentially with isoflurane and ketamine. Hypercapnia evoked robust BOLD increases. Paralysis was determined to be necessary to achieve reproducible functional activations within and between subjects under our experimental conditions. With optimized anesthetic doses (0.8–1.0% isoflurane or 6–8 mg/kg/h ketamine) and adequate paralysis (vecuronium, 0.2 mg/kg), robust activations were detected in the visual (V), primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory, primary motor (M cortices), supplementary motor area (SMA), lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and thalamus (Th). Data were tabulated for 11 trials under isoflurane and 10 trials under ketamine on 5 baboons. S1, S2, M, and V activations were detected in essentially all trials (90–100% of the time, except 82% for S2 under isoflurane and 70% for M under ketamine). LGN activations were detected 64–70% of the time under both anesthetics. SMA and Th activations were detected 36–45% of the time under isoflurane and 60% of the time under ketamine. BOLD percent changes among different structures were slightly higher under ketamine than isoflurane (0.75% versus 0.58% averaging all structures), but none was statistically different (P>0.05). This baboon model offers an opportunity to non-invasively image brain functions and dysfunctions in large non-human primates. PMID:20471483

  5. Eddy current X-Y scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Branch of the Materials and Processes Laboratory became aware of a need for a miniature, portable X-Y scanner capable of performing eddy current or other nondestructive testing scanning operations such as ultrasonic, or small areas of flat plate. The technical description and operational theory of the X-Y scanner system designed and built to fulfill this need are covered. The scanner was given limited testing and performs according to its design intent, which is to scan flat plate areas of approximately 412 sq cm (64 sq in) during each complete cycle of scanning.

  6. Connectivity alterations assessed by combining fMRI and MR-compatible hand robots in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Astrakas, Loukas G; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Konstas, Angelos A; Singhal, Aneesh; Moskowitz, Michael A; Rosen, Bruce R; Tzika, A Aria

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate functional reorganization of motor systems by probing connectivity between motor related areas in chronic stroke patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with a novel MR-compatible hand-induced, robotic device (MR_CHIROD). We evaluated data sets obtained from healthy volunteers and right-hand-dominant patients with first-ever left-sided stroke > or =6 months prior and mild to moderate hemiparesis affecting the right hand. We acquired T1-weighted echo planar and fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images and multi-level fMRI data using parallel imaging by means of the GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) algorithm on a 3 T MR system. Participants underwent fMRI while performing a motor task with the MR_CHIROD in the MR scanner. Changes in effective connectivity among a network of primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and cerebellum (Ce) were assessed using dynamic causal modeling. Relative to healthy controls, stroke patients exhibited decreased intrinsic neural coupling between M1 and Ce, which was consistent with a dysfunctional M1 to Ce connection. Stroke patients also showed increased SMA to M1 and SMA to cerebellum coupling, suggesting that changes in SMA and Ce connectivity may occur to compensate for a dysfunctional M1. The results demonstrate for the first time that connectivity alterations between motor areas may help counterbalance a functionally abnormal M1 in chronic stroke patients. Assessing changes in connectivity by means of fMRI and MR_CHIROD might be used in the future to further elucidate the neural network plasticity that underlies functional recovery in chronic stroke patients.

  7. A novel manipulation method of human body ownership using an fMRI-compatible master-slave system.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Salomon, Roy; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Kober, Tobias; Rognini, Giulio; Nabae, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Akio; Blanke, Olaf; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2014-09-30

    Bodily self-consciousness has become an important topic in cognitive neuroscience aiming to understand how the brain creates a unified sensation of the self in a body. Specifically, full body illusion (FBI) in which changes in bodily self-consciousness are experimentally introduced by using visual-tactile stimulation has led to improve understanding of these mechanisms. This paper introduces a novel approach to the classic FBI paradigm using a robotic master-slave system which allows us to examine interactions between action and the sense of body ownership in behavioral and MRI experiments. In the proposed approach, the use of the robotic master-slave system enables unique stimulation in which experimental participants can administer tactile cues on their own back using active self-touch. This active self-touch has never been employed in FBI experiments and it allows to test the role of sensorimotor integration and agency (the feeling of control over our actions) in FBI paradigms. The objective of this study is to propose a robotic-haptic platform allowing a new FBI paradigm including the active self-touch in MRI environments. This paper, first, describes the design concept and the performance of the prototype device in the fMRI environment (for 3T and 7T MRI scanners). In addition, the prototype device is applied to a classic FBI experiment, and we verify that the use of the prototype device succeeded in inducing the FBI. These results indicate that the proposed approach has a potential to drive advances in our understanding of human body ownership and agency by allowing novel manipulation and paradigms.

  8. Miniaturized micro-optical scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Andrews, Angus P.; Gunning, William J.; Khoshnevisan, Moshen

    1994-11-01

    Optical beam scanners are critical components for airborne and space-based laser radar, on- machine-inspection systems, factory automation systems, and optical communication systems. We describe here a laser beam steering system based on dithering two complementary (positive and negative) microlens arrays. When the two microlens arrays are translated relative to one another in the plane parallel to their surfaces, the transmitted light beam is scanned in two directions. We have demonstrated scanning speeds up to 300 Hz with a pair of 6-mm- aperture microlens arrays designed for input from a HeNe laser. The output beam covers a discrete 16 X 16 spot scan pattern with about 3.6 mrad separation and only 400 (mu) rad of beam divergence, in close agreement with design predictions. This demo system is relatively compact; less than 2 in. on a side. We also describe several near-term applications, some critical design trade-offs, and important fabrication and design issues.

  9. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    PubMed

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise.

  10. Which pulse sequence is optimal for myo-inositol detection at 3T?

    PubMed

    Hancu, Ileana

    2009-05-01

    Optimized myo-inositol (mI) detection is important for diagnosing and monitoring a multitude of pathological conditions of the brain. Simulations are presented in this work, performed to decide which pulse sequence has the most significant advantage in terms of improving repeatability and accuracy of mI measurements at 3T over the pulse sequence used typically in the clinic, a TE = 35 ms PRESS sequence. Five classes of pulse sequences, four previously suggested for optimized mI detection (a short TE PRESS, a Carr-Purcell PRESS sequence, an optimized STEAM sequence, an optimized zero quantum filter), and one optimized for mI detection in this work (a single quantum filter) were compared to a standard, TE = 35 ms pulse sequence. While limiting the SNR of an acquisition to the equivalent SNR of a spectrum acquired in 5 min from an 8 cc voxel, it was found through simulations that the most repeatable mI measurements would be obtained with a Carr-Purcell sequence. This sequence was implemented in a clinical scanner, and improved mI measurements were demonstrated in vivo.

  11. Contributed Review: Nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jonathan Fordham, Edmund J.

    2014-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  12. Contributed review: nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Fordham, Edmund J

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  13. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  14. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, D.; Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (∼550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (∼50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 5×5×5 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  15. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  16. High voltage battery cell scanner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

  17. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-07

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  18. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, Tommy L.; Powers, Hurshal G.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane perpendicular to an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image to a stationary photodiode array.

  19. Plasma system of the GOL-3T facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burdakov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Kuklin, K. N.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V. Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Sklyarov, V. F.

    2015-11-15

    The plasma system and diagnostics of the new facility GOL-3T are described. This facility is the final result of the first stage in the deep upgrade of the GOL-3 multiple-mirror system, which has operated at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 1988. The upgrade project supposes creation of two new independent facilities at the site of GOL-3. The GOL-3T facility is intended to study the physics of beam—plasma interaction and generation of subterahertz electromagnetic radiation during the collective relaxation of a high-power relativistic electron beam with a duration of 5–10 μs. Studies on the physics of multiple-mirror plasma confinement in axisymmetric magnetic systems will be continued in a new range of experiment parameters at the second facility, named GOL-NB.

  20. Neuroradiologic applications of dynamic MR angiography at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hemant; Ivancevic, Marko K; Dudek, Nancy; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Geerts, Liesbeth; Hoogeveen, R; Mukherji, S K; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2009-02-01

    Four-dimensional time-resolved MR angiography (4D-MRA) using keyhole imaging techniques is a new method of performing contrastenhanced vascular imaging. Combining parallel imaging and keyhole imaging techniques, it is possible to obtain dynamic MRA scans up to 60 times faster, thereby achieving subsecond sampling of the contrast hemodynamics. Furthermore, imaging at 3 T gives higher signal, thus affording higher spatial resolution and allowing dynamic 3D MRA to approach the diagnostic performance of conventional digital subtraction angiography. This article presents the authors' clinical experience using 4D-MRA to evaluate various vascular abnormalities in the brain, spine, orbits, and neck at 3 T, demonstrates the imaging findings of this novel technique, and discusses its advantages and use in current neuroradiology practice.

  1. Measuring CT scanner variability of radiomics features

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Dennis; Fave, Xenia; Zhang, Lifei; Fried, David; Yang, Jinzhong; Taylor, Brian; Rodriguez-Rivera, Edgardo; Dodge, Cristina; Jones, A. Kyle; Court, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of inter-scanner variability in CT image radiomics studies. Materials and Methods We compared the radiomics features calculated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors from 20 patients with those calculated for 17 scans of a specially designed radiomics phantom. The phantom comprised 10 cartridges, each filled with different materials to produce a wide range of radiomics feature values. The scans were acquired using General Electric, Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba scanners from four medical centers using their routine thoracic imaging protocol. The radiomics feature studied included the mean and standard deviations of the CT numbers as well as textures derived from the neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix. To quantify the significance of the inter-scanner variability, we introduced the metric feature noise. To look for patterns in the scans, we performed hierarchical clustering for each cartridge. Results The mean CT numbers for the 17 CT scans of the phantom cartridges spanned from -864 to 652 Hounsfield units compared with a span of -186 to 35 Hounsfield units for the CT scans of the NSCLC tumors, showing that the phantom’s dynamic range includes that of the tumors. The inter-scanner variability of the feature values depended on both the cartridge material and the feature, and the variability was large relative to the inter-patient variability in the NSCLC tumors for some features. The feature inter-scanner noise was greatest for busyness and least for texture strength. Hierarchical clustering produced different clusters of the phantom scans for each cartridge, although there was some consistent clustering by scanner manufacturer. Conclusions The variability in the values of radiomics features calculated on CT images from different CT scanners can be comparable to the variability in these features found in CT images of NSCLC tumors. These inter-scanner differences should be

  2. MR safety and imaging of neuroform stents at 3T.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Arvind; Moran, Christopher J; Cross, Dewitte T; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2004-10-01

    The Neuroform stent is a self-expanding nitinol stent designed for use in wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Heating and imaging artifacts were evaluated by using a porcine carotid artery aneurysm model in a 3T MR system. A suspended Neuroform stent was tested for deflection. No heating was measured, and no evidence of deflection of the stent was found. Imaging artifacts were minimal. MR imaging in patients with Neuroform stent-treated aneurysms is safe and feasible.

  3. Uncertainty Propagation for Terrestrial Mobile Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezian, c.; Vallet, Bruno; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Laser scanners are used more and more in mobile mapping systems. They provide 3D point clouds that are used for object reconstruction and registration of the system. For both of those applications, uncertainty analysis of 3D points is of great interest but rarely investigated in the literature. In this paper we present a complete pipeline that takes into account all the sources of uncertainties and allows to compute a covariance matrix per 3D point. The sources of uncertainties are laser scanner, calibration of the scanner in relation to the vehicle and direct georeferencing system. We suppose that all the uncertainties follow the Gaussian law. The variances of the laser scanner measurements (two angles and one distance) are usually evaluated by the constructors. This is also the case for integrated direct georeferencing devices. Residuals of the calibration process were used to estimate the covariance matrix of the 6D transformation between scanner laser and the vehicle system. Knowing the variances of all sources of uncertainties, we applied uncertainty propagation technique to compute the variance-covariance matrix of every obtained 3D point. Such an uncertainty analysis enables to estimate the impact of different laser scanners and georeferencing devices on the quality of obtained 3D points. The obtained uncertainty values were illustrated using error ellipsoids on different datasets.

  4. Function biomedical informatics research network recommendations for prospective multicenter functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Turner, Jessica A; van Erp, Theo G M; Liu, Thomas T; Greve, Douglas N; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Brown, Gregory G; Keator, David B; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Lim, Kelvin O; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-07-01

    This report provides practical recommendations for the design and execution of multicenter functional MRI (MC-fMRI) studies based on the collective experience of the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN). The study was inspired by many requests from the fMRI community to FBIRN group members for advice on how to conduct MC-fMRI studies. The introduction briefly discusses the advantages and complexities of MC-fMRI studies. Prerequisites for MC-fMRI studies are addressed before delving into the practical aspects of carefully and efficiently setting up a MC-fMRI study. Practical multisite aspects include: (i) establishing and verifying scan parameters including scanner types and magnetic fields, (ii) establishing and monitoring of a scanner quality program, (iii) developing task paradigms and scan session documentation, (iv) establishing clinical and scanner training to ensure consistency over time, (v) developing means for uploading, storing, and monitoring of imaging and other data, (vi) the use of a traveling fMRI expert, and (vii) collectively analyzing imaging data and disseminating results. We conclude that when MC-fMRI studies are organized well with careful attention to unification of hardware, software and procedural aspects, the process can be a highly effective means for accessing a desired participant demographics while accelerating scientific discovery.

  5. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  6. Vaspin promotes 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Jine; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Liping; Han, Wenqi; Lv, Ying; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Vaspin, a novel adipocyte factor secreted from visceral adipose tissues, is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, increase insulin sensitivity, and suppress inflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Proliferation and maladaptive differentiation are important pathological mechanisms underlying obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaspin on the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and to explore the likely mechanisms responsible for 3T3-L1 differentiation. Vaspin was added to cultured 3T3-L1 cells, and the differentiation of adipocytes was evaluated using Oil Red O staining. The AKT signaling pathway and specific differentiation factors related to the differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family, were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses during the early phase of differentiation. Additionally, adiponectin mRNA, interleukin-6 mRNA (IL-6 mRNA), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein levels were measured in the differentiated adipocytes. The results indicated that vaspin promotes the intracellular accumulation of lipids and increases differentiation-related factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, C/EBPα, and free fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, vaspin (200 ng/mL) increased the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ, C/EBPα, and FABP4. Moreover, compared with the control, significantly smaller eight-day differentiated adipocytes were observed, and these cells exhibited decreased IL-6 mRNA and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels; these results also indicated the potential of vaspin to promote the insulin-mediated AKT signaling pathway during the early phase of differentiation. In conclusion

  7. Portable MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  8. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  9. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  10. Near-unity nuclear polarization with an open-source 129Xe hyperpolarizer for NMR and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Gust, Brogan M.; Whiting, Nicholas; Newton, Hayley; Barcus, Scott; Muradyan, Iga; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Moroz, Gregory D.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Patz, Samuel; Barlow, Michael J.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Goodson, Boyd M.

    2013-01-01

    The exquisite NMR spectral sensitivity and negligible reactivity of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HP129Xe) make it attractive for a number of magnetic resonance applications; moreover, HP129Xe embodies an alternative to rare and nonrenewable 3He. However, the ability to reliably and inexpensively produce large quantities of HP129Xe with sufficiently high 129Xe nuclear spin polarization (PXe) remains a significant challenge—particularly at high Xe densities. We present results from our “open-source” large-scale (∼1 L/h) 129Xe polarizer for clinical, preclinical, and materials NMR and MRI research. Automated and composed mostly of off-the-shelf components, this “hyperpolarizer” is designed to be readily implementable in other laboratories. The device runs with high resonant photon flux (up to 200 W at the Rb D1 line) in the xenon-rich regime (up to 1,800 torr Xe in 500 cc) in either single-batch or stopped-flow mode, negating in part the usual requirement of Xe cryocollection. Excellent agreement is observed among four independent methods used to measure spin polarization. In-cell PXe values of ∼90%, ∼57%, ∼50%, and ∼30% have been measured for Xe loadings of ∼300, ∼500, ∼760, and ∼1,570 torr, respectively. PXe values of ∼41% and ∼28% (with ∼760 and ∼1,545 torr Xe loadings) have been measured after transfer to Tedlar bags and transport to a clinical 3 T scanner for MR imaging, including demonstration of lung MRI with a healthy human subject. Long “in-bag” 129Xe polarization decay times have been measured (T1 ∼38 min and ∼5.9 h at ∼1.5 mT and 3 T, respectively)—more than sufficient for a variety of applications. PMID:23946420

  11. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  12. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    PubMed

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (<2cm). HFI possesses uniform inertial and force transmission properties across the workspace, and has low friction (.05-.30N). HFI's RF noise levels, in addition, are within a 3 Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.

  13. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  14. Travelling wave magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, F.; Martin, R.; Marrufo, O.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2013-08-01

    Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore diameter limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transverse electromagnetic modes and it can propagate any frequency. To study the potential benefits of travelling-wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations of the principal mode propagation for a parallel-plate waveguide filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils for all simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 4.7, 7 T, and 9.4 T. The principal mode shows very little variation of the field magnitude along the propagation direction at 3 T when compared to other higher resonant frequencies. Unlike the standard method for travelling-wave magnetic resonance imaging, a parallel-plate waveguide prototype was built and used together with a whole-body birdcage coil for signal transmission and a pair of circular coils for reception. Experimental B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach and, the point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The numerical magnetic field and specific absorption rate of a simulated leg were computed and results are within the safety limits. The B1 mapping and point spread function results showed that it is possible to conduct travelling-wave imaging experiments with good imager performance. Human leg images were also obtained with the whole-body birdcage coil for comparison purposes. The simulated and in vivo travelling-wave results of the human leg correspond very well for the signal received. A similar image signal-to-noise ratio was observed for the

  15. Multiparametric Functional MRI: A Tool to Uncover Subtle Changes following Allogeneic Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Kalnins, Aivars; Andrassy, Martin; Kolb, Manuel; Ehle, Benjamin; Mueller, Susanna; Thomas, Michael N.; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Andrassy, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate multiparametric functional MRI to characterize acute rejection in a murine allogeneic renal transplant model and evaluate the effect of novel therapeutics. Material and Methods We performed allogeneic and syngeneic orthotopic transplantations (Balb/c to C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 to C57Bl/6). Allogeneic Groups (n = 5) were either treated with the anti-CCL2-Spiegelmer (mNOX-E36) in monotherapy or in combination with low doses of Ciclosporin-A (10mg/kgBW/d) for 10 days. Controls received equivalent doses of a non-functional spiegelmer (revmNOX-E36) or low dose Ciclosporin-A. Diffusion-weighted (DWI) and Dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI-scans were performed using a clinical 3T-scanner. DWI analysis (b-values from 0–800 s/mm2) was performed mono- and biexponentially, while DCE-MRI was assessed with deconvolution analysis. Therapy effects were assessed ex vivo with histopathology, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed with unpaired t-tests and Spearman´s correlation coefficient. Results DWI showed a significant diffusion restriction in allogeneic compared to syngeneic transplants (ADC: 0.63±0.08 vs. 1.29±0.12 mm2/s*103) with decreasing diffusion restriction under therapy. DCE-MRI showed restored organ perfusion under Ciclosporin A alone and combination therapy (Plasma Flow: 43.43±12.49; 38.75±7.53ml/100ml/min) compared to syngeneic controls (51.03±12.49ml/100ml/min). Ex vivo analysis showed reduced monocytic infiltrates, attenuated levels of inflammatory cytokines under mNOX-E36 monotherapy with an additive effect of low dose Ciclosporin A. There was a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between ADC and interstitial inflammation (r = -0.73) or macrophage infiltration (r = -0.81) and between organ perfusion and intimal arteritis (r = -0.63). Conclusion Multiparametric functional MRI is suited to detect renal allograft rejection in an experimental murine model and allows to characterize effects of

  16. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  17. Cognition for robot scanner based remote welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Ungers, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The effort for reduced cycle times in manufacturing has supported the development of remote welding systems which use a combination of scanners for beam delivery and robots for scanner positioning. Herein, close coupling of both motions requires a precise command of the robot trajectory and the scanner positioning to end up with a combined beam delivery. Especially the path precision of the robot plays a vital role in this kinematic chain. In this paper, a sensor system is being presented which allows tracking the motion of the laser beam against the work piece. It is based on a camera system which is coaxially connected to the scanner thus observing the relative motion of the laser beam relative to the work piece. The acquired images are processed with computer vision algorithms from the field of motion detection. The suitability of the algorithms is being demonstrated with a motion tracking tool which visualizes the homogeneity of the tracking result. The reported solution adds cognitive capabilities to manufacturing systems for robot scanner based materials processing. It allows evaluation of the relative motion between work piece and the laser beam. Moreover, the system can be used to adapt system programming during set-up of a manufacturing task or to evaluate the functionality of a manufacturing system during production. The presented sensor system will assist in optimizing manufacturing processes.

  18. A Novel MRI Marker for Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J. Stafford, R. Jason; Bankson, James A.; Li Chun; Swanson, David A.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the optimal imaging modality for the prostate and surrounding critical organ structures. However, on MRI, the titanium radioactive seeds used for brachytherapy appear as black holes (negative contrast) and cannot be accurately localized. We sought to develop an encapsulated contrast agent marker (ECAM) with high-signal intensity on MRI to permit accurate localization of radioactive seeds with MRI during and after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We investigated several agents with paramagnetic and superparamagnetic properties. The agents were injected into titanium, acrylic, and glass seeds, which were linked together in various combinations and imaged with MRI. The agent with the greatest T1-weighted signal was tested further in a canine prostate and agarose phantom. Studies were performed on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner. Results: The cobalt-chloride complex contrast (C4) agent with stoichiometry (CoCl{sub 2}){sub 0.8}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 0.2} had the greatest T1-weighted signal (positive contrast) with a relaxivity ratio >1 (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} = 1.21 {+-} 0.29). Acrylic-titanium and glass-titanium seed strands were clearly visualized with the encapsulated contrast agent marker. Conclusion: We have developed a novel ECAM that permits positive identification of the radioactive seeds used for prostate brachytherapy on MRI. Preclinical in vitro phantom studies and in vivo canine studies are needed to further optimize MRI sequencing techniques to facilitate MRI-based dosimetry.

  19. The PRESTO technique for fMRI

    PubMed Central

    van Gelderen, P.; Duyn, J.H.; Ramsey, N.F.; Liu, G.; Moonen, C.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of BOLD fMRI, the acquisition of T2* weighted data was greatly facilitated by rapid scan techniques such as EPI. The latter, however, was only available on a few MRI systems that were equipped with specialized hardware that allowed rapid switching of the imaging gradients. For this reason, soon after the invention of fMRI, the scan technique PRESTO was developed to make rapid T2* weighted scanning available on standard clinical scanning. This method combined echo shifting, which allows for echo times longer than the sequence repetition time, with acquisition of multiple k-space lines per excitation. These two concepts were combined in order to achieve a method fast enough for fMRI, while maintaining a sufficiently long echo time for optimal contrast. PRESTO has been primarily used for 3D scanning, which minimized the contribution of large vessels due to inflow effects. Although PRESTO is still being used today, its appeal has lessened somewhat due to increased gradient performance of modern MRI scanners. Compared to 2D EPI, PRESTO may have somewhat reduced temporal stability, which is a disadvantage for fMRI that may not outweigh the advantage of reduced inflow effects provided by 3D scanning. In this overview, the history of the development of the PRESTO is presented, followed by a qualitative comparison with EPI. PMID:22245350

  20. Diffusion MRI and its role in neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain’s white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  1. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition.

  2. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  3. Coronary MR Angiography at 3T During Diastole and Systole

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Ahmed M.; Herzka, Daniel A.; Ustun, Ali O.; Desai, Milind Y.; Locklin, Julia; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of end-systolic imaging on quality of right coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison to diastolic and to study the effect of RR interval variability on image quality. Materials and Methods The right coronary artery (RCA) of 10 normal volunteers was imaged at 3T using parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding [SENSE]). Navigator-gated three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo was used three times: 1) end-systolic short acquisition (SS): 35-msec window; 2) diastolic short (DS): middiastolic acquisition using 35-msec window; and 3) diastolic long (DL): 75-msec diastolic acquisition window. Vectorcardiogram (VCG) data was used to analyze RR variability. Vessel sharpness, length, and diameter were compared to each other and correlated with RR variability. Blinded qualitative image scores of the images were compared. Results Quantitative and qualitative parameters were not significantly different and showed no significant correlation with RR variability. Conclusion Imaging the RCA at 3T during the end-systolic rest period using SENSE is possible without significant detrimental effect on image quality. Breaking away from the standard of imaging only during diastole can potentially improve image quality in tachycardic patients or used for simultaneous imaging during both periods in a single scan. PMID:17896391

  4. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  5. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  6. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  7. Management of a sandbag accident in an MRI unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chee Hwee; Lin, Ming-Fang; Chan, Wing P

    2015-11-01

    Our aim is to report the cause and management of a ferromagnetic sandbag accident that occurred when an unconscious patient was sent for brain MRI. A 2-kg sandbag had been placed in the vicinity of his right groin to aid hemostasis after a femoral venous puncture for thrombocytopenia. His clothing and blanket had not been examined thoroughly before he was moved to the scanner and the sandbag went unnoticed. Its attraction to the scanner and adherence to the scanner rim resulted in a minor abrasion and bruise on the patient's face. We decided to manually remove some of the pellets from the sandbag after cutting the vinyl bag at one corner with a nonferromagnetic screwdriver. Piece-meal removal of about two-thirds of the pellets facilitated removal of the remaining pellets and the sandbag as a whole. The word "sandbag" is misleading and led to a lack of communication between the clinical team and the MRI staff and failure by the MRI staff to recognize a sandbag as a ferromagnetic object. Careful manual removal of small amounts of pellets can be used to avoid more time- and labor-intensive strategies to deal with a sandbag accident (e.g., magnet quench or ramp-down). Installation of a ferromagnetic material detector to screen patients before entering the scanner room is recommended.

  8. 3T MR Guided in bore transperineal prostate biopsy: A Comparison of robotic and manual needle-guidance templates

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Fennessy, Fiona; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a robotic needle-guidance template device as compared to a manual template for in-bore 3T transperineal MR-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This two-arm mixed retrospective-prospective study included 99 cases of targeted transperineal prostate biopsies. The biopsy needles were aimed at suspicious foci noted on multiparametric 3T MRI using manual template (historical control) as compared with a robotic template. The following data was obtained: the accuracy of average and closest needle placement to the focus, histologic yield, percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples, complication rate, and time to complete the procedure. Results 56 cases were performed using the manual template, and 43 cases were performed using the robotic template. The mean accuracy of the best needle placement attempt was higher in the robotic group (2.39 mm) than the manual group (3.71 mm, p<0.027). The mean core procedure time was shorter in the robotic (90.82min) than the manual group (100.63min, p<0.030). Percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples was higher in robotic group (p<0.001). Cancer yields and complication rates were not statistically different between the two sub-groups (p = 0.557 and p=0.172 respectively). Conclusion The robotic needle-guidance template helps accurate placement of biopsy needles in MRI-guided core biopsy of prostate cancer. PMID:25263213

  9. Saturation Power Dependence of Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Image Contrasts in Human Brain Tumors and Strokes at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuna; Wen, Zhibo; Huang, Fanheng; Lu, Shilong; Wang, Xianlong; Hu, Shuguang; Zu, Donglin; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2011-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is capable of detecting mobile cellular proteins and peptides in tumor and monitoring pH effects in stroke, through the saturation transfer between irradiated amide protons and water protons. In this work, four healthy subjects, eight brain tumor patients (four with high-grade glioma; one with lung cancer metastasis; three with meningioma), and four stroke patients (average 4.3 ± 2.5 days after the onset of the stroke) were scanned at 3T, using different radiofrequency saturation powers. The APT effect was quantified using the magnetization-transfer-ratio (MTR) asymmetry at 3.5 ppm with respect to the water resonance. At a saturation power of 2 μT, the measured APT-MRI signal of the normal brain tissue was almost zero, due to the contamination of the negative conventional MTR asymmetry. This irradiation power caused an optimal hyperintense APT-MRI signal in the tumor and an optimal hypointense signal in the stroke, compared to the normal brain tissue. The results suggest that the saturation power of 2 μT is ideal for APT imaging of these two pathologies at 3T with the existing clinical hardware. PMID:21394783

  10. CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A flexible and wearable terahertz scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, D.; Oda, S.; Kawano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging technologies based on terahertz (THz) waves have great potential for use in powerful non-invasive inspection methods. However, most real objects have various three-dimensional curvatures and existing THz technologies often encounter difficulties in imaging such configurations, which limits the useful range of THz imaging applications. Here, we report the development of a flexible and wearable THz scanner based on carbon nanotubes. We achieved room-temperature THz detection over a broad frequency band ranging from 0.14 to 39 THz and developed a portable THz scanner. Using this scanner, we performed THz imaging of samples concealed behind opaque objects, breakages and metal impurities of a bent film and multi-view scans of a syringe. We demonstrated a passive biometric THz scan of a human hand. Our results are expected to have considerable implications for non-destructive and non-contact inspections, such as medical examinations for the continuous monitoring of health conditions.

  12. Scanner identification with extension to forgery detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Chiu, George T. C.; Allebach, Jan P.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Digital images can be obtained through a variety of sources including digital cameras and scanners. With rapidly increasing functionality and ease of use of image editing software, determining authenticity and identifying forged regions, if any, is becoming crucial for many applications. This paper presents methods for authenticating and identifying forged regions in images that have been acquired using flatbed scanners. The methods are based on using statistical features of imaging sensor pattern noise as a fingerprint for the scanner. An anisotropic local polynomial estimator is used for obtaining the noise patterns. A SVM classifier is trained for using statistical features of pattern noise for classifying smaller blocks of an image. This feature vector based approach is shown to identify the forged regions with high accuracy.

  13. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  14. Women are more strongly affected by dizziness in static magnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Reinhard, Iris; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Semmler, Wolfhard; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2014-10-01

    Increasing field strengths in MRI necessitate the examination of potential side effects. Previously reported results have been contradictory, possibly caused by imbalanced samples. We aimed to examine whether special groups of people are more prone to develop side effects that might have led to contradictory results in previous studies. We examined the occurrence of sensory side effects in static magnetic fields of MRI scanners of 1.5, 3, and 7 T and a mock scanner in 41 healthy participants. The contribution of field strength, sex, age, and attention to bodily processes, and stress hormone levels to the sensation of dizziness was examined in separate univariate analyses and in a joint analysis that included all variables. Field strength and sex were significant factors in the joint analysis (P=0.001), with women being more strongly affected than men by dizziness in higher static magnetic fields. This effect was not mediated by the other variables such as attention to bodily symptoms or stress hormones. Further research needs to elucidate the underlying factors of increased dizziness in women in static magnetic fields in MRI. We hypothesize that imbalanced samples of earlier studies might be one reason for previous contradictory results on the side effects of static magnetic fields.

  15. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  16. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  17. The conical scanner evaluation system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumella, K. E.; Bilanow, S.; Kulikov, I. B.

    1982-01-01

    The software design for the conical scanner evaluation system is presented. The purpose of this system is to support the performance analysis of the LANDSAT-D conical scanners, which are infrared horizon detection attitude sensors designed for improved accuracy. The system consists of six functionally independent subsystems and five interface data bases. The system structure and interfaces of each of the subsystems is described and the content, format, and file structure of each of the data bases is specified. For each subsystem, the functional logic, the control parameters, the baseline structure, and each of the subroutines are described. The subroutine descriptions include a procedure definition and the input and output parameters.

  18. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  19. LANSCE Wire Scanner System Prototype: Switchyard Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, James D

    2012-04-11

    On November 19, 2011, the beam diagnostics team of Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE accelerator facility conducted a test of a prototype wire scanner system for future deployment within the accelerator's switchyard area. The primary focus of this test was to demonstrate the wire scanner control system's ability to extend its functionality beyond acquiring lower energy linac beam profile measurements to acquiring data in the switchyard. This study summarizes the features and performance characteristics of the electronic and mechanical implementation of this system with details focusing on the test results.

  20. High-resolution diffusion kurtosis imaging at 3T enabled by advanced post-processing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Tabelow, Karsten; Ruthotto, Lars; Feiweier, Thorsten; Polzehl, Jörg; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) is more sensitive to microstructural differences and can be related to more specific micro-scale metrics (e.g., intra-axonal volume fraction) than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), offering exceptional potential for clinical diagnosis and research into the white and gray matter. Currently DKI is acquired only at low spatial resolution (2–3 mm isotropic), because of the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and higher artifact level associated with the technically more demanding DKI. Higher spatial resolution of about 1 mm is required for the characterization of fine white matter pathways or cortical microstructure. We used restricted-field-of-view (rFoV) imaging in combination with advanced post-processing methods to enable unprecedented high-quality, high-resolution DKI (1.2 mm isotropic) on a clinical 3T scanner. Post-processing was advanced by developing a novel method for Retrospective Eddy current and Motion ArtifacT Correction in High-resolution, multi-shell diffusion data (REMATCH). Furthermore, we applied a powerful edge preserving denoising method, denoted as multi-shell orientation-position-adaptive smoothing (msPOAS). We demonstrated the feasibility of high-quality, high-resolution DKI and its potential for delineating highly myelinated fiber pathways in the motor cortex. REMATCH performs robustly even at the low SNR level of high-resolution DKI, where standard EC and motion correction failed (i.e., produced incorrectly aligned images) and thus biased the diffusion model fit. We showed that the combination of REMATCH and msPOAS increased the contrast between gray and white matter in mean kurtosis (MK) maps by about 35% and at the same time preserves the original distribution of MK values, whereas standard Gaussian smoothing strongly biases the distribution. PMID:25620906

  1. T1ρ MRI and Discography Pressure as Novel Biomarkers for Disc Degeneration and Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Maurer, Philip M.; Fenty, Matthew; Wang, Chenyang; Berger, Rachelle; Yoder, Jonathon; Balderston, Richard A.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Prospective MRI study of LBP patients requiring discography as part of their routine clinical diagnoses and asymptomatic age-matched volunteers. Objective To determine whether T1ρ MRI and discography opening pressure are quantitative biomarkers of disc degeneration in LBP patients and in asymptomatic volunteers. Summary of Background Data Disc degenerative disease (DDD), a common cause of low back pain (LBP), is related to the patient’s prognosis and serves as a target for therapeutic interventions. However, there are few quantitative measures in the clinical setting. Discography opening pressure (OP) and T1ρ MRI are potential biomarkers of DDD related to biochemical composition the intervertebral disc (IVD). Methods The Institutional Review Board approved all experiments and informed consent was provided by each subject. Patients being treated for LBP (n=17, 68 levels, mean age 44±6 years, range 30–53) and control (CTL) subjects (n=11, 44 levels, mean age 43±17, range 22–76) underwent T1ρ and T2 MRI on a Siemens 3T Tim Trio clinical scanner. The LBP patients also received multi-level provocative discography before their MRI. Opening Pressure (OP) was recorded as the pressure when fluid first enters the nucleus of the IVD. Results T1ρ was significantly lower in the painful discs (55.3ms±3.0 ms, mean ± std. error) from control (92.0±4.9 ms, p<0.001) and non-painful discs (83.6±3.2 ms, p<0.001). Mean OP for the painful discs (11.8±1.0 psi, mean ± std. error) was significantly lower than non-painful discs (19.1±0.7 psi, p<0.001). Both T1ρ and OP correlated moderately with Pfirrmann degenerative grade. ROC area under the curve was 0.91 for T1ρ MRI and 0.84 for OP for predicting painful discs. Conclusions T1ρ and OP are quantitative measures of degeneration that are consistent across both control subjects and LBP patients. A significant and strong correlation exists between T1ρ values and in vivo OP measurements obtained by

  2. MRI Stealth” robot for prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    STOIANOVICI, DAN; SONG, DANNY; PETRISOR, DORU; URSU, DANIEL; MAZILU, DUMITRU; MUTENER, MICHAEL; SCHAR, MICHAEL; PATRICIU, ALEXANDRU

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep (1), designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the “MRI stealth” robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager’s room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  3. Battlefield MRI

    DOE PAGES

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  4. A proof-of-principle study of multi-site real-time functional imaging at 3T and 7T: Implementation and validation.

    PubMed

    Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Mallow, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Tempelmann, Claus; Stadler, Jörg; Bernarding, Johannes

    2015-02-12

    Real-time functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rtfMRI) is used mainly for neurofeedback or for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). But multi-site rtfMRI could in fact help in the application of new interactive paradigms such as the monitoring of mutual information flow or the controlling of objects in shared virtual environments. For that reason, a previously developed framework that provided an integrated control and data analysis of rtfMRI experiments was extended to enable multi-site rtfMRI. Important new components included a data exchange platform for analyzing the data of both MR scanners independently and/or jointly. Information related to brain activation can be displayed separately or in a shared view. However, a signal calibration procedure had to be developed and integrated in order to permit the connecting of sites that had different hardware and to account for different inter-individual brain activation levels. The framework was successfully validated in a proof-of-principle study with twelve volunteers. Thus the overall concept, the calibration of grossly differing signals, and BCI functionality on each site proved to work as required. To model interactions between brains in real-time, more complex rules utilizing mutual activation patterns could easily be implemented to allow for new kinds of social fMRI experiments.

  5. Combined ERP/fMRI Evidence For Early Word Recognition Effects In The Posterior Inferior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Gold, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus. Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel ERP/fMRI studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200–250 ms, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical Recognition Potential effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior fusiform gyrus near the visual word form area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA. PMID:23701693

  6. Combined ERP/fMRI evidence for early word recognition effects in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S; Molfese, Dennis L; Gold, Brian T

    2013-10-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus (FG). Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel Event-related Potentials (ERP)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200-250 msec, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical RP effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior FG near the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA.

  7. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  8. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  9. Sex differences in language asymmetry are age-dependent and small: a large-scale, consonant-vowel dichotic listening study with behavioral and fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Westerhausen, René; Korsnes, Maria S; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Men are often believed to have a functionally more asymmetrical brain organization than women, but the empirical evidence for sex differences in lateralization is unclear to date. Over the years we have collected data from a vast number of participants using the same consonant-vowel dichotic listening task, a reliable marker for language lateralization. One dataset comprised behavioral data from 1782 participants (885 females, 125 non-right-handers), who were divided in four age groups (children <10 yrs, adolescents = 10-15 yrs, younger adults = 16-49 yrs, and older adults >50 yrs). In addition, we had behavioral and functional imaging (fMRI) data from another 104 younger adults (49 females, aged 18-45 yrs), who completed the same dichotic listening task in a 3T scanner. This database allowed us to comprehensively test whether there is a sex difference in functional language lateralization. Across all participants and in both datasets a right ear advantage (REA) emerged, reflecting left-hemispheric language lateralization. Accordingly, the fMRI data revealed a leftward asymmetry in superior temporal lobe language processing areas. In the N = 1782 dataset no main effect of sex but a significant sex by age interaction emerged: the REA increased with age in both sexes but as a result of an earlier onset in females the REA was stronger in female than male adolescents. In turn, male younger adults showed greater asymmetry than female younger adults (accounting for <1% of variance). There were no sex differences in children and older adults. The males in the fMRI dataset (N = 104) also had a greater REA than females (accounting for 4% of variance), but no sex difference emerged in the neuroimaging data. Handedness did not affect these findings. Taken together, our findings suggest that sex differences in language lateralization as assessed with dichotic listening exist, but they are (a) not necessarily reflected in fMRI data, (b) age-dependent and (c) relatively small.

  10. The 3T3-L1 adipocyte glycogen proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide of glucose residues, consisting of α-1-4 glycosidic linkages with α-1-6 branches that together form multi-layered particles ranging in size from 30 nm to 300 nm. Glycogen spatial conformation and intracellular organization are highly regulated processes. Glycogen particles interact with their metabolizing enzymes and are associated with a variety of proteins that intervene in its biology, controlling its structure, particle size and sub-cellular distribution. The function of glycogen in adipose tissue is not well understood but appears to have a pivotal role as a regulatory mechanism informing the cells on substrate availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. To provide new molecular insights into the role of adipocyte glycogen we analyzed the glycogen-associated proteome from differentiated 3T3-L1-adipocytes. Results Glycogen particles from 3T3-L1-adipocytes were purified using a series of centrifugation steps followed by specific elution of glycogen bound proteins using α-1,4 glucose oligosaccharides, or maltodextrins, and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified regulatory proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, RACK1 and protein phosphatase 1 glycogen targeting subunit 3D. Evidence was also obtained for a regulated subcellular distribution of the glycogen particle: metabolic and mitochondrial proteins were abundant. Unlike the recently analyzed hepatic glycogen proteome, no endoplasmic proteins were detected, along with the recently described starch-binding domain protein 1. Other regulatory proteins which have previously been described as glycogen-associated proteins were not detected, including laforin, the AMPK beta-subunit and protein targeting to glycogen (PTG). Conclusions These data provide new molecular insights into the regulation of glycogen-bound proteins that are associated with the maintenance, organization and localization of the adipocyte glycogen particle. PMID:23521774

  11. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, Erik; Hryniw, Natalia; Hansen, Jon A; Kesler, Leigh A; Li, Frank

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  12. An operational multispectral scanner for bathymetric surveys - The ABS NORDA scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimbach, Stephen P.; Joy, Richard T.; Hickman, G. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is developing the Airborne Bathymetric Survey (ABS) system, which will take shallow water depth soundings from a Navy P-3 aircraft. The system combines active and passive sensors to obtain optical measurements of water depth. The ABS NORDA Scanner is the systems passive multispectral scanner whose design goal is to provide 100 percent coverage of the seafloor, to depths of 20 m in average coastal waters. The ABS NORDA Scanner hardware and operational environment is discussed in detail. The optical model providing the basis for depth extraction is reviewed and the proposed data processing routine discussed.

  13. Techniques for Fast Stereoscopic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Stereoscopic MRI can impart 3D perception with only two image acquisitions. This economy over standard multiplanar 3D volume renderings allows faster frame rates, which are needed for real-time imaging applications. Real-time 3D perception may enhance the appreciation of complex anatomical structures, and may improve hand-eye coordination while manipulating a medical device during an image-guided interventional procedure. To this goal, a system is being developed to acquire and display stereoscopic MR images in real-time. A clinically used, fast gradient-recalled echo-train sequence has been modified to produce stereo image pairs. Features have been added for depth cueing, view sharing, and bulk signal suppression. A workstation was attached to a clinical MR scanner for fast data extraction, image reconstruction and stereoscopic image display. PMID:11477636

  14. Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = -200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical

  15. Right temporal cortical hypertrophy in resilience to trauma: an MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, André Sevenius; Hilland, Eva; Kogstad, Norunn; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Lien, Lars; Endestad, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Background In studies employing physiological measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it is often hard to distinguish what constitutes risk-resilience factors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma exposure and what the effects of trauma exposure and PTSD are. Objective We aimed to investigate whether there were observable morphological differences in cortical and sub-cortical regions of the brain, 7–8 years after a single potentially traumatic event. Methods Twenty-four participants, who all directly experienced the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and 25 controls, underwent structural MRI using a 3T scanner. We generated cortical thickness maps and parcellated sub-cortical volumes for analysis. Results We observed greater cortical thickness for the trauma-exposed participants relative to controls, in a right lateralized temporal lobe region including anterior fusiform gyrus, and superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyrus. Conclusions We observed greater thickness in the right temporal lobe which might indicate that the region could be implicated in resilience to the long-term effects of a traumatic event. We hypothesize this is due to altered emotional semantic memory processing. However, several methodological and confounding issues warrant caution in interpretation of the results. Highlights of the article Following a traumatic event, most people do not develop long-lasting trauma-related symptoms.In a group who experienced a traumatic event 8 years prior, but showed low levels of trauma-related symptoms, we observed increased cortical thickness in the right temporal lobe.The right temporal lobe is implicated in emotional semantic memory processing, and thus might be associated with resilience to the long-term effects of a traumatic event. PMID:27473521

  16. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  17. Bottled liquid explosive scanner by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A bottled liquid explosive scanner has been developed using near infrared technology for glass or PET bottles and ultrasound technology for metal cans. It has database of near infrared absorbance spectra and sound velocities of various liquids. Scanned liquids can be identified by using this database. This device has been certified by ECAC and installed at Japanese international airport.

  18. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Vaska

    2011-03-09

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  19. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  20. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  1. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  2. Biomedical imaging and sensing using flatbed scanners.

    PubMed

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-09-07

    In this Review, we provide an overview of flatbed scanner based biomedical imaging and sensing techniques. The extremely large imaging field-of-view (e.g., ~600-700 cm(2)) of these devices coupled with their cost-effectiveness provide unique opportunities for digital imaging of samples that are too large for regular optical microscopes, and for collection of large amounts of statistical data in various automated imaging or sensing tasks. Here we give a short introduction to the basic features of flatbed scanners also highlighting the key parameters for designing scientific experiments using these devices, followed by a discussion of some of the significant examples, where scanner-based systems were constructed to conduct various biomedical imaging and/or sensing experiments. Along with mobile phones and other emerging consumer electronics devices, flatbed scanners and their use in advanced imaging and sensing experiments might help us transform current practices of medicine, engineering and sciences through democratization of measurement science and empowerment of citizen scientists, science educators and researchers in resource limited settings.

  3. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.

    2016-11-01

    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  4. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  5. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  6. Integration of Diagnostic and Interventional MRI for the Study of Persistent Prostate Cancer after External Beam Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Interventional MRI for the Study of Persistent Prostate Cancer after External Beam Radiotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cynthia Ménard, M.D...2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integration of Diagnostic and Interventional MRI for the Study of Persistent Prostate Cancer after...clinical testing of a novel technique for magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) guided prostate biopsy in a 1.5T horizontal bore scanner using a dedicated

  7. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  9. 24. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING OPERATIONS CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - OPERATIONS CENTER -- MWOC IN OPEARATION AT 1924 ZULU TIME. 26 OCTOBER, 1999. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 13. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING "B" FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - "B" FACE LOADING DOCK AND PERSONNEL ACCESS RAMP TO FALLOUT SHELTER. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 2. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - VIEW IS LOOKING NORTH 80° WEST "B" FACE ALONG BUILDING "A" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 28. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AT INTERIOR OF LEVEL 5, FACE A - SHOWS ANTENNA RECEIVERS, EMITTERS/RECEIVERS, IN GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. 22. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL ROOM. RECEIVER EQUIPMENT ON RIGHT WITH RF RADIATION MONITOR CABINET. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  14. Ultra-low field T1 vs. T1rho at 3T and 7T: study of rotationally immobilized protein gels and animal brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Inglis, Ben; Barr, Ian; Clarke, John

    2015-03-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines operating in static fields of typically 1.5 T or 3 T can capture information on slow molecular dynamics utilizing the so-called T1rho technique. This technique, in which a radiofrequency (RF) spin-lock field is applied with microtesla amplitude, has been used, for example, to determine the onset time of stroke in studies on rats. The long RF pulse, however, may exceed the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit, putting subjects at risk. Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI, based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), directly detects proton signals at a static magnetic field of typically 50-250 μT. Using our ULF MRI system with adjustable static field of typically 55 to 240 μT, we systematically measured the T1 and T2 dispersion profiles of rotationally immobilized protein gels (bovine serum albumin), ex vivo pig brains, and ex vivo rat brains with induced stroke. Comparing the ULF results with T1rho dispersion obtained at 3 T and 7 T, we find that the degree of protein immobilization determines the frequency-dependence of both T1 and T1rho. Furthermore, T1rho and ULF T1 show similar results for stroke, suggesting that ULF MRI may be used to image traumatic brain injury with negligible SAR. This research was supported by the Henry H. Wheeler, Jr. Brain Imaging Center and the Donaldson Trust.

  15. Replication of Functional MRI Detection of Deception

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, F. Andrew; Laken, Steven J.; Johnson, Kevin A.; Boren, Bryant; Mapes, Kimberly S.; Morgan, Paul S.; George, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies support the use of fMRI for detecting deception. There have been, however, no reported replications on different scanners or at different locations. In a previous study, deception was accurately detected in at least 90% of the participants in two independent cohorts. This study attempted to replicate those findings using a different scanner and location. Methods Healthy participants 18–50 years of age were recruited from the local community. After providing written informed consent, participants were screened to ensure that they were healthy, not taking any medications, and safe to have an MRI. For the testing paradigm, subjects chose one of two objects (ring or watch) to “steal” and placed it in their locker. Participants were then scanned while being visually presented with a series of questions. Functional MRI analysis was performed in the same manner as described in Kozel et al. 2005. A Chi-Squared test was used to test for a significant difference between the results in the previous study and in this replication study. Results Thirty subjects (20 women, mean age 29.0±6.5 years) were scanned with one subject being noncompliant with the protocol. Twenty-five of twenty-nine (86%) participants were correctly identified when being deceptive. There was no statistical difference between the accuracy rate obtained in this study (25/29) versus the previous study (28/31) (Chi-Squared, χ2=0.246, p=0.6197). Conclusions Our methodology for detecting deception was successfully replicated at a different site suggesting that this methodology is robust and independent of both scanner and location. PMID:19844599

  16. Biomedical Applications of Sodium MRI In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an up-to-date overview of the potential biomedical applications of sodium MRI in vivo. Sodium MRI is a subject of increasing interest in translational imaging research as it can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment outcomes. It has already been applied in vivo in most of human tissues, such as brain for stroke or tumor detection and therapeutic response, in breast cancer, in articular cartilage, in muscle and in kidney, and it was shown in some studies that it could provide very useful new information not available through standard proton MRI. However, this technique is still very challenging due to the low detectable sodium signal in biological tissue with MRI and hardware/software limitations of the clinical scanners. The article is divided in three parts: (1) the role of sodium in biological tissues, (2) a short review on sodium magnetic resonance, and (3) a review of some studies on sodium MRI on different organs/diseases to date. PMID:23722972

  17. Quantifying human high-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations at 3T with partial volume and sensitivity corrections

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Gabr, Refaat E.; Schär, Michael; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Practical noninvasive methods for measuring absolute metabolite concentrations are key to assessing depletion of myocardial metabolite pools which occurs with several cardiac diseases including infarction and heart failure. Localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers unique noninvasive access to many metabolites, but is often confounded by nonuniform sensitivity and partial volume effects in the large, poorly-defined voxels commonly used for detecting low-concentration metabolites with surface coils. These problems are exacerbated at higher magnetic field-strengths by greater radio frequency (RF) field inhomogeneity and differences in RF penetration with heteronuclear concentration referencing. An example is the 31P measurement of cardiac adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, which although central to cardiac energetics, have not been measured at field-strengths above 1.5T. Here, practical acquisition and analysis protocols are presented for quantifying [PCr] and [ATP] with one-dimensionally resolved surface coil spectra and concentration referencing at 3T. The effects of non-uniform sensitivity and partial tissue volumes are addressed at 3T by applying MRI-based three-dimensional sensitivity-weighting and tissue segmentation. The method is validated at 3T in phantoms of different sizes and concentrations, and used to measure [PCr] and [ATP] in healthy subjects. In calf-muscle (n=8), [PCr]=24.7±3.4 (mean±SD) and [ATP]=5.7±1.3 µmol/g wet wt, while [PCr]=10.4±1.5 and [ATP]=6.0±1.1 µmol/g in heart (n=18), consistent with previous reports at lower fields. The method enables for the first time, the efficient, semi-automated quantification of high energy phosphate metabolites in humans at 3T with non-uniform excitation and detection. PMID:23729378

  18. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1300 - Nuclear rectilinear scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear rectilinear scanner. 892.1300 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1300 Nuclear rectilinear scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear rectilinear scanner is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  8. Applications of Optical Scanners in an Academic Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Carol; Tannenbaum, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes optical scanners, including how the technology works; applications in data management and research; development of instructional materials; and providing community services. Discussion includes the three basic types of optical scanners: optical character recognition (OCR), optical mark readers (OMR), and graphic scanners. A sidebar…

  9. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  10. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g.,...

  11. Magnetically-assisted remote control (MARC) steering of endovascular catheters for interventional MRI: a model for deflection and design implications.

    PubMed

    Settecase, Fabio; Sussman, Marshall S; Wilson, Mark W; Hetts, Steven; Arenson, Ronald L; Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F; Kucharczyk, Walter; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2007-08-01

    Current applied to wire coils wound at the tip of an endovascular catheter can be used to remotely steer a catheter under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. In this study, we derive and validate an equation that characterizes the relationship between deflection and a number of physical factors: theta/sin(gamma-theta) = nIABL/EI(A) where theta is the deflection angle, n is the number of solenoidal turns, I is the current, A is the cross-sectional area of the catheter tip, B is the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner main magnetic field, L is the unconstrained catheter length, E is Young's Modulus for the catheter material, and I(A) is the area moment of inertia, and y is the initial angle between the catheter tip and B. Solenoids of 50, 100, or 150 turns were wound on 1.8 F and 5 F catheters. Varying currents were applied remotely using a DC power supply in the MRI control room. The distal catheter tip was suspended within a phantom at varying lengths. Images were obtained with a 1.5 T or a 3 T MR scanner using "real-time" MR pulse sequences. Deflection angles were measured on acquired images. Catheter bending stiffess was determined using a tensile testing apparatus and a stereomicroscope. Predicted relationships between deflection and various physical factors were observed (R2 = 0.98-0.99). The derived equation provides a framework for modeling of the behavior of the specialized catheter tip. Each physical factor studied has implications for catheter design and device implementation.

  12. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  13. Physics of MRI: a primer.

    PubMed

    Plewes, Donald B; Kucharczyk, Walter

    2012-05-01

    This article is based on an introductory lecture given for the past many years during the "MR Physics and Techniques for Clinicians" course at the Annual Meeting of the ISMRM. This introduction is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of the field, as the subject of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics is large and complex. Rather, it is intended to lay a conceptual foundation by which magnetic resonance image formation can be understood from an intuitive perspective. The presentation is nonmathematical, relying on simple models that take the reader progressively from the basic spin physics of nuclei, through descriptions of how the magnetic resonance signal is generated and detected in an MRI scanner, the foundations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation, and a discussion of the Fourier transform and its relation to MR image formation. The article continues with a discussion of how magnetic field gradients are used to facilitate spatial encoding and concludes with a development of basic pulse sequences and the factors defining image contrast.

  14. Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Kyungmin; Park, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-02-22

    We report a novel MEMS fiber scanner with an electrothermal silicon microactuator and a directly mounted optical fiber. The microactuator comprises double hot arm and cold arm structures with a linking bridge and an optical fiber is aligned along a silicon fiber groove. The unique feature induces separation of resonant scanning frequencies of a single optical fiber in lateral and vertical directions, which realizes Lissajous scanning during the resonant motion. The footprint dimension of microactuator is 1.28 x 7 x 0.44 mm3. The resonant scanning frequencies of a 20 mm long optical fiber are 239.4 Hz and 218.4 Hz in lateral and vertical directions, respectively. The full scanned area indicates 451 μm x 558 μm under a 16 Vpp pulse train. This novel laser scanner can provide many opportunities for laser scanning endomicroscopic applications.

  15. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  16. The Galileo star scanner observations at Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieseler, Paul D.; Adams, Olen W.; Vandermey, Nancy; Theilig, E. E.; Schimmels, Kathryn A.; Lewis, George D.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Alexander, Claudia J.

    2004-06-01

    In November of 2002, the Galileo spacecraft passed within 250 km of Jupiter's moon Amalthea. An onboard telescope, the star scanner, observed a series of bright flashes near the moon. It is believed that these flashes represent sunlight reflected from 7 to 9 small moonlets located within about 3000 km of Amalthea. From star scanner geometry considerations and other arguments, we can constrain the diameter of the observed bodies to be between 0.5 m to several tens of kilometers. In September of 2003, while crossing Amalthea's orbit just prior to Galileo's destruction in the jovian atmosphere, a single additional body seems to have been observed. It is suspected that these bodies are part of a discrete rocky ring embedded within Jupiter's Gossamer ring system.

  17. A comprehensive testing protocol for MRI neuroanatomical segmentation techniques: Evaluation of a novel lateral ventricle segmentation method.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Underwood, Tracy S A; Brunton, Simon; Stylios, Floris; Schmechtig, Anne; Ettinger, Ulrich; Smith, Marcus S; Lovestone, Simon; Crum, William R; Frangou, Sophia; Williams, Steven C R; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-10-15

    Although a wide range of approaches have been developed to automatically assess the volume of brain regions from MRI, the reproducibility of these algorithms across different scanners and pulse sequences, their accuracy in different clinical populations and sensitivity to real changes in brain volume have not always been comprehensively examined. Firstly we present a comprehensive testing protocol which comprises 312 freely available MR images to assess the accuracy, reproducibility and sensitivity of automated brain segmentation techniques. Accuracy is assessed in infants, young adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease in comparison to gold standard measures by expert observers using a manual technique based on Cavalieri's principle. The protocol determines the reliability of segmentation between scanning sessions, different MRI pulse sequences and 1.5T and 3T field strengths and examines their sensitivity to small changes in volume using a large longitudinal dataset. Secondly we apply this testing protocol to a novel algorithm for segmenting the lateral ventricles and compare its performance to the widely used FSL FIRST and FreeSurfer methods. The testing protocol produced quantitative measures of accuracy, reliability and sensitivity of lateral ventricle volume estimates for each segmentation method. The novel algorithm showed high accuracy in all populations (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC>0.95), good reproducibility between MRI pulse sequences (ICC>0.99) and was sensitive to age related changes in longitudinal data. FreeSurfer demonstrated high accuracy (ICC>0.95), good reproducibility (ICC>0.99) and sensitivity whilst FSL FIRST showed good accuracy in young adults and infants (ICC>0.90) and good reproducibility (ICC=0.98), but was unable to segment ventricular volume in patients with Alzheimer's disease or healthy subjects with large ventricles. Using the same computer system, the novel algorithm and FSL FIRST processed a single MRI image in less

  18. Design of a Second Generation Firewire Based Data Acquisition System for Small Animal PET Scanners.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, T K; Miyaoka, R S; Macdonald, L R; Haselman, M; Dewitt, D; Hunter, William; Hauck, S

    2008-10-19

    The University of Washington developed a Firewire based data acquisition system for the MiCES small animal PET scanner. Development work has continued on new imaging scanners that require more data channels and need to be able to operate within a MRI imaging system. To support these scanners, we have designed a new version of our data acquisition system that leverages the capabilities of modern field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The new design preserves the basic approach of the original system, but puts almost all functions into the FPGA, including the Firewire elements, the embedded processor, and pulse timing and pulse integration. The design has been extended to support implementation of the position estimation and DOl algorithms developed for the cMiCE detector module. The design is centered around an acquisition node board (ANB) that includes 65 ADC channels, Firewire 1394b support, the FPGA, a serial command bus and signal lines to support a rough coincidence window implementation to reject singles events from being sent on the Firewire bus. Adapter boards convert detector signals into differential paired signals to connect to the ANB.

  19. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  20. Data collection and analysis strategies for phMRI.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Liu, Christina H; Vanduffel, Wim; Marota, John J A; Jenkins, Bruce G

    2014-09-01

    Although functional MRI traditionally has been applied mainly to study changes in task-induced brain function, evolving acquisition methodologies and improved knowledge of signal mechanisms have increased the utility of this method for studying responses to pharmacological stimuli, a technique often dubbed "phMRI". The proliferation of higher magnetic field strengths and the use of exogenous contrast agent have boosted detection power, a critical factor for successful phMRI due to the restricted ability to average multiple stimuli within subjects. Receptor-based models of neurovascular coupling, including explicit pharmacological models incorporating receptor densities and affinities and data-driven models that incorporate weak biophysical constraints, have demonstrated compelling descriptions of phMRI signal induced by dopaminergic stimuli. This report describes phMRI acquisition and analysis methodologies, with an emphasis on data-driven analyses. As an example application, statistically efficient data-driven regressors were used to describe the biphasic response to the mu-opioid agonist remifentanil, and antagonism using dopaminergic and GABAergic ligands revealed modulation of the mesolimbic pathway. Results illustrate the power of phMRI as well as our incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying the signal. Future directions are discussed for phMRI acquisitions in human studies, for evolving analysis methodologies, and for interpretative studies using the new generation of simultaneous PET/MRI scanners. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  1. EEG/functional MRI in epilepsy: The Queen Square Experience.

    PubMed

    Hamandi, Khalid; Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Fish, David R; Lemieux, Louis

    2004-01-01

    The recording of EEG during functional MRI scanning (EEG/fMRI) has opened up new dimensions in brain research. The simultaneous recording of EEG activity and its temparospatial haemodynamic correlates is a powerful tool in the non-invasive mapping of normal and pathological brain function. The technological constraints imposed by having a conductor (the EEG) within the magnetic environment of the MRI scanner have been sufficiently overcome for high quality EEG recording during MRI. The initial applications of EEG/fMRI were in the study of epileptiform discharges in epilepsy. This has been rapidly followed by studies of normal EEG rhythms and evoked response in healthy subjects. The ability to map brain areas involved in the generation of epileptiform discharges recorded on the surface EEG has been shown using EEG/fMRI in patients with epilepsy. This has potential clinical applications in providing additional localizing information in the pre-surgical workup of epilepsy patients and in gaining a greater understanding of the neurobiology of interictal epileptiform discharges and epileptic seizures. In this review we address the issues in recording EEG during fMRI and review the application of EEG/fMRI in the study of patients with epilepsy at our centre.

  2. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Frohwein, Lynn J. Schäfers, Klaus P.; Hoerr, Verena; Faber, Cornelius

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is often degraded by geometric distortions of the MRI data. The distortions at the edges of large FOVs mainly originate from MRI gradient nonlinearities. This work describes a method to measure and correct for these kind of geometric distortions in small animal MRI scanners to improve the registration accuracy of PET and MRI data. Methods: The authors have developed a geometric phantom which allows the measurement of geometric distortions in all spatial axes via control points. These control points are detected semiautomatically in both PET and MRI data with a subpixel accuracy. The spatial transformation between PET and MRI data is determined with these control points via 3D thin-plate splines (3D TPS). The transformation derived from the 3D TPS is finally applied to real MRI mouse data, which were acquired with the same scan parameters used in the phantom data acquisitions. Additionally, the influence of the phantom material on the homogeneity of the magnetic field is determined via field mapping. Results: The spatial shift according to the magnetic field homogeneity caused by the phantom material was determined to a mean of 0.1 mm. The results of the correction show that distortion with a maximum error of 4 mm could be reduced to less than 1 mm with the proposed correction method. Furthermore, the control point-based registration of PET and MRI data showed improved congruence after correction. Conclusions: The developed phantom has been shown to have no considerable negative effect on the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The proposed method yields an appropriate correction of the measured MRI distortion and is able to improve the PET and MRI registration. Furthermore, the method is applicable to whole-body small animal

  3. Telescope with a wide field of view internal optical scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, III, John James (Inventor); Zheng, Yunhui (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A telescope with internal scanner utilizing either a single optical wedge scanner or a dual optical wedge scanner and a controller arranged to control a synchronous rotation of the first and/or second optical wedges, the wedges constructed and arranged to scan light redirected by topological surfaces and/or volumetric scatterers. The telescope with internal scanner further incorporates a first converging optical element that receives the redirected light and transmits the redirected light to the scanner, and a second converging optical element within the light path between the first optical element and the scanner arranged to reduce an area of impact on the scanner of the beam collected by the first optical element.

  4. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  5. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Private activity bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-3T Section 1.103(n)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....103(n)-3T Private activity bond limit (temporary). Q-1: What is the “State ceiling”? A-1: In...

  6. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for...

  8. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). 1.410(a)-3T Section 1.410(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.410(a)-3T Minimum age and service conditions (temporary). (a) (b) Special rule for plan with...

  9. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Materials and supplies (temporary). 1.162-3T Section 1.162-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-3T Materials and supplies (temporary). (a) In general—(1) Non-incidental materials and...

  10. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Materials and supplies (temporary). 1.162-3T Section 1.162-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-3T Materials and supplies (temporary). (a) In general—(1) Non-incidental materials and...

  11. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  12. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  13. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  14. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). 1.6043-3T Section 1.6043-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6043-3T Returns regarding liquidation... definition of the term “integrated auxiliaries” as used in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, see §...

  16. 26 CFR 1.921-3T - Temporary regulations; Foreign sales corporation general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation general rules. 1.921-3T Section 1.921-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.921-3T Temporary regulations; Foreign sales corporation general rules. (a) Exclusion—(1..., shall be determined in the same manner as if the FSC were a foreign corporation which had not elected...

  17. Reproducibility of Brain Morphometry from Short-Term Repeat Clinical MRI Examinations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Shan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the inter session reproducibility of automatic segmented MRI-derived measures by FreeSurfer in a group of subjects with normal-appearing MR images. Materials and Methods After retrospectively reviewing a brain MRI database from our institute consisting of 14,758 adults, those subjects who had repeat scans and had no history of neurodegenerative disorders were selected for morphometry analysis using FreeSurfer. A total of 34 subjects were grouped by MRI scanner model. After automatic segmentation using FreeSurfer, label-wise comparison (involving area, thickness, and volume) was performed on all segmented results. An intraclass correlation coefficient was used to estimate the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the population mean rank differences across sessions. Mean-difference analysis was used to evaluate the difference intervals across scanners. Absolute percent difference was used to estimate the reproducibility errors across the MRI models. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the across-scanner effect. Results The agreement in segmentation results for area, volume, and thickness measurements of all segmented anatomical labels was generally higher in Signa Excite and Verio models when compared with Sonata and TrioTim models. There were significant rank differences found across sessions in some labels of different measures. Smaller difference intervals in global volume measurements were noted on images acquired by Signa Excite and Verio models. For some brain regions, significant MRI model effects were observed on certain segmentation results. Conclusions Short-term scan-rescan reliability of automatic brain MRI morphometry is feasible in the clinical setting. However, since repeatability of software performance is contingent on the reproducibility of the scanner performance, the scanner performance must be calibrated before conducting such studies or before using such software for retrospective

  18. Design and control of a nanoprecision XYΘ scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Man; Kim, Jung Jae; Kim, Jinwoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the design and control of a nanoprecision XYΘ scanner consisting of voice coil motors and air bearing guides. The proposed scanner can be installed on a conventional XY stage with long strokes to improve the positioning accuracy and settling performance. Major design considerations in developing a high precision scanner are sensor accuracy, actuator properties, structural stability, guide friction, and thermal expansion. Considering these factors, the proposed scanner is made of invar, which has a small thermal expansion coefficient and good structural stiffness. Four voice coil motors drive the scanner, which is suspended by four air bearing pads, in the x, y, and θ directions. The scanner's position is measured by three laser interferometers which decouple the scanner from the conventional stage. The mirror blocks reflecting the laser beams are fixed using viscoelastic sheets, ensuring that the scanner has a well-damped structural mode. A time delay control algorithm is implemented on the real-time controller to control the scanner. The effectiveness of the proposed scanner is verified experimentally.

  19. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography (www.ugct.ugent.be) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kVmax) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  20. In amnio MRI of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas A; Norris, Francesca C; Carnaghan, Helen; Savery, Dawn; Wells, Jack A; Siow, Bernard; Scambler, Peter J; Pierro, Agostino; De Coppi, Paolo; Eaton, Simon; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px). To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community.

  1. 3T magnetic resonance neurography of pudendal nerve with cadaveric dissection correlation

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; McKenna, Courtney A; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thawait, Gaurav K; Carrino, John A; Lees, Gary P; Dellon, A Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the pudendal nerve segments that could be identified on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) before and after surgical marking of different nerve segments. METHODS The hypothesis for this study was that pudendal nerve and its branches would be more easily seen after the surgical nerve marking. Institutional board approval was obtained. One male and one female cadaver pelvis were obtained from the anatomy board and were scanned using 3 Tesla MRI scanner using MR neurography sequences. All possible pudendal nerve branches were identified. The cadavers were then sent to the autopsy lab and were surgically dissected by a peripheral nerve surgeon and an anatomist to identify the pudendal nerve branches. Radiological markers were placed along the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. The cadavers were then closed and rescanned using the same MRN protocol as the pre-marking scan. The remaining pudendal nerve branches were attempted to be identified using the radiological markers. All scans were read by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. RESULTS The pre-marking MR Neurography scans clearly showed the pudendal nerve at its exit from the lumbosacral plexus in the sciatic notch, at the level of the ischial spine and in the Alcock’s Canal in both cadavers. Additionally, the right hemorrhoidal branch could be identified in the male pelvis cadaver. The perineal and distal genital branches could not be identified. On post-marking scans, the markers were used as identifiable structures. The location of the perineal branch, the hemorroidal branch and the dorsal nerve to penis (in male cadaver)/clitoris (in female cadaver) could be seen. However, the visualization of these branches was suboptimal. The contralateral corresponding nerves were poorly seen despite marking on the surgical side. The nerve was best seen on axial T1W and T2W SPAIR images. The proximal segment could be seen well on 3D DW PSIF sequence. T2W SPACE was not very useful in

  2. Quantification of human high-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations at 3 T with partial volume and sensitivity corrections.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Gabr, Refaat E; Schär, Michael; Weiss, Robert G; Bottomley, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Practical noninvasive methods for the measurement of absolute metabolite concentrations are key to the assessment of the depletion of myocardial metabolite pools which occurs with several cardiac diseases, including infarction and heart failure. Localized MRS offers unique noninvasive access to many metabolites, but is often confounded by nonuniform sensitivity and partial volume effects in the large, poorly defined voxels commonly used for the detection of low-concentration metabolites with surface coils. These problems are exacerbated at higher magnetic field strengths by greater radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity and differences in RF penetration with heteronuclear concentration referencing. An example is the (31)P measurement of cardiac adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, which, although central to cardiac energetics, have not been measured at field strengths above 1.5 T. Here, practical acquisition and analysis protocols are presented for the quantification of [PCr] and [ATP] with one-dimensionally resolved surface coil spectra and concentration referencing at 3 T. The effects of nonuniform sensitivity and partial tissue volumes are addressed at 3 T by the application of MRI-based three-dimensional sensitivity weighting and tissue segmentation. The method is validated in phantoms of different sizes and concentrations, and used to measure [PCr] and [ATP] in healthy subjects. In calf muscle (n = 8), [PCr] = 24.7 ± 3.4 and [ATP] = 5.7 ± 1.3 µmol/g wet weight, whereas, in heart (n = 18), [PCr] = 10.4 ± 1.5 and [ATP] = 6.0 ± 1.1 µmol/g wet weight (all mean ± SD), consistent with previous reports at lower fields. The method enables, for the first time, the efficient, semi-automated quantification of high-energy phosphate metabolites in humans at 3 T with nonuniform excitation and detection.

  3. Measurement and evaluation of the acoustic noise of a 3 Tesla MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    We measured the sound level and frequencies of the acoustic noise generated by a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner, and investigated the subjective sound level for 30 healthy volunteers with either earplugs, headphones or both. The sound level of 3T was found to be higher than that of 1.5T in all sequences. The peak sound pressure level of 3T ranged from 125.7 dB for MR angiography to 130.7 dB for single shot EPI on the linear scale. The equivalent noise level was from 110.0 dB for FLAIR to 115.8 dB for T1-IR on the A-weighted scale, which exceeded 99 dB, the level regulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The study of the subjective sound level showed that the effect of noise reduction was not significantly different between earplugs and headphones. However, the use of both devices could reduce the subjective sound level significantly better than either one alone (P < 0.01). Thus we propose wearing both devices for ear-protection during 3T examinations.

  4. ‘Extra-operatve’ MRI (eoMRI) for Brain Tumor Surgery – Initial Results at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M.; Santos, Seth M.; Aglio, Linda S.; Young, Geoffrey S.; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Golby, Alexandra J.; Gormley, William B.; Dunn, Ian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence that extent of resection (EOR) in intrinsic brain tumor surgery prolongs overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). One of the strategies to increase EOR is the use of intraoperative MRI (ioMRI). However, considerable infrastructure investment is needed to establish and maintain a sophisticated ioMRI. We report the preliminary results of an extra-operative (eoMRI) protocol, with a focus on safety, feasibility and EOR in intrinsic brain tumor surgery. Methods Ten patients underwent an eoMRI protocol consisting of surgical resection in a conventional operating room followed by an immediate MRI in a clinical MRI scanner while the patient was still under anesthesia. If MRI suggested residual safely resectable tumor, the patient was returned to the operating room. Retrospective volumetric analysis was undertaken to investigate the percentage of tumor resected after first resection and if applicable, after further resection. Results 6 out of 10 (60%) patients were felt to require no further resection after eoMRI. The EOR in these patients was 97.8±1.8%. In the 4 patients who underwent further resection, the EOR during the original surgery was 88.5±9.5% (p =0.04). There was an average of 10.1 % more tumor removed between the first and second surgery. In 3/4 (75%) of patients who returned for further resection, gross total resection of was achieved. Conclusion An eoMRI protocol appears to be a safe and practical method to ensure maximum safe resections in patients with brain tumors and can be performed readily in all centers with MRI capability. PMID:25700968

  5. Quantitative Clinical Evaluation of a Simultaneous PETI MRI Breast Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Schlyer D. J.; Schlyer, D.J.

    2013-04-03

    A prototype simultaneous PET-MRI breast scanner has been developed for conducting clinical studies with the goal of obtaining high resolution anatomical and functional information in the same scan which can lead to faster and better diagnosis, reduction of unwanted biopsies, and better patient care.

  6. A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening fMRI Study on 113 Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kompus, Kristiina; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Juvodden, Hilde T.; van Wageningen, Heidi; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    We report fMRI and behavioral data from 113 subjects on attention and cognitive control using a variant of the classic dichotic listening paradigm with pairwise presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. The syllable stimuli were presented in a block-design while subjects were in the MR scanner. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to…

  7. Test-retest reliability of evoked BOLD signals from a cognitive-emotive fMRI test battery.

    PubMed

    Plichta, Michael M; Schwarz, Adam J; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Gerdes, Antje B M; Sauer, Carina; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Colman, Peter; Wilson, Frederick; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-04-15

    Even more than in cognitive research applications, moving fMRI to the clinic and the drug development process requires the generation of stable and reliable signal changes. The performance characteristics of the fMRI paradigm constrain experimental power and may require different study designs (e.g., crossover vs. parallel groups), yet fMRI reliability characteristics can be strongly dependent on the nature of the fMRI task. The present study investigated both within-subject and group-level reliability of a combined three-task fMRI battery targeting three systems of wide applicability in clinical and cognitive neuroscience: an emotional (face matching), a motivational (monetary reward anticipation) and a cognitive (n-back working memory) task. A group of 25 young, healthy volunteers were scanned twice on a 3T MRI scanner with a mean test-retest interval of 14.6 days. FMRI reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) applied at three different levels ranging from a global to a localized and fine spatial scale: (1) reliability of group-level activation maps over the whole brain and within targeted regions of interest (ROIs); (2) within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes and (3) within-subject reliability of individual voxels in the target ROIs. Results showed robust evoked activation of all three tasks in their respective target regions (emotional task=amygdala; motivational task=ventral striatum; cognitive task=right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortices) with high effect sizes (ES) of ROI-mean summary values (ES=1.11-1.44 for the faces task, 0.96-1.43 for the reward task, 0.83-2.58 for the n-back task). Reliability of group level activation was excellent for all three tasks with ICCs of 0.89-0.98 at the whole brain level and 0.66-0.97 within target ROIs. Within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes across sessions was fair to good for the reward task (ICCs=0.56-0.62) and, dependent on the particular ROI

  8. Numerical study of remote detection outside the magnet with travelling wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Vázquez, F.; Solís-Nájera, S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the travelling wave approach for high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging has been used recently with very promising results. This approach offer images one with greater field-of-view and a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio using a circular waveguide. This scheme has been proved to be successful at 7 T and 9.4 T with whole-body imager. Images have also been acquired with clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems whose resonant frequencies were 64 MHz and 128 MHz. These results motivated the use of remote detection of the magnetic resonance signal using a parallel-plate waveguide together with 3 T clinical scanners, to acquired human leg images. The cut-off frequency of this waveguide is zero for the principal mode, allowing us to overcome the barrier of transmitting waves at lower frequency than 300 MHz or 7 T for protons. These motivated the study of remote detection outside the actual magnet. We performed electromagnetic field simulations of a parallel-plate waveguide and a phantom. The signal transmission was done at 128 MHz and using a circular surface coil located almost 200 cm away for the magnet isocentre. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the magnetic field of the principal mode propagate inside a waveguide outside the magnet. Numerical results were compared with previous experimental-acquired image data under similar conditions.

  9. Measurement of T1 of the Ultrashort T2* Components in White Matter of the Brain at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Sheth, Vipul; He, Qun; Carl, Michael; Chen, Jun; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that white matter of the brain contains not only long T2 components, but a minority of ultrashort T2* components. Adiabatic inversion recovery prepared dual echo ultrashort echo time (IR-dUTE) sequences can be used to selectively image the ultrashort T2* components in white matter of the brain using a clinical whole body scanner. The T2*s of the ultrashort T2* components can be quantified using mono-exponential decay fitting of the IR-dUTE signal at a series of different TEs. However, accurate T1 measurement of the ultrashort T2* components is technically challenging. Efficient suppression of the signal from the majority of long T2 components is essential for robust T1 measurement. In this paper we describe a novel approach to this problem based on the use of IR-dUTE data acquisitions with different TR and TI combinations to selectively detect the signal recovery of the ultrashort T2* components. Exponential recovery curve fitting provides efficient T1 estimation, with minimized contamination from the majority of long T2 components. A rubber phantom and a piece of bovine cortical bone were used for validation of this approach. Six healthy volunteers were studied. An averaged T2* of 0.32±0.09 ms, and a short mean T1 of 226±46 ms were demonstrated for the healthy volunteers at 3T. PMID:25093859

  10. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Slates, R B; Farahani, K; Shao, Y; Marsden, P K; Taylor, J; Summers, P E; Williams, S; Beech, J; Cherry, S R

    1999-08-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T2-weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner.

  11. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  12. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  13. A volume scanner for diffuse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafa, Elham; Roberts, Nicolas; Sharafutdinova, Galiya; Holdsworth, John

    2016-11-01

    Non-invasive optical screening mammography has a significant barrier in the extreme scatter of human tissue at optical wavelengths. A volume scanner suited for high numerical aperture capture of scattered light from diffuse media has been designed, modelled using Trace Pro software and experimentally constructed. Modelling results indicate the presence of an embedded volume with different scatter properties from the bulk yields a measurable difference in the overall scatter pattern and intensity recorded. Work towards a full tomographic reconstruction from scattered light recorded on the two dimensional array detector is currently underway.

  14. A laser scanner for 35mm film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callen, W. R.; Weaver, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a laser scanning system is described. The scanner was designed to deliver a scanned beam over a 2.54 cm by 2.54 cm or a 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm format. In order to achieve a scan resolution and rate comparable to that of standard television, an acousto-optic deflector was used for one axis of the scan, and a light deflecting galvanometer for deflection along the other axis. The acoustic optic deflector has the capability of random access scan controlled by a digital computer.

  15. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  16. LAPR: An experimental aircraft pushbroom scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Irons, J. I.; Heugel, F.

    1980-01-01

    A three band Linear Array Pushbroom Radiometer (LAPR) was built and flown on an experimental basis by NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The functional characteristics of the instrument and the methods used to preprocess the data, including radiometric correction, are described. The radiometric sensitivity of the instrument was tested and compared to that of the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner. The radiometric correction procedure was evaluated quantitatively, using laboratory testing, and qualitatively, via visual examination of the LAPR test flight imagery. Although effective radiometric correction could not yet be demonstrated via laboratory testing, radiometric distortion did not preclude the visual interpretation or parallel piped classification of the test imagery.

  17. The Lick Observatory image-dissector scanner.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, L. B.; Wampler, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A scanner that uses an image dissector to scan the output screen of an image tube has proven to be a sensitive and linear detector for faint astronomical spectra. The image-tube phosphor screen acts as a short-term storage element and allows the system to approach the performance of an ideal multichannel photon counter. Pulses resulting from individual photons, emitted from the output phosphor and detected by the image dissector, trigger an amplifier-discriminator and are counted in a 24-bit, 4096-word circulating memory. Aspects of system performance are discussed, giving attention to linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, stability, and scattered light properties.

  18. Characterization of Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using Cine MRI: Surrogates for Tumor Position Should Be Used With Caution

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Mary Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Adusumilli, Saroja; Cao Yue; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Our current understanding of intrafraction pancreatic tumor motion due to respiration is limited. In this study, we characterized pancreatic tumor motion and evaluated the application of several radiotherapy motion management strategies. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in a prospective internal review board-approved study and imaged during shallow free-breathing using cine MRI on a 3T scanner. Tumor borders were agreed on by a radiation oncologist and an abdominal MRI radiologist. Tumor motion and correlation with the potential surrogates of the diaphragm and abdominal wall were assessed. These data were also used to evaluate planning target volume margin construction, respiratory gating, and four-dimensional treatment planning for pancreatic tumors. Results: Tumor borders moved much more than expected. To provide 99% geometric coverage, margins of 20 mm inferiorly, 10 mm anteriorly, 7 mm superiorly, and 4 mm posteriorly are required. Tumor position correlated poorly with diaphragm and abdominal wall position, with patient-level Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.18-0.43. Sensitivity and specificity of gating with these surrogates was also poor, at 53%-68%, with overall