Science.gov

Sample records for 3t siemens trio

  1. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  2. Multimodal imaging: Simultaneous EEG in a 3T Hybrid MR-PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuner, I.; Warbrick, T.; Tellmann, L.; Rota Kops, E.; Arrubla, J.; Boers, F.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new generation of integrated MR-PET systems allows the simultaneous acquisition of MR and PET data. While MR delivers structural data with an excellent spatial resolution, the advantage of PET is its information on a molecular level. However, both modalities have a low temporal resolution. Thus, for pharmacological studies or patients who suffer from treatment resistant epilepsy the combination of yet another modality such as EEG could be desirable. We tested the feasibility of evoked visual potentials in a 3T Hybrid MR-PET system (Siemens Germany) in comparison to a standalone 3T Trio System (Siemens Germany). A T2*-weighted EPI sequence was used: TR: 2.2 s, TE: 30 ms, FOV: 200 mm, slice thickness 3, 36 slices in a healthy volunteer (male, 27 years old) using an MR-compatible 32-channel EEG system (Brainproducts, Munich, Germany). We applied 200 trials of visual stimulation from a white and black checkerboard. Visual evoked potentials were analyzed using Brain Vision Analyzer (Brainproducts, Munich, Germany). Gradient correction and cardioballistic artefact correction were performed as implemented in Vision Analyzer. Visual event related potentials were successfully recorded at the 3T Hybrid MR-PET system. Both curves differ slightly in shape and latency due to the following factors: the distance from the screen varies slightly and the size of the field of view of the subjects is smaller in the 3T MR-PET system in comparison to the 3T stand alone system. Extending the 3T MR-PET Hybrid system to 3T Hybrid MR-PET-EEG is feasible and adds another tool to clinical neuroimaging and research.

  3. The TAKEOVER TRIO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bots, Pieter W. G.; Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2004-01-01

    The TAKEOVER TRIO is a business game about a takeover. Three stakeholders (mother company, ailing daughter company, and potential buying company) must agree on a plan to prevent compulsory liquidation of the daughter. The primary learning objective is to make participants aware of the effect of negotiation process parameters on its outcome.…

  4. Trilinos I/O Support (Trios)

    DOE PAGES

    Oldfield, Ron A.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.; Lofstead II, Gerald F.; ...

    2012-01-01

    Trilinos I/O Support (Trios) is a new capability area in Trilinos that serves two important roles: (1) it provides and supports I/O libraries used by in-production scientific codes; (2) it provides a research vehicle for the evaluation and distribution of new techniques to improve I/O on advanced platforms. This paper provides a brief overview of the production-grade I/O libraries in Trios as well as some of the ongoing research efforts that contribute to the experimental libraries in Trios.

  5. New Expedition 32 Trio Arrives at Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide have arrived at the International Space Station after two days in orbit. The new trio docked its Soyuz TMA-05M spacecr...

  6. TRIO: Turbulent Response in Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Clemmons, J. H.; Katz, N.; Ben-Ami, M.; Carranza, P. A.; Larsen, M.

    2005-01-01

    This project was designed to build on the results from the successful launch of the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing Experiment (TOMEX) mother-daughter (instrumented and chemical-release) payload (21.126) that was launched in October 2000 from the White Sands Missile Range. The overall science objective was to investigate the evolution of the atmospheric response. at altitudes between 80 and 120 km, to the presence of unstable regions with vertical scales of the order of 1 to 10 km. TRIO was designed to use Na lidar measurements from the MAUUMALT observation on MAUI with a launch of a payload from Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), located on Kauai. During this project, Aerospace participated in a Mission Initiation Conference. put together a science requirements document. performed a site visit to PMRF. prepared a CDR document. and developed a production and calibration procedure for one of the payload instruments. the 3-channel photometer. Unfortunately. NASA decided to terminate the program because of unforeseen (by NASA) range costs. This CDR document represents our view of this project at termination and provides a roadmap to perform this experiment should it be proposed again.

  7. Satisfaction with TRIO Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kimberly

    This report presents the results of a survey of federal 1997 TRIO (special programs for students from disadvantaged backgrounds) grantees and non-funded applicants conducted to determine grantees' satisfaction with support services provided by the Department of Education and to examine differences in levels of satisfaction across first-time…

  8. Detecting disease variants in case-parent trio studies using the bioconductor software package trio.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Li, Qing; Neumann, Christoph; Taub, Margaret A; Younkin, Samuel G; Berger, Philipp; Scharpf, Robert B; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Case-parent trio studies are commonly employed in genetics to detect variants underlying common complex disease risk. Both commercial and freely available software suites for genetic data analysis usually contain methods for case-parent trio designs. A user might, however, experience limitations with these packages, which can include missing functionality to extend the software if a desired analysis has not been implemented, and the inability to programmatically capture all the software versions used for low-level processing and high-level inference of genomic data, a critical consideration in particular for high-throughput experiments. Here, we present a software vignette (i.e., a manual with step by step instructions and examples to demonstrate software functionality) for reproducible genome-wide analyses of case-parent trio data using the open source Bioconductor package trio. The workflow for the practitioner uses data from previous genetic trio studies to illustrate functions for marginal association tests, assessment of parent-of-origin effects, power and sample size calculations, and functions to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with disease.

  9. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management Including.../Supply Chain Management. These employees provided support for the supply of information technology...,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management,...

  10. New Siemens Research Turbine - time lapse

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Siemens Energy Inc. recently commissioned a new 2.3 megawatt Siemens wind turbine at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. This video shows a time lapse of the installation. The turbine is the centerpiece of a multi-year project to study the performance and aerodynamics of a new class of large, land-based machines — in what will be the biggest government-industry research partnership for wind power generation ever undertaken in the U.S.

  11. [Siemens I syndrome--a case history].

    PubMed

    Köhler, U; Müller, W; Schubert, H; Lukassek, B

    1981-08-01

    Report on a patient suffering from keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (Siemens I syndrome). This ia a very rare clinical picture, at least in its complete form. The patient's father and brother are suffering from an abortive Siemens I syndrome. The condition is a form of hereditary parakeratosis, a spinulose keratosis with typical localization in the eyes and on the skin. Causal therapy is not possible; attempts at conservative and surgical treatment are described. Prognostically, the condition will probably come to a standstill at puberty. The description of this case is intended to illustrate the necessity of close cooperation between dermatologist and ophthalmologist.

  12. Siemens Foundation and the STEM Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper-Taylor, Jeniffer

    2010-01-01

    For more than 12 years, the Siemens Foundation has found unique ways to partner with organizations to support educational initiatives in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the United States. Its focus is clear--to educate the next generation of innovators by supporting math and science education from grade school to grad…

  13. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p<0.001), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  14. A Steady-state Trio for Bretherton Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhao; Liu, Zeng; Cui, Jifeng

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if steady-state resonant solution exist for any system of weakly interacting waves in a dispersive medium, a trio is considered in the Bretherton equation based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Time-independent spectrum was found when all components were travelling in the same direction. Within the trio, the amplitude of longer component is larger than that of shorter one. As the difference of wave number between components in trio increases or the nonlinearity of whole system increases, the amplitudes of all components tends to increase simultaneously. These findings are helpful to enrich and deepen our understanding about resonant solutions in any dispersive medium, especially for a two-dimensional scenario.

  15. Status of SOFC development at Siemens

    SciTech Connect

    Drenckhahn, W.; Blum, L.; Greiner, H.

    1996-12-31

    The Siemens SOFC development programme reached an important milestone in June 1995. A stack operating with hydrogen and oxygen produced a peak power of 10.7 kW at a current density of 0.7 A/cm{sup 2} and was running for more than 1400 hours. The SOFC configuration is based on a flat metal separator plate using the multiple cell array design. Improved PENs, functional layer and joining technique were implemented. Based on this concept, a 100 kW plant was designed The SOFC development at Siemens has been started in 1990 after a two years preparation phase. The first period with the goal of the demonstration of a 1 kW SOFC stack operation ended in 1993. This important milestone was finally reached in the begin of 1994. The second project phase with the final milestone of a 20 kW module operation will terminate at the end of 1996. This result will form a basis for the next phase in which a 50 to 100 kW pilot plant will be built and tested.

  16. 75 FR 13813 - High School Equivalency Program and College Assistance Migrant Program, the Federal TRIO Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...The Secretary proposes to amend current regulations, and establish new regulations, for the High School Equivalency Program and College Assistance Migrant Program (HEP and CAMP); the Federal TRIO programs (TRIO Programs--Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs (Training), Talent Search (TS), Educational Opportunity Centers (EOC), Upward Bound (UB), Student Support Services (SSS), and the......

  17. Genotype calling and haplotyping in parent-offspring trios

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Bingshan; Zeng, Zhen; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Kang, Hyun Min; Li, Yun; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging sequencing technologies allow common and rare variants to be systematically assayed across the human genome in many individuals. In order to improve variant detection and genotype calling, raw sequence data are typically examined across many individuals. Here, we describe a method for genotype calling in settings where sequence data are available for unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios and show that modeling trio information can greatly increase the accuracy of inferred genotypes and haplotypes, especially on low to modest depth sequencing data. Our method considers both linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and the constraints imposed by family structure when assigning individual genotypes and haplotypes. Using simulations, we show that trios provide higher genotype calling accuracy across the frequency spectrum, both overall and at hard-to-call heterozygous sites. In addition, trios provide greatly improved phasing accuracy—improving the accuracy of downstream analyses (such as genotype imputation) that rely on phased haplotypes. To further evaluate our approach, we analyzed data on the first 508 individuals sequenced by the SardiNIA sequencing project. Our results show that our method reduces the genotyping error rate by 50% compared with analysis using existing methods that ignore family structure. We anticipate our method will facilitate genotype calling and haplotype inference for many ongoing sequencing projects. PMID:23064751

  18. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only < 0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

  19. Dosimetry of the Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    Measurements have been made on a Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator. The change of beam quality has been measured as a function of position off-axis and compared to another Siemens 6 MV linear accelerator. Similarly, beam profiles are compared to a Siemens Mevatron VI. Additional measurements include entrance dose, inverse square applicability, central axis percent depth dose, tissue-maximum ratios, output factors, wedge factors and block transmission factors. Comparison is made with an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Therac 6 and Varian Clinac 6-100.

  20. Dosimetry of the Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Horton, J L

    1983-08-01

    Measurements have been made on a Siemens Mevatron 67 linear accelerator. The change of beam quality has been measured as a function of position off-axis and compared to another Siemens 6 MV linear accelerator. Similarly, beam profiles are compared to a Siemens Mevatron VI. Additional measurements include entrance dose, inverse square applicability, central axis percent depth dose, tissue-maximum ratios, output factors, wedge factors and block transmission factors. Comparison is made with an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Therac 6 and Varian Clinac 6-100.

  1. TRIO: Burst Buffer Based I/O Orchestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Teng; Oral, H Sarp; Pritchard, Michael; Wang, Bin; Yu, Weikuan

    2015-01-01

    The growing computing power on leadership HPC systems is often accompanied by ever-escalating failure rates. Checkpointing is a common defensive mechanism used by scientific applications for failure recovery. However, directly writing the large and bursty checkpointing dataset to parallel filesystem can incur significant I/O contention on storage servers. Such contention in turn degrades the raw bandwidth utilization of storage servers and prolongs the average job I/O time of concurrent applications. Recently burst buffer has been proposed as an intermediate layer to absorb the bursty I/O traffic from compute nodes to storage backend. But an I/O orchestration mechanism is still desired to efficiently move checkpointing data from bursty buffers to storage backend. In this paper, we propose a burst buffer based I/O orchestration framework, named TRIO, to intercept and reshape the bursty writes for better sequential write traffic to storage severs. Meanwhile, TRIO coordinates the flushing orders among concurrent burst buffers to alleviate the contention on storage server bandwidth. Our experimental results reveal that TRIO can deliver 30.5% higher bandwidth and reduce the average job I/O time by 37% on average for data-intensive applications in various checkpointing scenarios.

  2. [The security system of SIEMENS digital linear accelerator].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    The security system plays an important role to protect the safety of patients and equipment in radiotherapy. The principle and structure of three kinds of security system of the Siemens digital linear accelerator were analyzed with some examples.

  3. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  4. Pooled Genotyping of Microsatellite Markers in Parent–Offspring Trios

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, George; Williams, Nigel; Sham, Pak; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent–offspring trios affected with bipolar affective disorder (BP). Analysis of pooled DNA samples predicted very accurately the differences in individual allele frequency distributions between children and their parents. The mean error was <1% (range 0%–3.2%) when marker-specific corrections for stutter and differential amplification were performed. We show that if an individual allele is significantly preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring, the difference in the frequency of that allele would be sufficiently large to be detected with pooling in most situations. We propose recommendations for disequilibrium mapping with pooling in which both case-control samples and trios are used in an initial screen and markers are genotyped individually only if they satisfy very relaxed criteria for statistical significance. The use of case-control samples should reduce the false-negative rate as the differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls are twice as high in the presence of the same genetic effect. The use of trios will confirm or reject any suggested differences, thus reducing the false-positive rate that can be created by hidden population stratification. PMID:10645955

  5. A trio-interaction theory for Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Guosen

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical atmospheric intraseasonal variability and a primary source of predictability for global sub-seasonal prediction. Understanding the origin and perpetuation of the MJO has eluded scientists for decades. The present paper starts with a brief review of progresses in theoretical studies of the MJO and a discussion of the essential MJO characteristics that a theory should explain. A general theoretical model framework is then described in an attempt to integrate the major existing theoretical models: the frictionally coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave, the moisture mode, the frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, the MJO skeleton, and the gravity wave interference, which are shown to be special cases of the general MJO model. The last part of the present paper focuses on a special form of trio-interaction theory in terms of the general model with a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization scheme. This trio-interaction theory extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating a trio-interaction among convection, moisture, and wave-boundary layer (BL) dynamics. The model is shown to produce robust large-scale characteristics of the observed MJO, including the coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure, slow eastward propagation ( 5 m/s) over warm pool, the planetary (zonal) scale circulation, the BL low-pressure and moisture convergence preceding major convection, and amplification/decay over warm/cold sea surface temperature (SST) regions. The BL moisture convergence feedback plays a central role in coupling equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating, selecting a preferred eastward propagation, and generating instability. The moisture feedback can enhance Rossby wave component, thereby substantially slowing down eastward propagation. With the trio-interaction theory, a number of fundamental issues of MJO dynamics are addressed: why the MJO possesses a mixed Kelvin-Rossby wave structure

  6. Privacy Impact Assessment for the TRIO Programs Annual Performance Report (APR) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The TRIO Programs Annual Performance Report (APR) System collects individual student records on individuals served by the following Federal TRIO Programs: Upward Bound (which includes regular Upward Bound (UB), Upward Bound Math-Science (UBMS), and Veterans Upward Bound (VUB)); Student Support Services (SSS); and the Ronald E. McNair Post…

  7. National Studies Find TRIO Programs Effective at Increasing College Enrollment and Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Since 1997, four national studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Education have been completed on the Federal TRIO programs. Data from these studies demonstrate that participation in a TRIO program has a significant impact on the educational outcomes of low-income, first-generation students and students with disabilities. This paper provides…

  8. Program Evaluation of Career Services Delivered through TRIO Student Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    This study was an evaluation of the career services component of TRIO Student Support Services at a Midwestern university. The problem in the local setting was the absence of empirical evidence demonstrating compliance of TRIO career services with the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) Professional Standards for College and…

  9. 77 FR 28360 - Applications for New Awards; Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Applications for New Awards; Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs (Training Program). Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2012....

  10. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Siemens AG Siemens BS2000 Ada Compiler, Version 1.0 Siemens 7.57OP.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-26

    STD-]815A, FEB 1983. 2. Ada Validation Organization: Policies and Procedures, MITRE Corporation , JUN 1982, PB 83-110601. 3. Ada Compiler Validation...expression’s suhtyne is comnatible with the target’s sub- type. In assigning two-dimensional array types, the expression does not appear to be evaluated...owner’s corporate name. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft -- 7 ,Spa . ’. ’.,,,, .- ’.% ’ " ’ ,-.-,ŗ’/ ,’,’ ’ ’,,- ’ % 3

  11. Implementation of Siemens USS protocol into LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Hosek, P; Diblik, M

    2011-10-01

    This article gives basic overview of the USS protocol as a communication interface to drive Siemens frequency inverters. It presents our implementation of this protocol into LabVIEW, as there was permanent demand from the community of the users to have native LabVIEW implementation of the USS protocol. It also states encountered problems and their solutions.

  12. 77 FR 30518 - Town of Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services, Inc., One Hundred River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services... Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services, Inc. (transferors) and One Hundred...

  13. A Novel Test for Detecting SNP-SNP Interactions in Case-Only Trio Studies.

    PubMed

    Balliu, Brunilda; Zaitlen, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Epistasis plays a significant role in the genetic architecture of many complex phenotypes in model organisms. To date, there have been very few interactions replicated in human studies due in part to the multiple-hypothesis burden implicit in genome-wide tests of epistasis. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop the most powerful tests possible for detecting interactions. In this work we develop a new SNP-SNP interaction test for use in case-only trio studies called the trio correlation (TC) test. The TC test computes the expected joint distribution of marker pairs in offspring conditional on parental genotypes. This distribution is then incorporated into a standard 1 d.f. correlation test of interaction. We show via extensive simulations under a variety of disease models that our test substantially outperforms existing tests of interaction in case-only trio studies. We also demonstrate a bias in a previous case-only trio interaction test and identify its origin. Finally, we show that a previously proposed permutation scheme in trio studies mitigates the known biases of case-only tests in the presence of population stratification. We conclude that the TC test shows improved power to identify interactions in existing, as well as emerging, trio association studies. The method is publicly available at www.github.com/BrunildaBalliu/TrioEpi.

  14. Mutations specific to the Rac-GEF domain of TRIO cause intellectual disability and microcephaly

    PubMed Central

    Pengelly, Reuben J; Greville-Heygate, Stephanie; Schmidt, Susanne; Seaby, Eleanor G; Jabalameli, M Reza; Mehta, Sarju G; Parker, Michael J; Goudie, David; Fagotto-Kaufmann, Christine; Mercer, Catherine; Debant, Anne; Ennis, Sarah; Baralle, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurodevelopmental disorders have challenged clinical genetics for decades, with over 700 genes implicated and many whose function remains unknown. The application of whole-exome sequencing is proving pivotal in closing the genotype/phenotype gap through the discovery of new genes and variants that help to unravel the pathogenic mechanisms driving neuropathogenesis. One such discovery includes TRIO, a gene recently implicated in neurodevelopmental delay. Trio is a Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and a major regulator of neuronal development, controlling actin cytoskeleton dynamics by activating the GTPase Rac1. Methods Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken on a family presenting with global developmental delay, microcephaly and mild dysmorphism. Father/daughter exome analysis was performed, followed by confirmatory Sanger sequencing and segregation analysis on four individuals. Three further patients were recruited through the deciphering developmental disorders (DDD) study. Functional studies were undertaken using patient-specific Trio protein mutations. Results We identified a frameshift deletion in TRIO that segregated autosomal dominantly. By scrutinising data from DDD, we further identified three unrelated children with a similar phenotype who harboured de novo missense mutations in TRIO. Biochemical studies demonstrated that in three out of four families, the Trio mutations led to a markedly reduced Rac1 activation. Conclusions We describe an inherited global developmental delay phenotype associated with a frameshift deletion in TRIO. Additionally, we identify pathogenic de novo missense mutations in TRIO associated with the same consistent phenotype, intellectual disability, microcephaly and dysmorphism with striking digital features. We further functionally validate the importance of the GEF domain in Trio protein function. Our study demonstrates how genomic technologies are yet again proving prolific in diagnosing and

  15. The RhoGEF Trio Functions in Sculpting Class Specific Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Srividya Chandramouli; Wang, Dennis; Iyer, Eswar Prasad R.; Trunnell, Sarah A.; Meduri, Ramakrishna; Shinwari, Riaz; Sulkowski, Mikolaj J.; Cox, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the primary sites of synaptic or sensory input in the nervous system, dendrites play an essential role in processing neuronal and sensory information. Moreover, the specification of class specific dendrite arborization is critically important in establishing neural connectivity and the formation of functional networks. Cytoskeletal modulation provides a key mechanism for establishing, as well as reorganizing, dendritic morphology among distinct neuronal subtypes. While previous studies have established differential roles for the small GTPases Rac and Rho in mediating dendrite morphogenesis, little is known regarding the direct regulators of these genes in mediating distinct dendritic architectures. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that the RhoGEF Trio is required for the specification of class specific dendritic morphology in dendritic arborization (da) sensory neurons of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS). Trio is expressed in all da neuron subclasses and loss-of-function analyses indicate that Trio functions cell-autonomously in promoting dendritic branching, field coverage, and refining dendritic outgrowth in various da neuron subtypes. Moreover, overexpression studies demonstrate that Trio acts to promote higher order dendritic branching, including the formation of dendritic filopodia, through Trio GEF1-dependent interactions with Rac1, whereas Trio GEF-2-dependent interactions with Rho1 serve to restrict dendritic extension and higher order branching in da neurons. Finally, we show that de novo dendritic branching, induced by the homeodomain transcription factor Cut, requires Trio activity suggesting these molecules may act in a pathway to mediate dendrite morphogenesis. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our analyses implicate Trio as an important regulator of class specific da neuron dendrite morphogenesis via interactions with Rac1 and Rho1 and indicate that Trio is required as downstream effector in Cut

  16. 78 FR 19017 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare..., 77 FR 72409, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Attn: RA, 100 GBC Drive, Mail Stop 514, Newark.... 823(a) and determined that the registration of Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., to manufacture...

  17. 77 FR 31390 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare..., 77 FR 5847, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., 100 GBC Drive, Mail Stop 514, Newark, Delaware 19702.... 823(a) and determined that the registration of Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., to manufacture...

  18. Feasibility of imaging superficial palmar arch using micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pruzan, Alison N; Kaufman, Audrey E; Calcagno, Claudia; Zhou, Yu; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate feasibility of vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch using high frequency micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Four subjects (ages 22-50 years) were scanned on a micro-ultrasound system with a 45-MHz transducer (Vevo 2100, VisualSonics). Subjects’ hands were then imaged on a 3T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Biograph MMR) using an 8-channel special purpose phased array carotid coil. Lastly, subjects’ hands were imaged on a 7T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Magnetom 7T Whole Body Scanner) using a custom built 8-channel transmit receive carotid coil. All three imaging modalities were subjectively analyzed for image quality and visualization of the vessel wall. RESULTS Results of this very preliminary study indicated that vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch was feasible with a whole body 7T and 3T MRI in comparison with micro-ultrasound. Subjective analysis of image quality (1-5 scale, 1: poorest, 5: best) from B mode, ultrasound, 3T SPACE MRI and 7T SPACE MRI indicated that the image quality obtained at 7T was superior to both 3T MRI and micro-ultrasound. The 3D SPACE sequence at both 7T and 3T MRI with isotropic voxels allowed for multi-planar reformatting of images and allowed for less operator dependent results as compared to high frequency micro-ultrasound imaging. Although quantitative analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the three methods, the 7T Tesla trended to have better visibility of the vessel and its wall. CONCLUSION Imaging of smaller arteries at the 7T is feasible for evaluating atherosclerosis burden and may be of clinical relevance in multiple diseases. PMID:28298968

  19. An Index of Human Well-being for the U.S.: A TRIO Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    : In 2011, EPA’s Office of Research and Development program, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, coined the term TRIO (Total Resources Impact Outcome) to represent approaches the fully incorporate all three pillars of community sustainability – environmental, economic and social...

  20. Index of Human Well-Being for the U.S.: A TRIO Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development program, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, coined the term TRIO (Total Resources Impact Outcome) to represent approaches that fully incorporate all three pillars of community susta...

  1. [Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (Siemens' syndrome) associated with other abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Domenech, P; Ferrando, J; Corretger, M; Torras, H; Valls, X; González, A

    1985-01-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (ichthyosis follicularis or Siemens's syndrome) is considered a general form of keratosis pilaris decalvans. Localized types are keratosis pilaris atrophicans and atrophoderma vermicularis. A case of this unusual process is presented. Clinical, histological and scanning electron microscopic studies of the hair were performed. Clinically, a generalized hypotrichosis with hyperkeratotic follicular plugs is observed; especially in the scalp and the eyebrows. Other interesting clinical findings were cutis hyperelastica, gingival hypertrophy, mongoloid palpebral fissures, big pinnae and clinodactyly of the 5th finger. From the histological point of view we observed follicular plugging, dystrophic pilosebaceous follicles, absence of sebaceous glands, perifollicular fibrosis and minimal lymphomonocytic infiltrate. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows a brittle hair with cuticular abnormalities. Siemens's syndrome can be considered a specific pilosebaceous dysplasia because the absence or hypoplasia of sebaceous glands; which produces follicular hyperkeratosis and pilar atrophy with perifollicular fibrosis and alopecia.

  2. Molecular evolution and expression of the CRAL_TRIO protein family in insects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gilbert; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-07-01

    CRAL_TRIO domain proteins are known to bind small lipophilic molecules such as retinal, inositol and Vitamin E and include such gene family members as PINTA, α-tocopherol transfer (ATT) proteins, retinoid binding proteins, and clavesins. In insects, very little is known about either the molecular evolution of this family of proteins or their ligand specificity. Here we characterize insect CRAL_TRIO domain proteins and present the first insect CRAL_TRIO protein phylogeny constructed by performing reciprocal BLAST searches of the reference genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Danaus plexippus. We find several highly conserved amino acid residues in the CRAL_TRIO domain-containing genes across insects and a gene expansion resulting in more than twice as many gene family members in lepidopterans than in other surveyed insect species, but no lepidopteran homolog of the PINTA gene in Drosophila. In addition, we examined the expression pattern of CRAL_TRIO domain genes in Manduca sexta heads using RNA-Seq data. Of the 42 gene family members found in the M. sexta reference genome, we found 30 expressed in the head tissue with similar expression profiles between males and females. Our results suggest this gene family underwent a large expansion in lepidopteran, making the lepidopteran CRAL_TRIO domain family distinct from other holometabolous insect lineages.

  3. 3T3 cells in adipocytic conversion.

    PubMed

    O'Shea Alvarez, M S

    1991-01-01

    3T3 are murine cells of an established heteroploid cellular line. Some clones of this cellular line, when cultured under adequate conditions differentiate into adipocytes. During the process of differentiation, the cells undergo a change from the elongated fibroblastic shape to a round or oval form and accumulate small drops of lipids within their cytoplasma. These lipid drops fuse into one large drop which displaces the nucleus towards the periphery, giving the cell the aspect of a mature adipocyte of white adipose tissue. The cells not only change their morphology, but they also present important biochemical changes. They show a simultaneous increase in triglyceride synthesis and activity of lipogenic enzymes. There is also an increase in the response of the activity of various hormones and the de novo synthesis of the receptors to such hormones, as insulin and ACTH. During the process of differentiation important changes occur in the synthesis of various proteins, such as actin, tubulin, and other proteins which also make up the cellular cytoskeleton, forming part of the lipid transportation within the adipose cell. The adipocytic differentiation of 3T3 cells depends on adipogenic serum factors used in the supplementary culture medium. These adipogenic factors seem to play an important role in the development of adipose tissue. There are hormones, chemical agents and serum factors which modulate adipocytic differentiation. The clone must be susceptible to adipocytic differentiation, it must reach a quiescent state and find itself in adipogenic conditions for the 3T3 cells to differentiate into adipocytes. It must also carry out an DNA synthesis which is an expression of the new phenotype. The differentiation of 3T3 cells in terminal. The fact that these cells present an adipocytic conversion under physiologic conditions and with adipogenic hormones which exist in the whole animal has been demonstrated. All of these characteristics show that the 3T3 cells may be

  4. Optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge.

    PubMed

    Walker, C P; Richmond, N D; Lambert, G D

    2003-01-01

    Installation of a modern high-energy Siemens Primus linear accelerator at the Northern Centre for Cancer Treatment (NCCT) provided the opportunity to investigate the optimal clinical implementation of the Siemens virtual wedge filter. Previously published work has concentrated on the production of virtual wedge angles at 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees as replacements for the Siemens hard wedges of the same nominal angles. However, treatment plan optimization of the dose distribution can be achieved with the Primus, as its control software permits the selection of any virtual wedge angle from 15 degrees to 60 degrees in increments of 1 degrees. The same result can also be produced from a combination of open and 60 degrees wedged fields. Helax-TMS models both of these modes of virtual wedge delivery by the wedge angle and the wedge fraction methods respectively. This paper describes results of timing studies in the planning of optimized patient dose distributions by both methods and in the subsequent treatment delivery procedures. Employment of the wedge fraction method results in the delivery of small numbers of monitor units to the beam's central axis; therefore, wedge profile stability and delivered dose with low numbers of monitor units were also investigated. The wedge fraction was proven to be the most efficient method when the time taken for both planning and treatment delivery were taken into consideration, and is now used exclusively for virtual wedge treatment delivery in Newcastle. It has also been shown that there are no unfavorable dosimetric consequences from its practical implementation.

  5. First experience with a modified Siemens Lithostar shock wave system.

    PubMed

    Volmer, K D; Köhler, G; Folberth, W; Planz, K

    1991-01-01

    A Siemens Lithostar shock wave system was modified and investigated clinically. The modified system yields increased focal pressure and energy density. The first clinical experience in renal calculi shows a significant reduction in shock wave numbers per treatment. Higher energy output enables better treatment results for difficult stones such as staghorn and infections calculi. Despite the higher energy output more than 90% of treatments could be performed without anesthesia or analgesia. No significant side effects could be detected. The service life of the modified shock wave system increased by a factor of two.

  6. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon

    PubMed Central

    Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T.; Torres, Viviana I.; Wagh, Dhananjay; Galaz, Jose; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Waites, Clarissa L.; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Reimer, Richard J.; Garner, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth. Trio was found to interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of Piccolo and Bassoon via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the CAZ. Moreover, our data suggest that regions within the C-terminus of Trio negatively regulate its interactions with Piccolo/Bassoon. These findings provide a mechanism for the presynaptic targeting of Trio and support a model in which Piccolo and Bassoon play a role in regulating neurotransmission through interactions with proteins, including Trio, that modulate the dynamic assembly of F-actin during cycles of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:27907191

  7. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon.

    PubMed

    Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T; Torres, Viviana I; Wagh, Dhananjay; Galaz, Jose; Swanson, Selene K; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Waites, Clarissa L; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Reimer, Richard J; Garner, Craig C

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth. Trio was found to interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of Piccolo and Bassoon via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the CAZ. Moreover, our data suggest that regions within the C-terminus of Trio negatively regulate its interactions with Piccolo/Bassoon. These findings provide a mechanism for the presynaptic targeting of Trio and support a model in which Piccolo and Bassoon play a role in regulating neurotransmission through interactions with proteins, including Trio, that modulate the dynamic assembly of F-actin during cycles of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis.

  8. Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA.

  9. Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens: response to topical tazarotene.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, S; Rakhesh, S V

    2006-01-01

    In 1937, Siemens described a Dutch family with superficial blistering, flexural hyperkeratosis, and characteristic mauserung appearance. Since then, less than 20 kindreds with this condition have been described in the English dermatologic literature. A 14-year-old boy presented with history of recurrent blistering and peeling of skin since the age of 1 month, predominantly seen over limbs and trunk, often associated with secondary infection. His mother also had similar symptoms from childhood. On examination, the child had typical mauserung peeling of the skin and dirty gray hyperkeratosis in a rippled pattern over flexures. Skin biopsy from the boy showed intracorneal blistering with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in the upper spinous layers. The typical history and clinical features along with characteristic histological findings confirmed our diagnosis of ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. It must be differentiated from other conditions with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis and skin peeling, such as bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma of Brocq and peeling skin syndrome. Our patient responded well to 0.05% topical tazarotene gel over four weeks.

  10. Dosimetric characteristics of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop.

    PubMed

    Spezi, Emiliano; Ferri, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the dosimetric characteristics of a new commercial carbon fiber treatment table are investigated. The photon beam attenuation properties of the Siemens image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) tabletop were studied in detail. Two sets of dosimetric measurements were performed. In the first experiment a polystyrene slab phantom was used: the central axis attenuation and the skin-sparing detriment were investigated. In the second experiment, the off-axis treatment table transmission was investigated using a polystyrene cylindrical phantom. Measurements were taken at the isocenter for a 360 degrees rotation of the radiation beam. Our results show that the photon beam attenuation of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop varies from a minimum of 2.1% (central axis) to a maximum of 4.6% (120 degrees and 240 degrees beam incidence). The beam entrance dose increases from 82% to 97% of the dose at the depth of maximum for a clinical 6-MV radiation field. The depth of maximum also decreases by 0.4 cm. Despite the wedge cross section of the table the beam attenuation properties of the IGRT tabletop remain constant along the longitudinal direction. American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.

  11. Dosimetric Characteristics of the Siemens IGRT Carbon Fiber Tabletop

    SciTech Connect

    Spezi, Emiliano; Ferri, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the dosimetric characteristics of a new commercial carbon fiber treatment table are investigated. The photon beam attenuation properties of the Siemens image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) tabletop were studied in detail. Two sets of dosimetric measurements were performed. In the first experiment a polystyrene slab phantom was used: the central axis attenuation and the skin-sparing detriment were investigated. In the second experiment, the off-axis treatment table transmission was investigated using a polystyrene cylindrical phantom. Measurements were taken at the isocenter for a 360 deg. rotation of the radiation beam. Our results show that the photon beam attenuation of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop varies from a minimum of 2.1% (central axis) to a maximum of 4.6% (120 deg. and 240 deg. beam incidence). The beam entrance dose increases from 82% to 97% of the dose at the depth of maximum for a clinical 6-MV radiation field. The depth of maximum also decreases by 0.4 cm. Despite the wedge cross section of the table the beam attenuation properties of the IGRT tabletop remain constant along the longitudinal direction. American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.

  12. Mexican American First-Generation/Low-Income Students: A Rural Community College, TRiO Student Support Services Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This study is an ethnographic inquiry into the beliefs and perceptions of first-generation/low-income Mexican American students in a rural community college located near the U.S.-Mexico border. It explored their experiences as TRiO Student Support Services participants. TRiO Student Support Services plays an increasingly vital role helping…

  13. Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: Two case reports and felicitous approaches to prosthetic management.

    PubMed

    Renahan, Navanith; Raj, Renju; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumar, J Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.

  14. ETV Report: Siemens Model V-40R-A150 Open Channel UV System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Siemens Barrier Sunlight V-40R-A150 UV System was completed at the UV Validation and Research Center of New York (UV Center), located in Johnstown, NY. The V-40R System supplied by Siemens utilizes 40 high-output, low-pressure amalgam lamps, oriented ...

  15. 77 FR 72409 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application: Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application: Siemens Healthcare... notice that on November 7, 2012, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Attn: RA, 100 GBC Drive, Mail...

  16. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with palmoplantar keratoderma: A rare association.

    PubMed

    Kothiwala, Sunil K; Prajapat, Mahesh; Kuldeep, C M

    2016-01-01

    Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome is a form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED) characterized by triad of hypodontia, hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis. Palmoplantar keratoderma is a characteristic feature of hidrotic forms of ED. Till date, only two cases have been reported of Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with palmoplantar keratoderma; here we report a similar case emphasizing this rare association.

  17. Christ-siemens-touraine syndrome: case report of 2 brothers.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Chaudhari, Arvind; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disorder. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome (Hypohidrotic Ectodermal dysplasia (HED)) is a diffuse, non-progressive disease present at birth and involves at least two tissues of ectodermal origin. It is caused by mutation in gene ectodysplasin (EDA, EDA1) located at Xq12-13. Main clinical feature of HED is sparse or absent eccrine gland as well as hypotrichosis, nail, and teeth abnormality with characteristic faces. The absence or diminished activity of sweat gland results in patients having more chances of developing hyperthermia and with intolerance to warm environment. Most do well with simple measures such as wet clothes, air conditioning, wet bands etc. We present cases of two brothers, born of non-consanguineous marriage, who presented to us with complaints of heat intolerance and abnormal facial features.

  18. Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Retnakumari, N; Varghese, Manuja; Kannan, V P

    2016-01-01

    Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST) is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation.

  19. Increasing Underrepresented High School Students' College Transitions and Achievements: TRIO Educational Opportunity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan Pitre, Charisse; Pitre, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The American education agenda suggests a clear commitment to the development of programs and practices to increase equitable participation in higher education. During a time when equity-based policy initiatives are under attack in the United States, governmental TRIO Programs remain one proven pathway for ensuring college preparedness and access…

  20. Evidence for SNP-SNP interaction identified through targeted sequencing of cleft case-parent trios.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanzi; Taub, Margaret A; Ruczinski, Ingo; Begum, Ferdouse; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Schwender, Holger; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Beaty, Terri H

    2017-04-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans, affecting 1 in 700 live births. This malformation has a complex etiology where multiple genes and several environmental factors influence risk. At least a dozen different genes have been confirmed to be associated with risk of NSCL/P in previous studies. However, all the known genetic risk factors cannot fully explain the observed heritability of NSCL/P, and several authors have suggested gene-gene (G × G) interaction may be important in the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous malformation. We tested for G × G interactions using common single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from targeted sequencing in 13 regions identified by previous studies spanning 6.3 Mb of the genome in a study of 1,498 NSCL/P case-parent trios. We used the R-package trio to assess interactions between polymorphic markers in different genes, using a 1 degree of freedom (1df) test for screening, and a 4 degree of freedom (4df) test to assess statistical significance of epistatic interactions. To adjust for multiple comparisons, we performed permutation tests. The most significant interaction was observed between rs6029315 in MAFB and rs6681355 in IRF6 (4df P = 3.8 × 10(-8) ) in case-parent trios of European ancestry, which remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. However, no significant interaction was detected in trios of Asian ancestry.

  1. The Impact of TRIO Student Support Services at a Midwestern Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, TaJuan RaKeem

    2015-01-01

    First-generation, low-income, and disabled college students are an increasing population (Tinto, 2012). TRIO Student Support Services (SSS) is an academic support program funded by the U.S. Department of Education that seeks to support this demographic to overcome challenges and thrive while in college (Coffman, 2011). Utilizing a mixed methods…

  2. Using Constructivist Career Development to Improve Career Decision Self-Efficacy in TRiO Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila

    2012-01-01

    Although more high school graduates are attending college, many are not graduating (The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2004). First-generation, low-income, and underrepresented students are especially at risk for falling through the cracks. To help address this issue, programs such as TRiO Student Support Services (SSS) assist…

  3. Bootstraps: Federal Trio Programs, if Funded, Could Help Close Income Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Reggie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1964, the federal government has had two successful programs that have helped Americans from low-income and first-generation college backgrounds (whose parents never enrolled in higher education) prepare for and earn their college degrees, helping to stop the cycle of poverty. The federally funded TRIO programs (Upward Bound, Veterans Upward…

  4. Analysis of Case-Parent Trios Using a Loglinear Model with Adjustment for Transmission Ratio Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lam O.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the two parental alleles to offspring deviating from the Mendelian ratio is termed Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD), occurs throughout gametic and embryonic development. TRD has been well-studied in animals, but remains largely unknown in humans. The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) was first proposed to test for association and linkage in case-trios (affected offspring and parents); adjusting for TRD using control-trios was recommended. However, the TDT does not provide risk parameter estimates for different genetic models. A loglinear model was later proposed to provide child and maternal relative risk (RR) estimates of disease, assuming Mendelian transmission. Results from our simulation study showed that case-trios RR estimates using this model are biased in the presence of TRD; power and Type 1 error are compromised. We propose an extended loglinear model adjusting for TRD. Under this extended model, RR estimates, power and Type 1 error are correctly restored. We applied this model to an intrauterine growth restriction dataset, and showed consistent results with a previous approach that adjusted for TRD using control-trios. Our findings suggested the need to adjust for TRD in avoiding spurious results. Documenting TRD in the population is therefore essential for the correct interpretation of genetic association studies. PMID:27630667

  5. 75 FR 37415 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Training Program for Federal TRIO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs (Training Program) Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2010. Catalog of Federal... Purpose of Program: The Training Program provides grants to train the staff and leadership...

  6. Fast detection of de novo copy number variants from SNP arrays for case-parent trios

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In studies of case-parent trios, we define copy number variants (CNVs) in the offspring that differ from the parental copy numbers as de novo and of interest for their potential functional role in disease. Among the leading array-based methods for discovery of de novo CNVs in case-parent trios is the joint hidden Markov model (HMM) implemented in the PennCNV software. However, the computational demands of the joint HMM are substantial and the extent to which false positive identifications occur in case-parent trios has not been well described. We evaluate these issues in a study of oral cleft case-parent trios. Results Our analysis of the oral cleft trios reveals that genomic waves represent a substantial source of false positive identifications in the joint HMM, despite a wave-correction implementation in PennCNV. In addition, the noise of low-level summaries of relative copy number (log R ratios) is strongly associated with batch and correlated with the frequency of de novo CNV calls. Exploiting the trio design, we propose a univariate statistic for relative copy number referred to as the minimum distance that can reduce technical variation from probe effects and genomic waves. We use circular binary segmentation to segment the minimum distance and maximum a posteriori estimation to infer de novo CNVs from the segmented genome. Compared to PennCNV on simulated data, MinimumDistance identifies fewer false positives on average and is comparable to PennCNV with respect to false negatives. Genomic waves contribute to discordance of PennCNV and MinimumDistance for high coverage de novo calls, while highly concordant calls on chromosome 22 were validated by quantitative PCR. Computationally, MinimumDistance provides a nearly 8-fold increase in speed relative to the joint HMM in a study of oral cleft trios. Conclusions Our results indicate that batch effects and genomic waves are important considerations for case-parent studies of de novo CNV, and that the

  7. Analysis of exome sequence in 604 trios for recessive genotypes in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J T; Richards, A L; Howrigan, D; Kavanagh, D H; Pocklington, A J; Fromer, M; Ruderfer, D M; Georgieva, L; Carrera, N; Gormley, P; Palta, P; Williams, H; Dwyer, S; Johnson, J S; Roussos, P; Barker, D D; Banks, E; Milanova, V; Rose, S A; Chambert, K; Mahajan, M; Scolnick, E M; Moran, J L; Tsuang, M T; Glatt, S J; Chen, W J; Hwu, H-G; Faraone, Stephen V; Roe, Cheri A; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Yeh, Ling-Ling; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Chan, Hung-Yu; Chen, Chun-Ying; Neale, B M; Palotie, A; Sklar, P; Purcell, S M; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic associations involving both rare and common alleles have been reported for schizophrenia but there have been no systematic scans for rare recessive genotypes using fully phased trio data. Here, we use exome sequencing in 604 schizophrenia proband–parent trios to investigate the role of recessive (homozygous or compound heterozygous) nonsynonymous genotypes in the disorder. The burden of recessive genotypes was not significantly increased in probands at either a genome-wide level or in any individual gene after adjustment for multiple testing. At a system level, probands had an excess of nonsynonymous compound heterozygous genotypes (minor allele frequency, MAF ⩽1%) in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; eight in probands and none in parents, P=1.5 × 10−4). Previous findings of multiple de novo loss-of-function mutations in this gene family, particularly SCN2A, in autism and intellectual disability provide biological and genetic plausibility for this finding. Pointing further to the involvement of VGSCs in schizophrenia, we found that these genes were enriched for nonsynonymous mutations (MAF ⩽0.1%) in cases genotyped using an exome array, (5585 schizophrenia cases and 8103 controls), and that in the trios data, synaptic proteins interacting with VGSCs were also enriched for both compound heterozygosity (P=0.018) and de novo mutations (P=0.04). However, we were unable to replicate the specific association with compound heterozygosity at VGSCs in an independent sample of Taiwanese schizophrenia trios (N=614). We conclude that recessive genotypes do not appear to make a substantial contribution to schizophrenia at a genome-wide level. Although multiple lines of evidence, including several from this study, suggest that rare mutations in VGSCs contribute to the disorder, in the absence of replication of the original findings regarding compound heterozygosity, this conclusion requires evaluation in a larger sample of trios. PMID:26196440

  8. The Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio controls leukocyte transendothelial migration by promoting docking structure formation.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jos; Kroon, Jeffrey; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van Alphen, Floris P J; de Jong, Renske J; Kostadinova, Elena; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L; van Buul, Jaap D

    2012-08-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration involves the active participation of the endothelium through the formation of apical membrane protrusions that embrace adherent leukocytes, termed docking structures. Using live-cell imaging, we find that prior to transmigration, endothelial docking structures form around 80% of all neutrophils. Previously we showed that endothelial RhoG and SGEF control leukocyte transmigration. In this study, our data reveal that both full-length Trio and the first DH-PH (TrioD1) domain of Trio, which can activate Rac1 and RhoG, interact with ICAM-1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites. Moreover, upon clustering of ICAM-1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio activates Rac1, prior to activating RhoG, in a filamin-dependent manner. We further show that docking structure formation is initiated by ICAM-1 clustering into ring-like structures, which is followed by apical membrane protrusion. Interestingly, we find that Rac1 is required for ICAM-1 clustering, whereas RhoG controls membrane protrusion formation. Finally, silencing endothelial Trio expression or reducing TrioD1 activity without affecting SGEF impairs both docking structure formation and leukocyte transmigration. We conclude that Trio promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of Rac1 and RhoG.

  9. Monte Carlo study of Siemens PRIMUS photoneutron production.

    PubMed

    Pena, J; Franco, L; Gómez, F; Iglesias, A; Pardo, J; Pombar, M

    2005-12-21

    Neutron production in radiotherapy facilities has been studied from the early days of modern linacs. Detailed studies are now possible using photoneutron capabilities of general-purpose Monte Carlo codes at energies of interest in medical physics. The present work studies the effects of modelling different accelerator head and room geometries on the neutron fluence and spectra predicted via Monte Carlo. The results from the simulation of a 15 MV Siemens PRIMUS linac show an 80% increase in the fluence scored at the isocentre when, besides modelling the components necessary for electron/photon simulations, other massive accelerator head components are included. Neutron fluence dependence on inner treatment room volume is analysed showing that thermal neutrons have a 'gaseous' behaviour and then a 1/V dependence. Neutron fluence maps for three energy ranges, fast (E > 0.1 MeV), epithermal (1 eV < E < 0.1 MeV) and thermal (E < 1 eV), are also presented and the influence of the head components on them is discussed.

  10. A study on beam homogeneity for a Siemens Primus linac.

    PubMed

    Cutanda Henriquez, F; Vargas-Castrillón, S T

    2007-06-01

    Asymmetric offset fields are an important tool for radiotherapy and their suitability for treatment should be assessed. Dose homogeneity for highly asymmetric fields has been studied for a Siemens PRIMUS clinical linear accelerator. Profiles and absolute dose have been measured in fields with two jaws at maximal position (20 cm) and the other two at maximal overtravel (10 cm), corresponding to 10 cm x 10 cm fields with extreme offset. Measured profiles have a marked decreasing gradient towards the beam edge, making these fields unsuitable for treatments. The flattening filter radius is smaller than the primary collimator aperture, and this creates beam inhomogeneities that affect large fields in areas far from the collimator axis, and asymmetric fields with large offset. The results presented assess the effect that the design of the primary collimator and flattening filter assembly has on beam homogeneity. This can have clinical consequences for treatments involving fields that include these inhomogeneous areas. Comparison with calculations from a treatment planning system, Philips Pinnacle v6.3, which computes under the hypotheses of a uniformly flattened beam, results in severe discrepancies.

  11. Monte Carlo study of Siemens PRIMUS photoneutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, J.; Franco, L.; Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Pardo, J.; Pombar, M.

    2005-12-01

    Neutron production in radiotherapy facilities has been studied from the early days of modern linacs. Detailed studies are now possible using photoneutron capabilities of general-purpose Monte Carlo codes at energies of interest in medical physics. The present work studies the effects of modelling different accelerator head and room geometries on the neutron fluence and spectra predicted via Monte Carlo. The results from the simulation of a 15 MV Siemens PRIMUS linac show an 80% increase in the fluence scored at the isocentre when, besides modelling the components neccessary for electron/photon simulations, other massive accelerator head components are included. Neutron fluence dependence on inner treatment room volume is analysed showing that thermal neutrons have a 'gaseous' behaviour and then a 1/V dependence. Neutron fluence maps for three energy ranges, fast (E > 0.1 MeV), epithermal (1 eV < E < 0.1 MeV) and thermal (E < 1 eV), are also presented and the influence of the head components on them is discussed.

  12. Novel variation and de novo mutation rates in population-wide de novo assembled Danish trios

    PubMed Central

    Besenbacher, Søren; Liu, Siyang; Izarzugaza, José M. G.; Grove, Jakob; Belling, Kirstine; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Huang, Shujia; Als, Thomas D.; Li, Shengting; Yadav, Rachita; Rubio-García, Arcadio; Lescai, Francesco; Demontis, Ditte; Rao, Junhua; Ye, Weijian; Mailund, Thomas; Friborg, Rune M.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Xu, Ruiqi; Sun, Jihua; Liu, Hao; Wang, Ou; Cheng, Xiaofang; Flores, David; Rydza, Emil; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Damm Sørensen, John; Chmura, Piotr; Westergaard, David; Dworzynski, Piotr; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Lund, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Xu, Xun; Li, Ning; Bolund, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf; Eiberg, Hans; Krogh, Anders; Børglum, Anders D.; Brunak, Søren; Kristiansen, Karsten; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Wang, Jun; Gupta, Ramneek; Villesen, Palle; Rasmussen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Building a population-specific catalogue of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and structural variants (SVs) with frequencies, termed a national pan-genome, is critical for further advancing clinical and public health genetics in large cohorts. Here we report a Danish pan-genome obtained from sequencing 10 trios to high depth (50 × ). We report 536k novel SNVs and 283k novel short indels from mapping approaches and develop a population-wide de novo assembly approach to identify 132k novel indels larger than 10 nucleotides with low false discovery rates. We identify a higher proportion of indels and SVs than previous efforts showing the merits of high coverage and de novo assembly approaches. In addition, we use trio information to identify de novo mutations and use a probabilistic method to provide direct estimates of 1.27e−8 and 1.5e−9 per nucleotide per generation for SNVs and indels, respectively. PMID:25597990

  13. General parity between trio and pairwise breeding of laboratory mice in static caging.

    PubMed

    Kedl, Ross M; Wysocki, Lawrence J; Janssen, William J; Born, Willi K; Rosenbaum, Matthew D; Granowski, Julia; Kench, Jennifer A; Fong, Derek L; Switzer, Lisa A; Cruse, Margaret; Huang, Hua; Jakubzick, Claudia V; Kosmider, Beata; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Stranova, Thomas J; Klumm, Randal C; Delgado, Christine; Tummala, Saigiridhar; De Langhe, Stijn; Cambier, John; Haskins, Katherine; Lenz, Laurel L; Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2014-11-15

    Changes made in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals included new recommendations for the amount of space for breeding female mice. Adopting the new recommendations required, in essence, the elimination of trio breeding practices for all institutions. Both public opinion and published data did not readily support the new recommendations. In response, the National Jewish Health Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee established a program to directly compare the effects of breeding format on mouse pup survival and growth. Our study showed an overall parity between trio and pairwise breeding formats on the survival and growth of the litters, suggesting that the housing recommendations for breeding female mice as stated in the current Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals should be reconsidered.

  14. Detection of SNP-SNP interactions in trios of parents with schizophrenic children.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fallin, M Daniele; Louis, Thomas A; Lasseter, Virginia K; McGrath, John A; Avramopoulos, Dimitri; Wolyniec, Paula S; Valle, David; Liang, Kung-Yee; Pulver, Ann E; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-07-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable and complex psychiatric disorder with an estimated worldwide prevalence of about 1%. Research on the risk factors for SZ has thus far yielded few clues to causes, but has pointed to a heterogeneous etiology that likely involves multiple genes and gene-environment interactions. In this manuscript, we apply a novel method (trio logic regression, Li et al., 2009) to case-parent trio data from a SZ candidate gene study conducted on families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and demonstrate the method's ability to detect multi-gene models for SZ risk in the family-based design. In particular, we demonstrate how this method revealed a genotype-phenotype association that includes an allele without marginal effect.

  15. Design, fabrication and testing of the gas analysis system for the tritium recovery experiment, TRIO-01

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Reedy, G.T.; Homa, M.I.; Clemmer, R.G.; Pappas, G.; Slawecki, M.A.; Graczyk, D.G.; Bowers, D.L.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium recovery experiment, TRIO-01, required a gas analysis system which detected the form of tritium, the amount of tritium (differential and integral), and the presence and amount of other radioactive species. The system had to handle all contingencies and function for months at a time unattended during weekend operation. The designed system, described herein, consisted of a train of components which could be grouped as desired to match tritium release behavior.

  16. An Efficient Trio-Based Mini-Haplotyping Method for Genetic Diagnosis of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Saeed; Entezam, Mona; Mohajer, Neda; Kazemi-sefat, Golnaz-Ensieh; Razipour, Masoumeh; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Setoodeh, Aria; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus has high linkage disequilibrium. Haplotypes related to this locus may thus be considered sufficiently informative for genetic diagnosis and carrier screening using multi-allelic markers. In this study, we present an efficient method for haplotype analysis of PAH locus using multiplexing dyes. In addition, we explain how to resolve the dye shift challenge in multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping. Materials and Methods One hundred family trios were included in this descriptive study. The forward primer of a tetra-nucleotide STR and the reverse primer of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) were labeled with three different non-overlapping dyes 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), 6-carboxy-N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylrhodamine (HEX) and 6-carboxy-N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from each family trio were multiplexed for capillary electrophoresis and results were analyzed using Peak Scanner software. Results Multiplexing trio products decreased the cost significantly. The TAMRA labeled products had a significant predictable shift (migrated at a slower electrophoretic rate) relative to the HEX and FAM labeled products. Through our methodology we achieve, the less inter-dye shift than intra-dye shift variance. Correcting the dye shift in the labeled products, according to the reference allele size, significantly decreased the inter-dye variability (P<0.001). Conclusion Multiplexing trio products helps to detect and resolve the dye shift accurately in each family, which otherwise would result in diagnostic error. The dye system of FAM, HEX and TAMRA is more feasible and cheaper than other dye systems. PMID:27540528

  17. Assessing and comparison of different machine learning methods in parent-offspring trios for genotype imputation.

    PubMed

    Mikhchi, Abbas; Honarvar, Mahmood; Kashan, Nasser Emam Jomeh; Aminafshar, Mehdi

    2016-06-21

    Genotype imputation is an important tool for prediction of unknown genotypes for both unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios. Several imputation methods are available and can either employ universal machine learning methods, or deploy algorithms dedicated to infer missing genotypes. In this research the performance of eight machine learning methods: Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors, Extreme Learning Machine, Radial Basis Function, Random Forest, AdaBoost, LogitBoost, and TotalBoost compared in terms of the imputation accuracy, computation time and the factors affecting imputation accuracy. The methods employed using real and simulated datasets to impute the un-typed SNPs in parent-offspring trios. The tested methods show that imputation of parent-offspring trios can be accurate. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine were more accurate than the other machine learning methods. The TotalBoost performed slightly worse than the other methods.The running times were different between methods. The ELM was always most fast algorithm. In case of increasing the sample size, the RBF requires long imputation time.The tested methods in this research can be an alternative for imputation of un-typed SNPs in low missing rate of data. However, it is recommended that other machine learning methods to be used for imputation.

  18. Kalirin and Trio proteins serve critical roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and LTP

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bruce E.; Nicoll, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) is critical for understanding learning and memory. CaMKII, a key kinase involved in LTP, is both necessary and sufficient for LTP induction. However, how CaMKII gives rise to LTP is currently unknown. Recent studies suggest that Rho GTPases are necessary for LTP. Rho GTPases are activated by Rho guanine exchange factors (RhoGEFs), but the RhoGEF(s) required for LTP also remain unknown. Here, using a combination of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques, we show that the RhoGEF Kalirin and its paralog Trio play critical and redundant roles in excitatory synapse structure and function. Furthermore, we show that CaMKII phosphorylation of Kalirin is sufficient to enhance synaptic AMPA receptor expression, and that preventing CaMKII signaling through Kalirin and Trio prevents LTP induction. Thus, our data identify Kalirin and Trio as the elusive targets of CaMKII phosphorylation responsible for AMPA receptor up-regulation during LTP. PMID:26858404

  19. Kalirin and Trio proteins serve critical roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and LTP.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bruce E; Nicoll, Roger A

    2016-02-23

    The molecular mechanism underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) is critical for understanding learning and memory. CaMKII, a key kinase involved in LTP, is both necessary and sufficient for LTP induction. However, how CaMKII gives rise to LTP is currently unknown. Recent studies suggest that Rho GTPases are necessary for LTP. Rho GTPases are activated by Rho guanine exchange factors (RhoGEFs), but the RhoGEF(s) required for LTP also remain unknown. Here, using a combination of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques, we show that the RhoGEF Kalirin and its paralog Trio play critical and redundant roles in excitatory synapse structure and function. Furthermore, we show that CaMKII phosphorylation of Kalirin is sufficient to enhance synaptic AMPA receptor expression, and that preventing CaMKII signaling through Kalirin and Trio prevents LTP induction. Thus, our data identify Kalirin and Trio as the elusive targets of CaMKII phosphorylation responsible for AMPA receptor up-regulation during LTP.

  20. Hsc70 chaperone activity underlies Trio GEF function in axon growth and guidance induced by netrin-1

    PubMed Central

    DeGeer, Jonathan; Kaplan, Andrew; Mattar, Pierre; Morabito, Morgane; Stochaj, Ursula; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Debant, Anne; Cayouette, Michel; Fournier, Alyson E.

    2015-01-01

    During development, netrin-1 is both an attractive and repulsive axon guidance cue and mediates its attractive function through the receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC). The activation of Rho guanosine triphosphatases within the extending growth cone facilitates the dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton required to drive axon extension. The Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Trio is essential for netrin-1–induced axon outgrowth and guidance. Here, we identify the molecular chaperone heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) as a novel Trio regulator. Hsc70 dynamically associated with the N-terminal region and Rac1 GEF domain of Trio. Whereas Hsc70 expression supported Trio-dependent Rac1 activation, adenosine triphosphatase–deficient Hsc70 (D10N) abrogated Trio Rac1 GEF activity and netrin-1–induced Rac1 activation. Hsc70 was required for netrin-1–mediated axon growth and attraction in vitro, whereas Hsc70 activity supported callosal projections and radial neuronal migration in the embryonic neocortex. These findings demonstrate that Hsc70 chaperone activity is required for Rac1 activation by Trio and this function underlies netrin-1/DCC-dependent axon outgrowth and guidance. PMID:26323693

  1. A case of non-hallopeau-siemens recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gyo Shin; Ko, Woo Tae; Kim, Jae Hong; Choi, Sung Min; Kim, Ae Suk; Kim, Dong Hoon; Suh, Moo Kyu

    2009-02-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare group of heritable mechanobullous disorders that are characterized by blistering and scarring of the skin and mucosae and these lesions are induced by minor trauma, DEB is also associated with nail dystrophy. DEB can be inherited either in an autosomal recessive or dominant fashion. Regardless of the mode of inheritance, DEB is caused by defects of the ultrastructural entity known as the anchoring fibril, which results in separation of the sublamina densa. Recessive DEB (RDEB) is classified into Hallopeau-Siemens and non-Hallopeau-Siemens. We herein report on a case of non-Hallopeau-Siemens RDEB and there was no family history of this malady, and we present the clinical, histological and electron microscopy findings.

  2. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  3. Teaching Trio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2012-01-01

    For the Tower-Tannerts of Texas, music education runs in the family, and that's been the case for more than 100 years. Matriarch Mollie Gregory Tower is a lecturer at Texas State University and a former elementary school teacher, textbook writer, music supervisor, and president of the Texas Music Educators Conference (TMEC). Her daughter Debbie…

  4. Power of sib-pair and sib-trio linkage analysis with assortative mating and multiple disease loci

    SciTech Connect

    Sribney, W.M.; Swift, M. )

    1992-10-01

    Sib-pair linkage analysis has been proposed for identifying genes that predispose to common diseases. The authors have shown that the presence of assortative mating and multiple disease-susceptibility loci (genetic heterogeneity) can increase the required sample size for affected-affected sib pairs several fold over the sample size required under random mating. They propose a new test statistic based on sib trios composed of either one unaffected and two affected siblings or one affected and two unaffected siblings. The sample-size requirements under assortative mating and multiple disease loci for these sib-trio statistics are much smaller, under most conditions, than the corresponding sample sizes for sib pairs. Study designs based on data from sib trios with one or two affected members are recommended whenever assortative mating and genetic heterogeneity are suspected. 31 refs.

  5. Quantifiler® Trio Kit and forensic samples management: a matter of degradation.

    PubMed

    Vernarecci, Stefano; Ottaviani, Enrica; Agostino, Alessandro; Mei, Elisabetta; Calandro, Lisa; Montagna, Paola

    2015-05-01

    DNA collected from crime scenes may have experienced different levels of degradation. This is mainly due to sample exposure to different environmental factors. The impact of DNA degradation on short tandem repeat (STR) profiling can lead to partial or null information and in some cases, the identification of the trace may fail. The availability of a system enabling the assessment not only of the quantity of the DNA but also of its quality in terms of degradation would result in shorter time for sample processing, more reliable identifications and cost reduction by predicting the quality of the DNA profiles prior to STR analysis. We report here a study on 181 selected degraded DNA samples extracted from real crime scene evidence. The selected samples were processed by combining the use of a new commercial quantification kit (Quantifiler® Trio) with a new 24 marker multiplex PCR amplification kit (Globalfiler® Kit). Applying different statistical analyses we investigated the reliability of the Degradation Index provided by the Quantifiler® Trio in determining the level of DNA degradation in a forensic sample. This useful information can be used to predict the quality of the profile obtained after STR amplification. The combination of such a quantification kit with different PCR protocols allowed us to define practical guidelines for processing degraded forensic DNA samples with a simplified and comprehensive approach.

  6. An allele of sequoia dominantly enhances a trio mutant phenotype to influence Drosophila larval behavior.

    PubMed

    Dean, Kathryn E; Fields, April; Geer, Marcus J; King, Eric C; Lynch, Brian T; Manohar, Rohan R; McCall, Julianne R; Palozola, Katherine C; Zhang, Yan; Liebl, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    The transition of Drosophila third instar larvae from feeding, photo-phobic foragers to non-feeding, photo-neutral wanderers is a classic behavioral switch that precedes pupariation. The neuronal network responsible for this behavior has recently begun to be defined. Previous genetic analyses have identified signaling components for food and light sensory inputs and neuropeptide hormonal outputs as being critical for the forager to wanderer transition. Trio is a Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor integrated into a variety of signaling networks including those governing axon pathfinding in early development. Sequoia is a pan-neuronally expressed zinc-finger transcription factor that governs dendrite and axon outgrowth. Using pre-pupal lethality as an endpoint, we have screened for dominant second-site enhancers of a weakly lethal trio mutant background. In these screens, an allele of sequoia has been identified. While these mutants have no obvious disruption of embryonic central nervous system architecture and survive to third instar larvae similar to controls, they retain forager behavior and thus fail to pupariate at high frequency.

  7. Oversight Hearing on TRIO Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, 101st Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This report provides a transcription of the speeches and written statements presented at an oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor concerning two TRIO Programs: Talent Search, and Upward Bound. TRIO programs are designed to help students overcome class, social, and cultural…

  8. Basic dosimetric verification in water of the anisotropic analytical algorithm for Varian, Elekta and Siemens linacs.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Glashörster, Marco; Schiefer, Hans; Fogliata, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    Since early 2007 a new version of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for photon dose calculations was released by Varian Medical Systems for clinical usage on Elekta linacs and also, with some restrictions, for Siemens linacs. Basic validation studies were performed and reported for three beams. 4,6 and 15 MV for an Elekta Synergy, 6 and 15 MV for a Siemens Primus and, as a reference, for 6 and 15 MV from a Varian Clinac 2100C/D. Generally AAA calculations reproduced well measured data and small deviations were observed for open and wedged fields. PDD curves showed in average differences between calculation and measurement smaller than 1% or 1.2 mm for Elekta beams, 1% or 1.8 mm for Siemens beams and 1% or 1 mm for Varian beams. Profiles in the flattened region matched measurements with deviations smaller than 1% for Elekta and Varian beams, 2% for Siemens. Percentage differences in Output Factors were observed as small as 1% in average.

  9. 78 FR 41911 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161-Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 161--Sedgwick County, Kansas; Authorization of Production Activity; Siemens Energy, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Hutchinson, Kansas On March 7,...

  10. ETV Report:Siemens Model H-4XE-HO Open Channel UV System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Siemens Barrier Sunligt H-4XE-HO UV System was completed at the UV Validation and Research Center of New York (UV Center), located in Johnstown, NY. The H-4XE System utilizes 16 high-output, low-pressure lamps oriented horizontally and parallel to the...

  11. Conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method to analyze case-parent trios with or without population controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Yu; Liang, Yun-Chieh

    2016-06-24

    Detection of rare causal variants can help uncover the etiology of complex diseases. Recruiting case-parent trios is a popular study design in family-based studies. If researchers can obtain data from population controls, utilizing them in trio analyses can improve the power of methods. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a well-known method to analyze case-parent trio data. It has been extended to rare-variant association testing (abbreviated as "rvTDT"), with the flexibility to incorporate population controls. The rvTDT method is robust to population stratification. However, power loss may occur in the conditioning process. Here we propose a "conditioning adaptive combination of P-values method" (abbreviated as "conADA"), to analyze trios with/without unrelated controls. By first truncating the variants with larger P-values, we decrease the vulnerability of conADA to the inclusion of neutral variants. Moreover, because the test statistic is developed by conditioning on parental genotypes, conADA generates valid statistical inference in the presence of population stratification. With regard to statistical methods for next-generation sequencing data analyses, validity may be hampered by population stratification, whereas power may be affected by the inclusion of neutral variants. We recommend conADA for its robustness to these two factors (population stratification and the inclusion of neutral variants).

  12. TRIO Platform: A Novel Low Profile In vivo Imaging Support and Restraint System for Mice.

    PubMed

    Voziyanov, Vladislav; Kemp, Benjamin S; Dressel, Chelsea A; Ponder, Kayla; Murray, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN) lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1) sturdy head fixation, (2) an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3) safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO) Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse's head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals.

  13. TRIO Platform: A Novel Low Profile In vivo Imaging Support and Restraint System for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voziyanov, Vladislav; Kemp, Benjamin S.; Dressel, Chelsea A.; Ponder, Kayla; Murray, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN) lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1) sturdy head fixation, (2) an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3) safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO) Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse's head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals. PMID:27199633

  14. Plasma system of the GOL-3T facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burdakov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Kuklin, K. N.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Postupaev, V. V. Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Sklyarov, V. F.

    2015-11-15

    The plasma system and diagnostics of the new facility GOL-3T are described. This facility is the final result of the first stage in the deep upgrade of the GOL-3 multiple-mirror system, which has operated at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 1988. The upgrade project supposes creation of two new independent facilities at the site of GOL-3. The GOL-3T facility is intended to study the physics of beam—plasma interaction and generation of subterahertz electromagnetic radiation during the collective relaxation of a high-power relativistic electron beam with a duration of 5–10 μs. Studies on the physics of multiple-mirror plasma confinement in axisymmetric magnetic systems will be continued in a new range of experiment parameters at the second facility, named GOL-NB.

  15. Neuroradiologic applications of dynamic MR angiography at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hemant; Ivancevic, Marko K; Dudek, Nancy; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Geerts, Liesbeth; Hoogeveen, R; Mukherji, S K; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2009-02-01

    Four-dimensional time-resolved MR angiography (4D-MRA) using keyhole imaging techniques is a new method of performing contrastenhanced vascular imaging. Combining parallel imaging and keyhole imaging techniques, it is possible to obtain dynamic MRA scans up to 60 times faster, thereby achieving subsecond sampling of the contrast hemodynamics. Furthermore, imaging at 3 T gives higher signal, thus affording higher spatial resolution and allowing dynamic 3D MRA to approach the diagnostic performance of conventional digital subtraction angiography. This article presents the authors' clinical experience using 4D-MRA to evaluate various vascular abnormalities in the brain, spine, orbits, and neck at 3 T, demonstrates the imaging findings of this novel technique, and discusses its advantages and use in current neuroradiology practice.

  16. [The development of betatrons in the Siemens centers of Berlin and Erlangen].

    PubMed

    Usch, Uwe; Bautz, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the fundaments set by Rolf Wideroe and Max Steenbeck, the first medical betatron was developed by Konrad Gund at the Siemens centre in Erlangen. This was the first highly sophisticated, large-scale technical device in medicine. Over a period of 30 years Siemens has manufactured a total of 137 betatrons with different maximum energies and sold them worldwide to scientific institutes and radiotherapy departments, among them the most prestigious therapy centres in Germany and Europe. Methodological investigations on high energy electrons und ultrahard X-rays have paved the way for the establishment of the modern high-energy radiation therapy. The interdisciplinary and increasingly more biophysics-oriented research on and with betatrons has had a decisive influence on the establishment of the profession of the medical physicist.

  17. Behavior of the Siemens Virtual Wedge following an interruption to beam delivery.

    PubMed

    Richmond, N D; Walker, C P

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made into the beam profile shape and dose delivered by the Siemens Virtual Wedge trade mark under standard operational conditions compared with those following delivery interruption on two Siemens Primus linear accelerators (Type 7445 and 8067) running different versions of control software (7.2 and 7.0, respectively). The shape of the Virtual Wedge trade mark profiles was found to be unaffected by beam delivery interruption. An increase in the dose delivered to the central axis was found when delivery was interrupted and subsequently resumed using information recorded in a recall data file on one of the accelerators. This dose increase was attributed to a difference in delivered monitor units recorded in the recall data file compared to those displayed on the linear accelerator control console.

  18. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  19. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    DOE PAGES

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we proposemore » a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.« less

  20. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Griffin, John C.

    2015-07-01

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. Using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  1. MR safety and imaging of neuroform stents at 3T.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Arvind; Moran, Christopher J; Cross, Dewitte T; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2004-10-01

    The Neuroform stent is a self-expanding nitinol stent designed for use in wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Heating and imaging artifacts were evaluated by using a porcine carotid artery aneurysm model in a 3T MR system. A suspended Neuroform stent was tested for deflection. No heating was measured, and no evidence of deflection of the stent was found. Imaging artifacts were minimal. MR imaging in patients with Neuroform stent-treated aneurysms is safe and feasible.

  2. A comparison of the accuracy of the Siemens injection vaporizer and the Enfluratec 3 vaporizer.

    PubMed

    Cozanitis, D A; Rosenberg, P H; Merrett, J D

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of two Siemens injection vaporizers was examined under operating theatre conditions. For comparison, two Enfluratec 3 vaporizers were tested. The concentrations of enflurane produced by the vaporizers were measured both by an anaesthetic agent monitor and by chromatography. Five experimental modes were used with enflurane delivered either in air/oxygen or in nitrous oxide/oxygen mixtures and the experiments were repeated five times. In every case, the mean concentration values produced by the anaesthetic agent monitor were higher than those obtained by chromatography. The difference may have been due to leakage of the gas sample from the "gas-tight" syringes and/or improper calibration of either analyzer. The Siemens devices were less reliable than the Enfluratecs when enflurane was given in nitrous oxide/oxygen. The former vaporizers seem to be less robust than the Enfluratecs and should be used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The pressures in the central system were higher than those called for. In addition, improper coupling of the Siemens apparatus to the ventilator may well have influenced the results.

  3. Vaspin promotes 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Jine; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Liping; Han, Wenqi; Lv, Ying; Sun, Chaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Vaspin, a novel adipocyte factor secreted from visceral adipose tissues, is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, increase insulin sensitivity, and suppress inflammation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Proliferation and maladaptive differentiation are important pathological mechanisms underlying obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vaspin on the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and to explore the likely mechanisms responsible for 3T3-L1 differentiation. Vaspin was added to cultured 3T3-L1 cells, and the differentiation of adipocytes was evaluated using Oil Red O staining. The AKT signaling pathway and specific differentiation factors related to the differentiation of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family, were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses during the early phase of differentiation. Additionally, adiponectin mRNA, interleukin-6 mRNA (IL-6 mRNA), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein levels were measured in the differentiated adipocytes. The results indicated that vaspin promotes the intracellular accumulation of lipids and increases differentiation-related factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, C/EBPα, and free fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, vaspin (200 ng/mL) increased the mRNA and protein levels of C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated γ, C/EBPα, and FABP4. Moreover, compared with the control, significantly smaller eight-day differentiated adipocytes were observed, and these cells exhibited decreased IL-6 mRNA and increased GLUT4 mRNA levels; these results also indicated the potential of vaspin to promote the insulin-mediated AKT signaling pathway during the early phase of differentiation. In conclusion

  4. Standardized quantitative measurements of wrist cartilage in healthy humans using 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Jean-Vincent; Souteyrand, Philippe; Guis, Sandrine; Chagnaud, Christophe; Fur, Yann Le; Militianu, Daniela; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Guye, Maxime; Bernard, Monique; Bendahan, David

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the wrist cartilage cross-sectional area in humans from a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset and to assess the corresponding reproducibility. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 healthy volunteers (6 females and 8 males) between 30 and 58 years old and devoid of articular pain. Subjects were asked to lie down in the supine position with the right hand positioned above the pelvic region on top of a home-built rigid platform attached to the scanner bed. The wrist was wrapped with a flexible surface coil. MRI investigations were performed at 3T (Verio-Siemens) using volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) and dual echo steady state (DESS) MRI sequences. Cartilage cross sectional area (CSA) was measured on a slice of interest selected from a 3D dataset of the entire carpus and metacarpal-phalangeal areas on the basis of anatomical criteria using conventional image processing radiology software. Cartilage cross-sectional areas between opposite bones in the carpal region were manually selected and quantified using a thresholding method. RESULTS: Cartilage CSA measurements performed on a selected predefined slice were 292.4 ± 39 mm2 using the VIBE sequence and slightly lower, 270.4 ± 50.6 mm2, with the DESS sequence. The inter (14.1%) and intra (2.4%) subject variability was similar for both MRI methods. The coefficients of variation computed for the repeated measurements were also comparable for the VIBE (2.4%) and the DESS (4.8%) sequences. The carpus length averaged over the group was 37.5 ± 2.8 mm with a 7.45% between-subjects coefficient of variation. Of note, wrist cartilage CSA measured with either the VIBE or the DESS sequences was linearly related to the carpal bone length. The variability between subjects was significantly reduced to 8.4% when the CSA was normalized with respect to the carpal bone length. CONCLUSION: The ratio between wrist cartilage CSA and carpal bone length is a highly reproducible standardized

  5. Rare erroneous results on the Siemens Dimension Vista® platform due to urine carryover: A warning to current users.

    PubMed

    Karger, Amy B; Senn, Christine; Skogseth, Kathy; Floodman, Stacy

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the West Bank Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, part of the non-profit Fairview Health Services system, went live with two Siemens Dimension Vista® 500 instruments. In the first few months after go-live, the lab began receiving reports of rare, erroneous results from clinicians. After further investigation it was noted that most of the errors being reported followed a consistent pattern with significantly elevated potassium, BUN and creatinine. After months of unsuccessful troubleshooting with Siemens, our lab and others within the Fairview Health Services system began hypothesizing that urine carryover was occurring due to the pattern of elevated analytes, and asked Siemens to investigate this hypothesis. In March 2016 Siemens confirmed a software defect which omits an aliquot probe rinse resulting in sample carryover in rare cases. Our objective is to alert current users of the Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to this rare but alarming phenomenon, discuss the frequency and impact of the erroneous results at our institution, and detail recommended steps for users of Siemens Dimension Vista® instruments to help retrospectively determine whether they have experienced similar erroneous results.

  6. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  7. Inferring haplotype/disease association by joint use of case-parents trios and case-parent pairs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2010-05-01

    Recently interest has been increasing in genetic association studies using several closely linked loci. The HAP-TDT method, which uses case-parents trios is powerful for such a task. However, it is not uncommon in practice that one parent is missing for some reason, such as late onset. The case-parents trios are thus reduced to case-parent pairs. Discarding such data could lead to a severe loss of power. In this paper, we propose the HAP-1-TDT method based on case-parent pairs to detect haplotype/disease association. A permutation-based randomisation technique is devised to assess the significance of the test statistic. Furthermore, the combined statistic HAP-C-TDT is developed to use jointly case-parents trios and case-parent pairs. These test statistics can be applied to either phase-known or phase-unknown data. A number of simulation studies are conducted to investigate the validity of the proposed tests; these studies show that the statistics are robust to population structure. Using several disease genes from the literature, we illustrate that incorporating case-parent pairs into an association study leads to noticeable power gain. Moreover, our simulation results suggest that our method has better size and power than UNPHASED. Finally, in simulated scenarios where there are only a few SNPs and risk is determined by two haplotypes that are complementary or near-complementary, our method has better power than TRIMM.

  8. Travelling wave magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, F.; Martin, R.; Marrufo, O.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2013-08-01

    Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore diameter limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies in magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transverse electromagnetic modes and it can propagate any frequency. To study the potential benefits of travelling-wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations of the principal mode propagation for a parallel-plate waveguide filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils for all simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 4.7, 7 T, and 9.4 T. The principal mode shows very little variation of the field magnitude along the propagation direction at 3 T when compared to other higher resonant frequencies. Unlike the standard method for travelling-wave magnetic resonance imaging, a parallel-plate waveguide prototype was built and used together with a whole-body birdcage coil for signal transmission and a pair of circular coils for reception. Experimental B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach and, the point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The numerical magnetic field and specific absorption rate of a simulated leg were computed and results are within the safety limits. The B1 mapping and point spread function results showed that it is possible to conduct travelling-wave imaging experiments with good imager performance. Human leg images were also obtained with the whole-body birdcage coil for comparison purposes. The simulated and in vivo travelling-wave results of the human leg correspond very well for the signal received. A similar image signal-to-noise ratio was observed for the

  9. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  10. Genotyping of geographically diverse Druze trios reveals substructure and a recent bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Zidan, Jamal; Ben-Avraham, Dan; Carmi, Shai; Maray, Taiseer; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Druze individuals rarely marry outside their faith (often practicing consanguinity) and are thus believed to form a genetic isolate. To comprehensively characterize the genetic structure of the Druze population, we recruited and genotyped 40 parent-offspring trios from the Upper Galilee in Israel and the Golan Heights, attempting to capture different extended families (clans) across various geographical locations. Principal component (PC) and ADMIXTURE analyses demonstrated that Druze are close to, yet distinct from, other Middle-Eastern groups (Bedouins and Palestinians), supporting the Druze's Middle-Eastern origin and their recent genetic isolation. Reconstruction of the Druze demographic history using identical-by-descent (IBD) segments suggested an ≈15-fold reduction in population size taking place ≈22–47 generations ago, close to the documented time of the foundation of the Druze faith at the 11th century. Combining the Galilee and Golan Druze genotypes with previously published data on Druze from the Carmel (Israel) and Lebanon demonstrated that all four Druze communities are genetically distinct. The Lebanese group shared less IBD segments (within the group and with other groups) compared with the Israeli Druze and showed higher heterozygosity (suggesting less consanguinity), but was less diverse in PC space. These findings suggest complex recent and ancient demographic history of the Druze population. PMID:25370042

  11. Whole-exome sequencing in undiagnosed genetic diseases: interpreting 119 trios

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Petrovski, Slavé; Xie, Pingxing; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K.; Lu, Yi-Fan; McSweeney, K. Melodi; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Anikster, Yair; Oz-Levi, Danit; Dhindsa, Ryan S.; Hitomi, Yuki; Schoch, Kelly; Spillmann, Rebecca C.; Heimer, Gali; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Tzadok, Michal; Han, Yujun; Worley, Gordon; Goldstein, Jennifer; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Lancet, Doron; Pras, Elon; Shashi, Vandana; McHale, Duncan; Need, Anna C.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the recognized clinical value of exome-based diagnostics, methods for comprehensive genomic interpretation remain immature. Diagnoses are based on known or presumed pathogenic variants in genes already associated with a similar phenotype. Here, we extend this paradigm by evaluating novel bioinformatics approaches to aid identification of new gene–disease associations. Genet Med 17 10, 774–781. Methods: We analyzed 119 trios to identify both diagnostic genotypes in known genes and candidate genotypes in novel genes. We considered qualifying genotypes based on their population frequency and in silico predicted effects we also characterized the patterns of genotypes enriched among this collection of patients. Genet Med 17 10, 774–781. Results: We obtained a genetic diagnosis for 29 (24%) of our patients. We showed that patients carried an excess of damaging de novo mutations in intolerant genes, particularly those shown to be essential in mice (P = 3.4 × 10−8). This enrichment is only partially explained by mutations found in known disease-causing genes. Genet Med 17 10, 774–781. Conclusion: This work indicates that the application of appropriate bioinformatics analyses to clinical sequence data can also help implicate novel disease genes and suggest expanded phenotypes for known disease genes. These analyses further suggest that some cases resolved by whole-exome sequencing will have direct therapeutic implications. Genet Med 17 10, 774–781. PMID:25590979

  12. Association testing to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes in trio data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonok; Ghosh, Debashis; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occurs more often among males than females in a 4:1 ratio. Among theories used to explain the causes of ASD, the X chromosome and the Y chromosome theories attribute ASD to the X-linked mutation and the male-limited gene expressions on the Y chromosome, respectively. Despite the rationale of the theory, studies have failed to attribute the sex-biased ratio to the significant linkage or association on the regions of interest on X chromosome. We further study the gender biased ratio by examining the possible interaction effects between two genes in the sex chromosomes. We propose a logistic regression model with mixed effects to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes. We investigated the power and type I error rates of the approach for a range of minor allele frequencies and varying linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTLs. We also evaluated the robustness of the model to population stratification. We applied the model to a trio-family data set with an ASD affected male child to study gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes.

  13. Coronary MR Angiography at 3T During Diastole and Systole

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Ahmed M.; Herzka, Daniel A.; Ustun, Ali O.; Desai, Milind Y.; Locklin, Julia; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of end-systolic imaging on quality of right coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison to diastolic and to study the effect of RR interval variability on image quality. Materials and Methods The right coronary artery (RCA) of 10 normal volunteers was imaged at 3T using parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding [SENSE]). Navigator-gated three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo was used three times: 1) end-systolic short acquisition (SS): 35-msec window; 2) diastolic short (DS): middiastolic acquisition using 35-msec window; and 3) diastolic long (DL): 75-msec diastolic acquisition window. Vectorcardiogram (VCG) data was used to analyze RR variability. Vessel sharpness, length, and diameter were compared to each other and correlated with RR variability. Blinded qualitative image scores of the images were compared. Results Quantitative and qualitative parameters were not significantly different and showed no significant correlation with RR variability. Conclusion Imaging the RCA at 3T during the end-systolic rest period using SENSE is possible without significant detrimental effect on image quality. Breaking away from the standard of imaging only during diastole can potentially improve image quality in tachycardic patients or used for simultaneous imaging during both periods in a single scan. PMID:17896391

  14. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  15. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  16. A 3T Sodium and Proton Composite Array Breast Coil

    PubMed Central

    Kaggie, Joshua D.; Hadley, J. Rock; Badal, James; Campbell, John R.; Park, Daniel J.; Parker, Dennis L.; Morrell, Glen; Newbould, Rexford D.; Wood, Ali F.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether a sodium phased array would improve sodium breast MRI at 3T. The secondary objective was to create acceptable proton images with the sodium phased array in place. Methods A novel composite array for combined proton/sodium 3T breast MRI is compared to a coil with a single proton and sodium channel. The composite array consists of a 7-channel sodium receive array, a larger sodium transmit coil, and a 4-channel proton transceive array. The new composite array design utilizes smaller sodium receive loops than typically used in sodium imaging, uses novel decoupling methods between the receive loops and transmit loops, and uses a novel multi-channel proton transceive coil. The proton transceive coil reduces coupling between proton and sodium elements by intersecting the constituent loops to reduce their mutual inductance. The coil used for comparison consists of a concentric sodium and proton loop with passive decoupling traps. Results The composite array coil demonstrates a 2–5x improvement in SNR for sodium imaging and similar SNR for proton imaging when compared to a simple single-loop dual resonant design. Conclusion The improved SNR of the composite array gives breast sodium images of unprecedented quality in reasonable scan times. PMID:24105740

  17. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  18. Photonuclear dose calculations for high-energy photon beams from Siemens and Varian linacs.

    PubMed

    Chibani, Omar; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie

    2003-08-01

    The dose from photon-induced nuclear particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles) generated by high-energy photon beams from medical linacs is investigated. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code are performed for three different photon beams from two different machines: Siemens 18 MV, Varian 15 MV, and Varian 18 MV. The linac head components are simulated in detail. The dose distributions from photons, neutrons, protons, and alpha particles are calculated in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Neutrons are generated in both the linac head and the phantom. This study includes (a) field size effects, (b) off-axis dose profiles, (c) neutron contribution from the linac head, (d) dose contribution from capture gamma rays, (e) phantom heterogeneity effects, and (f) effects of primary electron energy shift. Results are presented in terms of absolute dose distributions and also in terms of DER (dose equivalent ratio). The DER is the maximum dose from the particle (neutron, proton, or alpha) divided by the maximum photon dose, multiplied by the particle quality factor and the modulation scaling factor. The total DER including neutrons, protons, and alphas is about 0.66 cSv/Gy for the Siemens 18 MV beam (10 cm x 10 cm). The neutron DER decreases with decreasing field size while the proton (or alpha) DER does not vary significantly except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field. Both Varian beams (15 and 18 MV) produce more neutrons, protons, and alphas particles than the Siemens 18 MV beam. This is mainly due to their higher primary electron energies: 15 and 18.3 MeV, respectively, vs 14 MeV for the Siemens 18 MV beam. For all beams, neutrons contribute more than 75% of the total DER, except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field (approximately 50%). The total DER is 1.52 and 2.86 cSv/Gy for the 15 and 18 MV Varian beams (10 cm x 10 cm), respectively. Media with relatively high-Z elements like bone may increase the dose from heavy charged particles by a factor 4. The total DER is sensitive to

  19. Christ-siemens-touraine syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mokhtari, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA IS A RARE DISORDER WITH DEFECTS IN TWO OR MORE OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES: the teeth and the skin and its appendages including hair, nails, eccrine, and sebaceous glands. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type of disease. This rare disorder, also known as Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, manifests as a triad of hypotrichosis, asteatosis, and anhidrosis. In view of the rarity of this entity, a classical case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is reported. We have also provided a review of recent investigations in the area of dental abnormalities in this syndrome.

  20. Varying MLC end projection size: an effect of the double-focused Siemens multileaf collimator.

    PubMed

    Buckle, A H

    2006-04-21

    Siemens linacs use multileaf collimators (MLCs) that move in an arc such that the flat faces of the leaf ends are always in the same plane as the radiation focus. An effect of this is that the magnification of the leaf end projection at the isocentric plane normal to the collimator rotation axis varies with the drive position of the leaves. This effect is quantified theoretically and empirically verified. A method is introduced for assessing the importance of the effect for a particular MLC pattern. The significance of the effect is discussed.

  1. Performance evaluation of fluorescence tomography in a Siemens Inveon multimodality scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    A tri-modal (PET/CT/Optical) small animal tomographic imaging system was developed by integrating our advanced non-contact intensified CCD (ICCD) frequency-domain fluorescence imaging components into a Siemens Inveon scanner. We performed a performance evaluation of the developed imaging system by using the developed regularization-free high-order radiative-transfer-based reconstruction algorithm and custom solid phantoms. Our results show that frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) fluorescence tomography can achieve better tomographic images with less artifacts and more precise fluorescent source localization compared to the continuous-wave counterpart. The developed multimodal tomographic imaging system provides a powerful tool for translational biomedical research.

  2. The series of siemens SST-200 to SST-900 steam turbines in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.

    2015-04-01

    The chronology of cooperation between the transnational German concern Siemens and Russia is given. The designs of the SST-200-SST-900 series of industrial steam turbines for electrical capacities ranging from 10 to 180 MW that were installed at thermal power plants and industrial facilities of Russia in the period 2004-2014 are reviewed. The design features of the SST-600 steam turbine used as part of the PGU-200 combined-cycle plant installed at the Southwest cogeneration station are considered.

  3. The 3T3-L1 adipocyte glycogen proteome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide of glucose residues, consisting of α-1-4 glycosidic linkages with α-1-6 branches that together form multi-layered particles ranging in size from 30 nm to 300 nm. Glycogen spatial conformation and intracellular organization are highly regulated processes. Glycogen particles interact with their metabolizing enzymes and are associated with a variety of proteins that intervene in its biology, controlling its structure, particle size and sub-cellular distribution. The function of glycogen in adipose tissue is not well understood but appears to have a pivotal role as a regulatory mechanism informing the cells on substrate availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. To provide new molecular insights into the role of adipocyte glycogen we analyzed the glycogen-associated proteome from differentiated 3T3-L1-adipocytes. Results Glycogen particles from 3T3-L1-adipocytes were purified using a series of centrifugation steps followed by specific elution of glycogen bound proteins using α-1,4 glucose oligosaccharides, or maltodextrins, and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified regulatory proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, RACK1 and protein phosphatase 1 glycogen targeting subunit 3D. Evidence was also obtained for a regulated subcellular distribution of the glycogen particle: metabolic and mitochondrial proteins were abundant. Unlike the recently analyzed hepatic glycogen proteome, no endoplasmic proteins were detected, along with the recently described starch-binding domain protein 1. Other regulatory proteins which have previously been described as glycogen-associated proteins were not detected, including laforin, the AMPK beta-subunit and protein targeting to glycogen (PTG). Conclusions These data provide new molecular insights into the regulation of glycogen-bound proteins that are associated with the maintenance, organization and localization of the adipocyte glycogen particle. PMID:23521774

  4. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, Erik; Hryniw, Natalia; Hansen, Jon A; Kesler, Leigh A; Li, Frank

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  5. A Challenging Trio in Space 'Routine' Operations of the Swarm Satellite Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Frank-Jurgen; Clerigo, Ignacio; Albini, Giuseppe; Maleville, Laurent; Neto, Alessandro; Patterson, David; Nino, Ana Piris; Sieg, Detlef

    2016-08-01

    Swarm is the first ESA Earth Observation Mission with three satellites flying in a semi-controlled constellation. The trio is operated from ESA's satellite control centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany. The Swarm Flight Operations Segment consists of the typical elements of a satellite control system at ESOC, but had to be carefully tailored for this innovative mission. The main challenge was the multi-satellite system of Swarm, which necessitated the development of a Mission Control System with a multi-domain functionality, both in hardware and software and covering real-time and backup domains. This was driven by the need for extreme flexibility for constellation operations and parallel activities.The three months of commissioning in 2014 were characterized by a very tight and dynamically changing schedule of activities. All operational issues could be solved during that time, including the challenging orbit acquisition phase to achieve the final constellation.Although the formal spacecraft commissioning phase was concluded in spring 2014, the investigations for some payload instruments continue even today. The Electrical Field Instruments are for instance still being tested in order to characterize and improve science data quality. Various test phases also became necessary for the Accelerometers on the Swarm satellites. In order to improve the performance of the GPS Receivers for better scientific exploitation and to minimize the failures due to loss of synchronization, a number of parameter changes were commanded via on-board patches.Finally, to minimize the impact on operations, a new strategy had to be implemented to handle single/multi bit errors in the on-board mass Memories, defining when to ignore and when to restore the memory via a re-initialisation.The poster presentation summarizes the Swarm specific ground segment elements of the FOS and explains some of the extended payload commissioning operations, turning Swarm into a most demanding and challenging

  6. Polymorphisms of BDNF Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Family Based Association Study with Korean Trios

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hee Jeong; Yang, So Young; Cho, In Hee; Park, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of early childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction and language skills, and repetitive behaviors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in the differentiation of normal neuronal cells during embryonic and postnatal neuronal development through its neurotrophic effects. Methods In this study, we performed a family-based association test (FBAT) between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6265, rs11030101, rs7103411, and rs7103873) or haplotypes in the BDNF gene and affection status or several quantitative traits characterized by ADI-R with151 Korean trios, including a child diagnosed as ASDs. Results While no significant association was found between SNPs or haplotypes and the ASDs disease status, a quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT) by using quantitative traits identified associations of the SNPs (rs6265 and rs11030101) with a domain score for "Restricted, Repetitive and Stereotyped patterns of behavior" (C domain), especially at the subdomain scores for "encompassing preoccupation or circumscribed pattern of interest" (C1) (rs6265A allele, dominant model, p-value=0.019; rs11030101 A allele, additive model, p-value=0.015) and "preoccupations with part of objects or non-functional elements of material" (C4) (rs11030101 A allele, additive model, p-value=0.015) within the ADI-R diagnostic algorithm. In addition, significant associations were also identified between the haplotypes and these quantitative traits (C1, p-value=0.016; C4, p-value=0.012). Conclusion We conclude that BDNF gene polymorphisms have a possible role in the pathogenesis of ASDs. PMID:25110506

  7. Effect of filters and reconstruction algorithms on I-124 PET in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of filtering and reconstruction on Siemens I-124 PET data. Methods: A Siemens Inveon PET was used. Spatial resolution of I-124 was measured to a transverse offset of 50 mm from the center FBP, 2D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM2D), 3D re-projection algorithm (3DRP), and maximum a posteriori (MAP) methods were tested. Non-uniformity (NU), recovery coefficient (RC), and spillover ratio (SOR) parameterized image quality. Mini deluxe phantom data of I-124 was also assessed. Results: Volumetric resolution was 7.3 mm3 from the transverse FOV center when FBP reconstruction algorithms with ramp filter was used. MAP yielded minimal NU with β =1.5. OSEM2D yielded maximal RC. SOR was below 4% for FBP with ramp, Hamming, Hanning, or Shepp-Logan filters. Based on the mini deluxe phantom results, an FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or a 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible I-124 PET data.Conclusions: Reconstruction algorithms and filters were compared. FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible data for quantifying I-124 PET.

  8. A simple VD/VT gas-collection valve for use with Siemens ventilators.

    PubMed

    Ritz, R; Crogan, S

    1986-11-01

    An accurate knowledge of the ratio of physiologic dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT) is useful in managing mechanically ventilated patients. When collecting the sample of exhaled gases, one must separate the gas compressed in the ventilator circuit during inspiration from the gas exhaled by the patient. This is best accomplished by placing a separate gas-collection valve at the patient Y-piece, which will allow the patient's exhaled volumes to be collected separately. We designed a gas-collection valve for use with Siemens-Elema Servo 900B and 900C ventilators that performs this function over a wide range of ventilatory conditions. Our systems has several distinct advantages over the option provided by the manufacturer: Its economical cost represents significant savings, and it is more versatile than the Siemens gas analyzer. A larger variety of gas analyzers can be used for the measurement, and more accurate CO2 production values can be provided, along with directly determined VD/VT values.

  9. Spurious hemolysis does not influence the reliability of digoxin testing on Siemens RXL MAX and Roche Cobas e601.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mercadanti, Mariella; Romero, Araelsis; Lipreri, Graziella; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on the influence of spurious hemolysis on digoxin immunoassays. Seventeen consecutive, non-hemolyzed, sodium-heparin samples were divided in three aliquots. The first was immediately centrifuged and tested for hemolysis index (HI), as well as plasma digoxin on Siemens RXL MAX using the Siemens Dimension Flex and Roche Cobas e601 by electrochemiluminescent (ECLIA) technique. The second and third aliquots were subjected to mechanical hemolysis by aspirating the blood one and two times through a thin needle. The concentration of digoxin measured on Siemens RXL MAX was significantly decreased from aliquot #A, to aliquot #B (-4%), and aliquot #C (-6%), but in none of the hemolyzed specimens the 10% bias was exceeded. No significant variation was observed by measuring plasma digoxin on Roche Cobas.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Canine Family Trio Reveals a FAM83G Variant Associated with Hereditary Footpad Hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Sayyab, Shumaila; Viluma, Agnese; Bergvall, Kerstin; Brunberg, Emma; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Leeb, Tosso; Andersson, Göran; Bergström, Tomas F

    2016-01-08

    Over 250 Mendelian traits and disorders, caused by rare alleles have been mapped in the canine genome. Although each disease is rare in the dog as a species, they are collectively common and have major impact on canine health. With SNP-based genotyping arrays, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proven to be a powerful method to map the genomic region of interest when 10-20 cases and 10-20 controls are available. However, to identify the genetic variant in associated regions, fine-mapping and targeted resequencing is required. Here we present a new approach using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a family trio without prior GWAS. As a proof-of-concept, we chose an autosomal recessive disease known as hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis (HFH) in Kromfohrländer dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first time this family trio WGS-approach has been used successfully to identify a genetic variant that perfectly segregates with a canine disorder. The sequencing of three Kromfohrländer dogs from a family trio (an affected offspring and both its healthy parents) resulted in an average genome coverage of 9.2X per individual. After applying stringent filtering criteria for candidate causative coding variants, 527 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 15 indels were found to be homozygous in the affected offspring and heterozygous in the parents. Using the computer software packages ANNOVAR and SIFT to functionally annotate coding sequence differences, and to predict their functional effect, resulted in seven candidate variants located in six different genes. Of these, only FAM83G:c155G > C (p.R52P) was found to be concordant in eight additional cases, and 16 healthy Kromfohrländer dogs.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Canine Family Trio Reveals a FAM83G Variant Associated with Hereditary Footpad Hyperkeratosis

    PubMed Central

    Sayyab, Shumaila; Viluma, Agnese; Bergvall, Kerstin; Brunberg, Emma; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Leeb, Tosso; Andersson, Göran; Bergström, Tomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Over 250 Mendelian traits and disorders, caused by rare alleles have been mapped in the canine genome. Although each disease is rare in the dog as a species, they are collectively common and have major impact on canine health. With SNP-based genotyping arrays, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proven to be a powerful method to map the genomic region of interest when 10–20 cases and 10–20 controls are available. However, to identify the genetic variant in associated regions, fine-mapping and targeted resequencing is required. Here we present a new approach using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of a family trio without prior GWAS. As a proof-of-concept, we chose an autosomal recessive disease known as hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis (HFH) in Kromfohrländer dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first time this family trio WGS-approach has been used successfully to identify a genetic variant that perfectly segregates with a canine disorder. The sequencing of three Kromfohrländer dogs from a family trio (an affected offspring and both its healthy parents) resulted in an average genome coverage of 9.2X per individual. After applying stringent filtering criteria for candidate causative coding variants, 527 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 15 indels were found to be homozygous in the affected offspring and heterozygous in the parents. Using the computer software packages ANNOVAR and SIFT to functionally annotate coding sequence differences, and to predict their functional effect, resulted in seven candidate variants located in six different genes. Of these, only FAM83G:c155G > C (p.R52P) was found to be concordant in eight additional cases, and 16 healthy Kromfohrländer dogs. PMID:26747202

  12. OVERVIEW, PRACTICAL TIPS AND POTENTIAL PITFALLS OF USING AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN CT: SIEMENS CARE DOSE 4D.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Today, computed tomography (CT) systems routinely use automatic exposure control (AEC), which modulates the tube current. However, for optimal use, there are several aspects of an AEC system that need to be considered. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Siemens CARE Dose 4D AEC system, discuss practical tips and demonstrate potential pitfalls. Two adult anthropomorphic phantoms were examined using two different Siemens CT systems. When optimising the CT radiation dose and image quality, the projection angle of the localiser, patient centring, protocol selection, scanning direction and the use of protective devices requires special attention.

  13. Trio of Stellar Occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New Horizons' Arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Levine, Stephen E.; Osip, David J.; Schiff, Avery; Seeger, Christina H.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Rojo, Patricio; Servajean, Elise

    2016-04-01

    We observed occultations by Pluto during a predicted series of events in 2014 July with the 1 m telescope of the Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. The predictions were based on updated astrometry obtained in the previous months at the USNO, CTIO, and Lowell Observatories. We successfully detected occultations by Pluto of an R = 18 mag star on July 23 (14:23:32 ± 00:00:04 UTC to 14:25:30 ± 00:00:04 UTC), with a drop of 75% of the unocculted stellar signal, and of an R = 17 star on July 24 (11:41:30 ± 00:00:08 UTC to 11:43:28 ± 00:00:08 UTC), with a drop of 80% of the unocculted stellar signal, both with 20 s exposures with our frame-transfer Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System. Since Pluto had a geocentric velocity of 22.51 km s-1 on July 23 and 22.35 km s-1 on July 24, these intervals yield limits on the chord lengths (surface and lower atmosphere) of 2700 ± 130 km and 2640 ± 250 km, respectively, indicating that the events were near central, and therefore provide astrometric constraints on the prediction method. Our coordinated observations with the 4 m AAT in Australia on July 23 and the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay on Las Campanas, the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope on Cerro Pachön, the 2.5 m DuPont on Las Campanas (LCO), the 0.6 m SARA-South on Cerro Tololo of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), the MPI/ESO 2.2 m on La Silla, and the 0.45 m Cerro Calán telescope and 0.36 telescope in Constitución in Chile on July 27 and 31, which would have provided higher-cadence observations for studies of Pluto’s atmosphere, were largely foiled by clouds, but led to detection with the LCO Magellan/Clay and DuPont Telescopes on July 31 of the grazing occultation of a previously unknown 15th-magnitude star, completing the trio of occultations successfully observed and reported in this paper.

  14. The N-Terminal DH-PH Domain of Trio Induces Cell Spreading and Migration by Regulating Lamellipodia Dynamics in a Rac1-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    van Rijssel, Jos; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Wester, Lynn; Hordijk, Peter L.; Van Buul, Jaap D.

    2012-01-01

    The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Trio encodes two DH-PH domains that catalyze nucleotide exchange on Rac1, RhoG and RhoA. The N-terminal DH-PH domain is known to activate Rac1 and RhoG, whereas the C-terminal DH-PH domain can activate RhoA. The current study shows that the N-terminal DH-PH domain, upon expression in HeLa cells, activates Rac1 and RhoG independently from each other. In addition, we show that the flanking SH3 domain binds to the proline-rich region of the C-terminus of Rac1, but not of RhoG. However, this SH3 domain is not required for Rac1 or RhoG GDP-GTP exchange. Rescue experiments in Trio-shRNA-expressing cells showed that the N-terminal DH-PH domain of Trio, but not the C-terminal DH-PH domain, restored fibronectin-mediated cell spreading and migration defects that are observed in Trio-silenced cells. Kymograph analysis revealed that the N-terminal DH-PH domain, independent of its SH3 domain, controls the dynamics of lamellipodia. Using siRNA against Rac1 or RhoG, we found that Trio-D1-induced lamellipodia formation required Rac1 but not RhoG expression. Together, we conclude that the GEF Trio is responsible for lamellipodia formation through its N-terminal DH-PH domain in a Rac1-dependent manner during fibronectin-mediated spreading and migration. PMID:22238672

  15. Developmental validation of the Quantifiler(®) HP and Trio Kits for human DNA quantification in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Holt, Allison; Wootton, Sharon Chao; Mulero, Julio J; Brzoska, Pius M; Langit, Emanuel; Green, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of human genomic DNA is a necessary first step in the DNA casework sample analysis workflow. DNA quantification determines optimal sample input amounts for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) genotyping procedures, as well as being a useful screening tool to identify samples most likely to provide probative genotypic evidence. To better mesh with the capabilities of newest-generation STR analysis assays, the Quantifiler(®) HP and Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kits were designed for greater detection sensitivity and more robust performance with samples that contain PCR inhibitors or degraded DNA. The new DNA quantification kits use multiplex TaqMan(®) assay-based fluorescent probe technology to simultaneously quantify up to three human genomic targets, allowing samples to be assessed for total human DNA, male contributor (i.e., Y-chromosome) DNA, as well as a determination of DNA degradation state. The Quantifiler HP and Trio Kits use multiple-copy loci to allow for significantly improved sensitivity compared to earlier-generation kits that employ single-copy target loci. The kits' improved performance provides better predictive ability for results with downstream, newest-generation STR assays, and their shortened time-to-result allows more efficient integration into the forensic casework analysis workflow.

  16. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jeheon; Lee, Seongwhan; Yoon, Seyoung; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho; Lee, Donghun; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-01

    TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA) is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm) in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  17. Siemens solar CIS photovoltaic module and system performance at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; Willett, D.

    1996-05-01

    This paper evaluates the individual module and array performance of Siemens Solar Industries copper indium diselenide (CIS) polycrystalline thin-film technology. This is accomplished by studying module and array performance over time. Preliminary temperature coefficients for maximum power, maximum-power voltage, maximum-power current, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor are determined at both the module and array level. These coefficients are used to correct module/array performance to 25{degrees}C to evaluate stability. The authors show that CIS exhibits a strong inverse correlation between array power and back-of-module temperature. This is due mainly to the narrow bandgap of the CIS material, which results in a strong inverse correlation between voltage and temperature. They also show that the temperature-corrected module and array performance has been relatively stable over the evaluation interval ({approx}2 years).

  18. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended.

  19. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  20. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-3T - Private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  2. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

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    2014-04-01

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  3. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-3T - Minimum age and service conditions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  4. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  5. 26 CFR 1.162-3T - Materials and supplies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  6. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  7. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  8. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  9. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). 1.6043-3T Section 1.6043-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6043-3T Returns regarding liquidation... definition of the term “integrated auxiliaries” as used in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, see §...

  11. 26 CFR 1.921-3T - Temporary regulations; Foreign sales corporation general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation general rules. 1.921-3T Section 1.921-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.921-3T Temporary regulations; Foreign sales corporation general rules. (a) Exclusion—(1..., shall be determined in the same manner as if the FSC were a foreign corporation which had not elected...

  12. Clinical experience with shock-wave lithotripsy using the Siemens Modularis Vario lithotripter

    PubMed Central

    Hassouna, Mohamed E.; Oraby, Samir; Sameh, Wael; El-Abbady, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness of a lithotripter (Modularis Vario; Siemens, AG Healthcare, Munich, Germany) in the management of renal and ureteric stones. Patients and methods In all, 1146 adult patients with renal or ureteric stones were treated at one urological centre using the latest model of the Modularis Vario lithotripter. The effectiveness of lithotripsy and re-treatment rate were assessed. Data were obtained on stone location, stone size, shock wave usage, success rate, and complications. Results Between May 2007 and November 2009, 698 patients with renal stones and 448 with ureteric stones underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The mean (SD) renal stone size was 12.8 (3.8) mm; a mean of 1.36 sessions was required, with a mean (SD) number of 3744 (1961) shocks delivered per renal stone. After 3 months, the success rate defined as the patient being stone-free or with residual fragments of <4 mm; for renal stones the rate was 91.1%, with a 6.9% complication rate in the form of steinstrasse and severe renal colic. The mean (SD) ureteric stone size was 10.4 (2.7) mm. A mean of 1.37 sessions was required, with a mean (SD) of 4551 (2467) shocks delivered for each ureteric stone. The success rate for ureteric stones was 89.5%, with a 5.6% complication rate. The overall efficiency quotient was 0.66. Conclusion The Siemens Modularis Vario lithotripter is a safe and effective machine for treating renal and ureteric stones. PMID:26579276

  13. Modeling and simulation of silicon epitaxial growth in Siemens CVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Haoyin; Lu, Shijie; Chen, Caixia

    2014-10-01

    Siemens CVD reactor is an important chemical device for the production of polysilicon. The chemical and physical phenomenon involved in the reactor is very complex. Understanding the multispecies thermal fluid transport and its interaction with the gas/surface reactions is crucial for an optimal design and operation of the reactor. In the present paper, a mathematical model was constructed to describe the fluid dynamics, the heat and mass transfer and the reaction kinetics of the epitaxial growth process in industrial CVD reactors. A modified reaction kinetics model was used to represent the gas phase and surface reactions. The kinetics model was validated using the published experimental data obtained in a temperature range similar to the industrial CVD processes of silicon productions. The epitaxial growth of silicon in a Siemens reactor was simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS FLUENT. The distributions of gas velocity, temperature and species concentrations in the reactor were predicted numerically. Based on the numerical simulation results, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the key factors influencing the growth rate in industrial CVD reactors. Under the conditions of fixed heating power applied to three different rod diameters of 50 mm, 80 mm and 100 mm, the simulated results show, when the rods' diameter is 50 mm, the surface temperature is high and the gas temperature is low, the growth rate of silicon is determined by the transport of gas species. When the rods' diameter increases to 80 mm, the averaged surface temperature decreases to 1361 K, the surface reaction rate and transport of gas species control the growth rate of Si together. When the rods' diameter is 100 mm, the surface temperature decreases further, the rates of surface reactions become the control factor of deposition rate of Si.

  14. Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water: Siemens Corporation Memcor® L10V Ultrafiltration Module

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Siemens Memcor L10V UF module was tested for removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyste, endospores of the bacteria Bacillus atrophaeus, and the MS2 coliphage virus according to the requirements of the EPA Long-Term 2 Enchanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR). Five m...

  15. Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water: Siemens Corporation Memcor® L20V Ultrafiltration Module

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Siemens Memcor L20V UF module was tested for removal of endospores of the bacteria Bacillus atrophaeus and the MS2 coliphage virus according to the requirements of the EPA Long-Term 2 Enchanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR). B. atrophaeus served as a surrogate for ...

  16. ANNALS EXPRESS: Impact of light exposure on TSH results using the Siemens Advia Centaur TSH-3Ultra assay.

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane M; Giles, Diane; Lancaster, Ian; Brownbill, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Background TSH is used as the first line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and FSH reagents. The TSH reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate (FITC) whereas the FSH reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and FSH reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6 hour intervals for 48 hours and then at 96 hours. Results TSH results were significantly lower after exposure of TSH-3Ultra reagent packs to light. Results were >15% lower at all three levels of QC following 18 hours of light exposure and continued to decrease until 96 hours. There was no significant difference in FSH results whether reagents had been exposed to or protected from light. Conclusions TSH results but not FSH results are lowered after exposure of reagent packs to light. Laboratories must ensure that TSH-3Ultra reagents are not exposed to light and analyse quality control samples on every reagent pack to check that there has not been light exposure prior to delivery. The labelling on TSH-3Ultra reagent packs should reflect the significant effect of light exposure compared to the FSH reagent. We propose that the effect of light exposure on binding of FITC to the solid phase antibody is causing the falsely low results.

  17. Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water: Siemens Corporation Memcor® S10V Ultrafiltration Module

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Siemens Memcor S10V UF module was tested for removal of endospores of the bacteria Bacillus atrophaeus and the MS2 coliphage virus according to the requirements of the EPA Long-Term 2 Enchanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR). B. atrophaeus served as a surrogate for ...

  18. Brain morphometry reproducibility in multi-center 3T MRI studies: a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal segmentations.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Marizzoni, Moira; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Wiltfang, Jens; Roccatagliata, Luca; Nobili, Flavio; Hensch, Tilman; Tränkner, Anja; Schönknecht, Peter; Leroy, Melanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Chanoine, Valérie; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Blin, Olivier; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale longitudinal multi-site MRI brain morphometry studies are becoming increasingly crucial to characterize both normal and clinical population groups using fully automated segmentation tools. The test-retest reproducibility of morphometry data acquired across multiple scanning sessions, and for different MR vendors, is an important reliability indicator since it defines the sensitivity of a protocol to detect longitudinal effects in a consortium. There is very limited knowledge about how across-session reliability of morphometry estimates might be affected by different 3T MRI systems. Moreover, there is a need for optimal acquisition and analysis protocols in order to reduce sample sizes. A recent study has shown that the longitudinal FreeSurfer segmentation offers improved within session test-retest reproducibility relative to the cross-sectional segmentation at one 3T site using a nonstandard multi-echo MPRAGE sequence. In this study we implement a multi-site 3T MRI morphometry protocol based on vendor provided T1 structural sequences from different vendors (3D MPRAGE on Siemens and Philips, 3D IR-SPGR on GE) implemented in 8 sites located in 4 European countries. The protocols used mild acceleration factors (1.5-2) when possible. We acquired across-session test-retest structural data of a group of healthy elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) and compared the across-session reproducibility of two full-brain automated segmentation methods based on either longitudinal or cross-sectional FreeSurfer processing. The segmentations include cortical thickness, intracranial, ventricle and subcortical volumes. Reproducibility is evaluated as absolute changes relative to the mean (%), Dice coefficient for volume overlap and intraclass correlation coefficients across two sessions. We found that this acquisition and analysis protocol gives comparable reproducibility results to previous studies that used longer acquisitions without acceleration. We also show that

  19. Evaluation of a new agar in Uricult-Trio for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in urine.

    PubMed Central

    Dalet, F; Segovia, T

    1995-01-01

    A new commercial agar (Uricult-Trio) with 8-hydroxyquinoline-beta-glucuronide was used to assess 2,536 uropathogens for beta-glucuronidase activity typical of Escherichia coli. Included in the study were 1,807 strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 284 strains of nonfermentative bacilli, 345 strains of gram-positive cocci, and 100 yeast strains. In identifying E. coli, the test agar gave a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 97.2%. Fifty E. coli isolates gave negative reactions; 31 non-E. coli strains produced black colonies characteristic of E. coli. No growth of gram-positive cocci and no false-positive reactions from yeasts were observed. The recovery rate for E. coli on this agar was at least 10% higher than that on blood agar. PMID:7615766

  20. 6 MV dosimetric characterization of the 160 MLC, the new Siemens multileaf collimator.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Martin B; Nill, Simeon; Häring, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    New technical developments constantly aim at improving the outcome of radiation therapy. With the use of a computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC), the quality of the treatment and the efficiency in patient throughput is significantly increased. New MLC designs aim to further enhance the advantages. In this article, we present the first detailed experimental investigation of the new 160 MLC, Siemens Medical Solutions. The assessment included the experimental investigation of typical MLC characteristics such as leakage, tongue-and-groove effect, penumbra, leaf speed, and leaf positioning accuracy with a 6 MV treatment beam. The leakage is remarkably low with an average of 0.37% due to a new design principle of slightly tilted leaves instead of the common tongue-and-groove design. But due to the tilt, the triangular tongue-and-groove effect occurs. Its magnitude of approximately 19% is similar to the dose defect measured for MLCs with the common tongue-and-groove design. The average longitudinal penumbra measured at depth d(max) = 15 mm with standard 100 x 100 mm2 fields is 4.1 +/- 0.5 mm for the central range and increases to 4.9 +/- 1.3 mm for the entire field range of 400 x 400 mm2. The increase is partly due to the single-focusing design and the large distance between the MLC and the isocenter enabling a large patient clearance. Regarding the leaf speed, different velocity tests were performed. The positions of the moving leaves were continuously recorded with the kilovoltage-imaging panel. The maximum leaf velocities measured were 42.9 +/- 0.6 mm/s. In addition, several typical intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments were performed and the delivery times compared to the Siemens OPTIFOCUS MLC. An average decrease of 11% in delivery time was observed. The experimental results presented in this article indicate that the dosimetric characteristics of the 160 MLC are capable of improving the quality of dose delivery with respect to precision and dose

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • LPA{sub 5} inhibits the cell growth and motile activities of 3T3 cells. • LPA{sub 5} suppresses the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide in 3T3 cells. • Enhancement of LPA{sub 5} on the cell motile activities inhibited by LPA{sub 1} in 3T3 cells. • The expression and activation of Mmp-9 were inhibited by LPA{sub 5} in 3T3 cells. • LPA signaling via LPA{sub 5} acts as a negative regulator of cellular responses in 3T3 cells. - Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA{sub 1}–LPA{sub 6}) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA{sub 1} inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA{sub 5} in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 5} on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA{sub 5} may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA{sub 1}.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 negatively regulates cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-04-04

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA1-LPA6) mediates a variety of biological functions, including cell migration. Recently, we have reported that LPA1 inhibited the cell motile activities of mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In the present study, to evaluate a role of LPA5 in cellular responses, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3-L5) cells were generated from 3T3 cells. In cell proliferation assays, LPA markedly stimulated the cell proliferation activities of 3T3-L5 cells, compared with control cells. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3-L5 cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. The activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured by gelatin zymography. 3T3-L5 cells stimulated the activation of Mmp-2, correlating with the expression levels of Mmp-2 gene. Moreover, to assess the co-effects of LPA1 and LPA5 on cell motile activities, Lpar5 knockdown (3T3a1-L5) cells were also established from Lpar1 over-expressing (3T3a1) cells. 3T3a1-L5 cells increased the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells, while the cell motile activities of 3T3a1 cells were significantly lower than those of control cells. These results suggest that LPA5 may act as a negative regulator of cellular responses in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells, similar to the case for LPA1.

  3. Collision indicator charts for gantry-couch position combinations for Siemens ONCOR and Elekta Infinity linacs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stewart J; Culberson, Wes; Flynn, Ryan

    2013-09-06

    Noncoplanar radiation fields from a linear accelerator can be used to deliver radiation dose distributions that are superior to those delivered using coplanar radiation fields. Noncoplanar radiation field arrangements are especially valuable when delivering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Noncoplanar radiation fields, however, are geometrically more challenging to deliver than coplanar radiation fields, and are associated with a greater risk of collisions between the gantry, treatment couch, and patient. Knowledge of which treatment couch offset, treatment couch angle, and gantry angle combinations provide a collision-free radiotherapy delivery is useful in the treatment planning process, as the risk of requiring replanning due to improperly selected treatment parameters can be minimized. Such tables are by default specific to the linear accelerator make and model used for treatment. In this work a set of plots is presented indicating which combination of treatment couch lateral offsets (-10 cm to 10 cm), couch angles (270° to 90°), and gantry angles (0° to 360°), will result in collision-free radiation delivery using Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators equipped with a 160-leaf multileaf collimator and a 550 TxT treatment table, and a Elekta Infinity linear accelerator with an MLCi2 and Elekta iBEAM evo Couchtop EP. The patient was assumed to have a width of 50 cm and a height of 25 cm.

  4. Neutron source strength measurements for Varian, Siemens, Elekta, and General Electric linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Followill, David S; Stovall, Marilyn S; Kry, Stephen F; Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2003-01-01

    The shielding calculations for high energy (>10 MV) linear accelerators must include the photoneutron production within the head of the accelerator. Procedures have been described to calculate the treatment room door shielding based on the neutron source strength (Q value) for a specific accelerator and energy combination. Unfortunately, there is currently little data in the literature stating the neutron source strengths for the most widely used linear accelerators. In this study, the neutron fluence for 36 linear accelerators, including models from Varian, Siemens, Elekta/Philips, and General Electric, was measured using gold-foil activation. Several of the models and energy combinations had multiple measurements. The neutron fluence measured in the patient plane was independent of the surface area of the room, suggesting that neutron fluence is more dependent on the direct neutron fluence from the head of the accelerator than from room scatter. Neutron source strength, Q, was determined from the measured neutron fluences. As expected, Q increased with increasing photon energy. The Q values ranged from 0.02 for a 10 MV beam to 1.44(x10(12)) neutrons per photon Gy for a 25 MV beam. The most comprehensive set of neutron source strength values, Q, for the current accelerators in clinical use are presented for use in calculating room shielding.

  5. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  6. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens virtual and physical wedges for ONCOR linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Attalla, Ehab M; Abo-Elenein, H S; Ammar, H; El-Desoky, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Dosimetric properties of virtual wedge (VW) and physical wedge (PW) in 6- and 10-MV photon beams from a Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator, including wedge factors, depth doses, dose profiles, peripheral doses, are compared. While there is a great difference in absolute values of wedge factors, VW factors (VWFs) and PW factors (PWFs) have a similar trend as a function of field size. PWFs have stronger depth dependence than VWF due to beam hardening in PW fields. VW dose profiles in the wedge direction, in general, match very well with those of PW, except in the toe area of large wedge angles with large field sizes. Dose profiles in the nonwedge direction show a significant reduction in PW fields due to off-axis beam softening and oblique filtration. PW fields have significantly higher peripheral doses than open and VW fields. VW fields have similar surface doses as the open fields, while PW fields have lower surface doses. Surface doses for both VW and PW increase with field size and slightly with wedge angle. For VW fields with wedge angles 45° and less, the initial gap up to 3 cm is dosimetrically acceptable when compared to dose profiles of PW. VW fields in general use less monitor units than PW fields.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of an asymmetric Monte Carlo beam model of a Siemens Primus accelerator.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Eric C; Sawkey, Daren L; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2012-03-08

    The assumption of cylindrical symmetry in radiotherapy accelerator models can pose a challenge for precise Monte Carlo modeling. This assumption makes it difficult to account for measured asymmetries in clinical dose distributions. We have performed a sensitivity study examining the effect of varying symmetric and asymmetric beam and geometric parameters of a Monte Carlo model for a Siemens PRIMUS accelerator. The accelerator and dose output were simulated using modified versions of BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc that allow lateral offsets of accelerator components and lateral and angular offsets for the incident electron beam. Dose distributions were studied for 40 × 40 cm² fields. The resulting dose distributions were analyzed for changes in flatness, symmetry, and off-axis ratio (OAR). The electron beam parameters having the greatest effect on the resulting dose distributions were found to be electron energy and angle of incidence, as high as 5% for a 0.25° deflection. Electron spot size and lateral offset of the electron beam were found to have a smaller impact. Variations in photon target thickness were found to have a small effect. Small lateral offsets of the flattening filter caused significant variation to the OAR. In general, the greatest sensitivity to accelerator parameters could be observed for higher energies and off-axis ratios closer to the central axis. Lateral and angular offsets of beam and accelerator components have strong effects on dose distributions, and should be included in any high-accuracy beam model.

  8. Evaluation of the Lipid Interference for Siemens BN ProSpec Cystatin C Assay Using Pediatric Samples.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Neval; Gonzalez, Graciela; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous interferents (lipids, hemoglobin and bilirubin) are a common cause of pre-analytical laboratory errors. We evaluated the effect of lipemia on Siemens cystatin C assay using pediatric samples. Lipemic samples were prepared by adding various concentrations of triglycerides into low and high cystatin C sample pools. Cystatin C concentrations were then measured on Siemens BN ProSpec analyzer and change of the analyte concentrations was determined. Low and high cystatin C sample pools were not affected by additions of lower lipid concentrations (150, 500 and 750 mg/dL), while the negative bias of <10% was seen with additions of higher lipid concentrations (1000 and 1500 mg/dL). Our results suggest that the BN ProSpec assay is a good alternative for cystatin C measurements in our pediatric population with no major interference from lipemia.

  9. Investigation of the mechanical performance of Siemens linacs components during arc: gantry, MLC, and electronic portal imaging device

    PubMed Central

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Häring, Peter; Riis, Hans L; Zimmermann, Sune J; Ebert, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Background In radiotherapy treatments, it is crucial to monitor the performance of linac components including gantry, collimation system, and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) during arc deliveries. In this study, a simple EPID-based measurement method is suggested in conjunction with an algorithm to investigate the stability of these systems at various gantry angles with the aim of evaluating machine-related errors in treatments. Methods The EPID sag, gantry sag, changes in source-to-detector distance (SDD), EPID and collimator skewness, EPID tilt, and the sag in leaf bank assembly due to linac rotation were separately investigated by acquisition of 37 EPID images of a simple phantom with five ball bearings at various gantry angles. A fast and robust software package was developed for automated analysis of image data. Three Siemens linacs were investigated. Results The average EPID sag was within 1 mm for all tested linacs. Two machines showed >1 mm gantry sag. Changes in the SDD values were within 7.5 mm. EPID skewness and tilt values were <1° in all machines. The maximum sag in leaf bank assembly was <1 mm. Conclusion The method and software developed in this study provide a simple tool for effective investigation of the behavior of Siemens linac components with gantry rotation. Such a comprehensive study has been performed for the first time on Siemens machines. PMID:26604840

  10. Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids released through the cytochrome P-450 pathway regulate 3T6 fibroblast growth.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Diana; Moreno, Juan José

    2006-12-01

    Eicosanoids participate in the regulation of cellular proliferation. Thus, we observed that prostaglandin E(2) interaction with membrane receptors is involved in the control of 3T6 fibroblast growth induced by serum. However, our results suggested that another arachidonic acid pathway might be implicated in these events. Our results show that 3T6 fibroblasts synthesized hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) such as 12-HETE through the cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) pathway. However, 3T6 fibroblasts did not produce leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and lipoxygenase inhibitors and LT antagonists failed to inhibit 3T6 fibroblast growth induced by FBS. In contrast, we observed that CYP450 inhibitors such as SKF-525A, 17-octadecynoic acid, 1-aminobenzotriazole, and 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanoic acid reduced 12(S)-HETE levels, 3T6 fibroblast growth, and DNA synthesis induced by FBS. The impairment of DNA synthesis and 3T6 fibroblast growth induced by SKF-525A were reversed by exogenous addition of HETEs. Moreover, we report that 5-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, and 15(S)-HETE are mitogenic on 3T6 fibroblast in the absence of another growth factor, and this effect was dependent on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway. In conclusion, our results show that HETEs, probably produced by CYP450, are involved in the control of 3T6 fibroblast growth.

  11. 26 CFR 1.509(a)-3T - Broadly, publicly supported organizations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Broadly, publicly supported organizations (temporary). 1.509(a)-3T Section 1.509(a)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., adversely affect the status of the organization as normally meeting the one-third support test for any...

  12. Regulation of Na+-H+ exchange in normal NIH-3T3 cells and in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the ras oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, N.E.; Knapik, J.; Strebel, F.; Tarpley, W.G.; Gorman, R.R.

    1989-04-01

    Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that Na+-H+ exchange can be regulated by two different pathways; one that is mediated by an inositol trisphosphate-stimulated increase in intracellular calcium activity, and one that is mediated by an increase in protein kinase C activity. To determine whether one of these pathways is more important than the other, or whether one pathway is physiologically relevant, we employed normal NIH-3T3 cells (3T3 cells) and NIH-3T3 cells expressing the EJ human bladder ras oncogene (EJ cells). The EJ cells were chosen because they provide a genetic model that does not exhibit serum- or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated inositol trisphosphate release or Ca2+ mobilization. It was found that serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange was more pronounced in EJ cells than in control 3T3 cells. As expected, serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange in 3T3 cells was inhibited by chelating intracellular Ca2+ with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator quin2, by the intracellular Ca2+ antagonist 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8), and by the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. In contrast, these agents did not inhibit serum- or PDGF-stimulated Na+-H+ exchange in EJ cells. Activators of protein kinase C (e.g., 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol or biologically active phorbol esters) were found to stimulate Na+-H+ exchange in EJ cells to the same extent as serum. However, these agents were considerably less effective than serum in control 3T3 cells. Despite these findings, PDGF did not stimulate diacylglycerol levels in EJ cells.

  13. NEMA NU 2-2007 performance measurements of the Siemens Inveon™ preclinical small animal PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Brad J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; McFarland, Aaron R.; Lenox, Mark W.; Lowe, Val J.

    2009-04-01

    National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 performance measurements were conducted on the Inveon™ preclinical small animal PET system developed by Siemens Medical Solutions. The scanner uses 1.51 × 1.51 × 10 mm LSO crystals grouped in 20 × 20 blocks; a tapered light guide couples the LSO crystals of a block to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. There are 80 rings with 320 crystals per ring and the ring diameter is 161 mm. The transaxial and axial fields of view (FOVs) are 100 and 127 mm, respectively. The scanner can be docked to a CT scanner; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. Performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance were obtained for different energy windows and coincidence timing window widths. For brevity, the results described here are for an energy window of 350-650 keV and a coincidence timing window of 3.43 ns. The spatial resolution at the center of the transaxial and axial FOVs was 1.56, 1.62 and 2.12 mm in the tangential, radial and axial directions, respectively, and the system sensitivity was 36.2 cps kBq-1 for a line source (7.2% for a point source). For mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, the scatter fraction was 5.7% and 14.6%, respectively. The peak noise equivalent count rate with a noisy randoms estimate was 1475 kcps at 130 MBq for the mouse-sized phantom and 583 kcps at 74 MBq for the rat-sized phantom. The performance measurements indicate that the Inveon™ PET scanner is a high-resolution tomograph with excellent sensitivity that is capable of imaging at a high count rate.

  14. Observed inter-camera variability of clinically relevant performance characteristics for Siemens Symbia gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Erwin, William D; Wendt, Richard E

    2006-11-28

    We conducted an evaluation of the intercamera (i.e., between cameras) variability in clinically relevant performance characteristics for Symbia gamma cameras (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) based on measurements made using nine separate systems. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was determined by comparing it to the intracamera (i.e., within a single camera) variability. Measurements of performance characteristics were based on the standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and reports 6, 9, 22, and 52 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. All measurements were performed using 99mTc (except 57Co used for extrinsic resolution) and low-energy, high-resolution collimation. Of the nine cameras, four have crystals 3/8 in. thick and five have crystals 5/8 in. thick. We evaluated intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, intrinsic integral and differential flood uniformity over the useful field-of-view, count rate at 20% count loss, planar sensitivity, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) resolution, and SPECT integral uniformity. The intracamera variability was estimated by repeated measurements of the performance characteristics on a single system. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was evaluated using the two-tailed F distribution. The planar sensitivity of the gamma cameras tested was found be variable at the 99.8% confidence level for both the 3/8-in. and 5/8-in. crystal systems. The integral uniformity and energy resolution were found to be variable only for the 5/8-in. crystal systems at the 98% and 90% confidence level, respectively. All other performance characteristics tested exhibited no significant variability between camera systems. The measured variability reported here could perhaps be used to define nominal performance values of Symbia gamma cameras for planar and SPECT imaging.

  15. NEMA NU 2-2007 performance measurements of the Siemens Inveon preclinical small animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Brad J; Hruska, Carrie B; McFarland, Aaron R; Lenox, Mark W; Lowe, Val J

    2009-04-21

    National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 performance measurements were conducted on the Inveon preclinical small animal PET system developed by Siemens Medical Solutions. The scanner uses 1.51 x 1.51 x 10 mm LSO crystals grouped in 20 x 20 blocks; a tapered light guide couples the LSO crystals of a block to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. There are 80 rings with 320 crystals per ring and the ring diameter is 161 mm. The transaxial and axial fields of view (FOVs) are 100 and 127 mm, respectively. The scanner can be docked to a CT scanner; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. Performance measurements of spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance were obtained for different energy windows and coincidence timing window widths. For brevity, the results described here are for an energy window of 350-650 keV and a coincidence timing window of 3.43 ns. The spatial resolution at the center of the transaxial and axial FOVs was 1.56, 1.62 and 2.12 mm in the tangential, radial and axial directions, respectively, and the system sensitivity was 36.2 cps kBq(-1) for a line source (7.2% for a point source). For mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, the scatter fraction was 5.7% and 14.6%, respectively. The peak noise equivalent count rate with a noisy randoms estimate was 1475 kcps at 130 MBq for the mouse-sized phantom and 583 kcps at 74 MBq for the rat-sized phantom. The performance measurements indicate that the Inveon PET scanner is a high-resolution tomograph with excellent sensitivity that is capable of imaging at a high count rate.

  16. Secondary neutron spectra from modern Varian, Siemens, and Elekta linacs with multileaf collimators.

    PubMed

    Howell, Rebecca M; Kry, Stephen F; Burgett, Eric; Hertel, Nolan E; Followill, David S

    2009-09-01

    Neutrons are a by-product of high-energy x-ray radiation therapy (threshold for [gamma,n] reactions in high-Z material -7 MeV). Neutron production varies depending on photon beam energy as well as on the manufacturer of the accelerator. Neutron production from modern linear accelerators (linacs) has not been extensively compared, particularly in terms of the differences in the strategies that various manufacturers have used to implement multileaf collimators (MLCs) into their linac designs. However, such information is necessary to determine neutron dose equivalents for different linacs and to calculate vault shielding requirements. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to measure the neutron spectra from the most up-to-date linacs from three manufacturers: Varian 21EX operating at 15, 18, and 20 MV, Siemens ONCOR operating at 15 and 18 MV, and Elekta Precise operating at 15 and 18 MV. Neutron production was measured by means of gold foil activation in Bonner spheres. Based on the measurements, the authors determined neutron spectra and calculated the average energy, total neutron fluence, ambient dose equivalent, and neutron source strength. The shapes of the neutron spectra did not change significantly between accelerators or even as a function of treatment energy. However, the neutron fluence, and therefore the ambient dose equivalent, did vary, increasing with increasing treatment energy. For a given nominal treatment energy, these values were always highest for the Varian linac. The current study thus offers medical physicists extensive information about the neutron production of MLC-equipped linacs currently in operation and provides them information vital for accurate comparison and prediction of neutron dose equivalents and calculation of vault shielding requirements.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation of Siemens ONCOR Linear Accelerator with BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc Code.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Anvar, Hossein Saberi; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Amouheidari, Alireza

    2013-07-01

    The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for simulation of radiation therapy equipment. The linear accelerators (linac) are currently the most widely used machines in radiation therapy centers. In this work, a Monte Carlo modeling of the Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator in 6 MV and 18 MV beams was performed. The results of simulation were validated by measurements in water by ionization chamber and extended dose range (EDR2) film in solid water. The linac's X-ray particular are so sensitive to the properties of primary electron beam. Square field size of 10 cm × 10 cm produced by the jaws was compared with ionization chamber and film measurements. Head simulation was performed with BEAMnrc and dose calculation with DOSXYZnrc for film measurements and 3ddose file produced by DOSXYZnrc analyzed used homemade MATLAB program. At 6 MV, the agreement between dose calculated by Monte Carlo modeling and direct measurement was obtained to the least restrictive of 1%, even in the build-up region. At 18 MV, the agreement was obtained 1%, except for in the build-up region. In the build-up region, the difference was 1% at 6 MV and 2% at 18 MV. The mean difference between measurements and Monte Carlo simulation is very small in both of ONCOR X-ray energy. The results are highly accurate and can be used for many applications such as patient dose calculation in treatment planning and in studies that model this linac with small field size like intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique.

  18. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  19. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  20. Reconstruction of 7T-Like Images From 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Khosro; Shi, Feng; Zong, Xiaopeng; Shin, Hae Won; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    In the recent MRI scanning, ultra-high-field (7T) MR imaging provides higher resolution and better tissue contrast compared to routine 3T MRI, which may help in more accurate and early brain diseases diagnosis. However, currently, 7T MRI scanners are more expensive and less available at clinical and research centers. These motivate us to propose a method for the reconstruction of images close to the quality of 7T MRI, called 7T-like images, from 3T MRI, to improve the quality in terms of resolution and contrast. By doing so, the post-processing tasks, such as tissue segmentation, can be done more accurately and brain tissues details can be seen with higher resolution and contrast. To do this, we have acquired a unique dataset which includes paired 3T and 7T images scanned from same subjects, and then propose a hierarchical reconstruction based on group sparsity in a novel multi-level Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) space, to improve the quality of 3T MR image to be 7T-like MRI. First, overlapping patches are extracted from the input 3T MR image. Then, by extracting the most similar patches from all the aligned 3T and 7T images in the training set, the paired 3T and 7T dictionaries are constructed for each patch. It is worth noting that, for the training, we use pairs of 3T and 7T MR images from each training subject. Then, we propose multi-level CCA to map the paired 3T and 7T patch sets to a common space to increase their correlations. In such space, each input 3T MRI patch is sparsely represented by the 3T dictionary and then the obtained sparse coefficients are used together with the corresponding 7T dictionary to reconstruct the 7T-like patch. Also, to have the structural consistency between adjacent patches, the group sparsity is employed. This reconstruction is performed with changing patch sizes in a hierarchical framework. Experiments have been done using 13 subjects with both 3T and 7T MR images. The results show that our method outperforms previous

  1. Application of the Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist for use in a Solar Array Tracking Mechanism for the Momentum-eXchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) Tether Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist to the Momentum Exchange Electro-Dynamic Re-boost (MXER) tether, an advanced space transportation concept being developed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Office at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Dr. Joseph Bonometti and Mr. Kirk Sorensen are the principal engineers. In the paper, a brief overview of the MXER concept is given, with an emphasis on the design problem that this wrist is designed to address. The Trio-Tri-Star Carpal Wrist, a three degree of freedom parallel manipulator, invented by Dr. Stephen J. Canfield of Tennessee Tech University, is described with an overview of wrist geometry, kinematics, and stress analysis. A working model of the wrist was assembled at MSFC using Dr. Canfield s prototype to demonstrate its operation. Finally, a design description and supporting analysis of a MXER flight concept wrist is given, with recommendations for future development work.

  2. Comparing antioxidant capacity of purine alkaloids: a new, efficient trio for screening and discovering potential antioxidants in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bun; Yi, Ruo-Nan; Cao, Ling-Fang; Li, Shan-Bing; Tan, Rui-Rong; Chen, Min; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The most commonly applied strategies for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity are the chemical- or cell-based approaches. However, the results obtained from these methods might not reflect the antioxidant ability of test samples within organisms. In this study, we propose a combination of experiments, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), and the chick embryo model, as an efficient trio to evaluate antioxidant capacity of food components. Taking purine alkaloids as example, results demonstrate that chemical and cellular method might misinterpret their true ability on antioxidation. In chick embryo model, caffeine and theacrine can significantly improve vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane and myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism can be involving multiple targets within the organism. We believe that the trio proposed can be widely utilized in screening massive number of antioxidant in a cost-effective way. It will also help discovering new antioxidants that are easily being omitted due to their relatively poor in vitro activities.

  3. Increased Oxidative Stress in Cultured 3T3-L1 Cells was Attenuated by Berberine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Fen; Yasui, Naomi; Negishb, Hiroko; Kishimoto, Aya; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2015-06-01

    The 3T3-L1 cell line is one of the most well-characterized and reliable models for studying adipocytes. Increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat was found in 3T3-L1 cells. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, could suppress fat deposition in 3T3-L1 cells; however, whether berberine suppresses increased oxidative stress is not well known. In this study, we observed the effect of berberine on increased oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured and treated with berberine (5-20 μM) from day 3 to day 8. We confirmed that berberine markedly inhibited fat accumulation and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and decreased triglyceride content. Berberine inhibited increased oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene expression and GPx activity. Berberine also markedly reduced adipokines secreted by adipocytes, including leptin and resistin.

  4. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  5. Preferences for public involvement in health service decisions: a comparison between best-worst scaling and trio-wise stated preference elicitation techniques.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny

    2016-12-10

    Stated preference elicitation techniques, such as discrete choice experiments and best-worst scaling, are now widely used in health research to explore the public's choices and preferences. In this paper, we propose an alternative stated preference elicitation technique, which we refer to as 'trio-wise'. We explain this new technique, its relative advantages, modeling framework, and how it compares to the best-worst scaling method. To better illustrate the differences and similarities, we utilize best-worst scaling Case 2, where individuals make best and worst (most and least) choices for the attribute levels that describe a single profile. We demonstrate this new preference elicitation technique using an empirical case study that explores preferences among the general public for ways to involve them in decisions concerning the health care system. Our findings show that the best-worst scaling and trio-wise preference elicitation techniques both retrieve similar preferences. However, the capability of our trio-wise method to provide additional information on the strength of rank preferences and its ability to accommodate indifferent preferences lead us to prefer it over the standard best-worst scaling technique.

  6. Analytic power and sample size calculation for the genotypic transmission/disequilibrium test in case-parent trio studies.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christoph; Taub, Margaret A; Younkin, Samuel G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Schwender, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Case-parent trio studies considering genotype data from children affected by a disease and their parents are frequently used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease. The most popular statistical tests for this study design are transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs). Several types of these tests have been developed, for example, procedures based on alleles or genotypes. Therefore, it is of great interest to examine which of these tests have the highest statistical power to detect SNPs associated with disease. Comparisons of the allelic and the genotypic TDT for individual SNPs have so far been conducted based on simulation studies, since the test statistic of the genotypic TDT was determined numerically. Recently, however, it has been shown that this test statistic can be presented in closed form. In this article, we employ this analytic solution to derive equations for calculating the statistical power and the required sample size for different types of the genotypic TDT. The power of this test is then compared with the one of the corresponding score test assuming the same mode of inheritance as well as the allelic TDT based on a multiplicative mode of inheritance, which is equivalent to the score test assuming an additive mode of inheritance. This is, thus, the first time the power of these tests are compared based on equations, yielding instant results and omitting the need for time-consuming simulation studies. This comparison reveals that these tests have almost the same power, with the score test being slightly more powerful.

  7. Blood Collection Tubes and Storage Temperature Should Be Evaluated when Using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP for Measuring 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Weiyan; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Cheng, Qian; Han, Jianhua; Su, Wei; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A significant bias was found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with VACUETTE® tubes with Serum Clot Activator and Gel. Here, we examined whether other commonly used tubes or temperatures affected 25OHD results obtained with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Serum was collected into five types of vacuum blood collection tubes from three manufacturers, and 25OHD was analyzed using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) immediately or after storage at 4°C or -80°C for 48 h. Significantly higher 25OHD values were found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system with VACUETTE® tubes with serum clot activator and gel and VACUETTE® tubes with clot activator but no gel compared with VACUETTE® tubes with no additives. The 25OHD values in all of these tubes were not significantly different from those obtained by LC-MS/MS. Moreover, after storage at -80°C for 48 h, the values obtained in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes with serum clot activator and gel significantly increased, with a mean bias of 74.6% compared with the values before storage, on analysis with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. VACUETTE® tubes containing additives significantly affect the accuracy of 25OHD results obtained using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Additionally, the composition of serum collected in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes was affected by freezing, resulting in different measurements when using the Siemens 25OHD assay platform.

  8. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  9. Comparison of reconstruction methods and quantitative accuracy in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su; Kang, Joo Hyun; Moo Lim, Sang

    2015-04-01

    PET reconstruction is key to the quantification of PET data. To our knowledge, no comparative study of reconstruction methods has been performed to date. In this study, we compared reconstruction methods with various filters in terms of their spatial resolution, non-uniformities (NU), recovery coefficients (RCs), and spillover ratios (SORs). In addition, the linearity of reconstructed radioactivity between linearity of measured and true concentrations were also assessed. A Siemens Inveon PET scanner was used in this study. Spatial resolution was measured with NEMA standard by using a 1 mm3 sized 18F point source. Image quality was assessed in terms of NU, RC and SOR. To measure the effect of reconstruction algorithms and filters, data was reconstructed using FBP, 3D reprojection algorithm (3DRP), ordered subset expectation maximization 2D (OSEM 2D), and maximum a posteriori (MAP) with various filters or smoothing factors (β). To assess the linearity of reconstructed radioactivity, image quality phantom filled with 18F was used using FBP, OSEM and MAP (β =1.5 & 5 × 10-5). The highest achievable volumetric resolution was 2.31 mm3 and the highest RCs were obtained when OSEM 2D was used. SOR was 4.87% for air and 3.97% for water, obtained OSEM 2D reconstruction was used. The measured radioactivity of reconstruction image was proportional to the injected one for radioactivity below 16 MBq/ml when FBP or OSEM 2D reconstruction methods were used. By contrast, when the MAP reconstruction method was used, activity of reconstruction image increased proportionally, regardless of the amount of injected radioactivity. When OSEM 2D or FBP were used, the measured radioactivity concentration was reduced by 53% compared with true injected radioactivity for radioactivity <16 MBq/ml. The OSEM 2D reconstruction method provides the highest achievable volumetric resolution and highest RC among all the tested methods and yields a linear relation between the measured and true

  10. BOLD contrast on a 3 T magnet: detectability of the motor areas.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Okada, T; Moriya, T; Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Sakahara, H

    2001-01-01

    To predict the potential and the limitations of functional MRI (fMRI) with a very high field magnet, the detectability and reproducibility of activation were evaluated by comparing the activation induced by a sequential finger movement task at 1.5 T with that at 3 T. The detectability of the premotor area, supplementary motor area (SMA), and ipsilateral sensorimotor area (SM1) showed significant improvement at 3 T. On the other hand, the detectability of contralateral SM1 was not significantly different between 1.5 and 3 T. The degree of activation was proportional to task demand in the ipsilateral SM1 and SMA, whereas that in the contralateral SM1 and SMA was not. FMRI with a 3 T magnet has greater potential for detection of neuronal activation as a functional network. These observations indicated that task demand and static magnetic field strength should be considered in interpretation of fMRI data for clinical usage.

  11. New Clinically-Feasible 3-T MRI Protocol to Discriminate Internal Brain Stem Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Michael J.; Chung, Sohae; Ben-Eliezer, Noam; Bruno, Mary T.; Fatterpekar, Girish M.; Shepherd, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two new 3-T MRI contrast methods, track density imaging and echo modulation curve T2 mapping were combined with simultaneous multislice acquisition to reveal exquisite anatomical detail at 7 canonical levels of the brainstem. Compared to conventional MRI contrasts, many individual brainstem tracts and nuclear groups were directly visualized for the first time at 3-T. This new approach is clinically practical and feasible (total scan time = 20 min) allowing better brainstem anatomical localization and characterization. PMID:26869471

  12. [Prehospital emergency setting caused by hemorrhagic oropharyngeal bullae in a child with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa Hallopeau-Siemens].

    PubMed

    Ochsenfahrt, C; Maier, B; Konrad, F

    2004-01-01

    Two painful large hemorrhagic bullae developed within minutes of each other in a four-month-old infant with autosomal recessive inherited epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica Hallopeau-Siemens. There was no significant impairment of spontaneous respiration. The emergency physician sedated the infant with midazolam administered by the nasal route. A community pediatrician called for assistance opened a bulla, which impressively improved the symptoms and avoided the necessity of an admission to hospital. The presented case demonstrates the importance of exchange of information within the group of emergency physicians regarding rare diseases not only in rural areas. In our opinion its also helpful to involve colleagues in private practice into the emergency system.

  13. A glutamate to lysine mutation at the end of 2B rod domain of keratin 2e gene in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Lee, E S; Kang, H J; Choi, G S; Yoneda, K; Jung, S Y; Park, K B; Steinert, P M; Lee, E S

    1998-11-01

    Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder whose clinical findings are quite similar to those of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. The differences between those two diseases include absence of erythroderma and different distributions in the skin in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. Recent studies have confirmed that ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is caused by the mutation in the keratin 2e (K2e) gene, which is expressed in the upper spinous and granular layers. We have identified a sporadic case of ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens; based on diagnosis by histopathological findings, the K2e gene of the patient was analysed. Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed a single base change in sequences encoding the highly conserved end of the 2B rod domain segment of the K2e gene. This mutation results in substitution of the codon for glutamic acid by a codon for lysine in position 493 in K2e (E493K). Mutations of the K2e gene involving five different residue positions (Q187P, T485P, L490P, E493D, E493K and E494K) are known to cause ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. Of these sites, E493, which is conserved in type I and type II keratin genes, is the most frequently altered amino acid in the K2e gene. These data together suggest that this codon constitutes a hot spot for mutations in the K2e gene.

  14. The East Australian, Tasmantid, and Lord Howe Volcanic Chains: Possible mechanisms behind a trio of hotspot trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Cohen, B. E.; Fitton, J. G.; Mark, D. F.; Richards, F. D.; Barfod, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    The east Australian and Tasman Sea region is home to a unique example of intraplate volcanism: three long-lived, sub-parallel volcanic chains spaced only about 500 km apart. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar results from the centre chain, the Tasmantid Seamounts, and show that the chain is strongly age-progressive, with an excellent correspondence to the age of the continental East Australian Volcanic Chain to the west and to the more limited ages available for the Lord Howe Seamount Chain to the east. Results from the Louisiade Plateau at the northern end of the Tasmantid chain suggest that it is composed of basalts of the correct age to be a large igneous province formed by the impact of the Tasmantid plume head reaching the lithosphere. This record of relative movement between the plate and the magma source over the last 55 Ma shows two clear deflections from the overall linear trend, one at 26--23 Ma, also observed in the continental chain and linked with the Ontong-Java Plateau jamming the South Melanesian subduction zone, and another at 50--43 Ma, beyond the end of the continental record and contemporaneous with the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. How does such a unique trio of volcanic chains form? The clear age progression, long lifespan, and tie to the Louisiade Plateau are classic indicators of deep-seated plumes, but it is difficult to explain how three separate plumes could remain stable for over 30 Ma when separated by little more than the radii of the plume conduits. Here we examine alternative possible explanations for this volcanic pattern, including small plumes rising from a single deep-seated plume pooling at the 660 km discontinuity, a single plume splitting around a subducting slab fragment, and small-scale convection triggered by topography on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  15. Targeted rehabilitation to improve outcome after total knee replacement (TRIO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome of total knee replacement, great volumes of which are carried out yearly. Physiotherapy is often provided by the NHS to address dysfunction following knee replacement; however the efficacy of this is unknown. Although clinically it is accepted that therapy is useful, provision of physiotherapy to all patients post-operatively does not enhance outcomes at one year. No study has previously assessed the effect of targeting therapy to individuals struggling to recover in the early post-operative phase. The aim of the TRIO study is to determine whether stratifying care by targeting physiotherapy to those individuals performing poorly following knee replacement is effective in improving the one year outcomes. We are also investigating whether the structure of the physiotherapy provision itself influences outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a multi-centre prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) of patients undergoing primary total knee replacement, with treatment targeted at those deemed most susceptible to gain from it. Use of the national PROMS programme for pre-operative data collection allows us to screen all patients at initial post-operative clinical review, and recruit only those deemed to be recovering slowly. We aim to recruit 440 patients through various NHS orthopaedic centres who will undergo six weeks of physiotherapy. The intervention will be either ‘intensive’ involving both hospital and home-based functional exercise rehabilitation, or ‘standard of care’ consisting of home exercises. Patients will be randomised to either group using a web-based system. Both groups will receive pre and post-intervention physiotherapy review. Patients will be followed-up to one year post-operation. The primary outcome measure is the Oxford Knee Score. Secondary outcomes are patient satisfaction, functional ability, pain scores and cost-effectiveness. Trial registration Current

  16. [Accuracy analysis of computer tomography imaging for medical modeling purposes on the example of Siemens Sensation 10 scanner].

    PubMed

    Miechowicz, Sławomir; Urbanik, Andrzej; Chrzan, Robert; Grochowska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Medical model is a material model of human body part, used for better visualization or surgery planning. It may be produced by Rapid Prototyping method, based on data obtained during medical imaging (computer tomography--CT, magnetic resonance--MR). Important problem is to provide proper spatial accuracy of the model, influenced by imaging accuracy of CT and MR scanners. The aim of the study is the accuracy analysis of CT imaging for medical modeling purposes on the example of Siemens Sensation 10 scanner. Using stereolithography technique a physical pattern--phantom in the form of grating was produced. The phantom was measured by a Coordinate Measuring Machine Leitz PMM 12106 to consider production process inaccuracy. Then the phantom was examined using CT scanner Siemens Sensation 10. Phantom measurement error distribution was determined, based on the data obtained. Maximal measurement error, considering both phantom production inaccuracy and CT imaging inaccuracy was +/- 0.87 mm, while considering only CT imaging inaccuracy was not exceeding 0.28 mm. CT acquisition process is by itself the source of measurement errors. So to provide high quality of medical models produced by Rapid Prototyping methods, it is necessary to perform accuracy measurements for every CT scanner used for obtaing data serving as the base for model production.

  17. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: case of non-Hallopeau-Siemens variant with premature termination codons in both alleles.

    PubMed

    Yonei, Nozomi; Ohtani, Toshio; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2006-11-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding collagen, the major component of anchoring fibrils. Premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in both alleles usually lead to the Hallopeau-Siemens variant that shows the most severe phenotype. We experienced a case of the non-Hallopeau-Siemens variant (nHS-RDEB), which had a mild clinical severity although it has PTC mutations in both alleles. Our patient was a compound heterozygote for a nonsense mutation (R669X) in exon 15 and a nonsense mutation (E2857X) in exon 116. But we confirmed the existence of some anchoring fibrils on electron micrograph. This suggested that a PTC close to the 3' end of COL7A1 does not completely abolish the collagen VII mRNA. We hypothesized that the truncated procollagen VII from the mutant allele with a nonsense mutation (E2857X) in exon 116 included two out of eight cysteines needed for disulfide bond formation, and hence a few functional anchoring fibrils could be formed.

  18. The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Marcus; Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different choices of adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation exposure to the patient with Siemens automatic exposure control system called CARE Dose 4D. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was used to simulate the patient and computed tomography scans were performed with a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 and 64. Owing to adaptation strengths, a considerable reduction (26.6-51.5 % and 27.5-49.5 % for Sensation 16 and Sensation 64, respectively) in the radiation dose was found when compared with using a fixed tube current. There was a substantial difference in the image quality (image noise) between the adaptation strengths. Independent of selected adaptation strengths, the level of image noise throughout the chest phantom increased when CARE Dose 4D was used (p < 0.0001). We conclude that the adaptation strengths can be used to obtain user-specified modifications to image quality or radiation exposure to the patient.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Titanate-Calcium Complexes to MC3T3 Osteoblast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Jeanie L.; Moussi, Joelle; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Monosodium titanates (MST) are a relatively novel form of particulate titanium dioxide that have been proposed for biological use as metal sorbents or delivery agents, most recently calcium (II). In these roles, the toxicity of the titanate or its metal complex is crucial to its biological utility. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of MST and MST-calcium complexes with MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells; MST-Ca(II) complexes could be useful to promote bone formation in various hard tissue applications. MC3T3 cells were exposed to native MST or MST-Ca(II) complexes for 24–72 h. A CellTiter-Blue® assay was employed to assess the metabolic activity of the cells. The results showed that MST and MST-Ca(II) suppressed MC3T3 metabolic activity significantly in a dose-, time-, and cell-density-dependent fashion. MST-Ca(II) suppressed MC3T3 metabolism in a statistically identical manner as native MST at all concentrations. We concluded that MST and MST-Ca(II) are significantly cytotoxic to MC3T3 cells through a mechanism yet unknown; this is a potential problem to the biological utility of these complexes. PMID:28044136

  20. Differentiation-specific decrease in heat shock protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sorhage, F.; Kim, J.; Liu, A.Y.C.; Chen, K.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The regulation of synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (fibroblasts) and adipocytes was examined using the techniques of pulse labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine followed by analysis of the pattern and amount of radioactivity incorporated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Exposure of the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures either to elevated temperature (42..mu..C) or to the amino acid analogue canavanine (400 ..mu..g/ml), markedly induced the synthesis of six major HSPs with apparent molecular weights of 105,000, 89,000, 74,000, 72,000, 50,000, and 42,000. The time course of induction of the HSPs by canavanine was significantly delayed as compared to that of heat shock; maximal increase in synthesis of the HSPs was observed at 3-7 hrs after incubation at 42..mu..c and at 22-24 hrs after incubation with 400 ..mu..g/ml canavanine. The magnitude of induction of HSP in the differentiated adipocytes was significantly reduced as compared to that of the undifferentiated fibroblast cells. The reduced expression of HSPs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes appears to be related to the terminal adipogenic differentiation process. The phenomenon was not observed in the control 3T3-C2 cells nor in a transformed variant of the 3T3-L1 cells.

  1. Protein turnover and cellular autophagy in growing and growth-inhibited 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, T.; Pfeifer, U. )

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between growth, protein degradation, and cellular autophagy was tested in growing and in growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers. For the biochemical evaluation of DNA and protein metabolism, growth-inhibited 3T3 cell monolayers with high cell density and growing 3T3 cell monolayers with low cell density were labeled simultaneously with ({sup 14}C)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)leucine. The evaluation of the DNA turnover and additional ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography showed that 24 to 5% of 3T3 cells continue to replicate even in the growth-inhibited state, where no accumulation of protein and DNA can be observed. Cell loss, therefore, has to be assumed to compensate for the ongoing cell proliferation. When the data of protein turnover were corrected for cell loss, it was found that the rate constant of protein synthesis in nongrowing monolayers was reduced to half the value found in growing monolayers. Simultaneously, the rate constant of protein degradation in nongrowing monolayers was increased to about 1.5-fold the value of growing monolayers. These data are in agreement with the assumption that cellular autophagy represents a major pathway of regulating protein degradation in 3T3 cells and that the regulation of autophagic protein degradation is of relevance for the transition from a growing to a nongrowing state.

  2. Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2014-04-01

    Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) are a valuable source of bioactive substances with high antioxidant potential and well documented beneficial health properties. In the present study, the activity of cranberries, in terms of the inhibiting effects of adipogenesis, was investigated using the 3T3-L1 cell line. The obtained results showed that cranberries reduced proliferation and viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with cranberries decreased the number of adipocytes and reduced lipid accumulation in maturing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, demonstrating an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. Moreover, it was found that cranberries directly induced lipolysis in adipocytes and down-regulated the expression of major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1. These findings indicate that cranberries are capable of suppressing adipogenesis and therefore they seem to be natural bioactive factors effective in adipose tissue mass modulation.

  3. Effect of Biodegradable Shape-Memory Polymers on Proliferation of 3T3 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Ying-Ming

    2011-07-01

    This article evaluates the in vitro biocompatibility for biodegradable shape-memory polymers (BSMP) invented by the authors. 3T3 cells (3T3-Swiss albino GNM 9) of primary and passaged cultures were inoculated into two kinds of carriers: the BSMP carrier and the control group carrier. Viability, proliferation, and DNA synthesis (the major biocompatibility parameters), were measured and evaluated for both the BSMP and naked carrier via cell growth curve analysis, MTT colorimetry and addition of 3H-TdR to culture media. The results showed that there was no difference between the BSMP carrier and the control dish in terms of viability, proliferation, and metabolism of the 3T3 cells. Overall, the BSMP carrier provides good biocompatibility and low toxicity to cells in vitro, and could indicate future potential for this medium as a biological material for implants in vivo.

  4. Calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Takayuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Ashida, Maki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Moriyama, Keiji; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    To confirm similarity of hard tissue compatibility between titanium and zirconium, calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium was evaluated in this study. Mirror-polished titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) disks and zirconium-sputter deposited titanium (Zr/Ti) were employed in this study. The surface of specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, the cellular proliferation, differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on specimens were investigated. The surface of Zr/Ti was much smoother and cleaner than those of Ti and Zr. The proliferation of the cell was the same among three specimens, while the differentiation and calcification on Zr/Ti were faster than those on Ti and Zr. Therefore, Ti and Zr showed the identical hard tissue compatibility according to the evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells. Sputter deposition may improve cytocompatibility.

  5. Characterization of copy number variants for CCL3L1 gene in rheumatoid arthritis for French trio families and Tunisian cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Ben Kilani, Mohamed Sahbi; Achour, Yosser; Perea, Javier; Cornelis, François; Bardin, Thomas; Chaudru, Valérie; Maalej, Abdellatif; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    Analyses of copy number variants (CNVs) for candidate genes in complex diseases are currently a promising research field. CNVs of C-C chemokine ligand 3-like 1 (CCL3L1) gene are candidate genomic factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated CCL3L1 CNVs association with a case-control study in Tunisians and a transmission analysis in French trio families. Relative copy number (rCN) of CCL3L1 gene was quantified by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in 100 French trio families (RA patients and their two parents) and in 166 RA cases and 102 healthy controls from Tunisia. We calculated odds ratio (OR) to investigate association risk for CCL3L1 CNVs in RA. rCN identified varied from 0 to 4 in the French population and from 0 to 7 in the Tunisian population. A significant difference was observed in the distribution of these rCNs between the two populations (p = 2.34 × 10(-10)), as when rCN from French and Tunisian RA patients were compared (p = 2.83 × 10(-5)). CNVs transmission in French RA trios allowed the characterization of genotypes with the presence of tandem duplication and triplication on the same chromosome. RA association tests highlighted a protective effect of rCN = 5 for CCL3L1 gene in the Tunisian population (OR = 0.056; CI 95 % [0.01-0.46]). Characterization of CCL3L1 CNVs with ddPCR methodology highlighted specific CN genotypes in a French family sample. A copy number polymorphism of a RA candidate gene was quantified, and its significant association with RA was revealed in a Tunisian sample.

  6. Uncoupling of 3T3-L1 gene expression from lipid accumulation during adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Temple, Karla A; Basko, Xheni; Allison, Margaret B; Brady, Matthew J

    2007-02-06

    Adipocyte differentiation comprises altered gene expression and increased triglyceride storage. To investigate the interdependency of these two events, 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated in the presence of glucose or pyruvate. All adipocytic proteins examined were similarly increased between the two conditions. In contrast, 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated with glucose exhibited significant lipid accumulation, which was largely suppressed in the presence of pyruvate. Subsequent addition of glucose to the latter cells restored lipid accumulation and acute rates of insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. These data indicate that extracellular energy is required for induction of adipocytic proteins, while only glucose sustained the parallel increase in triglyceride storage.

  7. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  8. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  9. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  10. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.884-3T Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  11. Synthesis and characterization of DNA duplexes containing an N3T-ethyl-N3T interstrand crosslink in opposite orientations.

    PubMed

    Wilds, Christopher J; Noronha, Anne M; Robidoux, Sebastien; Miller, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    DNA duplexes containing an ethyl interstrand crosslink that bridges the N3 atoms of thymidines on the opposite strands have been synthesized using an approach that combines conventional solid phase oligonucleotide synthesis and the selective removal of protecting groups of a crosslinked thymidine dimer. This approach allows for the assembly of a crosslinked duplex directly on the solid support. Duplexes that contain a N3T-ethyl-N3T interstrand crosslink in a staggered orientation at either a -TA- or -AT-step in a duplex have been prepared. When placed in an -AT- step of a duplex the effect was stabilizing relative to the non-crosslinked control duplex (deltaTm= +24 degrees C) and this crosslinked duplex was found to efficiently form multimers in the presence of T4 ligase. In the case of the -TA- crosslinked duplex the stabilizing effect was less pronounced (deltaT.= +6 degrees C) and likewise did not undergo self ligation under identical conditions. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the -AT- containing lesion had little deviation in structure relative to the non-crosslinked duplex DNA control, whereas the -TA- crosslinked duplex exhibited significant buckling of the base pairs flanking the lesion.

  12. Methylglyoxal induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, K S; Choi, E M; Rhee, S Y; Kim, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced by glycolytic processing and identified as a precursor of advanced glycation end products. The elevated methylglyoxal levels in patients with diabetes are believed to contribute to diabetic complications, including bone defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The data indicated that methylglyoxal decreased osteoblast differentiation and induced osteoblast cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with aminoguanidine (a carbonyl scavenger), Trolox (an antioxidant), and cyclosporin A (a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) prevented methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, BAPTA/AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) and dantrolene (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release) did not reverse the cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal increased the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, and cardiolipin peroxidation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methylglyoxal also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP and nitric oxide levels, suggesting that carbonyl stress-induced loss of mitochondrial integrity contributes to the cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that methylglyoxal induced protein adduct formation, inactivation of glyoxalase I, and activation of glyoxalase II. Aminoguanidine reversed all aforementioned effects of methylglyoxal. Taken together, these data support the notion that high methylglyoxal concentrations have detrimental effects on osteoblasts through a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  14. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-3T - Vesting in employer-derived benefits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vesting in employer-derived benefits (temporary.... § 1.411(a)-3T Vesting in employer-derived benefits (temporary). (a) In general—(1) (2) Composite... derived from employer contributions. (c) 3- to 7-year vesting. A plan satisfies the requirements...

  15. Cirsium japonicum flavones enhance adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiyong; Wu, Zhihua; Wu, Mingjiang

    2012-01-01

    Cirsium japonicum flavones have been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we report the effects of Cirsium japonicum flavones (pectolinarin and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4-dimethoxy flavone) on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Reporter gene assays and Oil Red O staining showed that Cirsium japonicum flavones induced PPARγ activation and enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Cirsium japonicum flavones increased the expression of PPARγ target genes, such as adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and enhanced the translocation of intracellular GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Cirsium japonicum flavones significantly enhanced the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The flavones-induced effects in 3T3-L1 cells were abolished by the PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, and by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin. This study suggests that Cirsium japonicum flavones promote adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake by inducing PPARγ activation and then modulating the insulin signaling pathway in some way, which could benefit diabetes patients.

  16. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability. This section applies to a partner in a partnership if— (1) The partnership is required by section... partnership would, but for the provisions of this section, be included in the taxable year of the partner...

  17. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability. This section applies to a partner in a partnership if— (1) The partnership is required by section 806... partnership would, but for the provisions of this section, be included in the taxable year of the partner...

  18. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water... eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained. (5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted. (d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall...

  19. The Pathogen Recognition Receptor NOD2 Regulates Human FOXP3+ T Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Meher K.; Midtling, Emilie H.; Svingen, Phyllis A.; Xiong, Yuning; Bell, Michael P.; Tung, Jeanne; Smyrk, Tom; Egan, Larry J.; Faubion, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of pathogen recognition receptors in human FOXP3+ T regulatory cells is established, yet the function of these receptors is currently obscure. In the process of studying the function of both peripheral and lamina propria FOXP3+ lymphocytes in patients with the human inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease, we observed a clear deficiency in the quantity of FOXP3+ lymphocytes in patients with disease-associated polymorphisms in the pathogen recognition receptor gene NOD2. Subsequently, we determined that the NOD2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), activates NF-κB in primary human FOXP3+ T cells. This activation is functionally relevant, as MDP-stimulated human FOXP3+ T cells are protected from death receptor Fas-mediated apoptosis. Importantly, apoptosis protection was not evident in MDP-stimulated FOXP3+ T cells isolated from a patient with the disease-associated polymorphism. Thus, we propose that one function of pathogen recognition receptors in human T regulatory cells is the protection against death receptor-mediated apoptosis in a Fas ligand-rich environment, such as that of the inflamed intestinal subepithelial space. PMID:20483763

  20. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of lipids during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Sik; Won, Young Jae; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Dug Young

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is becoming a big health problem in these days. Since increased body weight is due to increased number and size of the triglyceride-storing adipocytes, many researchers are working on differentiation conditions and processes of adipocytes. Adipocytes also work as regulators of whole-body energy homeostasis by secreting several proteins that regulate processes as diverse as haemostasis, blood pressure, immune function, angiogenesis and energy balance. 3T3-L1 cells are widely used cell line for studying adipogenesis because it can differentiate into an adipocyte-like phenotype under appropriate conditions. In this paper, we propose an effective fluorescence lifetime imaging technique which can easily distinguish lipids in membrane and those in lipid droplets. Nile red dyes are attached to lipids in 3T3-L1 cells. Fluorescence lifetime images were taken for 2 week during differentiation procedure of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. We used 488 nm pulsed laser with 5MHz repetition rate and emission wavelength is 520 nm of Nile Red fluorescent dye. Results clearly show that the lifetime of Nile red in lipid droplets are smaller than those in cell membrane. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging can be a very powerful tool to monitor lipid droplet formation in adipocytes from 3T3-L1 cells.

  1. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive activity credit for the taxable year is the amount (if any) by which— (1) The sum of all of the taxpayer's...

  2. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive activity credit for the taxable year is the amount (if any) by which— (1) The sum of all of the taxpayer's...

  3. 26 CFR 1.469-3T - Passive activity credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469-3T... activity credit (temporary). (a) Computation of passive activity credit. The taxpayer's passive activity credit for the taxable year is the amount (if any) by which— (1) The sum of all of the taxpayer's...

  4. Increased association of dynamin II with myosin II in ras transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yoo, Jiyun; Han, Mi-Young; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Heung-Joong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Baik-Dong; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2006-08-01

    Dynamin has been implicated in the formation of nascent vesicles through both endocytic and secretory pathways. However, dynamin has recently been implicated in altering the cell membrane shape during cell migration associated with cytoskeleton-related proteins. Myosin II has been implicated in maintaining cell morphology and in cellular movement. Therefore, reciprocal immunoprecipitation was carried out to identify the potential relationship between dynamin II and myosin II. The dynamin II expression level was higher when co-expressed with myosin II in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells than in normal NIH3T3 cells. Confocal microscopy also confirmed the interaction between these two proteins. Interestingly, exposing the NIH3T3 cells to platelet-derived growth factor altered the interaction and localization of these two proteins. The platelet-derived growth factor treatment induced lamellipodia and cell migration, and dynamin II interacted with myosin II. Grb2, a 24 kDa adaptor protein and an essential element of the Ras signaling pathway, was found to be associated with dynamin II and myosin II gene expression in the Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that dynamin II acts as an intermediate messenger in the Ras signal transduction pathway leading to membrane ruffling and cell migration.

  5. XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and melanoma skin cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinghua; Fan, Yuhua; Kang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Limin

    2015-05-01

    Although the T241M polymorphism in the X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with melanoma. Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases was retrieved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. A total of six case-control studies containing 2,133 patients and 3,141 controls were enrolled into this meta-analysis. In a combined analysis, the results revealed no significant association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and melanoma risk in the overall population. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant associations between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and melanoma risk were identified in Caucasians. However, when the analyses were restricted to three larger studies (n>500 cases), a significant association was noted with melanoma (TT vs. MT: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.04-1.38; dominant model: OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.75-0.98). In conclusion, the meta-analysis results suggest that the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism was associated with risk of melanoma. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  6. Association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and glioma risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiping; Zeng, Miaoyu; Xu, Qingsheng

    2014-06-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) plays a critical role in homologous recombination repair (HRR) accounting for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Attention has been drawn upon the association of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with glioma risk. The present meta-analysis aimed to examine whether XRCC3 T241M polymorphism was associated with glioma risk. Eligible articles were identified for the period up to March 2013. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were appropriately derived from fixed effects or random effects models. Eight case-control studies with a total of 3,455 glioma cases and 4,435 controls were included. Overall, no significant association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and glioma was found. In subgroup analysis, this polymorphism seemed to be associated with elevated glioma risk in Asians. No publication bias was detected. This meta-analysis suggested that XRCC3 T241M polymorphism did not confer glioma risk.

  7. Antiadopogenic effects of rice hull smoke extract in 3T3-L1 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the inhibitory effects of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells. At concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5% RHSE, MDI-induced cells were shown to reduce their cellular lipid content by about 72% and 88%, respectively, compared to ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.883-3T - Treatment of controlled foreign corporations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of controlled foreign corporations... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-3T Treatment of controlled foreign corporations (temporary). (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock...

  9. Effect of Gambisan on the Inhibition of Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Won; Nam, Dongwoo; Kim, Kun Hyung; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antiadipogenic effect and possible mechanism of Gambisan on 3T3-L1 cells. For quality control, Gambisan was standardized by HPLC and the standard compounds ephedrine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine were screened. Cultured 3T3-L1 cells that had been induced to differentiate were treated with various concentrations of Gambisan or its major component extracts (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk, Atractylodes lancea DC., and Thea sinensis L.) for 72 hours for MTT assay to determine cell viability or 10 days for LDH assay, triglyceride assay, DNA content measurement, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. Gambisan significantly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by reducing triglyceride contents and lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner without obvious cytotoxicity. Viability and DNA content in 3T3-L1 cells treated with Gambisan were significantly higher than cells treated with the major component extracts at every concentration. The anti-adipogenic effects of Gambisan appeared to be mediated by a significant downregulation of the expression of lipoprotein lipase mRNA and PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1 protein apart from the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase. Gambisan could act as a possible therapeutic agent for obesity. However, further studies including in vivo assays and clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy, safety and mechanisms of the antiobesity effects of Gambisan. PMID:24069055

  10. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A. )

    1990-09-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% (day 3 following depletion) vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression.

  11. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

    2014-08-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

  12. A Trio in Plano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Sandra K.

    1979-01-01

    The article briefly highlights a few of the experiences of a commerical food preparation teacher, an auto body teacher, and a special education aide, who all work together to provide a comprehensive vocational program for mainstreamed handicapped high school students at Plano High School in Plano, Texas. (DLS)

  13. Bidirectional ACR-NEMA interface between the VA's DHCP integrated imaging system and the Siemens-Loral PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Dayhoff, Ruth E.

    1994-05-01

    At the Baltimore VA Medical Center, the DHCP Integrated Imaging System and a commercial Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) work in concert to provide a wide- range of departmental and hospital-wide imaging capabilities. An interface between the DHCP and the Siemens-Loral PACS systems enables patient text and image data to be passed between the two systems. The interface uses ACR-NEMA 2.0 Standard messages extended with shadow groups based on draft ACR-NEMA 3.0 prototypes. A Novell file server, accessible to both systems via Ethernet, is used to communicate all the messages. Patient identification information, orders, ADT, procedure status, changes, patient reports, and images are sent between the two systems across the interface. The systems together provide an extensive set of imaging capabilities for both the specialist and the general practitioner.

  14. Human c-fgr induces a monocyte-specific enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Kazushi; Akiyama, Tetsu; Toyoshima, Kumao ); Wongsasant, Budsaba )

    1991-12-01

    The mutant c-fgr protein (p58{sup c-fgr/F523}) containing Phe-523 instead of Tyr-523 exhibited transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells like other protein-tyrosine kinases of the src family, but normal p58{sup c-fgr} (p58{sup c-fgr/wt}) did not. The mutant protein showed tyrosine kinase activity threefold higher than that of the normal protein in vitro. Surprisingly, transfection of the normal c-fgr gene into NIH 3T3 cells resulted in induction of sodium fluoride (NaF)-sensitive {alpha}-naphthyl butyrate esterase ({alpha}-NBE), marker enzyme of cells of monocytic origin, which was not induced in v-src-, v-fgr-, or lyn-transfected NIH 3T3 cells. The NaF-sensitive {alpha}-NBE induced in c-fgr transfectants was shown by isoelectric focusing to have a pI of 5.2 to 5.4, a range which was the same as those for thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and 1{alpha}, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-treated WEHI-3B cells. Immunoblotting studies with antophosphotyrosine antibodies revealed that 58-, 62-, 75-, 120-, 200-, and 230-kDa proteins were commonly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with normal and mutated c-fgr, while 95-kDa protein was significantly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with normal and mutated c-fgr, while 95-kDa protein was significantly phosphorylated at tyrosine residues in cells transfected with the mutated c-fgr. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of specific cellular substrate proteins is important in induction of NaF-sensitive {alpha}-NBE and cell transformation by p58{sup c-fgr}.

  15. Berberine activates GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hui; Shin, Eun-Jung; Kim, Eun-Do; Bayaraa, Tsenguun; Frost, Susan Cooke; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2007-11-01

    It has recently been known that berberine, an alkaloid of medicinal plants, has anti-hyperglycemic effects. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes for analyzing the signaling pathways that contribute to glucose transport. Treatment of berberine to 3T3-L1 adipocytes for 6 h enhanced basal glucose uptake both in normal and in insulin-resistant state, but the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was not augmented significantly. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) by wortmannin did not affect the berberine effect on basal glucose uptake. Berberine did not augment tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1. Further, berberine had no effect on the activity of the insulin-sensitive downstream kinase, atypical protein kinase C (PKCzeta/lambda). However, interestingly, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), which have been known to be responsible for the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT)1, were significantly activated in berberine-treated 3T3-L1 cells. As expected, the level of GLUT1 protein was increased both in normal and insulin-resistant cells in response to berberine. But berberine affected the expression of GLUT4 neither in normal nor in insulin-resistant cells. In addition, berberine treatment increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in 3T3-L1 cells, which has been reported to be associated with GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake. Together, we concluded that berberine increases glucose transport activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by enhancing GLUT1 expression and also stimulates the GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake by activating GLUT1, a result of AMPK stimulation.

  16. 3-T MRI safety assessments of magnetic dental attachments and castable magnetic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, K; Abe, Y; Ishii, T; Ishigami, T; Ohtani, K; Nagai, E; Ohyama, T; Umekawa, Y; Nakabayashi, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety of different magnetic dental attachments during 3-T MRI according to the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 and F2052-06e1 standard testing methods and to develop a method to determine MRI compatibility by measuring magnetically induced torque. Methods: The temperature elevations, magnetically induced forces and torques of a ferromagnetic stainless steel keeper, a coping comprising a keeper and a cast magnetic alloy coping were measured on MRI systems. Results: The coping comprising a keeper demonstrated the maximum temperature increase (1.42 °C) for the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate and was calculated as 2.1 W kg−1 with the saline phantom. All deflection angles exceeded 45°. The cast magnetic alloy coping had the greatest deflection force (0.33 N) during 3-T MRI and torque (1.015 mN m) during 0.3-T MRI. Conclusions: The tested devices showed minimal radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in a 3-T MR environment, but the cast magnetic alloy coping showed a magnetically induced deflection force and torque approximately eight times that of the keepers. For safety, magnetic dental attachments should be inspected before and after MRI and large prostheses containing cast magnetic alloy should be removed. Although magnetic dental attachments may pose no great risk of RF-induced heating or magnetically induced torque during 3-T MRI, their magnetically induced deflection forces tended to exceed acceptable limits. Therefore, the inspection of such devices before and after MRI is important for patient safety. PMID:25785821

  17. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  18. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  19. Dehydrocostus lactone prevents mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2011-08-16

    The dried root of Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine. Dehydrocostus lactone is one of the main bioactive constituents of this medicinal plant. In the present study, the protective effect of dehydrocostus lactone against antimycin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex III)-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-treatment with dehydrocostus lactone prior to antimycin A exposure significantly prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, cytochrome c release, intracellular calcium elevation and potassium loss, and reactive oxygen species production induced by antimycin A. These results suggest that dehydrocostus lactone protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells from antimycin A-induced cell damage through the improved mitochondrial function.

  20. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu . E-mail: jwdai@genetics.ac.cn

    2005-12-16

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion.

  1. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

  2. Impaired functional responses in follicular lymphoma CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T lymphocytes following TCR engagement.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Pauline; Do, Catherine; Franchet, Camille; Mueller, Sabina; Oberic, Lucie; Ysebaert, Loïc; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Hohaus, Stefan; Calmels, Marie-Noëlle; Frenois, François-Xavier; Kridel, Robert; Gascoyne, Randy D; Laurent, Guy; Brousset, Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore; Laurent, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of T cell immunoglobulin-3 (TIM-3) has been associated with negative regulation of the immune response in chronic infection and cancer, including lymphoma. Here, we investigated the possible correlation between TIM-3 expression by ex vivo cytotoxic T cells (CTL) from follicular lymphoma (FL) biopsies and their functional unresponsiveness that could limit the favorable impact of CTL on disease progression. We report a high percentage of CD8(+)TIM-3(+)T cells in lymph nodes of FL patients. When compared to their CD8(+)TIM-3(-) counterparts, CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T cells exhibited defective cytokine production following TCR engagement. Furthermore, CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T cells display ex vivo markers of lytic granule release and remain unresponsive to further TCR-induced activation of the lytic machinery. Although confocal microscopy showed that TIM-3 expression on CD8(+) T cells correlated with minor alterations of immunological synapse, a selective reduction of ERK signaling in CD8(+)TIM-3(+)T cells was observed by phospho-flow analysis. Finally, short relapse-free survival despite rituximab(R)-chemotherapy was observed in patients with high content of TIM-3(+) cells and a poor infiltrate of granzyme B(+) T cells in FL lymph nodes. Together, our data indicate that, besides selective TCR early signaling defects, TIM-3 expression correlates with unresponsiveness of ex vivo CD8(+) T cells in FL. They show that scores based on the combination of exhaustion and cytolytic markers in FL microenvironment might be instrumental to identify patients at early risk of relapses following R-chemotherapy.

  3. Ultrasound associated uptake of chitosan nanoparticles in MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junyi

    Chitosan is a natural linear polysaccharide that has been well known for its applications in drug delivery system due to its unique physicochemical and biological properties. However, challenges still remain for it to become a fully realized therapeutic agent. In this study, we investigated the uptake of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) under the ultrasound stimulation, using a model cell culture system (MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts). The CNP were fabricated by an ionic gelation method and were lyophilized prior to characterization and delivery to cells. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); the efficiency of chitosan complexation was measured using the ninhydrin assay. Cytotoxicity was examined by neutral red assay within 48 hours after delivery. The effect of ultrasound (US) on the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery to the MC3T3-E1 cells was examined at 1MHz and at either 1 or 2 W/cm2. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated-CNP were used to visualize the internalized particles within the cytosol. The uptake of FITC-CNP exhibits a dose and time dependent effect, a strong FITC fluorescence was detected at the concentration of 500microg/mL under fluorescence microscope. Ultrasound assisted uptake of FITC-CNP performed a significant positive effect at 2W/cm2 with 60s of ultrasound exposure time. CNP displayed a slightly decrease in cell viability from 25microg/mL to 100microg/mL, while higher concentration of CNP facilitates the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Less than 10% of reduction in cell viability was observed for US at 1W/cm2 and 2W/cm2 with 30s and 60s of exposure time, which suggest a mild effect of US to MC3T3-E1 cell line.

  4. Comparison of Muscle BOLD Responses to Arterial Occlusion at 3T and 7T

    PubMed Central

    Towse, Theodore F.; Childs, Benjamin T.; Sabin, Shea A.; Bush, Emily C.; Elder, Christopher P.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of muscle BOLD (mBOLD) imaging at 7T by comparing the changes in R2* of muscle at 3 and 7T in response to a brief period of tourniquet-induced ischemia. Methods Eight subjects (3 male), aged 29.5 ± 6.1 years (mean ± standard deviation, SD), 167.0 ± 10.6 cm tall with a body mass of 62.0 ± 18.0 kg, participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab on four separate occasions including a habituation session, two MRI scans, and in a subset of subjects, a session during which changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation were quantified using Doppler ultrasound (U/S) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) respectively. For statistical comparisons between 3T and 7T, R2* rate constants were calculated as R2* = 1/T2*. Results The mean pre-occlusion R2* value was greater at 7T than at 3T (60.16 ± 2.95 vs 35.17 ± 0.35 s−1 respectively, p <0.001). Also, the mean ΔR2*END and ΔR2*POST values were greater for 7T than for 3T (−2.36 ± 0.25 vs. −1.24 ± 0.39 s−1, respectively, Table 1). Conclusion Muscle BOLD contrast at 7T is as much as six-fold greater than at 3T. In addition to providing greater SNR and CNR, 7T mBOLD studies may offer further advantages in the form of greater sensitivity to pathological changes in the muscle microcirculation. PMID:25884888

  5. Philips 3T Intera Magnetic Resonance Imaging System and Upgrade of existing MRI equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Evanochko, William T

    2004-05-14

    The objective of this proposal was twofold. First, upgrade existing MRI equipment, specifically a research 4.1T whole-body system. Second, purchase a clinical, state-of-the-art 3T MRI system tailored specifically to cardiovascular and neurological applications. This project was within the guidelines of ''Medical Applications and Measurement Science''. The goals were: [1] to develop beneficial applications of magnetic resonance imaging; [2] discover new applications of MR strategies for medical research; and [2] apply them for clinical diagnosis. Much of this proposal searched for breakthroughs in this noninvasive and nondestructive imaging technology. Finally, this proposal's activities focused on research in the basic science of chemistry, biochemistry, physics, and engineering as applied to bioengineering. The centerpiece of this grant was our 4.1T ultra-high field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance system and the newly acquired state-of-the-art, heart and head dedicated 3T clinical MRI system. We have successfully upgraded the equipment for the 4.1T system so that it is now state-of-the-art with new gradient and radio frequency amplifiers. We also purchase a unique In Vivo EKG monitoring unit that will permit tracking clinical quality EKG signals while the patient is in a high field MR scanner. Important upgrades of a peripheral vascular coil and a state-of-the-art clinical workstation for processing complex heart images were implemented. The most recent acquisition was the purchase of a state-of-the-art Philips 3T Intera clinical MRI system. This system is unique in that the magnet is only 5 1/2 feet long compare to over 12 feet long magnet of our 4.1T MRI system. The 3T MRI system is fully functional and its use and applications are already greatly benefiting the UAB with 200-300 micron resolution brain images and diagnostic quality MR angiography of coronary arteries in less than 5 minutes.

  6. Effects of 6-Hydroxyflavone on Osteoblast Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Wei; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Lin, Yu-Hsaing; Tsai, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation plays an essential role in bone integrity. Isoflavones and some flavonoids are reported to have osteogenic activity and potentially possess the ability to treat osteoporosis. However, limited information concerning the osteogenic characteristics of hydroxyflavones is available. This study investigates the effects of various hydroxyflavones on osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The results showed that 6-hydroxyflavone (6-OH-F) and 7-hydroxyflavone (7-OH-F) stimulated ALP activity. However, baicalein and luteolin inhibited ALP activity and flavone showed no effect. Up to 50 μM of each compound was used for cytotoxic effects study; flavone, 6-OH-F, and 7-OH-F had no cytotoxicity on MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, 6-OH-F activated AKT and serine/threonine kinases (also known as protein kinase B or PKB), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2), and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. On the other hand, 7-OH-F promoted osteoblast differentiation mainly by activating ERK 1/ 2 signaling pathways. Finally, after 5 weeks of 6-OH-F induction, MC3T3-E1 cells showed a significant increase in the calcein staining intensity relative to merely visible mineralization observed in cells cultured in the osteogenic medium only. These results suggested that 6-OH-F could activate AKT, ERK 1/2, and JNK signaling pathways to effectively promote osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:24795772

  7. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  8. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Liu, Gexiu; Yan, Guoyao; He, Dongmei; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Shengting

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  9. Enhanced survival of short-range magnetic correlations and frustrated interactions in R3T intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, Nikolai; Proshkin, Aleksei; Gubkin, Andrey; Cervellino, A.; Michor, H.; Hilsher, G.; Gerasimov, E.G.; Ehlers, Georg; Frontzek, Matthias D; Podlesnyak, Andrey A

    2012-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization measurements have been used to study peculiarities of the magnetic state in R{sub 3}T compounds (R=Gd, Er, Tb; T=Ni, Co) below and above magnetic ordering temperatures. A pronounced non-Brillouin shape of the magnetization curves observed in the antiferromagnetic compounds Gd{sub 3}Ni and Tb{sub 3}Ni above their magnetic ordering temperatures together with earlier reported data about the retention of the magnetic contribution to the total specific heat of Gd{sub 3}T and anomalous behavior of the electrical resistivity above magnetic ordering temperatures are ascribed to the existence of short-range magnetic correlations in the wide temperature range in the paramagnetic state. The persistence of short-range magnetic order up to temperatures greater than 5-6 times the Neel temperature has been revealed by powder neutron diffraction measurements performed for Tb{sub 3}Ni and Tb{sub 3}Co. On the other hand, results from inelastic neutron scattering show that the low temperature magnetic excitations are strongly suppressed in both Tb{sub 3}Co and Er{sub 3}Co. It is suggested that the extended short-range magnetic correlations, which turn out to be an inherent feature of R{sub 3}T type compounds, are due to the layered crystal structure and to the difference between geometrically frustrated intra-layer exchange interactions and inter-layer exchange.

  10. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Chian-Jiun; Lai, Xuan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wei, Ciao-Han; Huang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway. PMID:26413119

  11. Interferon inhibits the conversion of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Keay, S; Grossberg, S E

    1980-01-01

    Confluent Swiss mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts slowly differentiate functionally and morphologically into adipocytes, a conversion hastened by insulin. The cells are sensitive (although less than L929 cells) to the antiviral action of mouse fibroblast interferons but not to interferons from heterologous species (human and chicken). Cultures stimulated with insulin in the presence of partially purified or electrophoretically pure mouse interferons have a much lower percentage of cells accumulating lipid than do insulin-treated control cultures. Interferon-treated cell cultures also contain much less triglyceride, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters than do replicate control cultures stimulated by insulin to differentiate. Increased de novo lipid biosynthesis that occurs during differentiation is inhibited, as determined by incorporation of [14C]acetate into lipids extractable by the Folch method. This incorporation is a sensitive bioassay of the antidifferentiation effect of interferon; less than 1 antiviral unit is inhibitory. Variously inactivated or mock interferon preparations as well as interferons from several heterologous species fail to inhibit 3T3-L1 adipocyte conversion. Interferon is inhibitory even when applied as long as 3 days after insulin stimulation. The effect of interferon does not appear to depend upon its competition with insulin for cell surface receptors. Because interferon can alter the program of events involved in conversion of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells, it may be able to affect the regulation of eukaryotic cell differentiation. Images PMID:6159626

  12. Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Increases Insulin Sensitivity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, Wan Iryani Wan; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Zainah; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic effects in both rat and human subjects. There have been few studies on these effects in vitro. In this paper, radioactive glucose uptake assay was implemented in order to assess improvements in insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells by elevation of glucose uptake following treatment with stevioside. Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. Findings from this research showed a significant increase in absorbance values in mature adipocytes following Oil Red-O staining, confirming the differentiation process. Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC50. Stevioside increased glucose uptake activities by 2.1 times (p < 0.001) in normal conditions and up to 4.4 times (p < 0.001) in insulin-resistant states. At times, this increase was higher than that seen in positive control group treated with rosiglitazone maleate, an antidiabetic agent. Expressions of pY20 and p-IRS1 which were measured via Western blot were improved by stevioside treatment. In conclusion, stevioside has direct effects on 3T3-L1 insulin sensitivity via increase in glucose uptake and enhanced expression of proteins involved in insulin-signalling pathway. PMID:24391675

  13. Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Increases Insulin Sensitivity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, Wan Iryani Wan; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Zainah; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana has been reported to exert antihyperglycemic effects in both rat and human subjects. There have been few studies on these effects in vitro. In this paper, radioactive glucose uptake assay was implemented in order to assess improvements in insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells by elevation of glucose uptake following treatment with stevioside. Oil Red-O staining and MTT assay were utilized to confirm adipocyte differentiation and cell viability, respectively. Findings from this research showed a significant increase in absorbance values in mature adipocytes following Oil Red-O staining, confirming the differentiation process. Stevioside was noncytotoxic to 3T3-L1 cells as cell viability was reduced by a maximum of 17%, making it impossible to determine its IC50. Stevioside increased glucose uptake activities by 2.1 times (p < 0.001) in normal conditions and up to 4.4 times (p < 0.001) in insulin-resistant states. At times, this increase was higher than that seen in positive control group treated with rosiglitazone maleate, an antidiabetic agent. Expressions of pY20 and p-IRS1 which were measured via Western blot were improved by stevioside treatment. In conclusion, stevioside has direct effects on 3T3-L1 insulin sensitivity via increase in glucose uptake and enhanced expression of proteins involved in insulin-signalling pathway.

  14. Menaquinone-7 regulates gene expression in osteoblastic MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Hironobu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Otsuki, Takemi; Tomita, Masafumi; Fukunaga, Masao; Sunami, Shigeo

    2007-02-01

    Previous study has shown that the vitamin K2 analog menaquinone-7 (MK-7) induces expression of the osteoblast-specific genes osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of NFkappaB, and its ligand. Since MK-7 may also regulate osteoblast cell function, we examined the expression of osteoblast genes regulated by MK-7 administration. Differences between gene expression in control and MK-7-administered MC3T3E1 cells were analyzed using the suppression subtractive hybridization method. After 24 h of MK-7 administration, genes upregulated by MK-7 included tenascin C and BMP2. Genes downregulated by MK-7 administration included biglycan and butyrophilin. Real-time PCR showed a marked increase in tenascin C. When the protein level was examined using Western blot analysis, tenascin C was higher in MK-7-administered cells than in control cells. These results indicated that MK-7 affected the cellular function of osteoblastic MC3T3E1 cells. Considering BMP2 mRNA expression was higher in MK-7-administered cells than in control cells, the effect of MK-7 administration on the signal transduction system was examined. Western blot analysis showed that cells administered MK-7 displayed a higher phosphorylated Smad1 level than control cells. Because MC3T3E1 cells have a nuclear binding receptor for MK-7, this result might indicate an indirect effect of MK-7 through BMP2 production.

  15. Retinoic acid inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Koo, Bon-Sun; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Rho, Hye-Won; Sohn, Hee-Sook; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Park, Jin-Woo

    2002-11-30

    The present study was undertaken to explore whether retinoids, which are known to have immunomodulatory actions, could attenuate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes incubated with TNF induced dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium through the iNOS induction as confirmed by Western blotting. Treatment of cells with TNF in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) significantly decreased their ability to produce nitrite and iNOS induction. Both 13-cis- and all- trans-RA-induced suppression was dose-dependent, and all-trans-RA was somewhat potent than 13-cis-RA. The inhibitory effect of RA on TNF-induced iNOS induction was reversible, completely recovered after 2 days, and was exerted through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. TNF also suppressed the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RA could not reverse the TNF- induced LPL suppression at RA levels causing near complete inhibition of the TNF-induced NO production. These results indicate that RAs attenuate iNOS expression reversibly in TNF-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that the TNF-induced LPL suppression is not the result of NO overproduction.

  16. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149  kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPARγ target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPARγ and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPARγ transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Alteration of glycolipids in ras-transfected NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, G.R.; Aaronson, S.A.; Brady, R.O.; Fishman, P.H.

    1987-09-01

    Glycosphingolipid alterations upon viral transformation are well documented. Transformation of mouse 3T3 cells with murine sarcoma viruses results in marked decreases in the levels of gangliosides GM1 and GD1a and an increase in gangliotriaosylceramide. The transforming oncogenes of these viruses have been identified as members of the ras gene family. The authors analyzed NIH 3T3 cells transfected with human H-, K- and N-ras oncogenes for their glycolipid composition and expression of cell surface gangliosides. Using conventional thin-layer chromatographic analysis, they found that the level of GM3 was increased and that of GD1a was slightly decreased or unchanged, and GM1 was present but not in quantifiable levels. Cell surface levels of GM1 were determined by /sup 125/I-labeled cholera toxin binding to intact cells. GD1a was determined by cholera toxin binding to cells treated with sialidase prior to toxin binding. All ras-transfected cells had decreased levels of surface GM1 and GD1 as compared to logarithmically growing normal NIH 3T3 cells. Levels of GM1 and, to a lesser extent, GD1a increased as the latter cells became confluent. Using a monoclonal antibody assay, they found that gangliotriaosylceramide was present in all ras-transfected cells studied but not in logarithmically growing untransfected cells. These results indicated that ras oncogenes derived form human tumors are capable of inducing alterations in glycolipid composition.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  19. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  3. 17 CFR 240.15b7-3T - Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. 240.15b7-3T Section 240.15b7-3T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... § 240.15b7-3T Operational capability in a Year 2000 environment. (a) This section applies to...

  4. 17 CFR 240.11a1-3(T) - Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities. 240.11a1-3(T) Section 240.11a1-3(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-3(T) Bona fide hedge transactions in certain securities. A bona fide...

  5. High-Permittivity Thin Dielectric Padding Improves Fresh Blood Imaging of Femoral Arteries at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Lindley, Marc D; Kim, Daniel; Morrell, Glen; Heilbrun, Marta E; Storey, Pippa; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Lee, Vivian S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fresh blood imaging (FBI) is a useful non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) method for assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), particularly in patients with poor renal function. Compared with 1.5T, 3T enables higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and/or spatio-temporal resolution in FBI, as demonstrated successfully for the calf station. However, FBI of the thigh station at 3T has been reported to suffer from signal void in the common femoral artery of one thigh only due to the radial symmetry in transmit radio-frequency field (B1+) variation. We sought to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T using high permittivity dielectric padding. Materials and Methods We performed FBI of the thigh station in 13 human subjects at 3T to compare the following 3 settings: no padding, commercially available thick (~ 5 cm) dielectric padding, and high-permittivity thin (~2 cm) dielectric padding. B1+ mapping was also performed in the common femoral arteries to characterize the radial symmetry in B1+ variation and quantify the improvement in B1+ excitation. We characterized the impact of radial symmetry in B1+ variation on the FBI signal and FBI MRA of the right common femoral artery using quantitative (i.e., contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)) and qualitative (i.e., conspicuity) analyses. Results The radial symmetry in B1+ variation attenuates signal in the right common femoral artery, which can be partially improved with commercial padding and improved further with high permittivity padding. Averaging the results over 13 subjects, the B1+, CNR and conspicuity scores in the right common femoral artery were significantly better with high-permittivity padding than with commercial padding and baseline (p<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that high-permittivity dielectric padding can be used to increase the femoral arterial signal attenuated by B1+ variation in FBI at 3T. PMID:25329606

  6. Spatial Resolution and Image Qualities of Zr-89 on Siemens Biograph TruePoint PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Zirconium-89 (t1/2=78.41 hours) is an ideal metallic radioisotope for immuno–positron emission tomography (PET), given that its physical half-life closely matches the biological half-life of monoclonal antibodies. In this study, the authors measured the spatial resolution and image quality of Zr-89 PET and compared the results against those obtained using F-18 PET, which is widely regarded as the gold standard for comparison of imaging characteristics. Materials and Methods: The spatial resolution and image qualities of Zr-89 were measured on the Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV PET/CT scanner, partly according to NEMA NU2-2007 standards. For spatial resolution measurement, the Zr-89 point source was located at the center of the axial field of view (FOV) and offset 1/4 axial FOV from the center. For image quality measurements, an NEMA IEC Phantom was used. The NEMA IEC Phantom consists of six hot spheres that were filled with Zr-89 solution. Spatial resolution and image quality (%contrast, %background variability [BV], and source to background ratio [SBR]) were assessed to compare the imaging characteristics of F-18 with those of Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV. Results: The transverse and axial spatial resolutions at 1 cm were 4.5 and 4.7 mm for Zr-89, respectively. The %contrast of Zr-89 was 25.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 89.8% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 32.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 103.9% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method. The %BV of F-18 PET was 6.4% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.5% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the OSEM reconstruction. The SBR of Zr-89 was 1.8 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.7 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 2.0 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 4.1 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the

  7. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22–40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water–N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.110, –0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: –0.054, –0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature

  8. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T.

    PubMed

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-02-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22-40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water-N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.110, -0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: -0.054, -0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature mapping was

  9. Tea catechins modulate the glucose transport system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Manabu; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Yamada, Kayo; Aoki, Yukiko; Sakane, Iwao; Fukuda, Itsuko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of tea catechins on the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that the ethyl acetate fraction of green tea extract, containing abundant catechins, most decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells. When the cells were treated with 50 μM catechins in the absence or presence of insulin for 30 min, nongallate-type catechins increased glucose uptake activity without insulin, whereas gallate-type catechins decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity. (-)-Epicatechin (EC) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), nongallate-type catechins, increased glucose uptake activity in the dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas (-)-catechin 3-gallate (Cg) and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCg), gallate-type catechins, decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake activity in the dose- and time-dependent manner. When the cells were treated with 50 μM catechins for 30 min, EC and EGC promoted GLUT4 translocation, whereas Cg and EGCg decreased the insulin-induced translocation in the cells. EC and EGC increased phosphorylation of PKCλ/ζ without phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and Akt. Wortmannin and LY294002, inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), decreased EC- and EGC-induced glucose uptake activity in the cells. Cg and EGCg decreased phosphorylation of PKCλ/ζ in the presence of insulin without affecting insulin-induced phosphorylation of IR, and Akt. Therefore, EC and EGC promote the translocation of GLUT4 through activation of PI3K, and Cg and EGCg inhibit insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 by the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 cells.

  10. The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla; Santanam, Nalini

    2009-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (100 microM) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5-100 microM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARgamma, and C/EBPalpha to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5-25 microM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50-100 microM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H(2)O(2) or TNFalpha was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease.

  11. The Aporphine Alkaloid Boldine Induces Adiponectin Expression and Regulation in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bangning; Cook, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by differentiated adipocytes. Clinical studies suggest a negative correlation between oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in patients with metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Natural compounds that can prevent oxidative stress mediated inhibition of adiponectin may be potentially therapeutic. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid abundant in the medicinal plant Peumus boldus, is a powerful antioxidant. The current study demonstrates the effects of boldine on the expression of adiponectin and its regulators, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (100 μM) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (1 ng/mL) for 24 hours in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of boldine (5–100 μM). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that both the oxidants decreased the mRNA levels of adiponectin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα to half of the control levels. Boldine, at all concentrations, counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or TNFα and increased the expression of adiponectin and its regulators. The effect of boldine on adiponectin expression was biphasic, with the lower concentrations (5–25 μM) having a larger inductive effect compared to higher concentrations (50–100 μM). Boldine treatment alone in the absence of H2O2 or TNFα was also able to induce adiponectin at the inductive phase of adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase promoter transactivity analysis showed that boldine interacts with the PPAR response element and could potentially modulate PPAR responsive genes. Our results indicate that boldine is able to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its regulators in 3T3-L1 cells and has the potential to be beneficial in obesity-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857072

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Masiello, Lisa M.; Fotos, Joseph S.; Galileo, Deni S.; Karin, Norm J.

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that has pleiotropic effects on a variety of cell types and enhances the migration of endothelial and cancer cells, but it is not known if this lipid can alter osteoblast motility. We performed transwell migration assays using MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and found LPA to be a potent chemotactic agent. Quantitative time-lapse video analysis of osteoblast migration after wounds were introduced into cell monolayers indicated that LPA stimulated both migration velocity and the average migration distance per cell. LPA also elicited substantial changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal structure; lipid-treated cells contained fewer stress fibers and displayed long membrane processes that were enriched in F-actin. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells express all four known LPA-specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA4) with a relative mRNA abundance of LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 >> LPA3. LPA-induced changes in osteoblast motility and morphology were antagonized by both pertussis toxin and Ki16425, a subtype-specific blocker of LPA1 and LPA3 receptor function. Cell migration in many cell types is linked to changes in intracellular Ca2+. Ki16425 also inhibited LPA-induced Ca2+ signaling in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a link between LPA-induced Ca2+ transients and osteoblast chemotaxis. Our data show that LPA stimulates MC3T3-E1 osteoblast motility via a mechanism that is linked primarily to the G protein-coupled receptor LPA1.

  13. Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chenglin; Chen, Dongrui; Xie, Qihai; Yang, Ying; Shen, Weili

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Nebivolol may act as a partial agonist of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR). •Nebivolol stimulates mitochondrial DNA replication and protein expression. •Nebivolol promotes mitochondrial synthesis via activation of eNOS by β3-AR. -- Abstract: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blocker with additional beneficial effects, including the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in obese individuals. However, the underlying mechanism of nebivolol’s role in regulating the lipid profile remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of nebivolol in mitochondrial biogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 cells to nebivolol for 24 h increased mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial protein levels and the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1 (Nrf1). These changes were accompanied by an increase in oxygen consumption and in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including nebivolol-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as an increase in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) attenuated nebivolol-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, as did the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. Treatment with nebivolol and β3-AR blocker SR59230A markedly attenuated PGC-1α, Sirt3 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein levels in comparison to treatment with nebivolol alone. These data indicate that the mitochondrial synthesis and metabolism in adipocytes that is promoted by nebivolol is primarily mediated through the eNOS/cGMP-dependent pathway and is initiated by the activation of β3-AR receptors.

  14. 3T diffusion-weighted MRI of the thyroid gland with reduced distortion: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Nagala, S; Priest, A N; McLean, M A; Jani, P; Graves, M J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single-shot diffusion-weighted (DW) echo planar imaging (EPI), which is commonly used for imaging the thyroid, is characterised by severe blurring and distortion. The objectives of this work were: 1, to show that a reduced-field of view (r-FOV) DW EPI technique can improve image quality; and 2, to investigate the effect of different reconstruction strategies on the resulting apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Methods: We implemented a single-shot, r-FOV DW EPI technique with a two-dimensional radiofrequency excitation pulse for DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T. Images were reconstructed using root sum of squares (SOS) and an optimal-B1 reconstruction (OBR). Phantom and in vivo experiments were performed to compare r-FOV and conventional full-FOV DW EPI with root SOS and OBR. Results: r-FOV with OBR substantially improved image quality at 3T. In phantoms, r-FOV gave more accurate ADCs than full-FOV. In vivo r-FOV always gave lower ADC values with respect to the full-FOV technique irrespective of the reconstruction used and whether only two or multiple b-values were used to compute the ADCs. Conclusion: r-FOV DW EPI can reduce image blurring and distortion at the expense of a low signal-to-noise ratio. OBR is a promising reconstruction technique for accurate ADC measurements in lower signal-to-noise ratio regimes, although further studies are needed to characterise its performance. Advances in knowledge: DW imaging of the thyroid at 3T could potentially benefit from r-FOV acquisition strategies, such as the r-FOV DW EPI technique proposed in this paper. PMID:23770539

  15. Gsalpha signalling suppresses PPARgamma2 generation and inhibits 3T3L1 adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Paddon, Carol; Lewis, Mark D; Grennan-Jones, Fiona; Ludgate, Marian

    2009-08-01

    Since TSH receptor (TSHR) expression increases during adipogenesis and signals via cAMP/phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), reported to be necessary and sufficient for adipogenesis, we hypothesised that TSHR activation would induce preadipocyte differentiation. Retroviral vectors introduced constitutively active TSHR (TSHR*) into 3T3L1 preadipocytes; despite increased cAMP (RIA) and phospho-CREB (western blot) there was no spontaneous adipogenesis (assessed morphologically, using oil red O and QPCR measurement of adipogenesis markers). We speculated that Gbetagamma signalling may be inhibitory but failed to induce adipogenesis using activated Gsalpha (gsp*). Inhibition of phosphodiesterases did not promote adipogenesis in TSHR* or gsp* populations. Furthermore, differentiation induced by adipogenic medium with pioglitazone was reduced in TSHR* and abolished in gsp* expressing 3T3L1 cells. TSHR* and gsp* did not inactivate PPARgamma (PPARG as listed in the HUGO database) by phosphorylation but expression of PPARgamma1 was reduced and PPARgamma2 undetectable in gsp*. FOXO1 phosphorylation (required to inactivate this repressor of adipogenesis) was lowest in gsp* despite the activation of AKT by phosphorylation. PROF is a mediator that facilitates FOXO1 phosphorylation by phospho-Akt. Its transcript levels remained constantly low in the gsp* population. In most measurements, the TSHR* cells were between the gsp* and control 3T3L1 preadipocytes. The enhanced down-regulation of PREF1 (adipogenesis inhibitor) permits retention of some adipogenic potential in the TSHR* population. We conclude that Gsalpha signalling impedes FOXO1 phosphorylation and thus inhibits PPARgamma transcription and the alternative promoter usage required to generate PPARgamma2, the fat-specific transcription factor necessary for adipogenesis.

  16. Evaluation of chylomicron effect on ASP production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Gauvreau, Danny; Cui, Wei; Lapointe, Marc; Paglialunga, Sabina; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-02-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the production and physiological role of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP), identical to C3adesArg, a product of the alternative complement pathway generated through C3 cleavage. Recent studies in C3 (-/-) mice that are ASP deficient have demonstrated a role for ASP in postprandial triglyceride clearance and fat storage. The aim of the present study was to establish a cell model and sensitive ELISA assay for the evaluation of ASP production using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, then cultured in different media such as serum-free (SF), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 + 10% fetal calf serum (FBS), and at varying concentrations of chylomicrons and insulin + chylomicrons up to 48 h. ASP production in SF and DMEM/F12 + 10% FBS was compared. Chylomicrons stimulated ASP production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, chylomicron treatment had no effect on the production of C3, the precursor protein of ASP, which was constant over 48 h. Addition of insulin (100 nM) to a low-dose of chylomicrons (100 µg TG/ml) significantly increased ASP production compared with chylomicrons alone at 48 h (P < 0.001). Furthermore, addition of insulin significantly increased C3 secretion at both 18 and 48 h of incubation (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively). Overall, the proportion of ASP to C3 remained constant, indicating no change in the ratio of C3 cleaved to generate ASP. This study demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocyte is a useful model for the evaluation of C3 secretion and ASP production by using a sensitive mouse-specific ELISA assay. The stimulation of ASP production with chylomicrons demonstrates a physiologically relevant response, and provides a strategy for further studies on ASP production and function.

  17. Quantitative Cardiac 31P Spectroscopy at 3T Using Adiabatic Pulses

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem; Schär, Michael; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with surface coils promises better quantification at 3T due to improved signal-to-noise ratios and spectral resolution compared to 1.5T. However, Bloch equation and field analyses at 3T show that for efficient quantitative MRS protocols employing small-angle adiabatic (BIR4/BIRP) pulses the excitation-field is limited by RF power requirements and power deposition. When BIR4/BIRP pulse duration is increased to reduce power levels, T2-decay can introduce flip-angle dependent errors in the steady-state magnetization, causing errors in saturation corrections for metabolite quantification and in T1s measured by varying the flip-angle. A new dual-repetition-time (2TR) T1 method using frequency-sign-cycled adiabatic-half-passage pulses is introduced to alleviate power requirements, and avoid the problem related to T2 relaxation during the RF pulse. The 2TR method is validated against inversion-recovery in phantoms using a practical transmit/receive coil set designed for phosphorus MRS of the heart at depths of 9-10 cm with 4kW of pulse power. The T1s of phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (γ-ATP) in the calf-muscle (n=9) at 3T are 6.8±0.3s and 5.4±0.6s respectively. For heart (n=10) the values are 5.8±0.5s (PCr) and 3.1±0.6s (γ-ATP). The 2TR protocol measurements agreed with those obtained by conventional methods to within 10%. PMID:19195018

  18. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, C; Gómez, F; Fleta, C; Rodríguez, J; Quirion, D; Pellegrini, G; Lousa, A; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L; Pombar, M; Lozano, M

    2013-05-21

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  19. Hallopeau-Siemens dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa due to homozygous 5818delC mutation in the COL7A gene.

    PubMed

    Koshida, Shigeki; Tsukamura, Atsushi; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Hajime; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited mechanobullous skin disease. The dystrophic EB (DEB), one subtype of EB, is inherited in an autosomal dominant DEB or in an autosomal recessive (RDEB). DEB is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen, the major component of anchoring fibrils. Over 300 pathogenic mutations have been detected within COL7A in DEB. Patients with the Hallopeau-Siemens type (HS-RDEB), most severe form of DEB, frequently have premature termination codon (PTC) mutations on both alleles. PTC mutations on both alleles result in depleted mRNA and α1 helix, and failure to form the triple helix structure characteristic of type VII collagen. As patients with HS-RDEB usually have a pair of heterozygous PTC mutations, there have been rarely reported homozygous ones in HS-RDEB. We report the first case of HS-RDEB homozygous PTC mutations of 5818delC in both COL7A1 alleles. This case report suggests the positional effect of PTC mutations and vigilance against early infantile death in EB including HS-RDEB.

  20. Deposition reactors for solar grade silicon: A comparative thermal analysis of a Siemens reactor and a fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A.; Filtvedt, W. O.; Lindholm, D.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Rodríguez, A.; del Cañizo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Polysilicon production costs contribute approximately to 25-33% of the overall cost of the solar panels and a similar fraction of the total energy invested in their fabrication. Understanding the energy losses and the behaviour of process temperature is an essential requirement as one moves forward to design and build large scale polysilicon manufacturing plants. In this paper we present thermal models for two processes for poly production, viz., the Siemens process using trichlorosilane (TCS) as precursor and the fluid bed process using silane (monosilane, MS). We validate the models with some experimental measurements on prototype laboratory reactors relating the temperature profiles to product quality. A model sensitivity analysis is also performed, and the effects of some key parameters such as reactor wall emissivity and gas distributor temperature, on temperature distribution and product quality are examined. The information presented in this paper is useful for further understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of both deposition technologies, and will help in optimal temperature profiling of these systems aiming at lowering production costs without compromising the solar cell quality.

  1. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola, C.; Gómez, F.; Fleta, C.; Rodríguez, J.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lousa, A.; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.; Pombar, M.; Lozano, M.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  2. Validation of the SimSET simulation package for modeling the Siemens Biograph mCT PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Poon, Jonathan K; Dahlbom, Magnus L; Casey, Michael E; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2015-02-07

    Monte Carlo simulation provides a valuable tool in performance assessment and optimization of system design parameters for PET scanners. SimSET is a popular Monte Carlo simulation toolkit that features fast simulation time, as well as variance reduction tools to further enhance computational efficiency. However, SimSET has lacked the ability to simulate block detectors until its most recent release. Our goal is to validate new features of SimSET by developing a simulation model of the Siemens Biograph mCT PET scanner and comparing the results to a simulation model developed in the GATE simulation suite and to experimental results. We used the NEMA NU-2 2007 scatter fraction, count rates, and spatial resolution protocols to validate the SimSET simulation model and its new features. The SimSET model overestimated the experimental results of the count rate tests by 11-23% and the spatial resolution test by 13-28%, which is comparable to previous validation studies of other PET scanners in the literature. The difference between the SimSET and GATE simulation was approximately 4-8% for the count rate test and approximately 3-11% for the spatial resolution test. In terms of computational time, SimSET performed simulations approximately 11 times faster than GATE simulations. The new block detector model in SimSET offers a fast and reasonably accurate simulation toolkit for PET imaging applications.

  3. Comparison of two respiration monitoring systems for 4D imaging with a Siemens CT using a new dynamic breathing phantom.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, A C; Runz, A; Echner, G; Sroka-Perez, G; Karger, C P

    2012-05-07

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) requires breathing information from the patient, and for this, several systems are available. Testing of these systems, under realistic conditions, requires a phantom with a moving target and an expandable outer contour. An anthropomorphic phantom was developed to simulate patient breathing as well as lung tumor motion. Using the phantom, an optical camera system (GateCT) and a pressure sensor (AZ-733V) were simultaneously operated, and 4D-CTs were reconstructed with a Siemens CT using the provided local-amplitude-based sorting algorithm. The comparison of the tumor trajectories of both systems revealed discrepancies up to 9.7 mm. Breathing signal differences, such as baseline drift, temporal resolution and noise level were shown not to be the reason for this. Instead, the variability of the sampling interval and the accuracy of the sampling rate value written on the header of the GateCT-signal file were identified as the cause. Interpolation to regular sampling intervals and correction of the sampling rate to the actual value removed the observed discrepancies. Consistently, the introduction of sampling interval variability and inaccurate sampling rate values into the header of the AZ-733V file distorted the tumor trajectory for this system. These results underline the importance of testing new equipment thoroughly, especially if components of different manufacturers are combined.

  4. Synthesis and quality control of fluorodeoxyglucose and performance assessment of Siemens MicroFocus 220 small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaterpekar, Siddhesh Nitin

    The scope of this article is to cover the synthesis and quality control procedures involved in production of Fludeoxyglucose (18F--FDG). The article also describes the cyclotron production of 18F radioisotope and gives a brief overview on operations and working of a fixed energy medical cyclotron. The quality control procedures for FDG involve radiochemical and radionuclidic purity tests, pH tests, chemical purity tests, sterility tests, endotoxin tests. Each of these procedures were carried out for multiple batches of FDG with a passing rate of 95% among 20 batches. The article also covers the quality assurance steps for the Siemens MicroPET Focus 220 Scanner using a Jaszczak phantom. We have carried out spatial resolution tests on the scanner, with an average transaxial resolution of 1.775mm with 2-3mm offset. Tests involved detector efficiency, blank scan sinograms and transmission sinograms. A series of radioactivity distribution tests are also carried out on a uniform phantom, denoting the variations in radioactivity and uniformity by using cylindrical ROIs in the transverse region of the final image. The purpose of these quality control tests is to make sure the manufactured FDG is biocompatible with the human body. Quality assurance tests are carried on PET scanners for efficient performance, and to make sure the quality of images acquired is according to the radioactivity distribution in the subject of interest.

  5. Photo neutron dose equivalent rate in 15 MV X-ray beam from a Siemens Primus Linac.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T Allahverdi; Akbari, M R; Babapour, H; Shahidi, M

    2015-01-01

    Fast and thermal neutron fluence rates from a 15 MV X-ray beams of a Siemens Primus Linac were measured using bare and moderated BF3 proportional counter inside the treatment room at different locations. Fluence rate values were converted to dose equivalent rate (DER) utilizing conversion factors of American Association of Physicist in Medicine's (AAPM) report number 19. For thermal neutrons, maximum and minimum DERs were 3.46 × 10(-6) (3 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size) and 8.36 × 10(-8) Sv/min (in maze, 40 × 40 field size), respectively. For fast neutrons, maximum DERs using 9" and 3" moderators were 1.6 × 10(-5) and 1.74 × 10(-5) Sv/min (2 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size), respectively. By changing the field size, the variation in thermal neutron DER was more than the fast neutron DER and the changes in fast neutron DER were not significant in the bunker except inside the radiation field. This study showed that at all points and distances, by decreasing field size of the beam, thermal and fast neutron DER increases and the number of thermal neutrons is more than fast neutrons.

  6. Development of a Polysilicon Process Based on Chemical Vapor Deposition of Dichlorosilane in an Advanced Siemen's Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arevidson, A. N.; Sawyer, D. H.; Muller, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Dichlorosilane (DCS) was used as the feedstock for an advanced decomposition reactor for silicon production. The advanced reactor had a cool bell jar wall temperature, 300 C, when compared to Siemen's reactors previously used for DCS decomposition. Previous reactors had bell jar wall temperatures of approximately 750 C. The cooler wall temperature allows higher DCS flow rates and concentrations. A silicon deposition rate of 2.28 gm/hr-cm was achieved with power consumption of 59 kWh/kg. Interpretation of data suggests that a 2.8 gm/hr-cm deposition rate is possible. Screening of lower cost materials of construction was done as a separate program segment. Stainless Steel (304 and 316), Hastalloy B, Monel 400 and 1010-Carbon Steel were placed individually in an experimental scale reactor. Silicon was deposited from trichlorosilane feedstock. The resultant silicon was analyzed for electrically active and metallic impurities as well as carbon. No material contributed significant amounts of electrically active or metallic impurities, but all contributed carbon.

  7. Pathogenic conversion of Foxp3+ T cells into TH17 cells in autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriko; Okamoto, Kazuo; Sawa, Shinichiro; Nakashima, Tomoki; Oh-hora, Masatsugu; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Sakae; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases often result from an imbalance between regulatory T (Treg) cells and interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T helper (TH17) cells; the origin of the latter cells remains largely unknown. Foxp3 is indispensable for the suppressive function of Treg cells, but the stability of Foxp3 has been under debate. Here we show that TH17 cells originating from Foxp3(+) T cells have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Under arthritic conditions, CD25(lo)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells lose Foxp3 expression (herein called exFoxp3 cells) and undergo transdifferentiation into TH17 cells. Fate mapping analysis showed that IL-17-expressing exFoxp3 T (exFoxp3 TH17) cells accumulated in inflamed joints. The conversion of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells to TH17 cells was mediated by synovial fibroblast-derived IL-6. These exFoxp3 TH17 cells were more potent osteoclastogenic T cells than were naive CD4(+) T cell-derived TH17 cells. Notably, exFoxp3 TH17 cells were characterized by the expression of Sox4, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6 (CCR6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, also called TNFSF11). Adoptive transfer of autoreactive, antigen-experienced CD25(lo)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells into mice followed by secondary immunization with collagen accelerated the onset and increased the severity of arthritis and was associated with the loss of Foxp3 expression in the majority of transferred T cells. We observed IL-17(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in the synovium of subjects with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which suggests that plastic Foxp3(+) T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. These findings establish the pathological importance of Foxp3 instability in the generation of pathogenic TH17 cells in autoimmunity.

  8. Acanthamoeba T3, T4 and T5 in swimming-pool waters from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caumo, Karin; Rott, Marilise B

    2011-03-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba, known to cause keratitis (AK) and granulomatous encephalitis in humans are frequently isolated from a variety of water sources. In this study, 13 Acanthamoeba isolates from swimming pools were classified at the genotype level based on the sequence analysis of the Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Nine of the 13 isolates were genotype T5, three were genotype T4, and one was T3. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative agents of AK, including genotypes T3, T4, and T5. The present study indicates that genotype T5 is a common contaminant in swimming-pool water.

  9. [High resolution (3 T) magnetic resonance neurography of the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Aguilar, M; Falcón, L; Caneo, N; Acuña, M C

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography refers to a set of techniques that enable the structure of the peripheral nerves and nerve plexuses to be evaluated optimally. New two-dimensional and three-dimensional neurographic sequences, in particular in 3T scanners, achieve excellent contrast between the nerve and perineural structures. MR neurography makes it possible to distinguish between the normal fascicular pattern of the nerve and anomalies like inflammation, trauma, and tumor that can affect nerves. In this article, we describe the structure of the sciatic nerve, its characteristics on MR neurography, and the most common diseases that affect it.

  10. Tocotrienol suppresses adipocyte differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Ohmori, Reiko; Kiyose, Chikako; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saito, Hisako; Igarashi, Osamu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    In vivo studies show that alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol accumulate in adipose tissue. Furthermore, a recent study reports that the oral administration of gamma-tocotrienol from a tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil (TRF) decreases body fat levels in rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TRF and its components on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of 1.8 micromol/L insulin. TRF suppressed the insulin-induced mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific genes such as PPARgamma, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) compared with the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes only in the presence of insulin. To confirm the suppressive effect of TRF, the major components of TRF, such as alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and alpha-tocopherol, were investigated. Alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol decreased the insulin-induced PPARgamma mRNA expression by 55 and 90%, respectively, compared with insulin, whereas alpha-tocopherol increased the mRNA expression. In addition, gamma-tocotrienol suppressed the insulin-induced aP2 and C/EBPalpha mRNA expression, triglyceride accumulation, and PPARgamma protein levels compared with insulin. The current results also revealed that gamma-tocotrienol inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the insulin signaling pathway of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Thus, the antiadipogenic effect of TRF depends on alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol may be a more potent inhibitor of adipogenesis than alpha-tocotrienol. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that tocotrienol suppresses insulin-induced differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, tocotrienol could act as an antiadipogenic vitamin in the nutrient-mediated regulation of body

  11. 26 CFR 1.884-3T - Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary). 1.884-3T Section 1.884-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Coordination of branch profits tax with second-tier withholding (temporary)....

  12. Cellular uptake and fate of fibroin microspheres loaded with randomly fragmented DNA in 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Sil; Hur, Won

    2016-01-01

    Purified fibroin protein can be obtained in large quantities from silk fibers and processed to form microscopic particles as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents. In this study, we demonstrated that fibroin microspheres were taken up by 3T3 cells, localized in the nonlysosomal compartment, and secreted from the cytoplasm after medium replenishment. DNA-loaded microspheres were taken up by >95% of 3T3 cells. DNA cargo had no influence on the intracellular trafficking of microspheres, while fluorescently labeled cargo DNA was observed in the lysosomal compartment and in the microspheres. These results indicate that fibroin microspheres can travel through 3T3 cells without making any contact with the lysosomal compartments. The amount of DNA loaded in the microspheres taken up by 3T3 cells was estimated up to 831.0 pg/cell. Thus, fibroin microspheres can deliver a large amount of randomly fragmented DNA (<10 kb) into the cytoplasmic compartment of 3T3 cells.

  13. Development of a measurement and control system for a 10 kW@20 K refrigerator based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Liu, L. Q.; Liu, T.; Xu, X. D.; Dong, B.; Lu, W. H.; Pan, W.; Wu, J. H.; Xiong, L. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A 10 kW@20 K refrigerator has been established by the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this 10 kW@20 K refrigerator is developed. According to the detailed measurement requirements, proper sensors and transmitters are adopted. Siemens S7-300 PLC CPU315-2 PN/DP operates as a master station. Two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O, one power meter, two compressors and one vacuum gauge operate as slave stations. Profibus-DP field communication and Modbus communication are used between the master station and the slave stations in this control system. The upper computer HMI (Human Machine Interface) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V7.0. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. After commissioning, this refrigerator has been operating with a 10 kW of cooling power at 20 K for more than 72 hours.

  14. Development of a Measurement and Control System for a 40l/h Helium Liquefier based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Liu, L. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Liu, T.; Li, Q.; Hu, Z. J.; Wang, B. M.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Yan, T.

    A 40l/h Helium Liquefier has been commissioned by the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this Helium Liquefier is developed. Proper sensors are selected, for example, three types of transmitters are adopted respectively according to detailed temperature measurement requirements. Siemens S7-300 PLC CPU315-2PN/DP operates as a master station and three sets of ET200 M DP remote expand I/O operate asslave stations. Profibus-DP field communication is used between the master station and the slave stations. The upper computer HMI(Human Machine Interface) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V7.0. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. A specific control logic for this Helium Liquefier is developed. The control of the suction and discharge pressures of the compressor and the control of the turbo-expanders loop are being discussed in this paper. Following the commissioning phase, the outlet temperature of the second stage turbine has reached 8.6K and the temperature before the throttle valve has reached 13.1K.

  15. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Wang, P.; Liu, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  16. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q.; Wang, P.

    2014-01-29

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  17. The 3' end CCA of mature tRNA is an antideterminant for eukaryotic 3'-tRNase.

    PubMed

    Mohan, A; Whyte, S; Wang, X; Nashimoto, M; Levinger, L

    1999-02-01

    Cytoplasmic tRNAs undergo posttranscriptional 5' and 3' end processing in the eukaryotic nucleus, and CCA (which forms the mature 3' end of all tRNAs) must be added by tRNA nucleotidyl transferase before tRNA can be aminoacylated and utilized in translation. Eukaryotic 3'-tRNase can endonucleolytically remove a 3' end trailer by cleaving on the 3' side of the discriminator base (the unpaired nucleotide 3' of the last base pair of the acceptor stem). This reaction proceeds despite a wide range in length and sequence of the 3' end trailer, except that mature tRNA containing the 3' terminal CCA is not a substrate for mouse 3'-tRNase (Nashimoto, 1997, Nucleic Acids Res 25:1148-1154). Herein, we extend this result with Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase, using Drosophila melanogaster tRNAHis as substrate. Mature tRNA is thus prevented from recycling through 3' end processing. We also tested a series of tRNAs ending at the discriminator base (-), with one C added (+C), two Cs added (+CC), and CCA added (+CCA) as 3'-tRNase inhibitors. Inhibition was competitive with both Drosophila and pig 3'-tRNase. The product of the 3'-tRNase reaction (-) is a good 3'-tRNase inhibitor, with a KI approximately two times KM for the normal 3'-tRNase substrate. KI increases with each nucleotide added beyond the discriminator base, until when tRNA+CCA is used as inhibitor, KI is approximately forty times the substrate KM. The 3'-tRNase can thus remain free to process precursors with 3' end trailers because it is barely inhibited by tRNA+CCA, ensuring that tRNA can progress to aminoacylation. The active site of 3'-tRNase may have evolved to make an especially poor fit with tRNA+CCA.

  18. High-speed 3T MR spectroscopic imaging of prostate with flyback echo-planar encoding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Albert P; Cunningham, Charles H; Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Xu, Duan; Hurd, Ralph E; Kelley, Douglas A C; Pauly, John M; Kurhanewicz, John; Nelson, Sarah J; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2007-06-01

    Prostate MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 3T may provide two-fold higher spatial resolution over 1.5T, but this can result in longer acquisition times to cover the entire gland using conventional phase-encoding. In this study, flyback echo-planar readout trajectories were incorporated into a Malcolm Levitt's composite-pulse decoupling sequence (MLEV)-point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) to accelerate the acquisition of large array (16 x 16 x 8), high spatial (0.154 cm(3)) resolution MRSI data by eight-fold to just 8.5 minutes. Artifact free, high-quality MRSI data was obtained in nine prostate cancer patients. Easy data reconstruction and the robustness of the flyback echo-planar encoding make this technique particularly suitable for the clinical setting. The short acquisition time provided by this method reduces the 3T prostate MRI/MRSI exam time, allows longer repetition times, and/or allows the acquisition of additional MR acquisitions within the same exam.

  19. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPARγ, PGC-1α, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBPα was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

  20. Foxp3+ T cells inhibit antitumor immune memory modulated by mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Sparwasser, Tim; Figlin, Robert; Kim, Hyung L

    2014-04-15

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling enhances antitumor memory lymphocytes. However, pharmacologic mTOR inhibition also enhances regulatory T-cell (Treg) activity. To counter this effect, Treg control was added to mTOR inhibition in preclinical models. Tregs were controlled with CD4-depleting antibodies because CD4 depletion has high translational potential and already has a well-established safety profile in patients. The antitumor activity of the combination therapy was CD8 dependent and controlled growth of syngeneic tumors even when an adoptive immunotherapy was not used. Lymphocytes resulting from the combination therapy could be transferred into naïve mice to inhibit aggressive growth of lung metastases. The combination therapy enhanced CD8 memory formation as determined by memory markers and functional studies of immune recall. Removal of FoxP3-expressing T lymphocytes was the mechanism underlying immunologic memory formation following CD4 depletion. This was confirmed using transgenic DEREG (depletion of regulatory T cells) mice to specifically remove Foxp3(+) T cells. It was further confirmed with reciprocal studies where stimulation of immunologic memory because of CD4 depletion was completely neutralized by adoptively transferring tumor-specific Foxp3(+) T cells. Also contributing to tumor control, Tregs that eventually recovered following CD4 depletion were less immunosuppressive. These results provide a rationale for further study of mTOR inhibition and CD4 depletion in patients.

  1. An optically powered CMOS tracking system for 3 T magnetic resonance environment.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Baykal; Tumer, Murat; Cindemir, Umut; Camli, Berk; Dundar, Gunhan; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yalcinkaya, Arda D

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a fully optical Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) based catheter tracking system designed for 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) environment is presented. The system aims to solve the Radio Frequency (RF) induced heating problem present in conventional wired catheter tracking systems used in MRI. It is based on an integrated circuit, consisting of a receiver and an optical power supply unit. The optical power supply unit includes a single on-chip photodiode and a DC-DC converter that boosts the low photodiode voltage output to voltages greater than 1.5 V. Through an optically driven switch, the accumulated charge on an a storage capacitor is transferred to the rest of the system. This operation is novel in the way that it is fully optical and the switch control is done through modulation of the applied light. An on-chip local oscillator signal for the receiver is avoided by application of an RF signal that is generated by the MRI machine at the receiving period. The signals received by a micro-coil antenna are processed by the on-chip direct conversion receiver. The processed signal is then transferred, also optically, to the outside world for tracking purposes. The frequency encoding method is used for MRI tracking. Operation with various levels of external optical power does not generate noticeble temperature increase in the system. The overall system is successfully tested in a 3 T MRI machine to demonstrate its full operation.

  2. Genome sequence of the Thermotoga thermarum type strain (LA3(T)) from an African solfataric spring.

    PubMed

    Göker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Scheuner, Carmen; Anderson, Iain; Zeytun, Ahmet; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Rohde, Manfred; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2014-06-15

    Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum 'Thermotogae'. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3(T) is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. JMV641: a potent bombesin receptor antagonist that inhibits Swiss 3T3 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Azay, J; Gagne, D; Devin, C; Llinares, M; Fehrentz, J A; Martinez, J

    1996-08-27

    The peptides of the bombesin family are involved in stimulation of mitogenesis in various cell lines, including cancerous cell lines. Bombesin receptor antagonists are of great interest to inhibit this proliferation. We have synthesized a potent bombesin receptor antagonist, e.g., compound JMV641 [H-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-NH-*CH[CH2-CH(CH3)2]-**CHOH- (CH2)3-CH3 [*(S); **92% of (S) isomer], in which a pseudopeptide bond mimicking the transition state analogue replaced the peptide bond between the two C-terminal residues. This compound was highly potent to dose-dependently inhibit binding of 125I-GRP to Swiss 3T3 cells (IC50 = 0.85 +/- 0.15 nM) and bombesin-stimulated Swiss 3T3 proliferation (pA2 = 8.78). However, compound JMV641 can inhibit bombesin-induced AP-1 regulated genes that are nuclear messengers mediating the actions of signal transduction pathways stimulated by growth factors.

  4. Combination therapy with catechins and caffeine inhibits fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yang, Licong; Xu, Feng; Lin, Lezhen; Zheng, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Catechins and caffeine, which are green tea components, have a slimming effect; however, the combinational effect of fat metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells remains unclear. In the present study, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with catechins and caffeine in combination, and it was found that combination therapy with catechins and caffeine markedly reduced intracellular fat accumulation, mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in the early stage of cell differentiation were significantly reduced, and mRNA expression of fatty acid synthetase(FAS) andglycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein expression levels of FAS were downregulated. Noradrenaline-induced lipolysis was enhanced by caffeine, which markedly increased the protein expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase. These results indicated that combination therapy with catechins and caffeine synergistically inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating the gene and protein expression levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes. Therefore, catechins and caffeine combination therapy has potential as a functional food that may be used to prevent obesity and lifestyle-associated diseases. PMID:28352352

  5. Genome sequence of the Thermotoga thermarum type strain (LA3T) from an African solfataric spring

    PubMed Central

    Göker, Markus; Spring, Stefan; Scheuner, Carmen; Anderson, Iain; Zeytun, Ahmet; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum ‘Thermotogae’. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3T is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:25197486

  6. Berberine inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through the PPARgamma pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Yuebo; Gong, Zhenwei; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Zongmeng; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Ying

    2006-09-22

    Berberine (BBR), a compound purified from Cortidis rhizoma, reduces serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic patients and high fat diet fed animals, and increases hepatic LDLR mRNA and protein levels through a post-transcriptional mechanism. BBR also enhances the hypoglycemic action of insulin in diabetic animal models. Here, we show that BBR inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by DM and suppresses the mitotic clonal expansion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis and Western blot analysis reveal that the BBR inhibits the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenesis related transcription factors PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha and their upstream regulator, C/EBPbeta. Reporter gene assays demonstrate that the full-length PPARgamma and alpha transcription activities are inhibited by BBR. Using real-time PCR, we have also found that the PPAR target genes that are involved in adipocyte differentiation, such as aP2, CD36, ACO, LPL, and other adipocyte markers, are suppressed by BBR. These studies suggest that BBR works on multiple molecular targets as an inhibitor of PPARgamma and alpha, and is a potential weight reducing, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic drug.

  7. Effect of pycnogenol on glucose transport in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Hyun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-08-01

    Pycnogenol, a procyanidins-enriched extract of Pinus maritima bark, possesses antidiabetic properties, which improves the altered parameters of glucose metabolism that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the insulin-stimulated antidiabetic activities of natural bioactive compounds are mediated by GLUT4 via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and/or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway, the effects of pycnogenol were examined on the molecular mechanism of glucose uptake by the glucose transport system. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of pycnogenol, and glucose uptake was examined using a non-radioisotope enzymatic assay and by molecular events associated with the glucose transport system using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that pycnogenol increased glucose uptake in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased the relative abundance of both GLUT4 and Akt mRNAs through the PI3K pathway in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, pycnogenol restored the PI3K antagonist-induced inhibition of glucose uptake in the presence of wartmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3K. Overall, these results indicate that pycnogenol may stimulate glucose uptake via the PI3K dependent tyrosine kinase pathways involving Akt. Further the results suggest that pycnogenol might be useful in maintaining blood glucose control.

  8. B1-insensitive T2 preparation for improved coronary magnetic resonance angiography at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Nezafat, Reza; Stuber, Matthias; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Gharib, Ahmed M; Desai, Milind Y; Pettigrew, Roderic I

    2006-04-01

    At 3 T, the effective wavelength of the RF field is comparable to the dimension of the human body, resulting in B1 standing wave effects and extra variations in phase. This effect is accompanied by an increase in B0 field inhomogeneity compared to 1.5 T. This combination results in nonuniform magnetization preparation by the composite MLEV weighted T2 preparation (T2 Prep) sequence used for coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). A new adiabatic refocusing T2 Prep sequence is presented in which the magnetization is tipped into the transverse plane with a hard RF pulse and refocused using a pair of adiabatic fast-passage RF pulses. The isochromats are subsequently returned to the longitudinal axis using a hard RF pulse. Numerical simulations predict an excellent suppression of artifacts originating from B1 inhomogeneity while achieving good contrast enhancement between coronary arteries and surrounding tissue. This was confirmed by an in vivo study, in which coronary MR angiograms were obtained without a T2 Prep, with an MLEV weighted T2 Prep and the proposed adiabatic T2 Prep. Improved quantitative and qualitative coronary MRA image measurement was achieved using the adiabatic T2 Prep at 3 T.

  9. Paprika Pigments Attenuate Obesity-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hayato; Saito, Shuuichi; Nakamura, Nozomi; Maoka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to various diseases, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Adipocytokine, which is released from adipocyte cells, affects insulin resistance and blood lipid level disorders. Further, adipocytokine is related to chronic inflammation in obesity condition adipocyte cells. Paprika pigments (PPs) contain large amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin. These carotenoids affect the liver and improve lipid disorders of the blood. However, how these carotenoids affect adipocyte cells remains unknown. Present study examined the effects of PP on adipocytokine secretion, which is related to improvement of metabolic syndrome. In addition, suppressive effects of PP on chronic inflammation in adipocyte cells were analyzed using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and macrophage cell coculture experiments. PP promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells differentiation upregulated adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion. Further, coculture of adipocyte and macrophage cells treated with PP showed suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and resistin mRNA expression, similarly to treatment with troglitazone, which is a PPARγ ligand medicine. Conclusion. These results suggest that PP ameliorates chronic inflammation in adipocytes caused by obesity. PP adjusts adipocytokine secretion and might, therefore, affect antimetabolic syndrome diseases. PMID:24049664

  10. Simvastatin enhances induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shunsuke; Dobashi, Kazushige; Asayama, Kohtaro; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) modulate the NO production via iNOS in adipocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (L) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (T). Well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly produced NO by LT-treatment. Pre-incubation with simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, pravastatin, a hydrophilic one, or Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase, further enhanced the production of NO. The effect of simvastatin was offset by mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) but not by squalene. The mRNA level for iNOS parallelled the NO production. The NF-kappaB was activated by the LT-treatment and was further enhanced by simvastatin, pravastatin or Y27632 addition. Mevalonate and GGPP completely offset the effect of simvastatin. Statins and Y27632 also further increased the interleukin-6 secretion in the LT-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that statins, especially lipophilic type, enhance induction of iNOS by inhibiting the small GTP-binding protein signal in adipocytes.

  11. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  12. Capsaicin Induces “Brite” Phenotype in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Ritesh K.; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sarma, Siddhartha M.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sandhir, Rajat; Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi K.; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending “brite” cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of “brite” phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX) (a TRPV1 agonist) and in mice administered capsaicin. Results TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1–100 µM, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPARγ and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 µM, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration) leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight. Conclusion Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and

  13. Ultrasound stimulation increases proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical stimulation of bone increases bone mass and fracture healing, at least in part, through increases in proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells. Researchers have previously performed in vitro studies of ultrasound-induced osteoblast proliferation but mostly used fixed ultrasound settings and have reported widely varying and inconclusive results. Here we critically investigated the effects of the excitation parameters of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells in monolayer cultures. Methods We used a custom-designed ultrasound exposure system to vary the key ultrasound parameters—intensity, frequency and excitation duration. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded in 12-well cell culture plates. Unless otherwise specified, treated cells, in groups of three, were excited twice for 10 min with an interval of 24 h in between after cell seeding. Proliferation rates of these cells were determined using BrdU and MTS assays 24 h after the last LIPUS excitation. All data are presented as the mean ± standard error. The statistical significance was determined using Student's two-sample two-tailed t tests. Results Using discrete LIPUS intensities ranging from 1 to 500 mW/cm2 (SATA, spatial average-temporal average), we found that approximately 75 mW/cm2 produced the greatest increase in osteoblast proliferation. Ultrasound exposures at higher intensity (approximately 465 mW/cm2) significantly reduced proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells, suggesting that high-intensity pulsed ultrasound may increase apoptosis or loss of adhesion in these cells. Variation in LIPUS frequency from 0.5 MHz to 5 MHz indicated that osteoblast proliferation rate was not frequency dependent. We found no difference in the increase in proliferation rate if LIPUS was applied for 30 min/day or 10 min/day, indicating a habituation response. Conclusion This study concludes that a short-term stimulation with optimum intensity

  14. Behavior of a fluorescent analogue of calmodulin in living 3T3 cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have prepared and partially characterized a lissamine-rhodamine B fluorescent analogue of calmodulin, LRB-CM. The analogue had a dye/protein ratio of approximately 1.0 and contained no free dye or contaminating labeled proteins. LRB-CM was indistinguishable from native calmodulin upon SDS PAGE and in assays of phosphodiesterase and myosin light chain kinase. The emission spectrum of LRB-CM was insensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature over the physiological range, but the apparent quantum yield was influenced somewhat by divalent cation concentration. LRB-CM injected into living Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts became associated with nitrobenzoxadiazole- phallacidin staining stress fibers in some interphase cells. LRB-CM and acetamidofluorescein-labeled actin co-injected into the same cell both became associated with fibers in some cells, but in most cases association of the two analogues with fibers was mutually exclusive. This suggests that calmodulin may differ from actin in the timing of incorporation into stress fibers or that we have distinguished distinct populations of stress fibers. We were able to detect no direct interaction of LRB-CM with actin by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FRAP) of aqueous solutions. Interaction of LRB-CM with myosin light chain kinase also was not detected by FRAP. This suggests that the mean lifetime of the calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase complex is too short to affect the diffusion coefficient of calmodulin. We examined various fluorescent derivatives of proteins and dextrans as suitable control molecules for quantitative fluorescent analogue cytochemistry in living cells. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans were found to be preferable to all the proteins tested, since their mobilities in cytoplasm were inversely dependent on molecular size and there was no evidence of binding to intracellular components. In contrast, FRAP of LRB-CM in the cytoplasm of living 3T3 cells suggested that the analogue

  15. Drug-induced Parkinsonism versus Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: Utility of Nigrosome 1 with 3-T Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sung, Young Hee; Noh, Young; Lee, Jongho; Kim, Eung Yeop

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To explore the utility of nigrosome 1 with 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) from drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study, and participants gave informed consent. This study enrolled patients with DIP (n = 20) and IPD (n = 29) who underwent N-3-fluoropropyl-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((18)F-FP-CIT) positron emission tomography (PET) and healthy participants (n = 20). All participants underwent 0.5 × 0.5 × 1.0 mm(3) oblique axial three-dimensional multiecho-data image combination imaging to view the nigrosome 1 with 3-T imaging. Two reviewers independently assessed the nigrosome 1 without clinical information. DIP was diagnosed when no abnormality was seen at (18)F-FP-CIT PET. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nigrosome 1 imaging were evaluated between the IPD and DIP patients and between the IPD patients and healthy participants. Interrater agreement was assessed with Cohen κ. Results Both reviewers agreed in 63 of 69 participants (91.3%) for the presence of any abnormality on either side of the nigrosome 1 (κ = 0.825). Findings in all 29 IPD patients (100%) and three of 20 DIP patients (15%) were rated as abnormal and in 17 of 20 DIP patients (85%) they were interpreted as normal on the basis of imaging of the nitgrosome 1 (sensitivity, 100% (29 of 29); specificity, 85.0% (17 of 20); accuracy, 93.9% (46 of 49) between IPD and DIP patients). Findings in 3 of 20 healthy participants (15.0%) were interpreted as abnormal on the basis of imaging the nigrosome 1 while in the other 17 of 20 healthy participants (85.0%) they were rated as normal (sensitivity, 100% [29 of 29]; specificity, 85.0% [17 of 20]; accuracy, 93.9% [46 of 49] between IPD patients and healthy participants [κ = 0.831]). Conclusion The imaging of nigrosome 1 with 3-T imaging can differentiate DIP from IPD with high accuracy and

  16. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  17. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Asyifah Mohamed; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBPα and PPARγ as well as the upregulation of PPARα receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation.

  18. Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Linssen, Margot M L; Toonen, Erik J M; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H A; Ouwens, D Margriet; Alkema, Wynand

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids.

  19. Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; Linssen, Margot M. L.; Toonen, Erik J. M.; van der Zon, Gerard C. M.; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H. A.; Ouwens, D. Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids. PMID:23506355

  20. Single Synonymous Mutations in KRAS Cause Transformed Phenotypes in NIH3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew M.; Bagni, Rachel; Portugal, Franklin; Hartley, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Synonymous mutations in the KRAS gene are clustered at G12, G13, and G60 in human cancers. We constructed 9 stable NIH3T3 cell lines expressing KRAS, each with one of these synonymous mutations. Compared to the negative control cell line expressing the wild type human KRAS gene, all the synonymous mutant lines expressed more KRAS protein, grew more rapidly and to higher densities, and were more invasive in multiple assays. Three of the cell lines showed dramatic loss of contact inhibition, were more refractile under phase contrast, and their refractility was greatly reduced by treatment with trametinib. Codon usage at these glycines is highly conserved in KRAS compared to HRAS, indicating selective pressure. These transformed phenotypes suggest that synonymous mutations found in driver genes such as KRAS may play a role in human cancers. PMID:27684555

  1. Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Using a specially designed phase-contrast light microscope with an infrared spot illuminator we found that approximately 25% of 3T3 cells were able to extend pseudopodia towards single microscopic infrared light sources nearby. If the cells were offered a pair of such light sources next to each other, 47% of the cells extended towards them. In the latter case 30% of the responding cells extended separate pseudopodia towards each individual light source of a pair. The strongest responses were observed if the infrared light sources emitted light of wavelengths in the range of 800-900 nm intermittently at rates of 30-60 pulses per min. The temperature increases of the irradiated spots can be shown to be negligible. The results suggest that the cells are able to sense specific infrared wavelengths and to determine the direction of individual sources. PMID:1860881

  2. NOTE: Cardiac phase-specific shimming (CPSS) for SSFP MR cine imaging at 3 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubach, Miriam R.; Bornstedt, Axel; Hombach, Vinzenz; Merkle, Nico; Schär, Michael; Spiess, Jochen; Nienhaus, Gerd U.; Rasche, Volker

    2009-10-01

    The application of steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) techniques at 3 T systems is still limited by their sensitivity to magnetic field inhomogeneities. Especially during imaging of the heart, the arising signal voids and distortions in the myocardium currently often limit the diagnostic value of the resulting images. Dedicated shim systems providing higher order shimming capabilities have been applied to improve the field homogeneity across the heart. In this study, the potential benefit of applying a cardiac phase-specific shim (CPSS) was investigated. The cardiac phase dependence of the magnetic field distortions over the heart was assessed and the potential gain in field homogeneity by CPSS was evaluated. CPSS was successfully applied in volunteers and yielded significant improvement in the main magnetic field homogeneity over the entire cardiac cycle.

  3. Melatonin Suppresses Autophagy Induced by Clinostat in Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Han, Tae-Young; Kim, Han Sung

    2016-04-08

    Microgravity exposure can cause cardiovascular and immune disorders, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and loss of blood and plasma volume. A clinostat device is an effective ground-based tool for simulating microgravity. This study investigated how melatonin suppresses autophagy caused by simulated microgravity in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. In preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, clinostat rotation induced a significant time-dependent increase in the levels of the autophagosomal marker microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3), suggesting that autophagy is induced by clinostat rotation in these cells. Melatonin treatment (100, 200 nM) significantly attenuated the clinostat-induced increases in LC3 II protein, and immunofluorescence staining revealed decreased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), indicating a decrease in autophagosomes. The levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) (Ser2448), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (p-Akt) (Ser473) were significantly reduced by clinostat rotation. However, their expression levels were significantly recovered by melatonin treatment. Also, expression of the Bcl-2, truncated Bid, Cu/Zn- superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Mn-SOD proteins were significantly increased by melatonin treatment, whereas levels of Bax and catalase were decreased. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker GRP78/BiP, IRE1α, and p-PERK proteins were significantly reduced by melatonin treatment. Treatment with the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole blocked melatonin-induced decreases in LC3 II levels. These results demonstrate that melatonin suppresses clinostat-induced autophagy through increasing the phosphorylation of the ERK/Akt/mTOR proteins. Consequently, melatonin appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for regulating microgravity-related bone loss or osteoporosis.

  4. Effect of blueberry polyphenols on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Shiwani S; Juma, Shanil; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2012-05-01

    Today obesity is an epidemic, and its prevalence has increased significantly over the last few decades. To avoid excessive accumulation of fat, optimum energy intake along with regular exercise is mandatory. Polyphenols present in green tea, grape seeds, orange, and grapefruit combat adipogenesis at the molecular level and also induce lipolysis. However, very little is known regarding the role of blueberry polyphenols on adipocyte differentiation. Hence we tested the dose-dependent effects of blueberry polyphenols on mouse 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. 3T3-F442A preadipocytes were incubated with three doses of blueberry polyphenols (150, 200, and 250 μg/mL [BB-150, BB-200, and BB-250, respectively]), and intracellular lipid content, cell proliferation, and lipolysis were assayed. Blueberry polyphenols suppressed adipocyte differentiation determined by Oil Red-O staining and AdipoRed assay. Intracellular lipid content in control (11,385.51±1,169.6 relative fluorescence units) was significantly higher (P<.05) than with the three doses of blueberry polyphenols (8336.86±503.57, 4235.67±323.17, and 3027.97±346.61, respectively). This corresponds to a reduction of 27%, 63%, and 74%, respectively. Cell proliferation was observed to be significantly higher in the control (0.744±0.035 optical density units) than with BB-150 (0.517±0.031), BB-200 (0.491±0.023), and BB-250 (0.455±0.012). However, when tested for lipolysis, there was no significant difference observed among the groups. We conclude that blueberry polyphenols may play an effective role in inhibiting adipogenesis and cell proliferation.

  5. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-09-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior-inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet.

  6. Regulation of p53 in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts following hyperosmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Enghoff, Maria Stine; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to analyze the regulation of p53 expression in NIH3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of increasing hyperosmotic stress. Expression of p53 showed a biphasic response pattern in NIH3T3 cells under increasing osmotic stress (337 mOsm to 737 mOsm) with a maximum at 587 mOsm. Under isotonic conditions p53 expression increased after addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 indicating that cellular p53 levels in unperturbed cells is kept low by proteasomal degradation. However, under hypertonic conditions p53 synthesis as well as p53 degradation were significantly reduced and it is demonstrated that the increase in p53 expression observed when tonicity is increased from 337 to 587 mOsm reflects that degradation is more inhibited than synthesis, whereas the decrease in p53 expression at higher tonicities reflects that synthesis is more inhibited than degradation. The activity of the p53 regulating proteins p38 MAP kinase and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 were studied as a function of increasing osmolarity. MDM2 protein expression was unchanged at all osmolarities, whereas MDM2 phosphorylation (Ser166) increased at osmolarities up to 537 mOsm and remained constant at higher osmolarities. Phosphorylation of p38 increased at osmolarities up to 687 mOsm which correlated with an increased phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and the decreased p53 degradation. Caspase-3 activity increased gradually with hypertonicity and at 737 mOsm both Caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding are high even though p53 expression and activity are low, indicating that initiation of apoptosis under severe hypertonic conditions is not strictly controlled by p53. PMID:26056062

  7. Melatonin Suppresses Autophagy Induced by Clinostat in Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Han, Tae-Young; Kim, Han Sung

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity exposure can cause cardiovascular and immune disorders, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, and loss of blood and plasma volume. A clinostat device is an effective ground-based tool for simulating microgravity. This study investigated how melatonin suppresses autophagy caused by simulated microgravity in preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. In preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, clinostat rotation induced a significant time-dependent increase in the levels of the autophagosomal marker microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3), suggesting that autophagy is induced by clinostat rotation in these cells. Melatonin treatment (100, 200 nM) significantly attenuated the clinostat-induced increases in LC3 II protein, and immunofluorescence staining revealed decreased levels of both LC3 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), indicating a decrease in autophagosomes. The levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) (Ser2448), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), and phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (p-Akt) (Ser473) were significantly reduced by clinostat rotation. However, their expression levels were significantly recovered by melatonin treatment. Also, expression of the Bcl-2, truncated Bid, Cu/Zn- superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Mn-SOD proteins were significantly increased by melatonin treatment, whereas levels of Bax and catalase were decreased. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker GRP78/BiP, IRE1α, and p-PERK proteins were significantly reduced by melatonin treatment. Treatment with the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole blocked melatonin-induced decreases in LC3 II levels. These results demonstrate that melatonin suppresses clinostat-induced autophagy through increasing the phosphorylation of the ERK/Akt/mTOR proteins. Consequently, melatonin appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for regulating microgravity-related bone loss or osteoporosis. PMID:27070587

  8. Mechanisms and prevention of thermal injury from gamma radiosurgery headframes during 3T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marcus C; Wiant, David B; Gersh, Jacob A; Dolesh, Wendy; Ding, X; Best, Ryan C M; Bourland, J D

    2012-07-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regularly used for stereotactic imaging of Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery patients for GK treatment planning. MRI-induced thermal injuries have occurred and been reported for GK patients with attached metallic headframes. Depending on the specific MR imaging and headframe conditions, a skin injury from MRI-induced heating can potentially occur where the four headframe screws contact the skin surface of the patient's head. Higher MR field strength has a greater heating potential. Two primary heating mechanisms, electromagnetic induction and the antenna effect, are possible. In this study, MRI-induced heating from a 3T clinical MRI scanner was investigated for stereotactic headframes used in gamma radiosurgery and neurosurgery. Using melons as head phantoms, optical thermometers were used to characterize the temperature profile at various points of the melon headframe composite as a function of two 3T MR pulse sequence protocols. Different combinations of GK radiosurgery headframe post and screw designs were tested to determine best and worst combinations for MRI-induced heating. Temperature increases were measured for all pulse sequences tested, indicating that the potential exists for MRI-induced skin heating and burns at the headframe attachment site. This heating originates with electromagnetic induction caused by the RF fields inducing current in a loop formed by the headframe, mounting screws, and the region of the patient's head located between any of the two screws. This induced current is then resistively dissipated, with the regions of highest resistance, located at the headframe screw-patient head interface, experiencing the most heating. Significant heating can be prevented by replacing the metallic threads holding the screw with electrically insulated nuts, which is the heating prevention and patient safety recommendation of the GK manufacturer. Our results confirm that the manufacturer's recommendation to use

  9. Honokiol enhances adipocyte differentiation by potentiating insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Iida, Kagami; Sato, Masako; Lee, Young-Sil; Teruya, Toshiaki; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in energy homeostasis as a metabolic and endocrine organ. Accordingly, adipocytes are emerging as a major drug target for obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Dysfunction of enlarged adipocytes in obesity is involved in obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Adipocytokines, such as adiponectin released from small adipocytes, are able to prevent these disorders. In this study, we found that honokiol, an ingredient of Magnolia officinalis used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines, enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil Red O staining showed that treatment with honokiol in the presence of insulin dose-dependently increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipoyctes although its activity was weak compared with rosiglitazone. During adipocyte differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) mRNA and PPARγ target genes such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), adiponectin, and GLUT4 was induced by treatment with 10 μM honokiol. However, honokiol failed to show direct binding to the PPARγ ligand-binding domain in vitro. In preadipocytes, treatment with honokiol in the presence of insulin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 protein and Akt protein, early insulin signaling pathways related to adipocyte differentiation, compared with insulin-only treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that honokiol promotes adipocyte differentiation through increased expression of PPARγ2 mRNA and potentiation of insulin signaling pathways such as the Ras/ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways.

  10. Online monitoring of BALB/3T3 metabolism and adhesion with multiparametric chip-based system.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, L; Kob, A; Drechsler, S; Ponti, J; Thedinga, E; Colpo, P; Ehret, R; Rossi, F

    2007-12-01

    A multiparametric chip-based system was employed to measure cell adhesion, metabolism, and response to metal compounds previously classified as cytotoxic in immortalized mouse fibroblasts (BALB/3T3 cell line). The system measures in parallel, online, and in label-free conditions the extracellular acidification rates (with pH-sensitive field effect transistors [ISFETs]), the cellular oxygen consumption (with amperometric electrode structures [Clark-type sensors]), and cell adhesion (with impedimetric interdigitated electrode structures [IDESs]). The experimental protocol was optimized to monitor metabolism and adhesion of the BALB/3T3 cell line. A total of 70,000 cells and a bicarbonate buffer-free running low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal clone serum III and 1mM Hepes were selected to maintain cells in good conditions on the chip during the measurements performed under perfusion conditions. Cells were exposed to sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, and cis-platinum at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 microM. The kinetics of cell response to these compounds was analyzed and suggests that the Clark-type sensors can be more sensitive than IDESs and ISFETs in detecting the presence of high chemical concentration when short exposure times (i.e., 2h) are considered. The cytotoxicity data obtained from the online measurements of acidification, respiration, and adhesion at 24h compare well, in terms of half-inhibition concentration values (IC(50)), with the ones obtained using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. The results show a good sensitivity of the system combined with the advantages of the online and label-free detection methods that allow following cell status before, during, and after the treatment in the same experiment.

  11. Epigenetic Modification Mediates the Increase of LAG-3(+) T Cells in Chronic Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicun; Wang, Jun; Meng, Jia; Jiang, Hui; Zhao, Jianning; Qian, Hongbo; Chen, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Immune suppression plays critical roles in the development of chronic osteomyelitis, and the mechanisms underlying the development of immune suppression in chronic osteomyelitis have attracted much attention. LAG-3 is an important suppressor of T cell activation, but the role of LAG-3 in the immune regulation of chronic osteomyelitis is currently unknown. We sought to demonstrate if LAG-3 plays crucial roles in chronic osteomyelitis progression and has effects on immune suppression and exhausting of T cells, and what is the mechanism underlying LAG-3 deregulation in chronic osteomyelitis. We examined the expression of LAG-3 in the T cells of peripheral blood of 50 healthy controls and 50 patients with chronic osteomyelitis by flow cytometry. Clinical data were analyzed to determine the correlation between inflammation index and LAG-3 expression. Moreover, we isolated the CD4(+) T cells from healthy controls and chronic osteomyelitis patients to compare cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were utilized to analyze the epigenetic modification on LAG-3 expression in T cells. We found that LAG-3 was significantly increased in the T cells of peripheral blood from chronic osteomyelitis patients. Subsequently, clinical data analysis suggested that the higher expression of LAG-3 was associated with severer inflammation situation. Consistently, LAG-3(+)CD4(+) T cells exhibited impaired cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. Deregulation of histone methylation mediated the increase of LAG-3(+) T cells during chronic osteomyelitis. Taken together, our study demonstrates the increase of LAG-3(+) T cells and its immune regulatory roles in chronic osteomyelitis progression, suggesting new mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for chronic osteomyelitis.

  12. Dihydrocytochalasin B. Biological effects and binding to 3T3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, S. J.; Lin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Dihydrocytochalasin B (H2CB) does not inhibit sugar uptake in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Excess H2CB does not affect inhibition of sugar uptake by cytochalasin B (CB), indicating that it does not compete with CB for binding to high-affinity sites. As in the case of CB, H2CB inhibits cytokinesis and changes the morphology of the cells. These results demonstrate that the effects of CB on sugar transport and on cell motility and morphology involve separate and independent sites. Comparison of the effects of H2CB, CB, and cytochalasin D (CD) indicates that treatment of cells with any one of the compounds results in the same series of morphological changes; the cells undergo zeiosis and elongation at 2-4 microM CB and become arborized and rounded up at 10-50 microM CB. H2CB is slightly less potent than CB, whereas CD is five to eight times more potent than CB in causing a given state of morphological change. These results indicate that the cytochalasin-induced changes in cell morphology are mediated by a specific site(s) which can distinguish the subtle differences in the structures of the three compounds. Competitive binding studies indicate that excess H2CB displaces essentially all of the high-affinity bound [3H]CB, but, at less than 5 x 10(-5) M H2CB is not so efficient as unlabeled CB in the displacement reaction. In contrast, excess CD displaces up to 40% of the bound [3H]CB. These results suggest that three different classes of high-affinity CB binding sites exist in 3T3 cells: sites related to sugar transport, sites related to cell motility and morphology, and sites with undetermined function. PMID:10605443

  13. In vitro BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay of nonoxynol-9 and 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Sheu, C W; Moreland, F M; Lee, J K; Dunkel, V C

    1988-01-01

    The spermicidal surfactant nonoxynol-9 (Igepal CO-630, GAF Corp.) and a potential impurity, 1,4-dioxane, were tested in the in vitro cell transformation assay using BALB/3T3 cells. Two treatment periods, 48 hr and 13 days, were used. Nonoxynol-9, tested at levels up to 10 micrograms/ml, did not induce transformation, whereas dioxane was very active in the induction of type III foci in the cultured BALB/3T3 cells.

  14. Berberine reduces the expression of adipogenic enzymes and inflammatory molecules of 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Ahn, In-Sook; Kim, Yu-Hee; Park, Ji-Won; Lee, So-Young; Hyun, Chang-Kee; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2006-12-31

    Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological effects, yet its exact mechanism is unknown. In order to understand the anti-adipogenic effect of BBR, we studied the change of expression of several adipogenic enzymes of 3T3-L1 cells by BBR treatment. First, we measured the change of leptin and glycerol in the medium of 3T3-L1 cells treated with 1 micrometer, 5 micrometer and 10 micrometer concentrations of BBR. We also measured the changes of adipogenic and lipolytic factors of 3T3-L1. In 3T3-L1 cells, both leptin and adipogenic factors (SREBP-1c, C/EBP-alpha, PPAR-gamma, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, acyl-CoA synthase and lipoprotein lipase) were reduced by BBR treatment. Glycerol secretion was increased, whereas expression of lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin) mRNA was slightly decreased. Next, we measured the change of inflammation markers of 3T3-L1 cells by BBR treatment. This resulted in the down-regulation of mRNA level of inflammation markers such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, C- reactive protein and haptoglobin. Taken together, our data shows that BBR has both anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and the anti-adipogenic effect seems to be due to the down-regulation of adipogenic enzymes and transcription factors.

  15. Resistance to oncogenic transformation in revertant R1 of human ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzumaki, N.; Ogiso, Y.; Oda, A.; Fujita, H.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, C.; Mullauer, L.

    1989-05-01

    A flat revertant, R1, was isolated from human activated c-Ha-ras-1 (hu-ac-Ha-ras) gene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells (EJ-NIH 3T3) treated with mutagens. R1 contained unchanged transfected hu-ac-Ha-ras DNA and expressed high levels of hu-ac-Ha-ras-specific mRNA and p21 protein. Transfection experiments revealed that NIH 3T3 cells could be transformed by DNA from R1 cells but R1 cells could not be retransformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus, DNA from EJ-NIH 3T3 cells, hu-ac-Ha-ras, v-src, v-mos, simian virus 40 large T antigen, or polyomavirus middle T antigen. Somatic cell hybridization studies showed that R1 was not retransformed by fusion with NIH 3T3 cells and suppressed anchorage independence of EJ-NIH 3T3 and hu-ac-Ha-ras gene-transformed rat W31 cells in soft agar. These results suggest that the reversion and resistance to several oncogenes in R1 is due n not to cellular defects in the production of the transformed phenotype but rather to enhancement of cellular mechanisms that suppress oncogenic transformation.

  16. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Park, Sahng Wook; Kim, Hojeong; Park, Sang-Kyu; Yoon, Dojun

    2010-02-19

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBP{beta} or C/EBP{delta}, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  17. ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee; Seong, Je Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBP{alpha} expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBP{alpha} transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBP{alpha} expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5 Prime -deletions in the C/EBP{alpha} promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between -1921 and -1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBP{alpha} mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBP{alpha} gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBP{alpha} expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBP{alpha} gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition

  18. Butyrate modulates the expression of. beta. -adrenergic receptor subtype in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poksay, K.S.; Nakada, M.T.; Crooke, S.T.; Stadel, J.M.

    1986-03-05

    In mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (dex) affects a switch in ..beta..-adrenergic receptor (..beta..AR) subtype expression from ..beta../sub 1/AR to ..beta../sub 2/AR and increases total ..beta..AR number. They now demonstrate a similar effect by sodium butyrate (B) and find that the combined effect of these two gene-activating agents is greater than additive suggesting different mechanisms of action on the ..beta..AR. ..beta..AR are assayed in membranes prepared from 3T3-L1 cells using the radiolabeled ..beta..AR-specific antagonist (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol. ..beta..AR subtype is determined by competition binding of the ..beta../sub 2/AR-selective antagonist ICI 118.551 for the radioligand. B (2-10mM) causes a dose-dependent increase in total ..beta..AR number (up to 2-fold over control) and the proportion of ..beta../sub 2/AR. B (5mM) causes a time-dependent increase in total ..beta..AR number (2-fold) and the proportion of ..beta../sub 2/AR up to 24 hr. Dex maximally increases total ..beta..AR number (2-fold) when treated for 48 hr at concentrations greater than or equal to 100nM. B (2 or 5mM) together with dex (250nM) have a greater than additive effect on total ..beta..AR number at 24 hr (1.7-fold) and at 48 hr (1.4-2.4-fold, using 5 or 10mM B and dex greater than or equal to 10nM). The proportion of ..beta../sub 2/AR is also greater when both compounds are added together. In comparison with proprionate and valerate, B increases total ..beta..AR number and the proportion of ..beta../sub 2/AR to a greater extent and at lower concentrations. To determine a functional correlate to these findings, cells were pre-treated for 48 hr with B and/or dex, intracellular ATP labeled with /sup 3/H-adenine, followed by treatment with forskolin (10..mu..M) and ..beta..AR agonists. B caused a dramatic increase in /sup 3/H-cAMP produced compared to control and dex treatments and a greater than additive effect was again achieved when B and dex were

  19. Quantification and reduction of peripheral dose from leakage radiation on Siemens Primus accelerators in electron therapy mode.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Collins; Karotki, Alex; Hunt, Dylan; Holly, Rick

    2010-06-15

    In this work, leakage radiation from EA200 series electron applicators on Siemens Primus accelerators is quantified, and its penetration ability in water and/or the shielding material Xenolite-NL established. Initially, measurement of leakage from 10 x 10 - 25 x 25 cm2 applicators was performed as a function of height along applicator and of lateral distance from applicator body. Relative to central-axis ionization maximum in solid water, the maximum leakage in air observed with a cylindrical ion chamber with 1 cm solid water buildup cap at a lateral distance of 2 cm from the front and right sidewalls of applicators were 17% and 14%, respectively; these maxima were recorded for 18 MeV electron beams and applicator sizes of >or=20 x 20 cm2. In the patient plane, the applicator leakage gave rise to a broad peripheral dose off-axis distance peak that shifted closer to the field edge as the electron energy increases. The maximum peripheral dose from normally incident primary electron beams at a depth of 1 cm in a water phantom was observed to be equal to 5% of the central-axis dose maximum and as high as 9% for obliquely incident beams with angles of obliquity

  20. SU-C-201-07: Validation of a GATE Gamma Camera Model for the Siemens Symbia

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, J; Siman, W; Kappadath, S; Mourtada, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a simulation model of a clinical gamma camera/SPECT system and to validate the model using experimental and published measurements from the clinical system. Methods: Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) was used to create a model of the Siemens Symbia gamma camera. A modular model was implemented that allows specifying combinations of crystal thickness (3/8”, 5/8”) and collimator (LEHR, MELP, HE). Shielding, energy resolution, intrinsic resolution, crystal thickness, and collimator properties were set based on manufacturer specifications. Validation of the model was performed by simulating NEMA 2007 gamma camera tests including spatial resolution and sensitivity for Tc99; these were compared with experimental and published data for the scanner. The simulated energy spectra of a Tc99 line source in acrylic blocks was visually compared with the corresponding experimental acquisition. For a 4 cm diameter sphere filled with Tc99, the attenuation maps were generated from simulation data, and the photopeak and scatter window were extracted from GATE output using ROOT to create DICOM files to use in the clinical reconstruction. Results: Simulated spatial resolutions for LEHR 3/8” crystal at 0, 10 cm, 10 cm (with scatter), and 30 cm were 4, 6.7, 7.9, and 14.5 mm FWHM; these were 9% less than published data. For 5/8” crystal the spatial resolutions were 4.5, 7.0, 8.5, and 14.7 mm FWHM; these were 4% to 10% less than published data. Simulated sensitivity was within 3.5% of published data for both LEHR 3/8” and 5/8”. The simulated energy spectra matched the photopeak and scatter window well, but did overestimate the counts below 90 keV. The simulated attenuation map and projection data were successfully reconstructed with the clinical software, and the passed visual inspection. Conclusions: Validation of a specific clinical scanner allows future studies of quantification accuracy for both planar and SPECT imaging. Research

  1. Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel

    2014-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pluripotent lipid mediator that transmits signals through G-protein-coupled receptors to control diverse biological processes. The novel biological activity of S1P in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was identified in the present study. S1P significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes in a dose‑dependent manner. In order to understand the anti‑adipogenic effects of S1P, preadipocytes were treated with S1P, and the change in the expression of several adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. S1P downregulated the transcriptional levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and adiponectin, which are markers of adipogenic differentiation. The effects of S1P on the levels of mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signals in preadipocytes were also investigated. The activation of JNK and p38 were downregulated by S1P treatment in human preadipocytes. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that S1P alters fat mass by directly affecting adipogenesis. This is mediated by the downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors and by inactivation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. Thus, selective targeting of the S1P receptors and sphingosine kinases may have clinical applications for the treatment of obesity.

  2. Protein turnover in 3T3 cells transformed with the oncogene c-H-ras1.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, J M; James, G

    1992-01-01

    We have examined protein turnover, growth, DNA synthesis and proliferation in three independent clones of 3T3-NR6 cells transformed with the oncogene c-H-ras1. We find that, firstly, the half-maximum concentration of serum and insulin regulating protein turnover in ras-transformed cells is significantly reduced from 0.5 to 0.3% for serum and from 4 nM to 0.5 nM for insulin, and, secondly, ras-transformed cells consistently have lower rates of protein degradation. The catabolic effect of conditioned medium or serum withdrawal is attenuated in transformed lines by maintaining lower basal rates of protein breakdown and higher basal rates of DNA and protein synthesis. Serum stimulation of growth in transformed cells is achieved in the short term by lower rates of protein breakdown rather than higher rates of protein synthesis: rates of protein synthesis become significantly higher 24 h after serum stimulation. Therefore transformed cells have higher rates of proliferation and grow to higher densities, but display characteristics common to normal cells because rates of protein synthesis decrease and protein degradation increase as a function of cell density. We conclude that higher basal rates of protein synthesis and growth with retention of the normal proliferative response to serum result from the pleiotropic nature of ras transformation, whereas lower rates of protein degradation and increased sensitivity to serum and insulin imply a direct regulatory role for ras. PMID:1575687

  3. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only coil array for 3 T, which can be placed between the subject's head and the TMS, is presented. Interactions between the devices are investigated and the performance of the new setup is evaluated in comparison to the state‐of‐the‐art setup. Results MR sensitivity obtained at the depth of the TMS stimulation is increased by a factor of five. Parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of two is feasible with low g‐factors. Possible interactions between TMS and the novel hardware were investigated and were found negligible. Conclusion The novel coil array is safe, strongly improves signal‐to‐noise ratio in concurrent TMS/fMRI experiments, enables parallel imaging, and allows for flexible positioning of the TMS on the head while ensuring efficient TMS stimulation due to its ultraslim design. Magn Reson Med 74:1492–1501, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. PMID:25421603

  4. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mendrik, Adriënne M.; Vincken, Koen L.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H.; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R.; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A.; Vrooman, Henri A.; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65–80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand. PMID:26759553

  5. Fisetin induces Sirt1 expression while inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Chon; Kim, Yoo Hoon; Son, Sung Wook; Moon, Eun-Yi; Pyo, Suhkneung; Um, Sung Hee

    2015-11-27

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally found flavonol in many fruits and vegetables and is known to have anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-viral effects. However, the effects of fisetin on early adipocyte differentiation and the epigenetic regulator controlling adipogenic transcription factors remain unclear. Here, we show that fisetin inhibits lipid accumulation and suppresses the expression of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells. Fisetin suppressed early stages of preadipocyte differentiation, and induced expression of Sirt1. Depletion of Sirt1 abolished the inhibitory effects of fisetin on intracellular lipid accumulation and on PPARγ expression. Mechanistically, fisetin facilitated Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of PPARγ and FoxO1, and enhanced the association of Sirt1 with the PPARγ promoter, leading to suppression of PPARγ transcriptional activity, thereby repressing adipogenesis. Lowering Sirt1 levels reversed the effects of fisetin on deacetylation of PPARγ and increased PPARγ transactivation. Collectively, our results suggest the effects of fisetin in increasing Sirt1 expression and in epigenetic control of early adipogenesis.

  6. Increased NY-ESO-1 expression and reduced infiltrating CD3+ T cells in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Giavina-Bianchi, Mara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Muzikansky, Alona; Kalil, Jorge; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79), rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10) and not in benign nevi (0/20). Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P = 0.007) and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P < 0.02). NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P = 0.017). When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P = 0.010) or as isolated cells (P = 0.002) than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  7. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-03-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration.

  8. Improved localisation for 2-hydroxyglutarate detection at 3T using long-TE semi-LASER.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Adam; Voets, Natalie L; Plaha, Puneet; Larkin, Sarah J; Mccullagh, James; Stacey, Richard; Yildirim, Muhammed; Schofield, Christopher J; Jezzard, Peter; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom; Ansorge, Olaf; Emir, Uzay E

    2016-06-01

    2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) has emerged as a biomarker of tumour cell IDH mutations that may enable the differential diagnosis of glioma patients. At 3 Tesla, detection of 2-HG with magnetic resonance spectroscopy is challenging because of metabolite signal overlap and a spectral pattern modulated by slice selection and chemical shift displacement. Using density matrix simulations and phantom experiments, an optimised semi-LASER scheme (TE = 110 ms) improves localisation of the 2-HG spin system considerably compared to an existing PRESS sequence. This results in a visible 2-HG peak in the in vivo spectra at 1.9 ppm in the majority of IDH mutated tumours. Detected concentrations of 2-HG were similar using both sequences, although the use of semi-LASER generated narrower confidence intervals. Signal overlap with glutamate and glutamine, as measured by pairwise fitting correlation was reduced. Lactate was readily detectable across glioma patients using the method presented here (mean CLRB: (10±2)%). Together with more robust 2-HG detection, long TE semi-LASER offers the potential to investigate tumour metabolism and stratify patients in vivo at 3T.

  9. In vivo conductivity imaging of canine male pelvis using a 3T MREIT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Jeong, W. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Minhas, A. S.; Lee, T. H.; Lim, C. Y.; Park, H. M.; Seo, J. K.; Woo, E. J.

    2010-04-01

    The prostate is an imaging area of growing concern related with aging. Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are the most common diseases and significant cause of death for elderly men. Hence, the conductivity imaging of the male pelvis is a challenging task with a clinical significance. In this study, we performed in vivo MREIT imaging experiments of the canine male pelvis using a 3T MRI scanner. Adopting carbon-hydrogel electrodes and a multi-echo pulse sequence, we could inject as much as 10 mA current in a form of 51 ms pulse into the pelvis. Collecting magnetic flux density data inside the pelvis subject to multiple injection currents, we reconstructed cross-sectional conductivity images using a MREIT software package CoReHA. Scaled conductivity images of the prostate show a clear contrast between the central and peripheral zones which are related with prostate diseases including cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In our future work, we will focus on prostate cancer model animal experiments.

  10. Hippocampal blood flow in normal aging measured with arterial spin labeling at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Rusinek, Henry; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik, Lidia; Switalski, Remigiusz; Tsui, Wai-Hon; Haas, Francois; Mcgorty, Kellyanne; Chen, Qun; de Leon, Mony J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to methodological difficulties related to the small size, variable distribution of hippocampal arteries, and the location of the hippocampus in the proximity of middle cranial fossa, little is known about hippocampal blood flow (HBF). We have tested the utility of a pulsed ASL sequence based on multi-shot TrueFISP to measure HBF in 34 normal volunteers (17 women, 17 men, 26-92 years old). Flow sensitivity to a mild hypercapnic challenge was also examined. Coregistered 3D MPRAGE sequence was used to eliminate from hippocampal and cortical regions of interest all voxel with <75% of gray matter. Large blood vessels were also excluded. HBF in normal volunteers averaged 61.2±9.0 ml/(100g min). There was no statistically significant age or gender effect. Under a mild hypercapnia challenge (end tidal CO2 pressure increase of 6.8±1.9 mg Hg over the baseline), HBF response was 14.1±10.8 ml/(100g min), whereas cortical gray matter flow increased by 18.0±12.2 ml/(100g min). Flow response among women was significantly larger than in the men. The average absolute difference between two successive HBF measures was 3.6 ml/(100g min), or 5.4%. The 3T TrueFISP ASL method offers a HBF measurement strategy that combines good spatial resolution, sensitivity, and minimal image distortions. PMID:20939094

  11. Inhibitory effects of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huijin; Wu, Dan; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Tannic acid is a hydrolyzable tannin that exists in many widespread edible plants with a variety of biological activities. In this study, we found that tannic acid potently inhibited the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in a concentration-dependent manner with a half-inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.14 microM. The inhibition kinetic results showed that the inhibition of FAS by tannic acid was mixed competitive and noncompetitive manner with respect to acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, but uncompetitive to NADPH. Tannic acid prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, and thus repressed intracellular lipid accumulation. In the meantime, tannic acid decreased the expression of FAS and down-regulated the mRNA level of FAS and PPARgamma during adipocyte differentiation. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effect of tannic acid did not relate to FAS non-specific sedimentation. Since FAS was believed to be a therapeutic target of obesity, these findings suggested that tannic acid was considered having potential in the prevention of obesity.

  12. Nobiletin enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo . E-mail: ksekiya@affrc.go.jp

    2007-06-01

    Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits. Here we demonstrate that nobiletin enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Nobiletin dose-dependently increased accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that nobiletin increased the expression of genes critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype. Some of them were known peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) targets and PPAR{gamma} itself, however, nobiletin did not exhibit PPAR{gamma} ligand activity. We observed the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} (C/EBP{beta}), a transcription factor for PPAR{gamma}, was increased by nobiletin. The activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which play important roles in C/EBP{beta} expression were also potentiated by nobiletin. Furthermore, nobiletin stimulated lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes, which is known to be stimulated by cAMP pathway. These results suggested that nobiletin enhanced both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocyte through activation of signaling cascades mediated by cAMP/CREB.

  13. A 64-channel 3T array coil for accelerated brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Blau, James N.; Biber, Stephan; Hoecht, Philipp; Tountcheva, Veneta; Setsompop, Kawin; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    A 64-channel brain array coil was developed and compared to a 32-channel array constructed with the same coil former geometry in order to precisely isolate the benefit of the two-fold increase in array coil elements. The constructed coils were developed for a standard clinical 3T MRI scanner and used a contoured head-shape curved former around the occipital pole and tapered in at the neck to both improve sensitivity and patient comfort. Additionally, the design is a compact, split-former design intended for robust daily use. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification (G-factor) for parallel imaging were quantitatively evaluated in human imaging and compared to a size and shape-matched 32-channel array coil. For unaccelerated imaging, the 64-channel array provided similar SNR in the brain center to the 32-channel array and 1.3-fold more SNR in the brain cortex. Reduced noise amplification during highly parallel imaging of the 64-channel array provided the ability to accelerate at approximately one unit higher at a given noise amplification compared to the sized-matched 32-channel array. For example, with a 4-fold acceleration rate, the central brain and cortical SNR of the 64-channel array was 1.2 and 1.4-fold higher, respectively, compared to the 32-channel array. The characteristics of the coil are demonstrated in accelerated brain imaging. PMID:22851312

  14. Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.

    PubMed

    Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety.

  15. Malignant transformation induced by incorporated radionuclides in BALB/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    LeMotte, P K; Adelstein, S J; Little, J B

    1982-01-01

    The induction of lethality and malignant transformation by 5-[125I]iododeoxyuridine and [3H]thymidine incorporated into cellular DNA and by x-irradiation was studied in vitro in BALB/3T3 cells. Under these conditions, 125I radiation is highly localized to small regions of the DNA at the site of each decay and produces DNA double-strand breaks with high efficiency. Incorporated 125I was found to be 12-16 times as lethal per decay as incorporated 3H. For the induction of malignant transformation, however, 125I was approximately 25 times as effective per decay as 3H. When the frequencies of transformation induced at various levels of survival by 125I, 3H, and x-rays were compared, lethality was found to correlate closely with transformation at doses that yielded significant cell killing. An exception occurred at low doses, where 125I appeared much more efficient than x-irradiation in inducing transformation; transformation frequencies equal to those induced by 3-5 Gy of x-rays resulted from 125I exposures that yielded little or no cell killing. PMID:6961448

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glycogen synthase activity in 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.P.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Ross, R.; Krebs, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase, an enzyme that can be phosphorylated on multiple sites, is often associated with changes in its phosphorylation state. Enzyme activation is conventionally monitored by determining the synthase activity ratio ((activity in the absence of glucose 6-P)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-P)). Insulin causes an activation of glycogen synthase with a concomitant decrease in its phosphate content. In a previous report, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the glycogen synthase activity ratio in Swiss 3T3 cells. The time and dose-dependency of this response was similar to that of insulin. Their recent results indicate that PDGF also stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Enzyme activation was maximal after 30 min. of incubation with PDGF; the time course observed was very similar to that with insulin and EGF. At 1 ng/ml (0.03nM), PDGF caused a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at 0.2 ng/ml (6 pM). The time course of changes in enzyme activity ratio closely followed that of /sup 125/I-PDGF binding. The authors data suggest that PDGF, as well as EFG and insulin, may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms.

  17. A 22-channel receive array with Helmholtz transmit coil for anesthetized macaque MRI at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Thomas; Keil, Boris; Serano, Peter; Mareyam, Azma; McNab, Jennifer A; Wald, Lawrence L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-11-01

    The macaque monkey is an important model for cognitive and sensory neuroscience that has been used extensively in behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular and, more recently, neuroimaging studies. However, macaque MRI has unique technical differences relative to human MRI, such as the geometry of highly parallel receive arrays, which must be addressed to optimize imaging performance. A 22-channel receive coil array was constructed specifically for rapid high-resolution anesthetized macaque monkey MRI at 3 T. A local Helmholtz transmit coil was used for excitation. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared with those of single- and four-channel receive coils routinely used for macaque MRI. The 22-channel coil yielded significant improvements in SNR throughout the brain. Using this coil, the SNR in peripheral brain was 2.4 and 1.7 times greater than that obtained with single- or four-channel coils, respectively. In the central brain, the SNR gain was 1.5 times that of both the single- and four-channel coils. Finally, the performance of the array for functional, anatomical and diffusion-weighted imaging was evaluated. For all three modalities, the use of the 22-channel array allowed for high-resolution and accelerated image acquisition.

  18. Which pulse sequence is optimal for myo-inositol detection at 3T?

    PubMed

    Hancu, Ileana

    2009-05-01

    Optimized myo-inositol (mI) detection is important for diagnosing and monitoring a multitude of pathological conditions of the brain. Simulations are presented in this work, performed to decide which pulse sequence has the most significant advantage in terms of improving repeatability and accuracy of mI measurements at 3T over the pulse sequence used typically in the clinic, a TE = 35 ms PRESS sequence. Five classes of pulse sequences, four previously suggested for optimized mI detection (a short TE PRESS, a Carr-Purcell PRESS sequence, an optimized STEAM sequence, an optimized zero quantum filter), and one optimized for mI detection in this work (a single quantum filter) were compared to a standard, TE = 35 ms pulse sequence. While limiting the SNR of an acquisition to the equivalent SNR of a spectrum acquired in 5 min from an 8 cc voxel, it was found through simulations that the most repeatable mI measurements would be obtained with a Carr-Purcell sequence. This sequence was implemented in a clinical scanner, and improved mI measurements were demonstrated in vivo.

  19. Characterization, prediction, and correction of geometric distortion in 3 T MR images

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Lesley N.; Wachowicz, Keith; Thomas, Steven D.; Rivest, Ryan; Gino Fallone, B.

    2007-02-15

    The work presented herein describes our methods and results for predicting, measuring and correcting geometric distortions in a 3 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for the purpose of image guidance in radiation treatment planning. Geometric inaccuracies due to both inhomogeneities in the background field and nonlinearities in the applied gradients were easily visualized on the MR images of a regularly structured three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom. From a computed tomography scan, the locations of just under 10 000 control points within the phantom were accurately determined in three dimensions using a MATLAB-based computer program. MR distortion was then determined by measuring the corresponding locations of the control points when the phantom was imaged using the MR scanner. Using a reversed gradient method, distortions due to gradient nonlinearities were separated from distortions due to inhomogeneities in the background B{sub 0} field. Because the various sources of machine-related distortions can be individually characterized, distortions present in other imaging sequences (for which 3D distortion cannot accurately be measured using phantom methods) can be predicted negating the need for individual distortion calculation for a variety of other imaging sequences. Distortions were found to be primarily caused by gradient nonlinearities and maximum image distortions were reported to be less than those previously found by other researchers at 1.5 T. Finally, the image slices were corrected for distortion in order to provide geometrically accurate phantom images.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Veillonella parvula type strain (Te3T)

    SciTech Connect

    Gronow, Sabine; Welnitz, Sabine; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Ivanova, N; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Brettin, Thomas S; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lucas, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Veillonella parvula (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Pr vot 1933 is the type species of the genus Veillonella in the family Veillonellaceae within the order Clostridiales. The species V. parvula is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in the human oral cavity and can cause opportunistic infections. The species is strictly anaerobic and grows as small cocci which usually occur in pairs. Veillonellae are characterized by their unusual metabolism which is centered on the activity of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Strain Te3T, the type strain of the species, was isolated from the human intestinal tract. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the large clostridial family Veillonellaceae, and the 2,132,142 bp long single replicon genome with its 1859 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. Lipid droplet changes in proliferating and quiescent 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Giacomo; Batetta, Barbara; Sanna, Francesca; Uda, Sabrina; Reali, Camilla; Angius, Fabrizio; Melis, Marta; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2008-05-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are fat-storing organelles present in virtually all eukaryotic cells and involved in many aspects of cell biology related to lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the presence of LDs in proliferating and quiescent (contact-inhibited) 3T3 fibroblasts to verify a correlation with cell growth. LDs were characterized by Nile red staining, positivity to adipophilin and negativity to perilipin. LDs were numerous in proliferating cells, but very few in quiescent cells. However, the fraction of quiescent cells, which resumed proliferation after scratch-wound assay, also resumed the formation of LDs. In proliferating cells, the number of LDs correlated with the DNA content, suggesting a continuous accumulation of LDs during cell growth. These findings were supported by biochemical data showing much higher rates of cholesterol esterification and triglyceride synthesis in proliferating cells. Both filipin staining and the fluorescent cholesterol analog dehydroergosterol revealed the presence of an intense traffic of free cholesterol, mediated by acidic vesicles, in proliferating cells. Nile red ratiometric measurements revealed a different lipid composition of LDs in proliferating and quiescent cells. Changes in the number and composition of LDs were also found in growing cells treated with inhibitors of cholesterol esterification (Sandoz 58-035), endosomal cholesterol efflux (U18666A) and V-ATPase (bafilomycin-A1).

  2. Improved localisation for 2-hydroxyglutarate detection at 3T using long-TE semi-LASER

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, Adam; Voets, Natalie L.; Plaha, Puneet; Larkin, Sarah J.; Mccullagh, James; Stacey, Richard; Yildirim, Muhammed; Schofield, Christopher J.; Jezzard, Peter; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom; Ansorge, Olaf; Emir, Uzay E.

    2016-01-01

    2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) has emerged as a biomarker of tumour cell IDH mutations that may enable the differential diagnosis of glioma patients. At 3 Tesla, detection of 2-HG with magnetic resonance spectroscopy is challenging because of metabolite signal overlap and a spectral pattern modulated by slice selection and chemical shift displacement. Using density matrix simulations and phantom experiments, an optimised semi-LASER scheme (TE = 110 ms) improves localisation of the 2-HG spin system considerably compared to an existing PRESS sequence. This results in a visible 2-HG peak in the in vivo spectra at 1.9 ppm in the majority of IDH mutated tumours. Detected concentrations of 2-HG were similar using both sequences, although the use of semi-LASER generated narrower confidence intervals. Signal overlap with glutamate and glutamine, as measured by pairwise fitting correlation was reduced. Lactate was readily detectable across glioma patients using the method presented here (mean CLRB: (10±2)%). Together with more robust 2-HG detection, long TE semi-LASER offers the potential to investigate tumour metabolism and stratify patients in vivo at 3T. PMID:27547821

  3. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans.

    PubMed

    Mendrik, Adriënne M; Vincken, Koen L; Kuijf, Hugo J; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Persson, Mikael; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A; Vrooman, Henri A; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65-80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand.

  4. Modulation of Osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells by Different Frequency Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Cui, Haitao; Wu, Zhenxu; Wu, Naipeng; Wang, Zongliang; Chen, Xuesi; Wei, Yen; Zhang, Peibiao

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is therapeutic to many bone diseases, from promoting fracture regeneration to orthopedic intervention. The application of ES offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal ES parameters and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. In this study, we assembled an ES cell culture and monitoring device. Mc-3T3-E1 cells were subjected to different frequency to investigate the effect of osteogenesis. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, the mRNA levels of osteosis-related genes, the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and intracellular concentration of Ca2+ were thoroughly evaluated. We found that 100 Hz could up-regulate the mRNA levels of collagen I, collagen II and Runx2. On the contrary, ES could down-regulate the mRNA levels of osteopontin (OPN). ALP activity assay and Fast Blue RR salt stain showed that 100 Hz could accelerate cells differentiation. Compared to the control group, 100 Hz could promote cell proliferation. Furthermore, 1 Hz to 10 Hz could improve calcium deposition in the intracellular matrix. Overall, these results indicate that 100Hz ES exhibits superior potentialities in osteogenesis, which should be beneficial for the clinical applications of ES for the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:27149625

  5. Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with cloned fragments of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J A; Fleckenstein, B; Galloway, D A; McDougall, J K

    1982-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with restriction endonuclease and cloned human cytomegalovirus DNA fragments to identify the transforming region(s). Cleavage of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 DNA with XbaI and HindIII left a transforming region intact whereas EcoRI inactivated this function. Transfection of cells with cosmids containing human cytomegalovirus DNA spanning the entire genome resulted in transformation by one cosmid, pCM1058, with the AD169 HindIII DNA fragments E, R, T, and a'. Cells were selected for their growth in 1.2% methylcellulose. The clones isolated had a significant replating efficiency and were oncogenic in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Transfection of cosmids and plasmids containing subsets of the viral sequences in pCM1058 identified a common region possessed by all of the transforming recombinant molecules. This region was in the HindIII E fragment with the left boundary defined by the EcoRI d-R junction and the right boundary defined by the HindIII E-T junction. Further mapping and transfection experiments determined that the transforming region was contained without a 2.9-kilobase fragment between map units 0.123 and 0.14 on the prototype molecule of the AD169 strain. Images PMID:6287019

  6. Adhesion, Proliferation and Migration of NIH/3T3 Cells on Modified Polyaniline Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rejmontová, Petra; Capáková, Zdenka; Mikušová, Nikola; Maráková, Nela; Kašpárková, Věra; Lehocký, Marián; Humpolíček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline shows great potential and promises wide application in the biomedical field thanks to its intrinsic conductivity and material properties, which closely resemble natural tissues. Surface properties are crucial, as these predetermine any interaction with biological fluids, proteins and cells. An advantage of polyaniline is the simple modification of its surface, e.g., by using various dopant acids. An investigation was made into the adhesion, proliferation and migration of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on pristine polyaniline films and films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids. In addition, polyaniline films supplemented with poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid at various ratios were tested. Results showed that the NIH/3T3 cell line was able to adhere, proliferate and migrate on the pristine polyaniline films as well as those films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids; thus, utilization of said forms in biomedicine appears promising. Nevertheless, incorporating poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid altered the surface properties of the polyaniline films and significantly affected cell behavior. In order to reveal the crucial factor influencing the surface/cell interaction, cell behavior is discussed in the context of the surface energy of individual samples. It was clearly demonstrated that the lesser the difference between the surface energy of the sample and cell, the more cyto-compatible the surface is. PMID:27649159

  7. Enhanced CCR5+/CCR3+ T helper cell ratio in patients with active cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Freutel, S; Gaffal, E; Zahn, S; Bieber, T; Tüting, T; Wenzel, J

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is characterized by enhanced interferon α (IFNα) levels in serum and in tissue. Since IFNα promotes a Th1-biased immune response, we hypothesized that a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile should be a typical finding in patients with active CLE. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients with different CLE subsets (n = 15), healthy controls (n = 13) and patients under immunotherapy with IFNα (n = 7). T helper cells were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the chemokines receptor CCR5, indicative for Th1 cells, and of CCR3, indicating Th2. In addition, intracellular levels of the type I IFN-inducible MxA protein were measured. Patients with widespread active CLE skin lesions had a significantly increased expression of CCR5, whereas expression of CCR3 was decreased when compared with healthy controls. MxA expression was significantly enhanced in all investigated CLE subtypes, with the highest levels in patients with widespread skin lesions. The enhanced CCR5/CCR3 ratio closely correlated with the MxA levels in peripheral lymphocytes and with disease activity. Our analyses revealed that active CLE is associated with a systemic type I IFN effect that appears to induce a shift towards a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile. The CCR5/CCR3 T-helper cell ratio might therefore represent an indirect marker for the disease activity in CLE.

  8. Contributed Review: Nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jonathan Fordham, Edmund J.

    2014-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  9. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Mitochondrial Uncoupling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yaguang; Shi, Hai; Lee, Kyongbum

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing energy expenditure at the cellular level offers an attractive option to limit adiposity and improve whole body energy balance. In vivo and in vitro observations have correlated mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression with reduced white adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) content. The metabolic basis for this correlation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings This study tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling requires the cell to compensate for the decreased oxidation phosphorylation efficiency by up-regulating lactate production, thus redirecting carbon flux away from TG synthesis. Metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize the effects of non-lethal, long-term mitochondrial uncoupling (up to 18 days) on the pathways of intermediary metabolism in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Uncoupling was induced by forced expression of UCP1 and chemical (FCCP) treatment. Chemical uncoupling significantly decreased TG content by ca. 35%. A reduction in the ATP level suggested diminished oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the uncoupled adipocytes. Flux analysis estimated significant up-regulation of glycolysis and down-regulation of fatty acid synthesis, with chemical uncoupling exerting quantitatively larger effects. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding uncoupling-induced redirection of carbon flux into glycolysis and lactate production, and suggest mitochondrial proton translocation as a potential target for controlling adipocyte lipid metabolism. PMID:19746157

  10. Monitoring fractional anisotropy in developing rabbit brain using MR diffusion tensor imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Yang, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factional anisotropy (FA) in various regions of developing rabbit brain using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) at 3 T. A whole-body clinical MR imaging (MRI) scanner with a 15-channel high resolution knee coil was used. An echo-planar-imaging (EPI)-DTI pulse sequence was performed. Five 5 week-old New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits underwent MRI once per week for 24 weeks. After scanning, FA maps were obtained. ROIs (regions of interests) in the frontal lobe, parietal & temporal lobe, and occipital lobe were measured. FA changes with time were evaluated with a linear regression analysis. The results show that the FA values in all lobes of the brain increased linearly with age. The ranking of FA values was FA(frontal lobe) < FA(parietal & temporal lobe) > FA(occipital lobe). There was significant difference (p < 0.05) among these lobes. FA values are associated with the nerve development and brain functions. The FA change rate could be a biomarker to monitor the brain development. Understanding the FA values of various lobes during development could provide helpful information to diagnosis the abnormal syndrome earlier and have a better treatment and prognosis. This study established a brain MR-DTI protocol for rabbits to investigate the brain anatomy during development using clinical MRI. This technique can be further applied to the pre-clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow-up of brain lesions.

  11. Cytoplasmic pH influences cytoplasmic calcium in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. S.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Kumegawa, M.; Pitts, A. C.; Snowdowne, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium (Cai) of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts was influenced by the type of pH buffer we used in the perfusing medium, suggesting that intracellular pH (pHi) might influence Cai. To study this effect, the Cai and pHi were monitored as we applied various experimental conditions known to change pHi. Exposure to NH4Cl caused a transient increase in both pHi and Cai without a change in extracellular pH (pHo). Decreasing pHo and pHi by lowering the bicarbonate concentration of the medium decreased Cai, and increasing pHi by the removal of 5% CO2 increased Cai. Clamping pHi to known values with 10 microM nigericin, a potassium proton ionophore, also influenced Cai: acid pHi lowered Cai, whereas alkaline pHi increased it. The rise in Cai appears to be very sensitive to the extracellular concentration of calcium, suggesting the existence of a pH-sensitive calcium influx mechanism. We conclude that physiologic changes in pH could modulate Cai by controlling the influx of calcium ions and could change the time course of the Cai transient associated with hormonal activation.

  12. Contributed review: nuclear magnetic resonance core analysis at 0.3 T.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Fordham, Edmund J

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful toolbox for petrophysical characterization of reservoir core plugs and fluids in the laboratory. Previously, there has been considerable focus on low field magnet technology for well log calibration. Now there is renewed interest in the study of reservoir samples using stronger magnets to complement these standard NMR measurements. Here, the capabilities of an imaging magnet with a field strength of 0.3 T (corresponding to 12.9 MHz for proton) are reviewed in the context of reservoir core analysis. Quantitative estimates of porosity (saturation) and pore size distributions are obtained under favorable conditions (e.g., in carbonates), with the added advantage of multidimensional imaging, detection of lower gyromagnetic ratio nuclei, and short probe recovery times that make the system suitable for shale studies. Intermediate field instruments provide quantitative porosity maps of rock plugs that cannot be obtained using high field medical scanners due to the field-dependent susceptibility contrast in the porous medium. Example data are presented that highlight the potential applications of an intermediate field imaging instrument as a complement to low field instruments in core analysis and for materials science studies in general.

  13. Trio study and meta-analysis support the association of genetic variation at the serotonin transporter with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Walitza, Susanne; Marinova, Zoya; Grünblatt, Edna; Lazic, Stanley E.; Remschmidt, Helmut; Vloet, Timo D.; Wendland, Jens R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence for major genetic contributions to the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), few genetic variants have been consistently associated with this debilitating illness. Molecular genetic studies in children and adolescents with OCD are of particular interest, since early onset of the disease has been observed to be associated with increased familiality. We replicate here for the first time in early-onset OCD patients, a previously reported association of OCD with the common gain-of-function LA allele at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region known as 5-HTTLPR in a collection of parent-offspring trios. The present meta-analysis of this recently refined serotonin transporter gene variant revealed further support for the LA allele conferring increased genetic susceptibility to OCD. We conclude that the 5-HTTLPR is currently the single best supported risk variant for OCD, in regards of early-onset OCD, albeit of modest effect size and the possibility that the conferred risk might not be specific to OCD. PMID:25093702

  14. Influence of the artefact reduction algorithm of Picasso Trio CBCT system on the diagnosis of vertical root fractures in teeth with metal posts

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, I S Q; Neves, F S; Vasconcelos, T V; Ambrosano, G M B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of the artefact reduction algorithm (AR) available on the Picasso Trio 3D® imaging system (Vatech, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea) on image quality [greyscale values, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and artefact formation] and diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in the teeth with intracanal metal posts. Methods: 30 uniradicular teeth had their crowns removed and their roots endodontically treated to receive intracanal metal posts. In 20 teeth, both complete (n = 10) and incomplete (n = 10) VRFs were created. Each tooth was scanned twice, with and without AR activation. The mean and variation of greyscale values, as well as CNR, were calculated for all images. Subsequently, an evaluator compared the amount of artefact (cupping, white streaks and dark bands) in all images. Five evaluators rated for VRF presence using a five-point scale. Results: Mean greyscale values and CNR were significantly decreased in images acquired with the AR. The usage of the algorithm promoted an overall reduction of image artefacts. Regarding the diagnosis of complete and incomplete VRFs, the use of the AR had an overall negative impact on specificity and accuracy. Conclusions: While indeed reducing artefact formation, the use of the AR, instead of improving the impact on the diagnosis of VRFs in teeth with intracanal metal posts, had a negative impact on the diagnosis. PMID:25764360

  15. Trio study and meta-analysis support the association of genetic variation at the serotonin transporter with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Walitza, Susanne; Marinova, Zoya; Grünblatt, Edna; Lazic, Stanley E; Remschmidt, Helmut; Vloet, Timo D; Wendland, Jens R

    2014-09-19

    Despite compelling evidence for major genetic contributions to the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), few genetic variants have been consistently associated with this debilitating illness. Molecular genetic studies in children and adolescents with OCD are of particular interest, since early onset of the disease has been observed to be associated with increased familiality. We replicate here for the first time in early-onset OCD patients, a previously reported association of OCD with the common gain-of-function LA allele at the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region known as 5-HTTLPR in a collection of parent-offspring trios. The present meta-analysis of this recently refined serotonin transporter gene variant revealed further support for the LA allele conferring increased genetic susceptibility to OCD. We conclude that the 5-HTTLPR is currently the single best supported risk variant for OCD, in regards of early-onset OCD, albeit of modest effect size and the possibility that the conferred risk might not be specific to OCD.

  16. Anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits and serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in adolescents: case-control and trio studies.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Blaya, Carolina; Salum, Giovanni A; Cappi, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2014-08-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anxiety disorder and anxiety-related traits is controversial. Besides this study, few studies have evaluated the triallelic genotype in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits are associated with 5-HTTLPR (biallelic and triallelic) in adolescents, integrating both case-control-based and family-based designs in a community sample. This is a cross-sectional community study of 504 individuals and their families: 225 adolescents (129 adolescents with anxiety disorder and 96 controls) and their biological families. We assessed psychiatric diagnosis using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The Temperament and Character Inventory and the Resnick Behavioral Inhibition Scale were used to evaluate harm avoidance and behavioral inhibition. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped, including biallelic and triallelic 5-HTTLPR classification, by PCR-RFLP followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We were not able to find any associations between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in both case-control and trio analyses. Further investigation and meta-analytic studies are needed to better clarify the inconsistent results with regard to the association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in adolescents.

  17. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a Trio-regulated Rho GTPase circuitry transducing mitogenic signals initiated by G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Vaqué, Jose P; Dorsam, Robert T; Feng, Xiaodong; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Forsthoefel, David J; Chen, Qianming; Debant, Anne; Seeger, Mark A; Ksander, Bruce R; Teramoto, Hidemi; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2013-01-10

    Activating mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding members of the Gα(q) family of G protein α subunits, are the driver oncogenes in uveal melanoma, and mutations in Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors have been identified recently in numerous human malignancies. How Gα(q) and its coupled receptors transduce mitogenic signals is still unclear because of the complexity of signaling events perturbed upon Gq activation. Using a synthetic-biology approach and a genome-wide RNAi screen, we found that a highly conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Trio, is essential for activating Rho- and Rac-regulated signaling pathways acting on JNK and p38, and thereby transducing proliferative signals from Gα(q) to the nucleus independently of phospholipase C-β. Indeed, whereas many biological responses elicited by Gq depend on the transient activation of second-messenger systems, Gq utilizes a hard-wired protein-protein-interaction-based signaling circuitry to achieve the sustained stimulation of proliferative pathways, thereby controlling normal and aberrant cell growth.

  18. Review of statistical methodologies for the detection of parent-of-origin effects in family trio genome-wide association data with binary disease traits.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Siobhan; Heron, Elizabeth A

    2015-05-01

    The detection of parent-of-origin effects aims to identify whether the functionality of alleles, and in turn associated phenotypic traits, depends on the parental origin of the alleles. Different parent-of-origin effects have been identified through a variety of mechanisms and a number of statistical methodologies for their detection have been proposed, in particular for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS have had limited success in explaining the heritability of many complex disorders and traits, but successful identification of parent-of-origin effects using trio (mother, father and offspring) GWAS may help shed light on this missing heritability. However, it is important to choose the most appropriate parent-of-origin test or methodology, given knowledge of the phenotype, amount of available data and the type of parent-of-origin effect(s) being considered. This review brings together the parent-of-origin detection methodologies available, comparing them in terms of power and type I error for a number of different simulated data scenarios, and finally offering guidance as to the most appropriate choice for the different scenarios.

  19. Nitric Oxide-Induced Autophagy in MC3T3-E1 Cells is Associated with Cytoprotection via AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Yoon; Park, Min Young; Park, Sam Young; Yoo, Hong Il; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Jae Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of bone remodeling, whereas high concentration of NO promotes cell death of osteoblast. However, it is not clear yet whether NO-induced autophagy is implicated in cell death or survival of osteoblast. The present study is aimed to examine the role of NO-induced autophagy in the MC3T3-E1 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on the cytotoxicity of the MC3T3-E1 cells was determined by MTT assay and expression of apoptosis or autophagy associated molecules was evaluated by western blot analysis. The morphological observation of autophagy and apoptosis by acridine orange stain and TUNEL assay were performed, respectively. Treatment of SNP decreased the cell viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. SNP increased expression levels of p62, ATG7, Beclin-1 and LC3-II, as typical autophagic markers and augmented acidic autophagolysosomal vacuoles, detected by acridine orange staining. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), the specific inhibitor for autophagy, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in the SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major autophagy regulatory kinase, was activated in SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, pretreatment with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 levels compared to those of SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, it is speculated that NO-induced autophagy functions as a survival mechanism via AMPK activation against apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:26557017

  20. Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

  1. Triiodothyronine modulates the expression of leptin and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Miriane; Síbio, Maria Teresa De; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; Nogueira, Celia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different doses of triiodothyronine on gene expression of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin, at different times, and to evaluate the difference in expression between the two adipokines in each group. Methods 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with triiodothyronine at physiological dose (10nM) and supraphysiological doses (100nM or 1,000nM), or without triiodothyronine (control, C) for 0.5, 6, or 24 hours. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One-way analyses of variance, Tukey’s test or Student’s t test, were used to analyze data, and significance level was set at 5%. Results Leptin levels decreased in the 1,000nM-dose group after 0.5 hour. Adiponectin levels dropped in the 10nM-dose group, but increased at the 100nM dose. After 6 hours, both genes were suppressed in all hormone concentrations. After 24 hours, leptin levels increased at 10, 100 and 1,000nM groups as compared to the control group; and adiponectin levels increased only in the 100nM group as compared to the control group. Conclusion These results demonstrated fast actions of triiodothyronine on the leptin and adiponectin expression, starting at 0.5 hour, at a dose of 1,000nM for leptin and 100nM for adiponectin. Triiodothyronine stimulated or inhibited the expression of adipokines in adipocytes at different times and doses which may be useful to assist in the treatment of obesity, assuming that leptin is increased and adiponectin is decreased, in obesity cases. PMID:25993072

  2. Crystal structure and chemistry of lithium-bearing trioctahedral micas-3T

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigatti, M.F.; Kile, D.E.; Poppi, L.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses and crystal structure refinements were performed on lithian siderophyllite-3T crystals from granitic pegmatites of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (Colorado) to characterize the crystal chemistry and relations with trioctahedral lithium-bearing micas showing different stacking sequences. Chemical data show that the studied samples fall on the siderophyllite-polylithionite join, closer to the siderophyllite end-member. Single-crystal X-ray refinements were carried out on three samples (two of which were taken from core and rim of the same crystal) in space-group P31 12 (the agreement factor, Robs, varies between 0.034 and 0.036). Mean bond distances and mean electron counts of M1, M2 and M3 octahedral sites indicate an ordered cation distribution with M1 and M3 positions substantially larger than M2. In the sample with the largest iron content, the M2 mean electron count increases as well as the mean distance, whereas remains smaller than or . The tetrahedral cation-oxygen atom mean distances range from 1.614 to 1.638 A and from 1.663 to 1.678 A for T1 and T2 sites, respectively, being consistent with Al3+ enrichment in the T2 sites. The tetrahedral rotation angle, α, is generally small (3.1 ≤ α ≤ 4.6) and decreases with siderophyllite content. As Fe increases, the T1 tetrahedron becomes flatter (112.4 ≤ t1 ≤ 110.5??), whereas T2 tetrahedron distortion appears unchanged (110.7 ≤ T2 ≤ 110.9).

  3. Substrate selectivity of diacylglycerol kinase in PDGF-stimulated 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.L.; Mack, K.F.; Glomset, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    The authors investigated the properties of Diacylglycerol (DAG) Kinase in 3T3 cells. PDGF treatment caused an increase in DAG mass, an increase in incorporation of /sup 32/P into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and an increase in the rate of phosphorylation of membrane DAG in vitro. The mechanism of enhanced phosphorylation of DAG was studied with dicaprylin (diC/sub 10/) as a probe. Cells were prelabeled with /sup 32/P and treated with PDGF or carrier. DiC/sub 10/ was added to the cell medium before harvesting. With PDGF treatment, the radioactivity in endogenous PA increased fourfold, whereas the radioactivity in PA/sub 10/ and PI/sub 10/ was consistently decreased. To verify that the PDGF effect on PA/sub 10/ formation in intact cells was due to reduced phosphorylation of diC/sub 10/ by DAG kinase, cells were treated with PDGF and/or diC/sub 10/, freeze-thawed, and then incubated with Mg(/sup 32/P)ATP. The rate of phosphorylation of cell-associated diC/sub 10/ was decreased 50% by PDGF treatment. This effect could not be explained by decreased intracellular levels of diC/sub 10/, or by saturation of DAG kinase with endogenous DAGs. Therefore, it seemed that endogenous DAGs, derived from PI, might be better substrates for DAG kinase than is diC/sub 10/. In studies of the properties of DAG kinase with pure DAGs in mixed detergent micelles, they found that the enzyme phosphorylated arachidonoyl-DAG more readily than diC/sub 10/. The selectivity of DAG kinase may play a key role in the formation of arachidonoyl species of PI.

  4. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  5. Normal-appearing brain tissue analysis in radiologically isolated syndrome using 3 T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Labiano-Fontcuberta, Andrés; Mato-Abad, Virginia; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Ginés, María Luisa; Aladro, Yolanda; Ayuso, Lucía; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Benito-León, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To date, it remains largely unknown whether there is in radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) brain damage beyond visible T2 white matter lesions. We used single- voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging (3 T MRI) to analyze normal-appearing brain tissue regions in 18 RIS patients and 18 matched healthy controls. T2-hyperintense lesion volumes and structural brain volumes were also measured. The absolute metabolite concentrations and ratios of total N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartyl glutamate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, myoinositol, and glutamine-glutamate complex to creatine were calculated. Spectral analysis was performed by LCModel. Voxelwise morphometry analysis was performed to localize regions of brain tissue showing significant changes of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity. Compared with healthy controls, RIS patients did not show any significant differences in either the absolute concentration of NAA or NAA/Cr ratio in mid-parietal gray matter. A trend toward lower NAA concentrations (–3.35%) was observed among RIS patients with high risk for conversion to multiple sclerosis. No differences in the other metabolites or their ratios were observed. RIS patients showed lower fractional anisotropy only in clusters overlapping lesional areas, namely in the cingulate gyrus bilaterally and the frontal lobe subgyral bilaterally (P < 0.001). Normalized brain and cortical volumes were significantly lower in RIS patients than in controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Our results suggest that in RIS, global brain and cortical atrophy are not primarily driven by significant occult microstructural normal appearing brain damage. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to better understand the pathological processes underlying this novel entity. PMID:27399108

  6. Neuronal correlates of gastric pain induced by fundus distension: a 3T-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lu, C-L; Wu, Y-T; Yeh, T-C; Chen, L-F; Chang, F-Y; Lee, S-D; Ho, L-T; Hsieh, J-C

    2004-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity in gastric fundus is a possible pathogenesis for functional dyspepsia. The cortical representation of gastric fundus is still unclear. Growing evidence shows that the insula, but not the primary or secondary somatosensory region (SI or SII), may be the cortical target for visceral pain. Animal studies have also demonstrated that amygdala plays an important role in processing visceral pain. We used fMRI to study central projection of stomach pain from fundus balloon distension. We also tested the hypothesis that there will be neither S1 nor S2 activation, but amygdala activation with the fundus distension. A 3T-fMRI was performed on 10 healthy subjects during baseline, fullness (12.7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) and moderate gastric pain (17.0 +/- 0.8 mmHg). fMRI signal was modelled by convolving the predetermined psychophysical response. Statistical comparisons were performed between conditions on a group level. Gastric pain activated a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures, including thalamus and insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, basal ganglia, caudate nuclei, amygdala, brain stem, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex (P < 0.001). A subset of these neuronal substrates was engaged in the central processing of fullness sensation. SI and SII were not activated during the fundus stimulation. In conclusion, the constellation of neuronal structures activated by fundus distension overlaps the pain matrices induced musculocutaneous pain, with the exception of the absence of SI or SII activation. This may account for the vague nature of visceral sensation/pain. Our data also confirms that the insula and amygdala may act as the central role in visceral sensation/pain, as well as in the proposed sensory-limbic model of learning and memory of pain.

  7. High-Resolution 3 T MR Microscopy Imaging of Arterial Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Johannes Rand, Thomas; Berg, Andreas; Sulzbacher, Irene; Peloschek, P.; Hoelzenbein, Thomas; Lammer, Johannes

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To achieve a high spatial resolution in MR imaging that allows for clear visualization of anatomy and even histology and documentation of plaque morphology in in vitro samples from patients with advanced atherosclerosis. A further objective of our study was to evaluate whether T2-weighted high-resolution MR imaging can provide accurate classification of atherosclerotic plaque according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Methods. T2-weighted images of arteries were obtained in 13 in vitro specimens using a 3 T MR unit (Medspec 300 Avance/Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) combined with a dedicated MR microscopy system. Measurement parameters were: T2-weighted sequences with TR 3.5 sec, TE 15-120 msec; field of view (FOV) 1.4 x 1.4; NEX 8; matrix 192; and slice thickness 600 {mu}m. MR measurements were compared with corresponding histologic sections. Results. We achieved excellent spatial and contrast resolution in all specimens. We found high agreement between MR images and histology with regard to the morphology and extent of intimal proliferations in all but 2 specimens. We could differentiate fibrous caps and calcifications from lipid plaque components based on differences in signal intensity in order to differentiate hard and soft atheromatous plaques. Hard plaques with predominantly intimal calcifications were found in 7 specimens, and soft plaques with a cholesterol/lipid content in 5 cases. In all specimens, hemorrhage or thrombus formation, and fibrotic and hyalinized tissue could be detected on both MR imaging and histopathology. Conclusion. High-resolution, high-field MR imaging of arterial walls demonstrates the morphologic features, volume, and extent of intimal proliferations with high spatial and contrast resolution in in vitro specimens and can differentiate hard and soft plaques.

  8. Differential expression of fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, D.; Bernlohr, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Cultured 3T3-L1 cells have been used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of fatty acid uptake by adipose tissue. Using a 1:1 molar ratio of /sup 14/C-oleate and defatted bovine serum albumin (BSA), fatty acid (FA) uptake was quantitated at 4/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/ as cell associated radioactivity. The profile of FA uptake in preadipocytes and adipocytes was biphasic; an initial rapid phase (1-20s) followed by a second slower phase (60-480s). At 37/sup 0/ the initial rate of FA accumulation in preadipocytes was identical to that in adipocytes, whereas the rate of accumulation during the second phase increased 7-fold (100 ..mu..M total FA) as a consequence of adipose conversion. When uptake measurements were made at 4/sup 0/ in adipocytes, the initial rate was identical to that at 37/sup 0/, however the rate of second phase decreased 5-fold. Incubation of /sup 14/C-BSA and nonradiolabeled FA with adipocyte monolayers (100 ..mu..M total FA) resulted in the rapid association (t/sub 1/2/ = 20s) of the BSA-FA complex with the cell surface. Incubation of 100, 10, and 1 ..mu..M total FA with adipocytes resulted in a 50-fold change in FA accumulation during the second phase. These results suggest that (1) FA uptake is significantly increased after differentiation, suggesting the participation of specialized proteins, (2) the temperature-insensitive initial FA accumulation can be attributed to rapid association of the BSA-FA complex to the cell surface, (3) the second phase of FA accumulation represents uptake.

  9. Continuous Rapid Quantification of Stroke Volume using Magnetohydrodynamic Voltages in 3T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Oshinski, John; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Stevenson, William G.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background To develop a technique to non-invasively estimate Stroke Volume (SV) in real-time during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided procedures, based on induced Magnetohydrodynamic Voltages (VMHD) that occur in Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during MRI exams, leaving the MRI scanner free to perform other imaging tasks. Due to the relationship between blood-flow (BF) and VMHD, we hypothesized that a method to obtain SV could be derived from extracted VMHD vectors in the Vectorcardiogram frame-of-reference (VMHDVCG). Methods and Results To estimate a subject-specific BF-VMHD model, VMHDVCG was acquired during a 20-second breath-hold and calibrated versus aortic BF measured using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (PCMR) in 10 subjects (n=10) and one subject diagnosed with Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs). Beat-to-Beat validation of VMHDVCG derived BF was performed using Real-Time Phase Contrast (RTPC) imaging in 7 healthy subjects (n=7) during a 15 minute cardiac exercise stress tests and 30 minutes after stress relaxation in 3T MRIs. Subject-specific equations were derived to correlate VMHDVCG to BF at rest, and validated using RTPC. An average error of 7.22% and 3.69% in SV estimation, respectively, was found during peak stress, and after complete relaxation. Measured beat-to-beat blood flow time-history derived from RTPC and VMHD were highly correlated using a Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient during stress tests (0.89) and after stress relaxation (=0.86). Conclusions Accurate beat-to-beat SV and BF were estimated using VMHDVCG extracted from intra-MRI 12-lead ECGs, providing a means to enhance patient monitoring during MR imaging and MR-guided interventions. PMID:26628581

  10. High-resolution diffusion kurtosis imaging at 3T enabled by advanced post-processing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Tabelow, Karsten; Ruthotto, Lars; Feiweier, Thorsten; Polzehl, Jörg; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) is more sensitive to microstructural differences and can be related to more specific micro-scale metrics (e.g., intra-axonal volume fraction) than diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), offering exceptional potential for clinical diagnosis and research into the white and gray matter. Currently DKI is acquired only at low spatial resolution (2–3 mm isotropic), because of the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and higher artifact level associated with the technically more demanding DKI. Higher spatial resolution of about 1 mm is required for the characterization of fine white matter pathways or cortical microstructure. We used restricted-field-of-view (rFoV) imaging in combination with advanced post-processing methods to enable unprecedented high-quality, high-resolution DKI (1.2 mm isotropic) on a clinical 3T scanner. Post-processing was advanced by developing a novel method for Retrospective Eddy current and Motion ArtifacT Correction in High-resolution, multi-shell diffusion data (REMATCH). Furthermore, we applied a powerful edge preserving denoising method, denoted as multi-shell orientation-position-adaptive smoothing (msPOAS). We demonstrated the feasibility of high-quality, high-resolution DKI and its potential for delineating highly myelinated fiber pathways in the motor cortex. REMATCH performs robustly even at the low SNR level of high-resolution DKI, where standard EC and motion correction failed (i.e., produced incorrectly aligned images) and thus biased the diffusion model fit. We showed that the combination of REMATCH and msPOAS increased the contrast between gray and white matter in mean kurtosis (MK) maps by about 35% and at the same time preserves the original distribution of MK values, whereas standard Gaussian smoothing strongly biases the distribution. PMID:25620906

  11. In-bore setup and Software for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with Z-frame that give a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allow performance of MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning, and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 mm and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP, and superior-inferior axes were 0.8 ± 1.0 degrees, 1.7 ± 1.6 degrees, and 0.0 ± 0.0 degrees respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle placement error was 3.0 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop set up and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. PMID:22951350

  12. Hormone and pharmaceutical regulation of ASP production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Gauvreau, Danny; Cianflone, Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated increases in acylation stimulating protein (ASP), and precursor protein C3 in obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia, however the nature of the regulation is unknown. To evaluate chronic hormonal and pharmaceutical mediated changes in ASP and potential mechanisms, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with physiological concentrations of relevant hormones and drugs currently used in treatment of metabolic diseases for 48 h. Medium ASP production and C3 secretion were evaluated in relation to changes in adipocyte lipid metabolism (cellular triglyceride (TG) mass, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release and real-time FA uptake). Chylomicrons increased ASP production (up to 411 +/- 133% P < 0.05), while leptin, triiodothyronine, and beta-blockers atenolol and propranolol had no effect. Dexamethasone, lovastatin, rosiglitazone and rimonabant decreased ASP production (-53 to -85%, P < 0.05), associated with a decrease in the precursor protein C3 (-37% to -65%, P < 0.01). By contrast, epinephrine, progesterone, testosterone, angiotensin II and metformin also decreased ASP (-54% to -100%, P < 0.05), but without change in precursor protein C3, suggesting a direct effect on convertase activity, possibly mediated by interference (except metformin) due to marked increases in NEFA (5.6-31-fold, increased P < 0.05). Both lovastatin and metformin induced decreases in ASP were also associated with decreased TG mass (maximal -60%, P < 0.05) and real-time FA uptake (maximum -75%, P < 0.05), suggesting a change in adipocyte differentiation status. These in vitro results are consistent with in vivo ASP profiles in subjects, and suggest that ASP may be regulated through precursor C3 availability, convertase activity and differentiation status.

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products inhibit differentiation and activate inflammation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiu Gen; Peng, Xin; Hu, Li Li; Xie, Di; Zhou, Min; Hou, Fan Fan

    2010-10-01

    Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) is prevalent in metabolic syndromes, a condition with impaired preadipocytes differentiation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AOPPs disturb preadipocyte differentiation. Exposure of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to increased levels of AOPPs inhibited accumulation of intracellular triglyceride and decreased the expression of the essential markers of matured adipocytes, such as adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, in response to standard adipogenic induction. Inhibitory effects of AOPPs on preadipocytes differentiation was time sensitive, which occurred at the early stage of differentiation. In the presence of AOPPs, induction of preadipocytes differentiation resulted in upregulated expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and CUG-Triplet repeat-binding protein (CUGBP), two important inhibitors of preadipocytes differentiation. In addition, treatment with AOPPs increased abundance of C/EBP-beta-liver enriched inhibitory protein (C/EBP-beta-LIP), a truncated C/EBP-beta isoform without adipogenic activity. Moreover, AOPPs-treated preadipocytes expressed a macrophage marker F4/80 and overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 via nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent pathway. However, blocking inflammation with NF-kappaB inhibitor failed to improve AOPPs-induced inhibition of preadipocytes differentiation. These data suggest that accumulation of AOPPs may inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes and activate inflammation in these cells. This information might have implication for understanding the impairment of preadipocytes differentiation and fat inflammation seen in metabolic syndrome.

  14. Mitogenic stimuli and phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.; Petersen, R.

    1986-03-01

    The hydrolysis of PI and polyphosphoinositides by phopholipase C is an early and rapid response to cell activation by a variety of neurotransmitters, hormones, growth factors and pharmacological agonists. The authors have examined the role of PI turnover and the generation of second messengers (diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate) in the mitogenic response of cultured Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells to polypeptide growth factors. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H inositol for 18-20 hours, washed and suspended in Herpes + Li/sup +/ buffer, and stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vasopressin, insulin, and other growth factors. PI turnover was measured as the increase in total inositol phosphate (IP) production. IP1, IP2, and IP3 were characterized by sequential elution from a Dowex column. Partially purified PDGF produced a 2-4 fold stimulation of total IP production. This was seen as early as 30 seconds after stimulation and increased for up to 1-2 hours. Balb/c cells were more sensitive than Swiss cells to the mitogenic and PI effects of PDGF. Other mitogenic stimuli had differential effects on PI turnover. Vasopressin (4-400 ng/ml) markedly stimulated PI turnover (3-6 fold) in Swiss, but not Balb/c cells. Insulin (100 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) increased total IP to a greater degree in Balb/c cells. Epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) had no effect on PI turnover and fibroblast growth factor (10 ng/ml - 10 ..mu..g/ml) only stimulated at the higher concentrations in Swiss cells. Thrombin (1U/ml - 10 U/ml) produced a 1.5 - 2 fold stimulation in Balb/c cells. Thus, various polypeptide growth factors have differential effects on PI turnover depending on their mitogenic potential and the effector cell type.

  15. Amyloidoma Involving the Orbit, Meckel's Cave and Infratemporal Fossa: 3T MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Menetti, F; Bartolomei, I; Ambrosini-Spaltro, A; Salvi, F; Agati, R; Leonardi, M

    2009-03-23

    Amyloidoma is a rare lesion characterized by tissue deposition of an abnormal fibrillary protein (amyloid). It is the focal and localized counterpart of systemic amyloidosis, where the deposition of amyloid diffusely involves several organs. The few literature reports of intracranial amyloidomas include lesions involving the pituitary gland, orbit, cerebral hemispheres, temporal bone, cerebellopontine angle and jugular foramen. We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman presenting with painless slowly progressive proptosis of the right eye. The patient underwent a contrast-enhanced CT study of the head, followed by 3T MRI which disclosed a homogeneous mass in the right Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus, extending through an enlarged foramen ovale to the infratemporal fossa. The right optic nerve and ocular muscles were enlarged and infiltrated along with the retrobulbar fat by contrast-enhancing tissue. Thin contrast-enhanced MRI scans through the area of interest showed the mass to extend posterior to the gasserian ganglion, involving the cerebellopontine angle cistern, where the intracisternal parts of the III, V, and VI nerves bilaterally appeared enlarged and showed perineural enhancement. The lesion closely mimicked a malignant tumor with perineural tumor infiltration, so we performed fine needle biopsy of the portion of the lesion near the right foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance. Histopathology revealed that the lesion was an amyloidoma. Further clinical and blood examinations, serum chemistry, followed by biopsy of the periumbilical fat showed no signs of systemic amyloidosis or an underlying inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. No further treatment was instituted, follow-up MRI six months later showed no enlargement of the mass.

  16. R1 changes in the human placenta at 3 T in response to a maternal oxygen challenge protocol.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Emma; Hawkins, Lauren; Morris, David M; Myers, Jenny; Sibley, Colin P; Johnstone, Edward D; Naish, Josephine H

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen-enhanced MRI non-invasively monitors placental oxygenation in-vivo. This technique has been demonstrated at 1.5 Tesla (T) in healthy pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings are comparable at 3T. Nine pregnant volunteers underwent MRI at 3T. Scans obtained R1 (1/T1) measures from T1 maps under air, followed by a dynamic series breathing 100% oxygen. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between dR1 and gestation (P = 0.0008, r = -0.90, Pearson correlation test). The effect of the field strength was not significant within regression analysis. Placental Oxygen-Enhanced MRI at 3T gives comparable results to those previously obtained at 1.5T.

  17. Ventilator-CPAP with the Siemens Servo 900C compared with continuous flow-CPAP in intubated patients: effect on work of breathing.

    PubMed

    Aerts, J G; van den Berg, B; Bogaard, J M

    1997-10-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) provided by the Siemens Servo 900C ventilator were compared with a continuous flow system (CF-CPAP) in patients weaning from the ventilator. Thirteen patients were studied using both systems at a CPAP level of 0.5 kPa. Additional work of breathing (Wapp) and derived variables were determined in relation to the minute volumes of the patients. The Wapp imposed by the ventilator exceeded the Wapp of CF-CPAP in all patients. The difference in Wapp between ventilator- and CF-CPAP was greater at higher ventilatory needs. The increments in Wapp imposed by the ventilator were positively correlated with the actual end-expiratory pressures (EEP). The EEP increasingly exceeded the preset CPAP level of the ventilator at higher minute volumes. An inspiratory threshold due to a gradient between EEP and preset CPAP greatly increased the Wapp imposed by the ventilator. As this threshold was attributed to the resistance of the PEEP device of the ventilator, it indicates that the additional work related to the expiratory value should be taken into account when the Siemens Servo 900C ventilator is used for weaning purposes.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1221-3T - Time and manner for electing capital asset treatment for certain self-created musical works...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Time and manner for electing capital asset treatment for certain self-created musical works (temporary). 1.1221-3T Section 1.1221-3T Internal Revenue... General Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1221-3T Time and manner for electing...

  19. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-3T - Ordering rules for the allocation of net operating losses, net capital losses, U.S. source losses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(g)-3T Section 1.904(g)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904(g)-3T.... The rules must be applied in the order set forth in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this section....

  20. Parasitic Nematode-Induced CD4+Foxp3+T Cells Can Ameliorate Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Sang Kyun; Jang, Min Seong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background The recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T (Treg) cells is one of the most important mechanisms by which parasites down-regulate the immune system. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the effects of Treg cells from Trichinella spiralis-infected mice and uninfected mice on experimental allergic airway inflammation in order to understand the functions of parasite-induced Treg cells. After four weeks of T. spiralis infection, we isolated Foxp3-GFP-expressing cells from transgenic mice using a cell sorter. We injected CD4+Foxp3+ cells from T. spiralis-infected [Inf(+)Foxp3+] or uninfected [Inf(-)Foxp3+] mice into the tail veins of C57BL/6 mice before the induction of inflammation or during inflammation. Inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-alum sensitization and OVA challenge. The concentrations of the Th2-related cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in the serum were lower in mice that received intravenous application of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(+) group] than in control mice. Some features of allergic airway inflammation were ameliorated by the intravenous application of Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(-) group], but the effects were less distinct than those observed in the IV(inf):+(+) group. We found that Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells migrated to inflammation sites in the lung and expressed higher levels of Treg-cell homing receptors (CCR5 and CCR9) and activation markers (Klrg1, Capg, GARP, Gzmb, OX40) than did Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells. Conclusion/Significance T. spiralis infection promotes the proliferation and functional activation of Treg cells. Parasite-induced Treg cells migrate to the inflammation site and suppress immune responses more effectively than non-parasite-induced Treg cells. The adoptive transfer of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells is an effective method for the treatment and prevention of allergic airway diseases in mice and is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment

  1. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the

  2. Computer-assisted quantification of CD3+ T cells in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Abas, Fazly S; Shana'ah, Arwa; Christian, Beth; Hasserjian, Robert; Louissaint, Abner; Pennell, Michael; Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Niazi, Muhammad Khalid Khan; Lozanski, Gerard; Gurcan, Metin

    2017-01-22

    The advance of high resolution digital scans of pathology slides allowed development of computer based image analysis algorithms that may help pathologists in IHC stains quantification. While very promising, these methods require further refinement before they are implemented in routine clinical setting. Particularly critical is to evaluate algorithm performance in a setting similar to current clinical practice. In this article, we present a pilot study that evaluates the use of a computerized cell quantification method in the clinical estimation of CD3 positive (CD3+) T cells in follicular lymphoma (FL). Our goal is to demonstrate the degree to which computerized quantification is comparable to the practice of estimation by a panel of expert pathologists. The computerized quantification method uses entropy based histogram thresholding to separate brown (CD3+) and blue (CD3-) regions after a color space transformation. A panel of four board-certified hematopathologists evaluated a database of 20 FL images using two different reading methods: visual estimation and manual marking of each CD3+ cell in the images. These image data and the readings provided a reference standard and the range of variability among readers. Sensitivity and specificity measures of the computer's segmentation of CD3+ and CD- T cell are recorded. For all four pathologists, mean sensitivity and specificity measures are 90.97 and 88.38%, respectively. The computerized quantification method agrees more with the manual cell marking as compared to the visual estimations. Statistical comparison between the computerized quantification method and the pathologist readings demonstrated good agreement with correlation coefficient values of 0.81 and 0.96 in terms of Lin's concordance correlation and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. These values are higher than most of those calculated among the pathologists. In the future, the computerized quantification method may be used to investigate

  3. Five-parameter fluorescence imaging: wound healing of living Swiss 3T3 cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Cellular functions involve the temporal and spatial interplay of ions, metabolites, macromolecules, and organelles. To define the mechanisms responsible for completing cellular functions, we used methods that can yield both temporal and spatial information on multiple physiological parameters and chemical components in the same cell. We demonstrated that the combined use of selected fluorescent probes, fluorescence microscopy, and imaging methods can yield information on at least five separate cellular parameters and components in the same living cell. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial dynamics of each of the parameters and/or components can be correlated with one or more of the others. Five parameters were investigated by spectrally isolating defined regions of the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrum based on five distinct fluorescent probes. The parameters included nuclei (Hoechst 33342), mitochondria (diIC1-[5] ), endosomes (lissamine rhodamine B-dextran), actin (fluorescein), and the cell volume Cy7- dextran). Nonmotile, confluent Swiss 3T3 cells did not show any detectable polarity of cell shape, or distribution of nuclei, endosomes, or mitochondria. These cells also organized a large percentage of the actin into stress fibers. In contrast, cells migrating into an in vitro wound exhibited at least two stages of reorganization of organelles and cytoplasm. During the first 3 h after wounding, the cells along the edge of the wound assumed a polarized shape, carried the nuclei in the rear of the cells, excluded endosomes and mitochondria from the lamellipodia, and lost most of the highly organized stress fibers. The cell showed a dramatic change between 3 and 7 h after producing the wound. The cells became highly elongated and motile; both the endosomes and the mitochondria penetrated into the lamellipodia, while the nuclei remained in the rear and the actin remained in less organized structures. Defining the temporal and spatial dynamics and

  4. Human lung-derived mature mast cells cultured alone or with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts maintain an ultrastructural phenotype different from that of human mast cells that develop from human cord blood cells cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, A. M.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Ishizaka, T.

    1991-01-01

    Culture systems designed to maintain or develop human mast cells have proved difficult, yet these systems would provide valuable resources for future investigations of human mast cell biology. Cocultures of either isolated mature human lung mast cells (Levi-Schaffer et al., J Immunol 1987, 139:494-500) or human cord blood mononuclear cells (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043) with 3T3 embryonic mouse skin fibroblasts have implicated fibroblasts as an important factor in the successful maintenance and development of human mast cells in vitro. The authors cultured isolated, mature human lung mast cells either with or without 3T3 cells for 1 month and examined their ultrastructural phenotype. Mast cell viability in each circumstance was equivalent, but mast cell yield was improved in the presence of 3T3 cells. The ultrastructural phenotype was identical in both culture systems. Mast cells were shown to maintain the phenotype of their in vivo lung counterparts (ie, scroll granules predominanted, and numerous lipid bodies were present). This ultrastructural phenotype differs from that of mast cells that develop in cocultures of human cord blood cells and 3T3 cells, where developing mast cells with crystalline granules and few lipid bodies prevail, a phenotype much like that of human skin mast cells in vivo (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1750506

  5. Bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia: a 440-single-nucleotide polymorphism screen of 64 candidate genes among Ashkenazi Jewish case-parent trios.

    PubMed

    Fallin, M Daniele; Lasseter, Virginia K; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Wolyniec, Paula S; McGrath, John A; Steel, Gary; Nestadt, Gerald; Liang, Kung-Yee; Huganir, Richard L; Valle, David; Pulver, Ann E

    2005-12-01

    Bipolar, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorders are common, highly heritable psychiatric disorders, for which familial coaggregation, as well as epidemiological and genetic evidence, suggests overlapping etiologies. No definitive susceptibility genes have yet been identified for any of these disorders. Genetic heterogeneity, combined with phenotypic imprecision and poor marker coverage, has contributed to the difficulty in defining risk variants. We focused on families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, to reduce genetic heterogeneity, and, as a precursor to genomewide association studies, we undertook a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping screen of 64 candidate genes (440 SNPs) chosen on the basis of previous linkage or of association and/or biological relevance. We genotyped an average of 6.9 SNPs per gene, with an average density of 1 SNP per 11.9 kb in 323 bipolar I disorder and 274 schizophrenia or schizoaffective Ashkenazi case-parent trios. Using single-SNP and haplotype-based transmission/disequilibrium tests, we ranked genes on the basis of strength of association (P<.01). Six genes (DAO, GRM3, GRM4, GRIN2B, IL2RB, and TUBA8) met this criterion for bipolar I disorder; only DAO has been previously associated with bipolar disorder. Six genes (RGS4, SCA1, GRM4, DPYSL2, NOS1, and GRID1) met this criterion for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; five replicate previous associations, and one, GRID1, shows a novel association with schizophrenia. In addition, six genes (DPYSL2, DTNBP1, G30/G72, GRID1, GRM4, and NOS1) showed overlapping suggestive evidence of association in both disorders. These results may help to prioritize candidate genes for future study from among the many suspected/proposed for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. They provide further support for shared genetic susceptibility between these two disorders that involve glutamate-signaling pathways.

  6. Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Noriko

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ► 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ► A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ► This antagonist had no effects on RXRα and PPARγ levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ► 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXRα and PPARγ was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXRα and PPARγ. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPARγs levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

  7. MUC4, a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein, induces oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajay P; Moniaux, Nicolas; Eudy, James D; Meza, Jane L; Batra, Surinder K.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have established the association of MUC4 with the progression of cancer and metastasis. An aberrant expression of MUC4 is reported in precancerous lesions indicating its early involvement in the disease process; however, its precise role in cellular transformation has not been explored. MUC4 contains many unique domains and is proposed to impact on cell signaling pathways and behavior of the tumor cells. In the present study, to decipher its oncogenic potential of MUC4, we stably expressed the MUC4 mucin in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Stable ectopic expression of MUC4 resulted in increased growth, colony formation and motility of NIH3T3 cells in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice, when cells were injected subcutaneously. Microarray analysis demonstrated increased expression of several growth- and mitochondrial energy production-associated genes in MUC4-expressing NIH3T3 cells. In addition, expression of MUC4 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in enhanced levels of oncoprotein ErbB2 and its phosphorylated form (pY1248-ErbB2). In conclusion, our studies provide the first evidence that MUC4 alone induces cellular transformation and indicates a novel role of MUC4 in cancer biology. PMID:19010895

  8. Genome sequence and overview of Oligoflexus tunisiensis Shr3(T) in the eighth class Oligoflexia of the phylum Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Ryosuke; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Baba, Tomoya; Nishijima, Miyuki; Karray, Fatma; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko; Naganuma, Takeshi; Niki, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Oligoflexus tunisiensis Shr3(T) is the first strain described in the newest (eighth) class Oligoflexia of the phylum Proteobacteria. This strain was isolated from the 0.2-μm filtrate of a suspension of sand gravels collected in the Sahara Desert in the Republic of Tunisia. The genome of O. tunisiensis Shr3(T) is 7,569,109 bp long and consists of one scaffold with a 54.3% G + C content. A total of 6,463 genes were predicted, comprising 6,406 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes. Genome sequence analysis suggested that strain Shr3(T) had multiple terminal oxidases for aerobic respiration and various transporters, including the resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pumps. Additionally, gene sequences related to the incomplete denitrification pathway lacking the final step to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) to nitrogen gas (N2) were found in the O. tunisiensis Shr3(T) genome. The results presented herein provide insight into the metabolic versatility and N2O-producing activity of Oligoflexus species.

  9. Case Report of S1Q3T3 Electrocardiographic Abnormality in a Pregnant Asthmatic Patient During Acute Bronchospasm

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hafiza; Khan, Rana Rahel; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: S1Q3T3 electrocardiographic abnormality in a pregnant asthmatic during acute bronchospasm Symptoms: Cough • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: EKG Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease during pregnancy. Several previous reports have documented reversible electrocardiographic changes during severe acute asthma attacks, including tachycardia, P pulmonale, right bundle branch block, right axis deviation, and ST segment and T wave abnormalities. Case Report: We present the case of a pregnant patient with asthma exacerbation in which acute bronchospasm caused S1Q3T3 abnormality on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The complete workup of ECG findings of S1Q3T3 was negative and correlated with bronchospasm. The S1Q3T3 electrocardiographic abnormality can be seen in acute bronchospasm in pregnant women. The other causes like pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, acute lung disease, cor pulmonale, and left posterior fascicular block were excluded. Conclusions: Asthma exacerbations are of considerable concern during pregnancy due to their adverse effect on the fetus, and optimization of asthma treatment during pregnancy is vital for achieving good outcomes. Prompt recognition of electrocardiographic abnormality and early treatment can prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:28144025

  10. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...

  11. Kaempferol and quercetin isolated from Euonymus alatus improve glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 cells without adipogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xian-Kang; Gao, Jie; Zhu, Dan-Ni

    2008-03-12

    Euonymus alatus as a folk medicine in China has been clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes for many years, and also exerts beneficial effects on hyperglycemia of diabetic animals. Our previous studies have isolated kaempferol and quercetin from the extract of E. alatus. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanism of antidiabetic activity of these compounds. Kaempferol and quercetin could significantly improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, further experiments showed that kaempferol and quercetin served as weak partial agonists in the peroxisome proliferator-agonist receptor gamma (PPARgamma) reporter gene assay. Kaempferol and quercetin could not induce differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as traditional PPARgamma agonist. When added together with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, they could inhibit 3T3-L1 differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Competitive ligand-binding assay confirmed that kaempferol and quercetin could compete with rosiglitazone at the same binding pocket site as PPARgamma. Kaempferol and quercetin showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide treatment in macrophage cells in which the PPARgamma was overexpressed; rosiglitazone was less potent than kaempferol and quercetin. These observations suggest that kaempferol and quercetin potentially act at multiple targets to ameliorate hyperglycemia, including by acting as partial agonists of PPARgamma.

  12. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...

  13. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...

  14. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...

  15. 26 CFR 1.67-3T - Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage investment conduits (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of expenses by real estate mortgage... Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.67-3T Allocation of expenses by real estate... real estate mortgage investment conduit or REMIC (as defined in section 860D) shall allocate to each...

  16. Knockdown of LYRM1 rescues insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by FCCP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Qin, Zhen-Ying; Dai, Yong-mei; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Guan-zhong; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Ji, Chen-Bo; Zhu, Jin-Gai; Shi, Chun-Mei; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Xin-Guo; Guo, Xi-Rong

    2014-09-01

    LYR motif-containing 1 (LYRM1) was recently discovered to be involved in adipose tissue homeostasis and obesity-associated insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that LYRM1 overexpression might contribute to insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, knockdown of LYRM1 enhanced insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We investigated whether knockdown of LYRM1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes could rescue insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrion uncoupler, to further ascertain the mechanism by which LYRM1 is involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Incubation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 1 µM FCCP for 12 h decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, reduced intracellular ATP synthesis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, impaired insulin-stimulated Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and diminished insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and serine phosphorylation of Protein Kinase B (Akt). Knockdown of LYRM1 restored insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, rescued intracellular ATP synthesis, reduced intracellular ROS production, restored insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and rescued insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and serine phosphorylation of Akt in FCCP-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This study indicates that FCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance are ameliorated by knockdown of LYRM1.

  17. XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and lung cancer risk in the Han Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Wen, Q L; Yang, C; Li, A L; Liu, Y; Li, X S

    2014-11-11

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) T241M polymorphism and lung cancer risk; however, the actual association is controversial. We examined whether the T241M polymorphism confers a lung cancer risk in China. We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to identify studies that examined the association between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer. We estimated the pooled odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval to assess this association. A total of 3977 patients with lung cancer and 3761 controls from 8 comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results revealed no significant association between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and lung cancer risk. In the subgroup analysis, 6 studies with sample sizes over 500 found that the T241M polymorphism had no association with lung cancer. The XRCC3 T241M polymorphism may not be a risk factor for lung cancer. However, larger studies involving a stratified case-control population and biological characterization are needed to validate this finding.

  18. Piromelatine decreases triglyceride accumulation in insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes: role of ATGL and HSL.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping-Ping; She, Mei-Hua; He, Ping-Ping; Chen, Wu-Jun; Laudon, Moshe; Xu, Xuan-Xuan; Yin, Wei-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Piromelatine, a novel investigational multimodal sleep medicine, is developed for the treatment of patients with primary and co-morbid insomnia. Piromelatine has been shown to inhibit weight gain and improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed (HFHS) rats. Considering that piromelatine has also been implicated in lowering of triglyceride levels in HFHS rats, this work elucidated whether this effect involves in the regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of piromelatine and MT2 receptors inhibition on TG content, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the expressions of ATGL and HSL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes preincubated in high glucose and high insulin (HGI) conditions. Our results showed that culturing 3T3-L1 adipocytes under HGI conditions increased triglyceride accumulation with concomitant decrease of ATGL and HSL expression, inducing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also found that triglyceride accumulation was significantly inhibited and the levels of ATGL/HSL increased after melatonin or piromelatine treatment. The effects of melatonin/piromelatine (10 nM) were counteracted by pretreatment with the relatively selective MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (100 nM). In this study, our data demonstrate that piromelatine reverses high glucose and high insulin-induced triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, possibly through up-regulating of ATGL and HSL expression via a melatonin-dependent manner.

  19. Iodothyronine Interactions with the System L1 Amino Acid Exchanger in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Fiona E; Roy, Lisa A; Taylor, Peter M

    2010-06-24

    Thyroid hormones enter isolated white adipocytes largely by a System L1-type amino acid transporter en route to exerting genomic actions. Differentiated 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes in culture express mRNA for LAT1 (the catalytic subunit of high-affinity System L1). L-[(125)I]-T(3) uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes included a substantial saturable component inhibited by leucine. L-[(3)H]phenylalanine uptake into 3T3-L1 cells was saturable (K(m) of 31 μM), competitively inhibited by T(3) (K(i) of 1.2 μM) and blocked by leucine, BCH, and rT(3) as expected for substrate interactions of System L1. Efflux of preloaded L-[(3)H]phenylalanine from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was trans stimulated by external leucine, demonstrating the obligatory exchange mechanism of System L1 transport. T(3) (10 μM) did not significantly trans stimulate L-[(3)H]phenylalanine efflux, but did competitively inhibit the trans stimulatory effect of 10 μM leucine. The results highlight strong competitive interactions between iodothyronines (T(3), rT(3)) and amino acids for transport by System L1 in adipocytes, which may impact cellular iodothyronine exchanges during altered states of protein nutrition.

  20. The role and possible mechanism of lncRNA U90926 in modulating 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Liu, Y; Lu, S; Yin, L; Zong, C; Cui, S; Qin, D; Yang, Y; Guan, Q; Li, X; Wang, X

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases, while preadipocyte differentiation or adipogenesis is closely related to obesity occurrence. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a unique class of transcripts in regulation of a variety of biological processes. Using cDNA microarray, we found lncRNA U90926 is negatively correlated with 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of lncRNA U90926 (lnc-U90926) in adipogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine lnc-U90926 expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, differentiated adipocytes, and in adipose tissues form mice. RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to determine the localization of lnc-U90926 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The effects of lnc-U90926 on 3T3-L1 adipogenesis were analyzed with lentivirus-mediated gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Lipid accumulation was evaluated by oil red O staining; several adipogenesis makers were analyzed by qPCR and western blotting. Dual luciferase assay was applied to explore the transactivation of target genes modulated by lnc-U90926. All measurements were performed at least for three times. Results: Lnc-U90926 expression decreased along the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mice, lnc-U90926 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue. Obese mice have lower lnc-U90926 expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue than non-obese mice. FISH results showed that lnc-U90926 was mainly located in the cytoplasm. Overexpression lnc-U90926 attenuated 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by its ability to inhibit lipid accumulation, to decrease the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (AdipoQ) as well as to reduce the protein levels of PPARγ and FABP4 (P<0.05). Knockdown of lnc-U90926 showed opposite effects, which

  1. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  2. Bovine Collagen Peptides Compounds Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Zhang, Bing; Song, ShuJun; Ma, Ming; Si, ShaoYan; Wang, YiHu; Xu, BingXin; Feng, Kai; Wu, JiGong; Guo, YanChuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Collagen peptides (CP) compounds, as bone health supplements, are known to play a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this process remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of bovine CP compounds on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods Mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells were treated with bovine CP compounds. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assays and the cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry scanning. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation was analyzed at the RNA level by real-time PCR and at the protein level by western blot analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ELISA for osteocalcin (OC). Finally, alizarin red staining for mineralization was measured using Image Software Pro Plus 6.0. Results Cell proliferation was very efficient after treatment with different concentrations of bovine CP compounds, and the best concentration was 3 mg/mL. Bovine CP compounds significantly increased the percentage of MC3T3-E1 cells in G2/S phase. Runx2 expression, ALP activity, and OC production were significantly increased after treatment with bovine CP compounds for 7 or 14 days. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with bovine CP compounds for 14 or 21 days. Conclusions Bovine CP compounds increased osteoblast proliferation, and played positive roles in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized bone matrix formation. Taking all the experiments together, our study indicates a molecular mechanism for the potential treatment of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. PMID:24926875

  3. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids induce growth inhibition and calpain/caspase-12 dependent apoptosis in PDGF cultured 3T6 fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Diana; Moreno, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites released by the cyclooxygenase pathway is involved in serum-induced 3T6 fibroblast cycle progression and proliferation. However, these results also suggest that other AA cascade pathways might be involved. Recently, we also described the role of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, which are produced by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP), in 3T6 fibroblast growth. AA can be also metabolized by the epoxygenase activity of CYP-producing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Finally, the cytosolic epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydration of the EETs, transforming them into dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (DHETEs). In this work, we have studied the role of the EETs/DHETEs on 3T6 fibroblasts growth. Our results show that PDGF stimulates 3T6 fibroblast proliferation and [3H]thymidine incorporation, while the addition of 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET (0.1-1 microM) inhibit these processes. Furthermore, 5,6-DHETE and 11,12-DHETE (0.1-1 microM) also inhibit cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Interestingly, this growth inhibition was correlated with an induction of apoptosis. Thus, we observed that in the presence of PDGF, EETs or DHETEs (0.1-1 microM) induce phosphatidylserine externalization (as measured by annexin V-binding) and DNA fragmentation (as quantified using a TUNEL assay). Our results show that calpain, as well as caspase-12 and caspase-3, are involved in these events. Therefore, EETs and DHETEs have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on PDGF-stimulated 3T6 fibroblasts.

  4. Image quality and signal distribution in 1.5-T and 3-T MRI in mild traumatic brain injury patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maija E.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Ylinen, Aarne; Öhman, Juha; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Clear standards are lacking in the imaging modalities of the deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality by signal distribution between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI in turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) images in normal hospital settings and to find preferences for which field to use in MTBI patients. We studied 40 MTBI patients with TSE and GRE; 20 patients were imaged at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T. The imaging parameters were optimized separately for the two scanners. Histograms of the signal distribution in 22 ROIs were fitted to a 1-peak Gaussian model and the resulting peak positions were scaled in respect to the peak positions of genu of the corpus callosum and the caudate nuclei. Correlation of the contrast of the ROIs in reference to genu of the corpus callosum between both the two scanners and the two imaging sequences was good. Image contrast was similar at both in the TSE images; in the GRE images contrast improved from 1.5 T to 3 T. However, based on peak positions and widths, a slight drawback in the separability between the ROIs was observed when 1.5 T MRI was replaced by 3 T. No clear improvement in tissue contrast or separability of 3 T was found compared to 1.5 T. Imaging of MTBI with 3 T should therefore be based on other advantages of high-field imaging, such as improved SNR and spatial resolution.

  5. High and low vitamin A therapies induce distinct FoxP3+ T cell subsets and effectively control intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung G.; Wang, Chuanwu; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kim, Chang H.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Retinoic acid plays a positive role in induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Because retinoic acid is produced as a metabolite of vitamin A in the intestine and FoxP3+ T cells regulate intestinal inflammation, we investigated the impact of vitamin A status on the regulatory T cells and inflammation in the intestine. Methods The SAMP1/YP model is a mouse model of Crohn’s disease. We made vitamin A deficient, excessive and normal SAMP1/YP mice and assessed the intestinal inflammation. We investigated also the phenotype and function of FoxP3+ T cells induced in different vitamin A availability in regulation of intestinal inflammation in a T cell-induced inflammation model in SCID mice. Results The limited and excessive vitamin A conditions induced distinct FoxP3+ T cell subsets in vivo and both ameliorated the intestinal inflammation in SAMP1/YP mice. The limited vitamin A condition greatly induced unusual CD103+CCR7+ FoxP3+ cells, while the high vitamin A condition induced CCR9+α4β7+ FoxP3+ T cells in the intestine. Both FoxP3+ T cell populations, when transferred into mice with ongoing intestinal inflammation, were highly effective in reversing the inflammation. Blockade or lack of occupancy of RARα is a mechanism to induce the highly suppressive CD103+CCR7+ FoxP3+ cells in both thymus and periphery in the limited vitamin A availability. Conclusions Our results identify novel pathways of inducing highly suppressive FoxP3+ regulatory T cells that can effectively control intestinal inflammation. The results have significant ramifications in treating inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19632226

  6. Photoneutron production of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator studied by Monte Carlo methods and a paired magnesium and boron coated magnesium ionization chamber system.

    PubMed

    Becker, J; Brunckhorst, E; Schmidt, R

    2007-11-07

    When radiotherapy with photon energies greater than 10 MV is performed neutrons contaminate the photon beam. In this paper the neutron contamination of the 15 MV photon mode of the Siemens Primus accelerator was studied. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used for the description of the treatment head and treatment room. The Monte Carlo results were verified by studying the photon depth dose curve and beam profiles in a water phantom. After these verifications the locations of neutron production were studied and the neutron source spectrum and strength were calculated. The neutron response of the paired Mg/Ar and MgB/Ar ionization chamber system was calculated and experimentally verified for two experimental set-ups. The paired chamber system allowed us to measure neutrons inside the field borders and allowed rapid and point wise measurement in contrast to other methods of neutron detection.

  7. Comparative Study of 28 and 18 Years Field Aged Siemens-Arco M55 Modules in Temperate and Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Chicca, Matthew; Wohlgemuth, John; TamizhMani, GovindaSamy

    2016-11-21

    The primary objective of this research work is two-fold: (i) determine the degradation rates of Siemens-Arco M55 modules exposed over 18 and 28 years in a hot-dry climate of Arizona and a temperate climate of California, and; (ii) identify the potential modes responsible for these degradation losses. The degradation rates were determined based on the I-V data obtained on exposed modules and on the corresponding control modules which were not exposed in the fields. The degradation modes responsible for these degradations were determined using several nondestructive tests and destructive tests performed on these control and exposed modules. The nondestructive tests included: current-voltage, visual inspection, cell-module quantum efficiency, and module level reflectance spectroscopy. The destructive tests included: transmittance spectroscopy of glass superstrates, and FTIR, DSC and TGA of encapsulant materials.

  8. Measurement of the modulation transfer function of an X-ray microscope based on multiple Fourier orders analysis of a Siemens star.

    PubMed

    Otón, Joaquín; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Marabini, Roberto; Pereiro, Eva; Carazo, Jose M

    2015-04-20

    Soft X-ray tomography (SXT) is becoming a powerful imaging technique to analyze eukaryotic whole cells close to their native state. Central to the analysis of the quality of SXT 3D reconstruction is the estimation of the spatial resolution and Depth of Field of the X-ray microscope. In turn, the characterization of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the optical system is key to calculate both parameters. Consequently, in this work we introduce a fully automated technique to accurately estimate the transfer function of such an optical system. Our proposal is based on the preprocessing of the experimental images to obtain an estimate of the input pattern, followed by the analysis in Fourier space of multiple orders of a Siemens Star test sample, extending in this way its measured frequency range.

  9. Development and verification of a time delivery model for prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy using a Siemens(®) Artiste™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator Linac.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicola; Ali, Omer A; Rae, William I D

    2017-03-01

    Time delivery models thus far proposed for prediction of radiotherapy delivery times are not applicable to all makes of Linac. Our purpose was to develop a time delivery model, which would also be applicable for a Siemens(®) ARTISTE™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) linear accelerator (Linac) and validate the model using prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. To our knowledge, a time delivery model has not yet been proposed for a Siemens(®) ARTISTE™ 160 MLC Linac. We used the principles of the time delivery model created for a Varian(®) Linac and added the radio frequency (RF) wave component, and the MLC delay time to the MLC travel time component. Machine input parameters were confirmed using a WIN(®) stopwatch. We tested our derived model by selecting ten random 15 MV prostate IMRT treatment plans from our clinic. The delivery time was measured three times, once per day on three different days. The calculated and measured times were compared by means of correlation. The time delivery ranged between 314 and 480 s. The largest percentage difference was 3.3% (16 s) and the smallest 0.2% (1 s); the mean percentage difference was 1.9%. MLC delay and MLC speed, representing segment delivery, had the greatest uncertainties. From the successfully verified time delivery model created, it is concluded that the inter-segmental component of the process is most time-consuming. In order to decrease delivery time it is proposed that the total segments of a treatment plan be decreased.

  10. Diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis: usefulness of unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR images at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Korogi, Yukunori

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one consecutive unclassified arthritis patients with polyarthralgia including wrist joint were evaluated with 3-T MRI as possible early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After prospective follow-up, 21 of 41 patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Synovitis was detected in all 21 RA patients (sensitivity=100%) with postcontrast MRI and in 14 patients (67%) with unenhanced MRI when none of them fulfilled ACR diagnostic criteria. Fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image showed high detection rate of synovitis and bone erosion, whereas FIESTA image clearly delineated joint fluid and bone trabeculae. MRI at 3 T is a potentially powerful tool for discriminating and managing early-stage RA patients.

  11. Enhancement of methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification by treatment of mouse 3T6 cells with hydroxyurea.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P C; Tlsty, T D; Schimke, R T

    1983-01-01

    We investigated various parameters associated with the initial selection of mouse 3T6 cells for resistance to single concentrations of methotrexate and characterized resistant colonies for the presence of additional (amplified) copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Our results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification varies with the selecting concentration of methotrexate and is highly variable between clonally derived sublines of mouse 3T6 cells. Second, we increased the frequency of occurrence of cells with amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes by transiently inhibiting DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea before the selection of cells in single concentrations of methotrexate. This effect was dependent on the concentration of hydroxyurea, the time of exposure to the drug, and the time interval between the removal of hydroxyurea and the selection of cells in methotrexate. Images PMID:6877240

  12. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bruce E; Kidder, Louis S; Williams, Philip C; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-11-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed.

  13. FGF-2 signaling induces downregulation of TAZ protein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eda, Homare; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Marumo, Keishi; Fujii, Katsuyuki; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-08

    Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein is a coactivator of Runx2 and corepressor of PPAR{gamma}. It also induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In this study, we found that FGF-2, which inhibits bone mineralization and stimulates cell proliferation, reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1. This reduction was recovered by removing FGF-2 from the culture medium, which also restored the osteoblastic features of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, FGF-2-induced reduction of TAZ is blocked by a SAPK/JNK-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that the expression of TAZ protein is involved in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This may help elucidate the discrepancies in the effect of FGF-2 and contribute to the understanding of FGF/FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndrome etiology and treatment.

  14. Quantifying human high-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations at 3T with partial volume and sensitivity corrections

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Gabr, Refaat E.; Schär, Michael; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Practical noninvasive methods for measuring absolute metabolite concentrations are key to assessing depletion of myocardial metabolite pools which occurs with several cardiac diseases including infarction and heart failure. Localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers unique noninvasive access to many metabolites, but is often confounded by nonuniform sensitivity and partial volume effects in the large, poorly-defined voxels commonly used for detecting low-concentration metabolites with surface coils. These problems are exacerbated at higher magnetic field-strengths by greater radio frequency (RF) field inhomogeneity and differences in RF penetration with heteronuclear concentration referencing. An example is the 31P measurement of cardiac adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, which although central to cardiac energetics, have not been measured at field-strengths above 1.5T. Here, practical acquisition and analysis protocols are presented for quantifying [PCr] and [ATP] with one-dimensionally resolved surface coil spectra and concentration referencing at 3T. The effects of non-uniform sensitivity and partial tissue volumes are addressed at 3T by applying MRI-based three-dimensional sensitivity-weighting and tissue segmentation. The method is validated at 3T in phantoms of different sizes and concentrations, and used to measure [PCr] and [ATP] in healthy subjects. In calf-muscle (n=8), [PCr]=24.7±3.4 (mean±SD) and [ATP]=5.7±1.3 µmol/g wet wt, while [PCr]=10.4±1.5 and [ATP]=6.0±1.1 µmol/g in heart (n=18), consistent with previous reports at lower fields. The method enables for the first time, the efficient, semi-automated quantification of high energy phosphate metabolites in humans at 3T with non-uniform excitation and detection. PMID:23729378

  15. Exendin-4 promotes proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts by MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingyu; Su, Lei; Zhong, Xing; Guohong, Wei; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing; Xiu, Lingling

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and its receptor agonist have been previously reported to play a positive role in bone metabolism in aged ovariectomized rats and insulin-resistant models. However, whether GLP1 has a direct effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts or any cellular mechanism for this potential role is unknown. We examined the effects of the GLP1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. GLP1 receptor was detected in MC3T3-E1 cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot assay. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT assay, revealing that exendin-4 increased cell proliferation at effective concentrations between 10(-10) and 10(-5) M. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that exendin-4 increased the mRNA expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen-1 (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) under osteogenic conditions. Alizarin red staining confirmed that 10(-7) M exendin-4 increased osteoblast mineralization by 18.7%. Exendin-4 upregulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, with the peak effect at 1.5 h in the Western blot analysis. The use of selective MAPK inhibitors, namely PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125, blocked the effects of exendin-4 on kinase activation (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK), as well as cell proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. These findings demonstrate that exendin-4 promotes both the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1 via activation of the MAPK pathway.

  16. Dimethylfumarate suppresses adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through inhibition of STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Go, Younghoon; Oh, Chang Joo; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The excessive accumulation of adipocytes contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases. The interactions of several transcription factors, such as C/EBPβ, PPARγ, C/EBPα, Nrf2, and STAT3, are required for adipogenic differentiation. Dimethylfumarate (DMF), an immune modulator and antioxidant, may function as an inhibitor of STAT3 and an activator of Nrf2. This study examined whether DMF inhibits adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by inhibiting STAT3 or activating Nrf2. DMF suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Oil Red O staining. The mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic genes, including C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, PPARγ, SREBP-1c, FAS, and aP2, were significantly lower in DMF-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Suppression of adipogenic differentiation by DMF treatment resulted primarily from inhibition of the early stages of differentiation. DMF inhibits clonal expansion during adipogenic differentiation through induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Additionally, DMF regulates cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21, pRb, and cyclin D. DMF treatment markedly inhibited differentiation medium-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited STAT3 transcriptional activation of a reporter construct composed of four synthetic STAT3-response elements. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 activity using a dominant negative Nrf2 did not abolish the DMF-induced inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In summary, DMF is a negative regulator of adipogenic differentiation based on its regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and cell cycle proteins. This negative regulation by DMF is mediated by STAT3 inhibition, but is unlikely to involve Nrf2 activation.

  17. Inhibition of adipogenesis and leptin production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by a derivative of meridianin C

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yu-Kyoung; Lee, Tae-Yoon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Victor Sukbong; Lee, Jinho; Park, Jong-Wook; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Compound 7b, a meridianin C derivative, inhibits adipogenesis. • Compound 7b inhibits C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3, and STAT-5 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b inhibits leptin, but not adiponectin, expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Compound 7b thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity. - Abstract: Meridianin C, a marine alkaloid, is a potent protein kinase inhibitor and has anti-cancer activity. We have recently developed a series of meridianin C derivatives (compound 7a–7j) and reported their proviral integration Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (pim) kinases’ inhibitory and anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia cells. Here we investigated the effect of these meridianin C derivatives on adipogenesis. Strikingly, among the derivatives tested, compound 7b most strongly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. However, meridianin C treatment was largely cytotoxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On mechanistic levels, compound 7b reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and STAT-5 during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, compound 7b repressed leptin, but not adiponectin, expression during adipocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a meridianin C derivative inhibits adipogenesis by down-regulating expressions and/or phosphorylations of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, STAT-3 and STAT-5.

  18. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko; Nishio, Hiroaki

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  19. A comparison of distributional considerations with statistical analysis of resting state fMRI at 3T and 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Holmes, Martha J.; Newton, Allen T.; Morgan, Victoria L.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-high field 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers potentially unprecedented spatial resolution of functional activity within the human brain through increased signal and contrast to noise ratios over traditional 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. However, the effects physiological and imaging artifacts are also greatly increased. Traditional statistical parametric mapping theories based on distributional properties representative of data acquired at lower fields may be inadequate for new 7T data. Herein, we investigate the model fitting residuals based on two 7T and one 3T protocols. We find that model residuals are substantively more non-Gaussian at 7T relative to 3T. Imaging slices that passed through regions with peak inhomogeneity problems (e.g., mid-brain acquisitions for the 7T hippocampus) exhibited visually higher degrees of distortion along with spatially correlated and extreme values of kurtosis (a measure of non- Gaussianity). The impacts of artifacts have been previously addressed for 3T data by estimating the covariance matrix of the regression errors. We further extend the robust estimation approach for autoregressive models and evaluate the qualitative impacts of this technique relative to traditional inference. Clear differences in statistical significance are shown between inferences based on classical versus robust assumptions, which suggest that inferences based on Gaussian assumptions are subject to practical (as well as theoretical) concerns regarding their power and validity. Hence, modern statistical approaches, such as the robust autoregressive model posed herein, are appropriate and suitable for inference with ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Effects of C-reactive protein on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Guoyue; Jia, Jue; Di, Liangliang; Zhou, Libin; Dong, Sijing; Ye, Jingjing; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ling; Wang, Jifang; Li, Lianxi; Yang, Ying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Mingdao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP increases TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 genes expression in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP suppresses adiponectin, leptin and PPAR-{gamma} mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wortmannin reverses effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin mRNA levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRP may regulate IR, obesity and metabolic syndrome by this mechanism. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is now recognized to be an important endocrine organ, secreting a variety of adipokines that are involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation. A number of studies have shown that elevation of CRP concentrations is an independent predictive parameter of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is also strongly associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CRP on adipokines genes expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that CRP inhibited adiponectin, leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-{gamma}) genes expression and raised tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in matured 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose and time-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase by wortmannin partially reversed the effects of CRP on adiponectin, TNF-{alpha} and leptin genes expression. These results collectively suggest that CRP regulates adiponectin, TNF-{alpha}, leptin, IL-6 and PPAR-{gamma} genes expression, and that might represent a mechanism by which CRP regulates insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Cloning and Expression of CD19, a Human B-Cell Marker in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Baradaran, Behzad; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Background CD19 is a pan B cell marker that is recognized as an attractive target for antibody-based therapy of B-cell disorders including autoimmune disease and hematological malignancies. The object of this study was to stably express the human CD19 antigen in the murine NIH-3T3 cell line aimed to be used as an immunogen in our future study. Methods Total RNA was extracted from Raji cells in which high expression of CD19 was confirmed by flow cytometry. Synthesized cDNA was used for CD19 gene amplification by conventional PCR method using Pfu DNA polymerase. PCR product was ligated to pGEM-T Easy vector and ligation mixture was transformed to DH5α competent bacteria. After blue/white selection, one positive white colony was subjected to plasmid extraction and direct sequencing. Then, CD19 cDNA was sub-cloned into pCMV6-Neo expression vector by double digestion using KpnI and HindIII enzymes. NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line was subsequently transfected by the construct using Jet-PEI transfection reagent. After 48 hours, surface expression of CD19 was confirmed by flow cytometry and stably transfected cells were selected by G418 antibiotic. Results Amplification of CD19 cDNA gave rise to 1701 bp amplicon confirmed by alignment to reference sequence in NCBI database. Flow cytometric analysis showed successful transient and stable expression of CD19 on NIH-3T3 cells (29 and 93%, respectively). Conclusion Stable cell surface expression of human CD19 antigen in a murine NIH-3T3 cell line may develop a proper immunogene which raises specific anti-CD19 antibody production in the mice immunized sera. PMID:25926951

  2. Association between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 157 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Wu; Li, Jia-Lin; Shen, Xu-Liang; Ding, Da-peng; Wang, Su-Lan; Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Qin, Jiang-Bo; Wu, Li-Xia; Xie, Dao-Lin

    2013-07-01

    The T241M polymorphism in the X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) had been implicated in cancer susceptibility. The previous published data on the association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and cancer risk remained controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer susceptibility and XRCC3 T241M (61,861 cases and 84,584 controls from 157 studies) polymorphism in different inheritance models. We used odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals to assess the strength of the association. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was observed in any genetic model (dominant model: odds ration [OR]=1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-1.13; recessive model: OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.08-1.23; additive model: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.08-1.28) when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In further stratified and sensitivity analyses, the elevated risk remained for subgroups of bladder cancer and breast cancer, especially in Caucasians. In addition, significantly decreased lung cancer risk was also observed. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests the participation of XRCC3 T241M in the susceptibility for bladder cancer and breast cancer, especially in Caucasians, and XRCC3 T241M polymorphism is associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Moreover, our work also points out the importance of new studies for T241M association in some cancer types, such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and melanoma skin cancer, where at least some of the covariates responsible for heterogeneity could be controlled, to obtain a more conclusive understanding about the function of the XRCC3 polymorphism in cancer development.

  3. Expedition 34 Welcomes New Trio

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-07M carrying new Expedition 34 crew members Chris Hadfield, Roman ROmanenko and Tom Marshburn docked to the International Space Station’s Rassvet module at 9:09 a.m. EST on Friday. ...

  4. A Trio of Brownian Donkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, C.; Cleuren, B.; Kawai, R.; Kambon, M.

    A previously introduced model (B. Cleuren and C. Van den Broeck, Europhys. Lett. 54, 1 (2001)) is studied numerically. Pure negative mobility is found for the minimum number of three interacting walkers.

  5. Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP.

    PubMed Central

    Feig, L A; Cooper, G M

    1988-01-01

    Substitution of asparagine for serine at position 17 decreased the affinity of rasH p21 for GTP 20- to 40-fold without significantly affecting its affinity for GDP. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a mammalian expression vector containing the Asn-17 rasH gene and a Neor gene under the control of the same promoter yielded only a small fraction of the expected number of G418-resistant colonies, indicating that expression of Asn-17 p21 inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of Asn-17 p21 required its localization to the plasma membrane and was reversed by coexpression of an activated ras gene, indicating that the mutant p21 blocked the endogenous ras function required for NIH 3T3 cell proliferation. NIH 3T3 cells transformed by v-mos and v-raf, but not v-src, were resistant to inhibition by Asn-17 p21, indicating that the requirement for normal ras function can be bypassed by these cytoplasmic oncogenes. The Asn-17 mutant represents a novel reagent for the study of ras function by virtue of its ability to inhibit cellular ras activity in vivo. Since this phenotype is likely associated with the preferential affinity of the mutant protein for GDP, analogous mutations might also yield inhibitors of other proteins whose activities are regulated by guanine nucleotide binding. Images PMID:3145408

  6. S-phase induction and transformation of quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection of phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Ryu, Sungho; Suh, Panghill; Rhee, Suegoo; Kung, Hsiangfu )

    1989-05-01

    Two inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (PLC-I and -II) have been purified from bovine brain. When PLC-I or PLC-II was microinjected into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells, a time- and dose-dependent induction of DNA synthesis occurred, as demonstrated by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into nuclear DNA. In addition, {approx} 8 hr after PLC injection, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts appeared spindle-shaped, refractile, and highly vacuolated, displaying a morphology similar to transformed cells. The morphologic transformation was apparent for 26-30 hr after which the injected cells reverted back to a normal phenotype. Microinjected PLC at a high concentration was cytotoxic, dissolving the cytoplasmic membrane and leaving behind cellular ghosts. PLC is a key regulatory enzyme involved in cellular membrane signal transduction. Introduction of exogenous PLC into NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection induced a growth and oncogenic potential, as demonstrated by the ability of microinjected PLC to override the cellular G{sub 0} block, inducing DNA synthesis and morphologic transformation of growth-arrested fibroblast cells.

  7. S-phase induction and transformation of quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection of phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Smith, M R; Ryu, S H; Suh, P G; Rhee, S G; Kung, H F

    1989-05-01

    Two inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (PLC-I and -II) have been purified from bovine brain. When PLC-I or PLC-II was microinjected (100-700 micrograms/ml) into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells, a time- and dose-dependent induction of DNA synthesis occurred, as demonstrated by [3H]thymidine incorporation into nuclear DNA. In addition, approximately to 8 hr after PLC injection, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts appeared spindle-shaped, refractile, and highly vacuolated, displaying a morphology similar to transformed cells. The morphologic transformation was apparent for 26-30 hr after which the injected cells reverted back to a normal phenotype. Microinjected PLC at a high concentration (1 mg/ml) was cytotoxic, dissolving the cytoplasmic membrane and leaving behind cellular ghosts. PLC is a key regulatory enzyme involved in cellular membrane signal transduction. Introduction of exogenous PLC into NIH 3T3 cells by microinjection induced a growth and oncogenic potential, as demonstrated by the ability of microinjected PLC (approximately 10,000 molecules per cell) to override the cellular G0 block, inducing DNA synthesis and morphologic transformation of growth-arrested fibroblast cells.

  8. Inhibitory effect of apocynin on methylglyoxal-mediated glycation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Young Seol; Choi, Eun Mi

    2015-04-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive metabolite of hyperglycemia, can enhance protein glycation, oxidative stress or inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of apocynin on the mechanisms associated with MG toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with apocynin prevented the MG-induced protein glycation and formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide in MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, apocynin increased glutathione levels and restored the activity of glyoxalase I inhibited by MG. These findings suggest that apocynin provide a protective action against MG-induced cell damage by reducing oxidative stress and by increasing the MG detoxification system. Apocynin treatment decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 induced by MG. Additionally, the nitric oxide level reduced by MG was significantly increased by apocynin. These findings indicate that apocynin might exert its therapeutic effects via upregulation of glyoxalase system and antioxidant activity. Taken together, apocynin may prove to be an effective treatment for diabetic osteopathy.

  9. Rapamycin/sodium hyaluronate binding on nano-hydroxyapatite coated titanium surface improves MC3T3-E1 osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Dong, Jian Yong; Yue, Lin Lin; Liu, Shao Hua; Wan, Yi; Liu, Hong; Tan, Wan Ye; Guo, Qian Qian; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Endosseous titanium (Ti) implant failure due to poor biocompatibility of implant surface remains a major problem for osseointegration. Improving the topography of Ti surface may enhance osseointegration, however, the mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the effect of modified Ti surface on osteogenesis, we loaded rapamycin (RA) onto nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated Ti surface which was acid-etched, alkali-heated and HAp coated sequentially. Sodium hyaluronate (SH) was employed as an intermediate layer for the load of RA, and a steady release rate of RA was maintained. Cell vitality of MC3T3-E1 was assessed by MTT. Osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 on this modified Ti surface was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization and related osteogenesis genes osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), Collagen-I and Runx2. The result revealed that RA/SH-loaded nano-HAp Ti surface was innocent for cell vitality and even more beneficial for cell osteogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 showed significant association with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation by RA, which required further study about the mechanism. The approach to this modified Ti surface presented in this paper has high research value for the development of Ti-based implant. PMID:28182765

  10. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea PMID:26833256

  11. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 on rhBMP-2-immobilized titanium via click reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae-Hee; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Hong, Sung Ok; Lee, Deok-Won

    2014-03-15

    In the present study, we report about the efficacy of titanium surface-immobilized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) via click reaction on enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The surface was characterized by static contact angles and XPS measurements, which indicated that pristine titanium (Ti-1) was successfully surface-modified via click chemistry (aminated titanium, Ti-4). By quantitative analysis of heparin immobilized on aminated titanium (Ti-4), we found that the Ti-4 can be used as a good candidate to immobilize biomolecules such as heparin. BMP-2 from titanium immobilized with BMP-2 (Ti-6) was released for a period of 28 days in a sustained manner. The highest proliferation rate of MC3T3-E1 cells was observed on Ti-6. Through in vitro tests including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), we found that Ti-6 can be used as a good implant to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  12. Nickel-Refining Fumes Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis of NIH/3T3 Cells via Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Jia, Li; Zhang, Lin; Ba, Jing-Chong; Han, Dan; Yu, Cui-Ping; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies examining the toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in humans and animals, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In our research, NIH/3T3 cells were exposed to nickel-refining fumes at the concentrations of 0, 6.25, 12.50, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL for 24 h. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, the level of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were detected. The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to nickel-refining fumes significantly reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner. Nickel-refining fumes significantly increased ROS levels and induced DNA damage. Nickel-refining fumes may induce the changes in the state of ROS, which may eventually initiate oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:27347984

  13. Monascus ruber-Fermented Buckwheat (Red Yeast Buckwheat) Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Park, Jiyoung; Lumbera, Wenchie L; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2017-03-23

    Although various treatments have been used for weight loss to date, obese people rarely have safe and effective treatment options. Therefore, the antiobesity effects of several natural compounds are being actively investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the antiadipogenic effects of Monascus ruber-fermented Fagopyrum esculentum (red yeast buckwheat, RYB) in 3T3-L1 cells. We assessed the intracellular lipid content and adipocyte differentiation by oil red O staining and the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in 3T3-L1 cells. RYB dose dependently inhibited 3T3-L1 cell differentiation at concentrations of 50-800 μg/mL, without cytotoxic effects. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, and adipocyte-specific genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthase, and leptin, during preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Furthermore, RYB reduced cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and cyclin expression and increased p21 and p27 expression, thus causing cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. Collectively, these results suggest that RYB may be an effective nutraceutical for weight loss as indicated by its ability to suppress adipogenesis-specific gene expression and cause cell cycle arrest at the G1/S interphase.

  14. Interface- and discontinuity-aware numerical schemes for plasma 3-T radiation diffusion in two and three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William W. Scannapieco, Anthony J.

    2015-11-01

    A set of numerical schemes is developed for two- and three-dimensional time-dependent 3-T radiation diffusion equations in systems involving multi-materials. To resolve sub-cell structure, interface reconstruction is implemented within any cell that has more than one material. Therefore, the system of 3-T radiation diffusion equations is solved on two- and three-dimensional polyhedral meshes. The focus of the development is on the fully coupling between radiation and material, the treatment of nonlinearity in the equations, i.e., in the diffusion terms and source terms, treatment of the discontinuity across cell interfaces in material properties, the formulations for both transient and steady states, the property for large time steps, and second order accuracy in both space and time. The discontinuity of material properties between different materials is correctly treated based on the governing physics principle for general polyhedral meshes and full nonlinearity. The treatment is exact for arbitrarily strong discontinuity. The scheme is fully nonlinear for the full nonlinearity in the 3-T diffusion equations. Three temperatures are fully coupled and are updated simultaneously. The scheme is general in two and three dimensions on general polyhedral meshes. The features of the scheme are demonstrated through numerical examples for transient problems and steady states. The effects of some simplifications of numerical schemes are also shown through numerical examples, such as linearization, simple average of diffusion coefficient, and approximate treatment for the coupling between radiation and material.

  15. MR images of mouse brain using clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Eun Mi; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Junghyun; Han, Bo Mi; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Lee, Su Bin

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Although small-bore high-field magnets are useful for research in small rodent models,this technology, however, has not been easily accessible to most researchers. This current study, thus,tried to evaluate the usability of 4CH-Mouse coil (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) forpreclinical investigations in clinical 3T MR scan environment. We evaluated the effects of ischemicpreconditioning (IP) in the mouse stroke model with clinical 3T MR scanner and 4CH-Mouse coil. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice that either received the IP or sham operation (control). Three different MR sequences including diffusion weighted images (DWI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were performed on the mouse brains following 24, 72 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and analyzed for infarct lesions. Results: The images showed that the IP-treated mouse brains had significantly smaller infarct volumes compared to the control group. Of the MR sequences employed, the T2WI showed the highest level of correlations with postmortem infarct volume measurements. Conclusions: The clinical 3T MR scanner turned out to have a solid potential as a practical tool for imaging small animal brains. MR sequences including DWI, T2WI, FLAIR were obtained with acceptable resolution and in a reasonable time constraint in evaluating a mouse stroke model brain.

  16. Hybrid Adiabatic-Rectangular Pulse Train for Effective Saturation of Magnetization within the Whole Heart at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Oesingmann, Niels; McGorty, KellyAnne

    2009-01-01

    Uniform T1-weighting is a major challenge for first-pass cardiac perfusion MRI at 3T. Previously proposed adiabatic B1-insensitive rotation (BIR-4) pulse and standard and tailored pulse trains of three non-selective pulses have been important developments but each pulse has limitations at 3T. As an extension of the tailored pulse train, we developed a hybrid pulse train by synergistically combining two non-selective rectangular RF pulses and an adiabatic half-passage pulse, in order to achieve effective saturation of magnetization within the heart, while remaining within clinically acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) limits. The standard pulse train, tailored pulse train, hybrid pulse train, and BIR-4 pulse train were evaluated through numerical, phantom, and in vivo experiments. Among the four saturation pulses, only the hybrid pulse train yielded residual magnetization < 2% of equilibrium magnetization in the heart, while remaining within clinically acceptable SAR limits for multi-slice first-pass cardiac perfusion MRI at 3T. PMID:19785021

  17. Collagen-derived dipeptide prolyl-hydroxyproline promotes differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kimira, Yoshifumi; Ogura, Kana; Taniuchi, Yuri; Kataoka, Aya; Inoue, Naoki; Sugihara, Fumihito; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization. • Pro-Hyp significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity. • Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. - Abstract: Prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) is one of the major constituents of collagen-derived dipeptides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pro-Hyp on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Addition of Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization but alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased. Furthermore, cells treated with Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. These results indicate that Pro-Hyp promotes osteoblast differentiation. This study demonstrates for the first time that Pro-Hyp has a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation with upregulation of Runx2, Osterix, and Collα1 gene expression.

  18. Effects of Berberine on Adipose Tissues and Kidney Function in 3T3-L1 Cells and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Aya; Dong, Shi-Fen; Negishi, Hiroko; Yasui, Naomi; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on adipose tissues, as well as its effect on renal injury in 3T3-L1 cells and spontaneously hypertensive rats. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured and treated with berberine (5-20 pM) from days 3 to 8. Berberine added to the cultured medium could significantly down-regulate transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a, and peroxisome pro liferator-activated receptor y, and suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fatty acid synthase, and inhibit 3T3-Ll fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received either 150 mg/day of berberine or saline orally for 8 weeks. Compared with the control, berberine-treated rats exhibited significant reductions in body weight gain (p < 0.05), as well as retroperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissues (p < 0.05). Berberine-treated rats significantly decreased urinary albumin excretion, a marker of renal injury (p < 0.05). Long-term treatment with berberine decreased the adipose tissues weight and attenuated renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Based on these results, berberine has an important role in regulating adipose tissues. These results suggest the protective effect of berberine on metabolic syndrome related diseases, such as renal injury.

  19. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  20. Suppressive Effects of Barley β-Glucans with Different Molecular Weight on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Yao, Yang; Gao, Yue; Hu, Yibo; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-01

    In this study, 2 β-glucans with different molecular weight were prepared and purified from hull-less barley bran. The aim was to evaluate their effects on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Results showed that barley β-glucans inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, the suppressive effect of high-molecular-weight barley β-glucans (552 kDa, BGH) was stronger (P < 0.05) than that of low-molecular-weight barley β-glucan (32 kDa, BGL), evidenced by the significantly decrease (P < 0.05) of Oil-red O staining and intracellular triglyceride content in the mature adipocytes. Besides, gene expression analysis and Western Blot analysis revealed that both BGH and BGL inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenesis related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) which are principal regulators of adipogenesis. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ target genes in adipose tissue including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose-transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells was also markedly downregulated (P < 0.05). These findings were anticipated to help develop barley β-glucans based functional food for the management of obesity.

  1. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-02-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea.

  2. Strategies of NF-κB signaling modulation by ectromelia virus in BALB/3T3 murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Justyna; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Winnicka, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of immune response genes. NF-κB signaling can be disrupted by pathogens that prevent host immune response. In this work, we examined the influence of ectromelia (mousepox) virus (ECTV) on NF-κB signaling in murine BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Activation of NF-κB via tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) in these cells induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We show that ECTV does not recruit NF-κB to viral factories or induce NF-κB nuclear translocation in BALB/3T3 cells. Additionally, ECTV counteracts TNF-α-induced p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation during the course of infection. Inhibition of TNF-α-induced p65 nuclear translocation was also observed in neighboring cells that underwent fusion with ECTV-infected cells. ECTV inhibits the key step of NF-κB activation, i.e. Ser32 phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) induced by TNF-α. We also observed that ECTV prevents TNF-α-induced Ser536 of p65 phosphorylation in BALB/3T3 cells. Studying TNFR1 signaling provides information about regulation of inflammatory response and cell survival. Unraveling poxviral immunomodulatory strategies may be helpful in drug target identification as well as in vaccine development.

  3. Strengths and weaknesses of 1.5T and 3T MRS data in brain glioma classification.

    PubMed

    Kounelakis, M G; Dimou, I N; Zervakis, M E; Tsougos, I; Tsolaki, E; Kousi, E; Kapsalaki, E; Theodorou, K

    2011-07-01

    Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods of 1.5Tesla (T) and 3T have been widely applied during the last decade for noninvasive diagnostic purposes, only a few studies have been reported on the value of the information extracted in brain cancer discrimination. The purpose of this study is threefold. First, to show that the diagnostic value of the information extracted from two different MRS scanners of 1.5T and 3T is significantly influenced in terms of brain gliomas discrimination. Second, to statistically evaluate the discriminative potential of publicly known metabolic ratio markers, obtained from these two types of scanners in classifying low-, intermediate-, and high-grade gliomas. Finally, to examine the diagnostic value of new metabolic ratios in the discrimination of complex glioma cases where the diagnosis is both challenging and critical. Our analysis has shown that although the information extracted from 3T MRS scanner is expected to provide better brain gliomas discrimination; some factors like the features selected, the pulse-sequence parameters, and the spectroscopic data acquisition methods can influence the discrimination efficiency. Finally, it is shown that apart from the bibliographical known, new metabolic ratio features such as N-acetyl aspartate/ S, Choline/ S, Creatine/ S , and myo-Inositol/ S play significant role in gliomas grade discrimination.

  4. Meta-analysis of the relationship between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and colorectal cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Z; Li, Y S; Liu, H Z

    2015-11-23

    Numerous studies have evaluated the relationship between the T241M polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the specific relationship remains controversial. We conducted meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and CRC risk. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies investigating the relationship between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and CRC risk. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the possible relationship. Thirteen individual case-control studies, including 4720 cases and 6104 controls, were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analyses revealed no relationship between the XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and CRC risk (TT vs MM: OR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.63-1.14; TT vs MT: OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.68-1.10; dominant model: OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 0.92-1.50; recessive model: OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.69-1.11). In the further subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found no direct relationship between the polymorphism and CRC risk in either Asians or Europeans. Our findings demonstrated that the T241M polymorphism in the XRCC3 gene may not be a risk factor for CRC development.

  5. Evaluation of Fat Suppression of Diffusion-weighted Imaging Using Section Select Gradient Reversal Technique on 3 T Breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Daichi; Kimura, Daisuke; Yamada, Eiji; Higashida, Mitsuji

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates fat suppression of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using section select gradient reversal (SSGR) technique in clinical images on 3 T breast MRI. A total of 20 patients with breast cancer were examined at a Philips Ingenia 3 T MRI. We acquired DWI with SPAIR, SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, and SSGR-STIR. We evaluated contrast between the fat region and lesion, the coefficient of variance (CV) of the fat region and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal breast tissue and lesion. The contrast between the fat region and lesion was improved with SSGR technique. The CV of the fattest region did not have any significant difference in SPAIR technique (p>0.05), but it was significantly decreased in the STIR technique using SSGR technique (p<0.05). Positive correlation was observed in ADC value between SPAIR and other fat suppression techniques (SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, SSGR-STIR). DWI using SSGR technique was suggested to be effective on 3 T breast MRI.

  6. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  7. MicroRNA-125b-5p inhibits proliferation and promotes adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Dan; Ye, Yaqiong; Guo, Dongguang; Yu, Xiaofang; Chen, Jian; Qi, Junjie; Tan, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Yongjiang; Li, Yugu

    2015-05-01

    Previous evidence has indicated that the microRNA-125b (miR-125b) family plays important roles in the regulation of cancer cell growth, development, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether they contribute to the process of adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, we revealed that the expression level of miR-125b-5p, a member of miR-125b family, was dramatically up-regulated during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte into mature adipocyte. Supplement of miR-125b-5p into 3T3-L1 cells promoted adipogenic differentiation as evidenced by increased lipid droplets and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific molecular markers, including peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and lipoprotein lipase, and by triglyceride accumulation. CCK-8 assay showed that miR-125b-5p supplementation significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that miR-125b-5p impaired G1/S phase transition as well as the mRNA and protein expression of G1/S-related genes, such as Cyclin D2, Cyclin D3, and CDK4. Nevertheless, it had no effect on apoptosis. Additionally, by target gene prediction, we demonstrated that smad4 may be a potential target of miR-125b-5p in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, accounting for some of miR-125b-5p's functions. Taken together, these data indicated that miR-125b-5p may serve as an important positive regulator in adipocyte differentiation, at least partially through down-regulating smad4.

  8. Quantification of human high-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations at 3 T with partial volume and sensitivity corrections.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Gabr, Refaat E; Schär, Michael; Weiss, Robert G; Bottomley, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Practical noninvasive methods for the measurement of absolute metabolite concentrations are key to the assessment of the depletion of myocardial metabolite pools which occurs with several cardiac diseases, including infarction and heart failure. Localized MRS offers unique noninvasive access to many metabolites, but is often confounded by nonuniform sensitivity and partial volume effects in the large, poorly defined voxels commonly used for the detection of low-concentration metabolites with surface coils. These problems are exacerbated at higher magnetic field strengths by greater radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity and differences in RF penetration with heteronuclear concentration referencing. An example is the (31)P measurement of cardiac adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, which, although central to cardiac energetics, have not been measured at field strengths above 1.5 T. Here, practical acquisition and analysis protocols are presented for the quantification of [PCr] and [ATP] with one-dimensionally resolved surface coil spectra and concentration referencing at 3 T. The effects of nonuniform sensitivity and partial tissue volumes are addressed at 3 T by the application of MRI-based three-dimensional sensitivity weighting and tissue segmentation. The method is validated in phantoms of different sizes and concentrations, and used to measure [PCr] and [ATP] in healthy subjects. In calf muscle (n = 8), [PCr] = 24.7 ± 3.4 and [ATP] = 5.7 ± 1.3 µmol/g wet weight, whereas, in heart (n = 18), [PCr] = 10.4 ± 1.5 and [ATP] = 6.0 ± 1.1 µmol/g wet weight (all mean ± SD), consistent with previous reports at lower fields. The method enables, for the first time, the efficient, semi-automated quantification of high-energy phosphate metabolites in humans at 3 T with nonuniform excitation and detection.

  9. Liraglutide attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by modulating AMPK/mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiong-Ke; Yin, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Guo, Chao-Feng; Tang, Ming-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Liraglutide, a synthetic analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1, is utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Liraglutide has been previously demonstrated to prevent osteoblastic differentiation of human vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in the slowing of arterial calcification, however, its effect on bone formation remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation using Alizarin Red S staining, and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect by western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that protein expression levels of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) were downregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblastic differentiation in commercial osteogenic differentiation medium, whereas protein expression levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) increased. Liraglutide was subsequently demonstrated to dose-dependently attenuate the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, to upregulate p-AMPK, and downregulate p-mTOR and TGF-β protein expression levels. Treatment with an AMPK-specific inhibitor, Compound C, eradicated the effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation, and p-mTOR and TGF-β downregulation. An mTOR activator, MHY1485, also abolished the inhibitory effect of liraglutide on osteoblastic differentiation, and resulted in p-mTOR and TGF-β downregulation, but did not attenuate the liraglutide-induced increase in p-AMPK protein expression levels. The results of the present study demonstrate that liraglutide attenuates osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. The present study revealed a novel function of liraglutide, which contributes to the understanding of its pharmacological and physiological effects in clinical settings. PMID:27600753

  10. Nano-hydroxyapatite particles induce apoptosis on MC3T3-E1 cells and tissue cells in SD rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liting; Zhou, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Han, Jingyun; Zheng, Lisha; Fan, Yubo

    2012-04-01

    While the advantages of nanomaterials are being increasingly recognized, their potential toxicity is drawing more and more attention and concern. In this study, we explore the toxicity mechanism of 20-30 nm rod-shaped hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. The nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation and characterized by IR, XRD and TEM. Concentrations of 0 μg mL-1, 10 μg mL-1, 100 μg mL-1, 1 mg mL-1, and 10 mg mL-1 were applied to the MC3T3-E1 cells for viability (MTT-test). Based on the characteristic differences of the two methods of cell death, the morphological features of the MC3T3-E1 cell line co-cultured with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) (10 mg mL-1) for 24 h were also observed by TEM. Furthermore, important serum biochemical markers and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the potential toxicological effect of n-HA on the major organs of SD rats injected intraperitoneally with n-HA (33.3 mg kg-1 body weight). In the results, we found cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells co-cultured with n-HA. Moreover, apoptosis but not necrosis was illustrated in liver and renal tissue by using histopathology slices and serum biochemical markers. It suggests that apoptosis may be the possible mechanism of n-HA toxicity and provides a better understanding of the biocompatibility of nanomaterials applied in human bone repair.

  11. Effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) on the morphology and viability of 3T3 murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bandala, Cindy; Terán-Melo, Juan Luis; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Mejía-Barradas, Cesar Miguel; Domínguez-Rubio, Rene; la Garza-Montano, Paloma De; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: BoNTA is used in the treatment of ophthalmological disorders, muscular hyperactivity and pain. In recent years it has been described that BoNTA reduces cellular viability and induces apoptosis in prostate cells lines. Studies about the effect of BoNTA are no well known. There have been studies about the effect of BoNTA on the expression levels of collagenase in fibroblasts, but not on its morphological impact on these cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BoNTA on the morphology and viability of the 3T3 fibroblast cell line. Material and methods: The 3T3 fibroblast cell line was cultured and the experimental group received 10 U BoNTA added to a 0.9% sterile saline solution in a reconstituted vial. The control group received saline solution only. Cultured cells were observed and photographed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 h. Cell viability was evaluated by means of the trypan blue test, and cell proliferation with the Proliferation Assay kit (PROMEGA). Results: The application of BoNTA to 3T3 fibroblast cells induced morphological changes, such as a loss of normal fibroblast morphology. Additionally, we observed the cytoplasmic retraction and spread phenomena. The nuclei showed other important changes with Giemsa staining. Conclusion: The results indicate that BoNTA induced a loss of spindle form, increase in cytoplasmic vesicles, and the presence of nuclear vesicles (compacted chromatin surrounded by a nuclear envelope). This suggests an apoptotic process and decreased cell viability. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms of these alterations. PMID:26464704

  12. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuocheng; Perry, Ben; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Radicicol suppressed intracellular fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Radicicol inhibited the expression of FAS and FABP4. •Radicicol blocked cell cycle at the G1-S phase during cell differentiation. •Radicicol inhibited the PDK1/Akt pathway in adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is involved in various cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As adipocyte differentiation plays a critical role in obesity development, the present study investigated the effect of an Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and potential mechanisms. The cells were treated with different concentrations of radicicol during the first 8 days of cell differentiation. Adipogenesis, the expression of adipogenic transcriptional factors, differentiation makers and cell cycle were determined. It was found that radicicol dose-dependently decreased intracellular fat accumulation through down-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR{sub γ}) and CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP{sub α}), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that radicicol blocked cell cycle at G1-S phase. Radicicol redcued the phosphorylation of Akt while showing no effect on β-catenin expression. Radicicol decreased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). The results suggest that radicicol inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through affecting the PDK1/Akt pathway and subsequent inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and the expression/activity of adipogenic transcriptional factors and their downstream adipogenic proteins.

  13. Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) upregulates CTGF which leads to mTORC1 activation in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Oubrahim, Hammou; Wong, Allison; Wilson, Brenda A; Chock, P Boon

    2013-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a mitogenic protein that hijacks cellular signal transduction pathways via deamidation of heterotrimeric G proteins. We previously showed that rPMT activates mTOR signaling via a Gαq/11/PLCβ/PKC mediated pathway, leading in part to cell proliferation and migration. Herein, we show that mTOR and MAPK, but not membrane-associated tyrosine kinases, are activated in serum-starved 3T3 cells by an autocrine/paracrine substance(s) secreted into the conditioned medium following rPMT treatment. Surprisingly, this diffusible factor(s) is capable of activating mTOR and MAPK pathways even in MEF Gαq/11 double knockout cells. Microarray analysis identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as the most upregulated gene in rPMT-treated serum-starved 3T3 cells relative to untreated cells. These results were further confirmed using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. In accord with rPMT-induced mTOR activation, upregulation of CTGF protein was observed in WT MEF, but not in Gαq/11 double knockout MEF cells. Although CTGF expression is regulated by TGFβ, rPMT did not activate TGFβ pathway. In addition, MEK inhibitors U0126 or PD98059, but not mTOR specific inhibitors, rapamycin and Torin 1, inhibited rPMT-induced upregulation of CTGF. Importantly, CTGF overexpression in serum-starved 3T3 cells using adenovirus led to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of mTOR. However, despite the ability of CTGF to activate the mTOR pathway, upregulation of CTGF alone could not induce morphological changes as those observed in rPMT-treated cells. Our findings reveal that CTGF plays an important role, but there are additional factors involved in the mitogenic action of PMT.

  14. ClC-3 Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in MC3T3-E1 Cell After Dynamic Compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Wang, Hao; Gao, Feng; Wang, Kun; Dong, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    ClC-3 chloride channel has been proved to have a relationship with the expression of osteogenic markers during osteogenesis, persistent static compression can upregulate the expression of ClC-3 and regulate osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts. However, there was no study about the relationship between the expression of ClC-3 and osteodifferentiation after dynamic compression. In this study, we applied dynamic compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression of ClC-3, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), nuclear-associated antigen Ki67 (Ki67), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in biopress system, then we investigated the expression of these genes after dynamic compression with Chlorotoxin (specific ClC-3 chloride channel inhibitor) added. Under transmission electron microscopy, there were more cell surface protrusions, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, abundant glycogen, and lysosomes scattered in the cytoplasm in MC3T3-E1 cells after dynamic compression. The nucleolus was more obvious. We found that ClC-3 was significantly up-regulated after dynamic compression. The compressive force also up-regulated Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression for 2, 4 and 8 h. The proliferation gene Ki67 and PCNA did not show significantly change after dynamic compression for 8 h. Chlorotoxin did not change the expression of ClC-3 but reduced the expression of Runx2, BMP-2, and OPN after dynamic compression compared with the group without Cltx added. The data from the current study suggested that ClC-3 may promotes osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cell after dynamic compression. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1606-1613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chemical-shift-selective filter for the in vivo detection of J-coupled metabolites at 3T.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Rolf F; Trabesinger, Andreas H; Boesiger, Peter

    2005-02-01

    A chemical-shift-selective filter (CSSF) was applied to the detection of J-coupled metabolites in the human brain. This filter is an acquisition-based technique that requires the chemical shifts (CS's) of different metabolites, but not their whole multiplet structures, to be resolved. The sequence is based on the 2D constant-time spin-echo experiment, which yields pure CS spectra in the indirect dimension. Localization is achieved through point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS). The method enables unequivocal detection of glutamate and myo-inositol, both in vitro and in vivo in the human brain, at 3T.

  16. Endothelin-1 inhibits TNF alpha-induced iNOS expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mérial-Kieny, Christelle; Lonchampt, Michel; Cogé, Francis; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Boutin, Jean A; Lafontan, Max; Levens, Nigel; Galitzky, Jean; Félétou, Michel

    2003-07-01

    1. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) by their action on adipocytes have been independently linked to the pathogenesis of insulino-resistance. In isolated adipocytes, TNFalpha induces the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The purpose of the present work was, in the 3T3-F442A adipocyte cell line, to characterise TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and to determine whether or not ET-1 could influence TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and NO production. 2. In differentiated 3T3-F442A, treatment with TNFalpha (20 ng ml(-1)) induced the expression of a functional iNOS as demonstrated by nitrite assay, Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression requires nuclear factor kappaB activation, but does not necessitate the activation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt and P38-MAP kinase pathways. 3. ET-1, but not ET-3, inhibited the TNFalpha-induced expression of iNOS protein and mRNA as well as nitrite production. The effects of ET-1 were blocked by a specific ETA (BQ123, pA(2) 7.4) but not by a specific ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788). 3T3-F442A adipocytes express the mRNAs for prepro-ET-1 and the ET-A receptor subtype, but not for the ET-B subtype. 4. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was not affected by bisindolylmaleimide, SB 203580 or indomethacin, inhibitors of protein kinase C, p38-MAP kinase and cyclooxygenase, respectively, and was not associated with cAMP production. However, the effect of ET-1 was partially reversed by wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of PI3 kinase in the transduction signal of ET-1. 5. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes did not release ET-1 with or without exposure to TNFalpha, although the mRNA for preproET-1 was detected in both pre- and differentiated adipocytes. 6. Thus, these results confirm that adipocytes are a target for circulating ET-1 and demonstrate that the activation of the ETA receptor subtype can prevent TNFalpha

  17. A 3T external source quadrupole Fourier transform mass spectrometer for ion/molecule reactions and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Sési M.; Gard, Eric; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    1991-06-01

    A versatile quadrupole Fourier transform mass spectrometry instrument for both ion/molecule chemistry and analysis is described. Preliminary results show that despite the relatively low field (3T), a large mass range (up to m/z 16 000) and high resolution (41 000 FWHH at m/z 1692) are obtained. Metal ions (e.g. Fe+) for ion/molecule chemistry and organic ions (e.g. maltose) for analysis are routinely produced via secondary ion mass spectrometry (and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry) in the external source.

  18. SU-E-T-508: End to End Testing of a Prototype Eclipse Module for Planning Modulated Arc Therapy On the Siemens Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L; Sarkar, V; Spiessens, S; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Salter, B; Zhao, H; Szegedi, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The latest clinical implementation of the Siemens Artiste linac allows for delivery of modulated arcs (mARC) using full-field flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams. The maximum doserate of 2000 MU/min is well suited for high dose treatments such as SBRT. We tested and report on the performance of a prototype Eclipse TPS module supporting mARC capability on the Artiste platform. Method: our spine SBRT patients originally treated with 12/13 field static-gantry IMRT (SGIMRT) were chosen for this study. These plans were designed to satisfy RTOG0631 guidelines with a prescription of 16Gy in a single fraction. The cases were re-planned as mARC plans in the prototype Eclipse module using the 7MV FFF beam and required to satisfy RTOG0631 requirements. All plans were transferred from Eclipse, delivered on a Siemens Artiste linac and dose-validated using the Delta4 system. Results: All treatment plans were straightforwardly developed, in timely fashion, without challenge or inefficiency using the prototype module. Due to the limited number of segments in a single arc, mARC plans required 2-3 full arcs to yield plan quality comparable to SGIMRT plans containing over 250 total segments. The average (3%/3mm) gamma pass-rate for all arcs was 98.5±1.1%, thus demonstrating both excellent dose prediction by the AAA dose algorithm and excellent delivery fidelity. Mean delivery times for the mARC plans(10.5±1.7min) were 50-70% lower than the SGIMRT plans(26±2min), with both delivered at 2000 MU/min. Conclusion: A prototype Eclipse module capable of planning for Burst Mode modulated arc delivery on the Artiste platform has been tested and found to perform efficiently and accurately for treatment plan development and delivered-dose prediction. Further investigation of more treatment sites is being carried out and data will be presented.

  19. Inhibitory effects of LPA1 on cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in fibroblast 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Dong, Yan; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-11-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to mediate a variety of biological responses, including cell motility. Recently, we indicated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor-3 (LPA3) increased cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, we assessed the role of LPA1 in the cell motile activity mediated by ROS in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. 3T3 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays with Cell Culture Inserts, the cell motile activities of 3T3 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ were significantly higher than those of untreated cells. 3T3 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ showed elevated expression levels of the Lpar3 gene, but not the Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. To investigate the effects of LPA1 on the cell motile activity induced by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ, Lpar1-overexpressing (3T3-a1) cells were generated from 3T3 cells and treated with hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ. The cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ were markedly suppressed in 3T3-a1 cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA1 inhibits the cell motile activities stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and DMNQ in 3T3 cells.

  20. 26 CFR 25.2522(c)-3T - Transfers not exclusively for charitable, etc., purposes in the case of gifts made after July 31...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers not exclusively for charitable, etc., purposes in the case of gifts made after July 31, 1969 (temporary). 25.2522(c)-3T Section 25.2522(c)-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER...

  1. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits differentiation-induced Rb phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmo, Michelle N.; Landry, Anne; Molgat, Andre S.D.; Gagnon, AnneMarie; Sorisky, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms underlying the anti-adipogenic effect of macrophage-secreted products. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate over 8 days in medium conditioned by murine J774 macrophages (MacCM). The inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers was diminished when addition of MacCM was delayed to day 2 of differentiation. Clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, was reduced in the presence of MacCM (89%; n = 3; p < 0.001), and BrdU incorporation was impaired by 55% (n = 3; p < 0.01). Activation of ERK1/2 was not affected by MacCM, and neither was the expression of p27{sup kip1}, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. However, phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), required for cell cycle progression, was impaired by MacCM (94% inhibition; n = 3; p < 0.01). Differentiation-dependent expression, nuclear localization, and DNA binding ability of C/EBP{beta} were not inhibited by MacCM. Alterations in cell cycle-associated proteins may be important with respect to the anti-adipogenic action of MacCM.

  2. Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1CB (PPP1CB), a novel adipogenic activator, promotes 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Min, Jeong-Ki; Roh, Kyung Min; Kim, Won Kon; Han, Baek Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Sang J; Kang, Hyo Jin

    2015-11-13

    Understanding the molecular networks that regulate adipogenesis is crucial for gaining insight into obesity and identifying medicinal targets thereof is necessary for pharmacological interventions. However, the identity and molecular actions of activators that promote the early development of adipocytes are still largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for phosphoprotein phosphatase 1CB (PPP1CB) as a potent adipogenic activator that promotes adipocyte differentiation. PPP1CB expression increased in vitro during the early phase of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and in the murine model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Depletion of PPP1CB dramatically suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into mature adipocytes, with a concomitant change in adipocyte marker genes and significantly inhibited clonal expansion. We also showed that knockdown of PPP1CB caused a significant decrease in C/EBPδ expression, which in turn resulted in attenuation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and aP2. In addition, we elucidated the functional significance of PPP1CB by linking p38 activation to C/EBPδ expression in early adipogenesis. Overall, our findings demonstrate a novel function of PPP1CB in promoting adipogenesis and suggest that PPP1CB may be a promising therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  3. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  4. Corticospinal Tract Tracing in the Marmoset with a Clinical Whole-Body 3T Scanner Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Plas, Benjamin; Bolan, Faye; Boulanouar, Kader; Renaud, Luc; Darmana, Robert; Vaysse, Laurence; Vieu, Christophe; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. In this study we investigated the potential use of in vivo MRI detection of manganese for tracing neuronal projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus). We determined the optimal dose of manganese chloride (MnCl2) among 800, 400, 40 and 8nmol that led to manganese-induced hyperintensity furthest from the injection site, as specific to the corticospinal tract as possible, and that would not induce motor deficit. A commonly available 3T human clinical MRI scanner and human knee coil were used to follow hyperintensity in the corticospinal tract 24h after injection. A statistical parametric map of seven marmosets injected with the chosen dose, 8 nmol, showed the corticospinal tract and M1 connectivity with the basal ganglia, substantia nigra and thalamus. Safety was determined for the lowest dose that did not induce dexterity and grip strength deficit, and no behavioral effects could be seen in marmosets who received multiple injections of manganese one month apart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time in marmosets, a reliable and reproducible way to perform longitudinal ME-MRI experiments to observe the integrity of the marmoset corticospinal tract on a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:26398500

  5. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  6. 3T MR Guided in bore transperineal prostate biopsy: A Comparison of robotic and manual needle-guidance templates

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Fennessy, Fiona; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a robotic needle-guidance template device as compared to a manual template for in-bore 3T transperineal MR-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This two-arm mixed retrospective-prospective study included 99 cases of targeted transperineal prostate biopsies. The biopsy needles were aimed at suspicious foci noted on multiparametric 3T MRI using manual template (historical control) as compared with a robotic template. The following data was obtained: the accuracy of average and closest needle placement to the focus, histologic yield, percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples, complication rate, and time to complete the procedure. Results 56 cases were performed using the manual template, and 43 cases were performed using the robotic template. The mean accuracy of the best needle placement attempt was higher in the robotic group (2.39 mm) than the manual group (3.71 mm, p<0.027). The mean core procedure time was shorter in the robotic (90.82min) than the manual group (100.63min, p<0.030). Percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples was higher in robotic group (p<0.001). Cancer yields and complication rates were not statistically different between the two sub-groups (p = 0.557 and p=0.172 respectively). Conclusion The robotic needle-guidance template helps accurate placement of biopsy needles in MRI-guided core biopsy of prostate cancer. PMID:25263213

  7. Spindlin1, a novel nuclear protein with a role in the transformation of NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhong; Yue, Wen; Zhang, Peng; Li, Li; Xie, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Hongfeng; Chen, Lin; Liu, Daqing; Yan, Fang; Pei, Xuetao

    2005-09-23

    spindlin1, a novel human gene recently isolated by our laboratory, is highly homologous to mouse spindlin gene. In this study, we cloned cDNA full-length of this novel gene and send it to GenBank database as spindlin1 (Homo sapiens spindlin1) with Accession No. AF317228. In order to investigate the function of spindlin1, we studied further the subcellular localization of Spindlin1 protein and the effects of spindlin1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells. The results showed that the fusion protein pEGFP-N1-spindlin1 was located in the nucleus and the C-terminal is correlated with nuclear localization of Spindlin1 protein. NIH3T3 cells which could stably express spindlin1 as a result of RT-PCR analysis compared with the control cells displayed a complete morphological change; made cell growth faster; and increased the percentage of cells in G2/M and S phase. Furthermore, overexpressed spindlin1 cells formed colonies in soft agar in vitro and formed tumors in nude mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that spindlin1 gene may contribute to tumorigenesis.

  8. Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.

    PubMed

    Dijoux, Nathalie; Guingand, Yannick; Bourgeois, Caroline; Durand, Sandrine; Fromageot, Claude; Combe, Corinne; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2006-06-01

    When substances are developed in the aim to be a constituent of personal care products, and to be applied on the skin, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of potential phototoxic hazard. Phototoxicity is skin reaction caused by concurrent topical or systemic exposure to specific molecule and ultraviolet radiation. Most phototoxic compounds absorb energy particularly from UVA light leading to the generation of activated derivatives which can induce cellular damage. This type of adverse cutaneous response can be reproduced in vitro using different models of phototoxicity such as the validated 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) phototoxicity assay. In the present study we utilised two different cell lines (the murine fibrobla